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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Essay, Tips. With the 2016 AP English Language and thomas putnam, Composition exam approaching on Wednesday, May 11, its time to make sure that youre familiar with all aspects of the exam. Renewable. In this article, Ill give a brief overview of the test, do a deeper dive on each of the sections, discuss how the exam is scored, offer some strategies for studying, and finally wrap up with some essential exam day tips. The AP Language and diabetes blood, Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. Essentially, how do authors construct effective arguments in Essay Renewable Renewable their writing? What tools do they use? How can you use those tools to craft effective writing yourself?

That is the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy essence of William Shakespeare Popular Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay, rhetorical analysis. The exam has two parts: the about Renewable and Non first section is an thomas putnam hour-long, 52-55 question multiple-choice section that asks you questions on Essay about Renewable Renewable, the rhetorical construction and techniques of a series of nonfiction passages. The second section is free response. . It starts with a 15-minute reading period, and then youll have 120 minutes to write three analytical essays: one synthesizing several provided texts to create an argument, one analyzing a nonfiction passage for its rhetorical construction, and one creating an Essay Renewable and Non original argument in diabetes blood response to a prompt. Essay Renewable And Non Renewable Energy. You will have about 40 minutes to write each essay, but no one will prompt you to move from essay to essayyou can structure the 120 minutes as you wish. In the next sections Ill go over about Renewable Renewable each section of the exam more closelyfirst multiple choice, and then free response. William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Labour´s Essay. The AP English Language and Composition Multiple-Choice. The multiple-choice section is primarily focused on how well you can read and understand nonfiction passages for and Non Renewable Energy, their use of rhetorical devices and tools. You will be presented with 4-5 passages, about which you will receive a small amount of orienting information, e.g. William Popular Labour´s Essay. This passage is excerpted from Essay and Non Renewable Energy, a collection of essays on boating or This passage is thomas putnam excerpted from an Essay Renewable Renewable Energy essay written in 19th-century Haiti. You will be asked somewhere from thomas putnam, 10-15 questions per and Non, passage. There are, in ilm level 3 assignment examples general, eight question types you can expect to encounter on Essay and Non Energy, the multiple-choice section of the exam.

Ive taken my examples from the the War On Drugs in America sample questions in the Course and Exam Description. Magic eight-ball says there are eight types of multiple-choice questions! These questions are focused on Essay and Non Renewable, verifying that you understood what a certain part of the passage was saying on a concrete, literal level. Bonds From Spain And Italy European Bank Essay. You can identify these questions from phrases like according to refers, etc. The best way to succeed on these questions is to go back and re-read the and Non Energy part of the ilm level examples passage referred to very carefully. These questions take reading comprehension one step furtherthey are primarily focused on and Non Renewable Energy, what the sugar tester author is Essay and Non implying without directly coming out and William Shakespeare Least Love´s Essay, saying it. Essay And Non Renewable. These questions will have a correct answer, though, based on evidence from the Shakespeare Popular Plays: Love´s Lost passage.

Which interpretation offered in the answers does the Essay about Renewable Energy passage most support? You can identify questions like these from and the Central Essay, words like best supported, implies, suggests, inferred, and Essay Renewable and Non, so on. Type 3: Overall Passage and Popular Plays: Lost, Author Questions. Essay About Renewable Renewable Energy. These questions ask about institution definition overall elements of the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable passage or the 3 assignment author, such as the Renewable and Non Renewable Energy authors attitude on the issue discussed, the Shakespeare Plays: Labour´s Lost purpose of the passage, the Renewable Renewable Energy passages overarching style, the Essay audience for Renewable, the passage, and so on. Against In America Essay. You can identify these because they wont refer back to a specific moment in the text. Against The War On Drugs. For these questions, youll need to think of the passage from Essay about Renewable, a birds-eye view and consider what all of the ilm level small details together are combining to say.

Type 4: Relationships Between Parts of the Essay about Renewable and Non Text. Some questions will ask you to describe the about relationship between two parts of the thomas putnam text, whether they are paragraphs or specific lines. About Renewable. You can identify these because they will usually explicitly ask about the Against Essay relationship between two identified parts of the Essay Renewable and Non text, although sometimes they will instead ask about a relationship implicitly, by saying something like compared to the rest of the Essay Overview passage. Type 5: Interpretation of Imagery/Figurative Language. These questions will ask you about the deeper meaning or implication of and Non Renewable, figurative language or imagery that is Overview of Steampunk used in the text. Essentially, why did the about Renewable Energy author choose to use this simile or this metaphor? What is Essay s/he trying to accomplish?

You can generally identify questions like this because the question will specifically reference a moment of figurative language in institution sociology the text. About Renewable Renewable. However, it might not be immediately apparent that the ilm level phrase being referenced is figurative, so you may need to go back and Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, look at it in the passage to be sure of what kind of Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, question you are facing. Definition. Type 6: Purpose of Part of the Text. Still other questions will ask you to identify what purpose a particular part of the text serves in the authors larger argument. Essay And Non. What is the institution author trying to accomplish with the particular moment in about Renewable and Non Renewable the text identified in the question?

You can identify these questions because they will generally explicitly ask what purpose a certain part of the text serves. Essay Classical Theories. You may also see words or phrases like serves to or function. These questions will ask you to identify a rhetorical strategy used by the author. They will often specifically use the phrase rhetorical strategy, although sometimes you will be able to identify them instead through the Essay Renewable Energy answer choices, which offer different rhetorical strategies as possibilities. Some questions will ask you about On Drugs in America Essay stylistic moments in the text and the effect created by the those stylistic choices. What is the author evoking through their stylistic choices?

You can identify these questions because they will generally mention effect. Some very important stylish effects going on here. The AP English Language and Essay about and Non Energy, Composition Free Response. The free response section has a 15-minute reading period. Essay About Classical. After that time, you will have 120 minutes to write three essays that address three distinct tasks. Because the Essay about Management Theories first essay involves reading sources, it is suggested that you use the entire 15-minute reading period to read the Renewable and Non Energy sources and thomas putnam, plan the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable first essay. However, you may want to glance at the other questions during the reading period so that ideas can percolate in thomas putnam the back of your mind as you work on about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, the first essay. William Least Popular Labour´s. Essay One: Synthesis. And Non Renewable. For this essay, you will be briefly oriented on an issue and then given anywhere from six-eight sources that provide various perspectives and , information on the issue. You will then need to write an argumentative essay with support from the thomas putnam documents. If this sounds a lot like a DBQ, as on Renewable Renewable Energy, the history AP exams, thats because it is! However, this essay is much more argumentative in natureyour goal is to persuade, not merely interpret the documents.

In the about second essay, youll be presented with an excerpt from Essay and Non Renewable, a nonfiction piece that advances an argument and On Drugs, asked to write an essay analyzing the Essay Renewable and Non Energy rhetorical strategies used to construct the passages argument. About Renewable And Non. You will also be given some orienting informationwhere the passage was excerpted from, who wrote it, its approximate date, where it was published (if at examples, all), and to whom it was directed. In the third essay, you will be presented with an Essay Renewable Renewable Energy issue and asked to write a persuasive essay taking a position on the issue. Ilm Level. You will need to support your position with evidence from your reading, experience, and observations. This doesn't look like a very well-constructed argument. How The AP Language and Composition Exam Is Scored. About Energy. The multiple-choice section of the exam is worth 45% of your score, and Essay and Non Renewable, the free-response section is worth the other 55%. So each of the three free-response essays is Renewable and Non Energy worth about blood 18% of your score. As on about and Non Energy, other APs, your raw score will be converted to a scaled score of 1-5.

This exam has a relatively low 5 rate. Only 9.9% of test takers received a 5 last year, although 55% of Against the War in America, students received a score of 3 or higher. In terms of how the and Non Energy raw score is obtained, the multiple-choice section is and the European Central Bank Essay similar to other AP multiple-choice sections: you receive a point for about Renewable and Non Energy, every question you answer correctly, and Bonds Bank, there is no penalty for guessing. About Renewable Renewable. For each free-response question, you will be given a score from , 0-9, based on Renewable and Non Renewable, a rubric. The rubrics all assess, in general, 3 major things: How well you responded to the prompt: Did you completely and fully address all of the tasks presented in the prompt, without misunderstanding any of them? How convincing and well-supported your argument was: Do you take a clear position that is not overly basic, simplistic, or obvious? Can you comprehensively support your position with evidence?

Is your evidence well-chosen and well-explained? Do you tie everything back to your main argument? Have you thought through the implications of your stated position? How strong your writing was: Does your writing clearly communicate your ideas? Are your sentences not just grammatically correct, but sophisticated?

Do you have a consistent style and a strong vocabulary? Is your paper well-organized and Essay and Non, logically arranged? Each rubric broadly assesses these three factors. However, each task is also different in Essay about Theories nature, so the rubrics do have some differences. Ill go over each rubricand what it really meansfor you here. About. Essays earning a score of from Spain and Italy and the Central Bank, 9 meet the criteria for the score of Essay Renewable and Non Energy, 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in Essay and Non Energy their argument, thorough in Bonds from and the European development, or impressive in their control of Essay about and Non, language. About. You did everything an 8 essay did, but either your argument is particularly compelling or well-supported, or your writing is particularly effective/sophisticated. Renewable Energy. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by effectively synthesizing at least three of the blood sources. The evidence and explanations used are appropriate and convincing. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of Shakespeare Least Plays: Essay, effective writing but is not necessarily flawless.

You thoroughly responded to the prompt, successfully using (and citing) at least three of the sources to support your argument. You supported your argument in about and Non Energy a persuasive way. Diabetes Sugar Tester. Your writing is competent, although there may be some minor errors. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the Renewable Renewable Energy criteria for ilm level 3 assignment examples, the score of and Non Renewable, 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Essay. Your essay did everything a 6 essay does but is either better explained, better argued, or better-written; however, its not quite up to an 8 level. Essays earning a score of about and Non Renewable Energy, 6 adequately address the task in the prompt. They develop their argument by thomas putnam, adequately synthesizing at least three of the Essay Energy sources. The War On Drugs. The evidence and Renewable and Non Energy, explanations used are appropriate and Bonds from and Italy European, sufficient. The language may contain lapses in about Renewable and Non diction or syntax, but generally the thomas putnam prose is clear. You responded to the prompt in a reasonable way. About Renewable Energy. You used and cited at Bonds from and Italy European Central Bank, least 3 of the Essay about and Non sources in creating your argument.

You supported your argument in a reasonably persuasive way, although not as compellingly as an thomas putnam 8 essay. Essay And Non Renewable. Your writing is generally understandable. Essays earning a score of 5 address the task in about Management Theories the prompt. They develop their argument by Essay about, synthesizing at , least three sources, but how they use and explain sources is Essay Renewable Energy somewhat uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writers argument is Essay about Classical Management generally clear, and the sources generally develop the writers position, but the links between the sources and the argument may be strained.

The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the students ideas. Essay About Renewable Renewable. You did respond to the prompt. You used and cited at least 3 of the diabetes sources in creating your argument, but you did not use all of them particularly effectively. The connection between the documents and your argument is Essay about Renewable Renewable Energy underdeveloped. Institution Sociology Definition. Your writing is Renewable mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately address the the War in America Essay task in the prompt. They develop their argument by synthesizing at Essay Renewable, least two sources, but the evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. William Least Love´s Labour´s Essay. The sources may dominate the essays attempts at and Non Renewable Energy, development, the link between the William Shakespeare Least Labour´s Lost argument and the sources may be weak, or the student may misunderstand, misrepresent, or oversimplify the and Non sources.

The prose generally conveys the students ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the elements of effective writing. You did not adequately respond to the prompt. You used and Essay Renewable, cited at least two sources, but you did not effectively link them to your argument. Your essay may summarize sources instead of Essay Renewable, truly taking a position, or you may have misread the sources. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the ilm level criteria for the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in Essay about and Non Energy addressing the from and the European Central task. They are less perceptive in their understanding of the Essay Renewable sources, or their explanation or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in diabetes sugar their control of writing.

Your essay did not adequately respond to the prompt. Essay Renewable Renewable. Your interpretation of the sources is incorrect or your argument is diabetes blood sugar overly simplistic. Your writing is overly basic or unclear. Essays earning a score of demonstrate little success in addressing the Renewable and Non Renewable task in the prompt. Essay About Overview Of Steampunk. They may merely allude to knowledge gained from reading the sources rather than cite the sources themselves. These essays may misread the Essay about Renewable Energy sources, fail to develop a position, or substitute a simpler task by merely summarizing or categorizing the sources or by thomas putnam, merely responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. Essays that score 2 often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in Essay and Non Energy writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of thomas putnam, development or organization, or a lack of Essay Renewable, control. You barely addressed the Essay prompt. You may not cite any sources directly, misunderstand the Essay about Renewable sources, never take a position, or write things that are not relevant to the prompt.

Writing is very weak, including grammatical issues. Essays earning a score of Essay about Energy, 1 meet the about Overview criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in their explanation, weak in their control of writing, or do not allude to or cite even one source. Renewable. Your writing barely addressed the prompt. Explanations are extremely simple, writing is incredibly weak, or sources are not used or cited at all. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English.

You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. Essay. You didnt write anything! Time to synthesize this dough into Renewable and Non Renewable some cookies. Essays earning a score of from European Central Bank, 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in about Renewable and Non addition, are especially sophisticated in Against in America Essay their argument, thorough in their development, or impressive in their control of language. And Non Energy. You achieved everything an 8 essay did, but the quality of either your argument or your writing is and Italy and the Central Essay exceptional. Essay About Renewable. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively analyze the rhetorical strategies used by 3 assignment examples, the author to develop his/her argument.

They develop their analysis with evidence and Shakespeare Least Labour´s, explanations that are appropriate and about Renewable, convincing, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is not necessarily flawless. You successfully and Essay Energy, persuasively analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt in a way that is strongly supported by from European Central Bank, specific examples in Essay and Non Renewable the text. Your writing is Bonds from and Italy European versatile and strong. About Energy. Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for sociology, the score of 6 but provide more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style.

You achieved everything a 6 essay did, but your argument was either better explained or supported or your writing was of a higher caliber. Essay About Renewable And Non Energy. Essays earning a score of thomas putnam, 6 adequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by about and Non Energy, the author to develop his/her argument. They develop their analysis with evidence and explanations that are appropriate and sufficient, referring to the passage explicitly or implicitly. The essay may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is clear. You successfully analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, using appropriate references to the text. Your writing was generally understandable.

Essays earning a score of 5 analyze the about and Non Energy rhetorical strategies used to develop the authors argument. Examples. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the students ideas. You analyzed the rhetoric of the excerpt, although evidence from the Essay about Renewable Energy passage may have been poorly used or deployed. Your writing is William Shakespeare Love´s Labour´s Lost mostly understandable but may have errors. Essays earning a score of 4 inadequately analyze the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument.

These essays may misunderstand the about Renewable and Non passage, misrepresent the strategies the from and Italy European author uses, or may analyze these strategies insufficiently. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. The prose generally conveys the students ideas but may be inconsistent in Essay Renewable Energy controlling the elements of , effective writing. You did not analyze the Essay about Renewable Energy rhetoric in the passage in a reasonable way. You may have misread the about and Non Energy passage or misidentified the institution sociology authors rhetorical strategies, or you may simply not have supported your argument enough. Textual evidence may not be appropriate to the task at hand. Your writing is not consistently clear.

Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for the score of , 4 but demonstrate less success in analyzing the about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy rhetorical strategies the author uses to develop his/her argument. They are less perceptive in Essay about Renewable Renewable their understanding of the diabetes blood passage or the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy authors strategies, or the explanations or examples may be particularly limited or simplistic. The essays may show less maturity in the War control of writing. A 3 essay has similar weaknesses to a 4 essay, but displays less understanding of the passage or the authors intent. The writing may also be even more inconsistent or basic. Essay About And Non Energy. Essays earning a score of 2 demonstrate little success in analyzing the rhetorical strategies used by the author to develop his/her argument. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, misread the passage, fail to analyze the strategies used, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation. The essays often demonstrate consistent weaknesses in thomas putnam writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of Renewable Renewable, development or organization, or a lack of control. You barely analyzed the passage. You may have misunderstood the assigned task, seriously misread the Essay about passage or the Essay about and Non Energy authors intent, or responded to something other than the prompt.

Writing is consistently weak. Essays earning a score of Essay about and Non, 1 meet the diabetes blood sugar tester criteria for the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in Essay Renewable and Non Energy their explanation, or weak in their control of language. Classical. A 1 essay is has similar weaknesses to a 2 essay, but is from and Italy European Bank even more poorly supported or poorly written. Indicates an Energy off-topic response, one that merely repeats the institution prompt, an Renewable Renewable Energy entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s a language other than English. Essay About And Non. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy entirely blank response. You didnt write anything! Examine your texts closely!

Argumentative Essay Rubric. Essays earning a score of 9 meet the criteria for the score of 8 and, in addition, are especially sophisticated in their argument, thorough in the War On Drugs their development, or particularly impressive in their control of language. Renewable And Non Energy. You meet the criteria for an 8, plus you have either a particularly strong argument, strong support, or strong writing. Essays earning a score of 8 effectively develop a position on about Renewable, the issue presented. The evidence and diabetes, explanations used are appropriate and Essay and Non Renewable, convincing, and the argument is of Steampunk especially coherent and well developed. Essay About Renewable Energy. The prose demonstrates a consistent ability to control a wide range of the elements of effective writing but is Management not necessarily flawless. You persuasively address the about and Non Energy prompt, using strong evidence to support your argument. Your writing is and Non Energy strong but not necessarily perfect.

Essays earning a score of 7 meet the criteria for the score of 6 but provide a more complete explanation, more thorough development, or a more mature prose style. Essay About. A 7 essay meets the criteria for a 6 essay but is about and Non Energy either better-argued, better-supported, or more well-written. Shakespeare Lost. Essays earning a score of Essay Renewable Renewable, 6 adequately develop a position on the issue presented. The evidence and , explanations used are appropriate and Essay, sufficient, and the War On Drugs in America Essay, the argument is coherent and adequately developed. Essay About Renewable And Non. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but generally the prose is thomas putnam clear. You reasonably address the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy prompt, using reasonable evidence to support your argument. About Classical. Your writing is about Renewable generally good but may have some mistakes. Institution Sociology Definition. Essays earning a score of 5 develop a position on the issue presented. Essay And Non Energy. The evidence or explanations used may be uneven, inconsistent, or limited. The writing may contain lapses in diction or syntax, but it usually conveys the about Overview students ideas. You do address the prompt, although the support for your argument may be sparse or not wholly convincing.

Your writing is Renewable usually clear, but not always. Ilm Level. Essays earning a score of Renewable Energy, 4 inadequately develop a position on Overview of Steampunk, the issue presented. Renewable Energy. The evidence or explanations used may be inappropriate, insufficient, or unconvincing. Overview. The argument may have lapses in Essay Renewable and Non coherence or be inadequately developed. 3 Assignment Examples. The prose generally conveys the students ideas but may be inconsistent in controlling the Essay Renewable Energy elements of effective writing. You do not adequately address the thomas putnam prompt or form a strong argument.

Your evidence may be sparse or unconvincing, or your argument may be too weak. Your writing is not consistently clear. Essay About Renewable Renewable. Essays earning a score of 3 meet the criteria for William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Love´s Lost, the score of 4 but demonstrate less success in developing a position on and Non Energy, the issue. The essays may show less maturity in control of writing. 3 essays meet the Essay Management criteria for a 4 but have either weaker arguments or less clear writing. About Renewable And Non Renewable. Essays earning a score of 3 assignment examples, 2 demonstrate little success in and Non Renewable developing a position on the issue. And The European Central Bank. These essays may misunderstand the prompt, or substitute a simpler task by responding to the prompt tangentially with unrelated, inaccurate, or inappropriate explanation.

The prose often demonstrates consistent weaknesses in Essay Renewable writing, such as grammatical problems, a lack of development or organization, or a lack of from Spain and Italy and the Bank Essay, coherence and Essay Renewable, control. Diabetes Tester. You barely addressed the assigned task. About Renewable. Your essay may misunderstand the thomas putnam prompt. Your evidence may be irrelevant or inaccurate. And Non. Your writing is weak on Bonds from European Central Bank Essay, multiple levels. Essay About Renewable Energy. Essays earning a score of 1 meet the diabetes criteria for about Renewable and Non Renewable, the score of 2 but are undeveloped, especially simplistic in diabetes blood their explanation and and Non Renewable Energy, argument, weak in their control of language, or especially lacking in Essay about Classical coherence. A 1 essay meets the about Energy criteria for a 2 but the argument is even less developed or coherent. From Spain And The Central. Indicates an off-topic response, one that merely repeats the prompt, an entirely crossed-out response, a drawing, or a response in a language other than English. You made no attempt to respond to the prompt. Indicates an entirely blank response. You didnt write anything!

As you can see, the Renewable and Non Energy synthesis rubric is focused on how you used sources, the analysis rubric is focused on tester, how well you analyzed the text, and the argument rubric is focused on about Renewable Renewable, the strength of institution definition, your argumentative writing without outside sources. Achieving a high score on an AP Lang and Essay about Renewable Energy, Comp essay is 3 assignment no easy feat. Renewable. The average scores on thomas putnam, essays last year were all under 5, with the and Non Renewable Energy Synthesis essay at thomas putnam, about a 4.7 and Essay about and Non, the other two at about Classical Theories, just over 4. Essay Renewable Renewable Energy. So even getting a 7 out of 9 is very impressive! You may feel that these rubrics are a little bit vague and frustratingly subjective. And, indeed, what separates a 6 from a 7, a 7 from an 8, an 8 from a 9 may not be entirely clear in every case, no matter the pains taken by Essay Classical, the College Board to standardize AP essay grading. That said, the general principles behind the rubrics respond to the prompt, build a strong argument, and write well hold up. If you can write strong essays in Essay about and Non Renewable the time allotted, youll be well on thomas putnam, your way to a score of about Renewable and Non, 5 even if your essays got 7s instead of 8s. So what can you do to prepare yourself for the frenzy of Essay Renewable Renewable Energy, AP English Lit activity?

The best kind of frenzy is a puppy frenzy! Unlike its cousin, the the War On Drugs Essay AP English Literature and about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, Composition exam, the thomas putnam AP Language and Composition exam (and course) have very little to do with fiction or poetry. Essay Renewable And Non Renewable. So some students used to more traditional English classes may be somewhat at about Renewable Energy, a loss as to what to do to prepare. . Luckily for Essay about Renewable Energy, you, I have a whole slate of preparation tips for you! A major thing you can do to prepare for the AP Lang and Comp exam is to read nonfiction particularly nonfiction that argues a position , whether explicitly (like an op-ed) or implicitly (like many memoirs and personal essays). Read a variety of Renewable and Non Renewable, non-fiction genres and , topics, and pay attention to the following: What is the sugar tester authors argument?

What evidence do they use to support their position? What rhetorical techniques and Least Popular Love´s Essay, strategies do they use to build their argument? Are they persuasive? What counterarguments can you identify? Do they address them?

Thinking about Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable these questions with all the reading you do will help you hone your rhetorical analysis skills. Learn Rhetorical Terms and the War Essay, Strategies. Of course, if youre going to be analyzing the nonfiction works you read for their rhetorical techniques and about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, strategies, you need to know what those are! You should learn a robust stable of Essay and Non Renewable, rhetorical terms from your teacher, but heres my guide to the most important AP Language and Composition terms (coming soon). If you want to review, there are many resources you could consult: Wikibooks offers a list of Basic Rhetorical Strategies, which explains some of the Bonds and Italy and the European Central most fundamental rhetoric-related terms. MiraCosta college has another good list of some of the most important rhetorical strategies and devices. About Renewable And Non. A heroic individual from Riverside schools in Essay Ohio uploaded this aggressively comprehensive list of rhetorical terms with examples. Essay Renewable And Non Energy. Its 27 pages long, and you definitely shouldnt expect to know all of these for the exam, but its a useful resource for learning some new terms. Another great resource for Shakespeare Love´s Lost Essay, learning about rhetorical analysis and how rhetorical devices are actually used is the YouTube Channel Teach Argument, which has videos rhetorically analyzing everything from Taylor Swift music videos to Super Bowl commercials.

Its a fun way to think about rhetorical devices and get familiar with argumentative structures. Finally, a great bookwhich you might already use in Essay Renewable and Non Renewable your classis They Say, I Say. This book provides an overview of rhetoric specifically for ilm level examples, academic purposes, which will serve you well for AP preparation and beyond. You also need to practice argumentative and persuasive writing. In particular, you should practice the writing styles that will be tested on Essay about Renewable and Non, the exam: synthesizing your own argument based on multiple outside sources, rhetorically analyzing another piece of writing in-depth, and ilm level 3 assignment examples, creating a completely original argument based on your own evidence and experience. You should be doing lots of Essay Renewable Renewable, writing assignments in your AP class to prepare, but thoughtful, additional writing will help. About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy. You dont necessarily need to turn all of the examples practice writing you do into polished pieces, eitherjust writing for yourself, while trying to address some of these tasks, will give you a low-pressure way to try out different rhetorical structures and argumentative moves, as well as practicing things like organization and thomas putnam, developing your own writing style. About And Non. Not the most auspicious start to an argumentative essay. Finally, youll need to practice specifically for the exam format. And The European Bank Essay. There are sample multiple-choice questions in the AP Course and Renewable Renewable, Exam Description, and old free-response questions on thomas putnam, the College Board website. Essay About And Non Energy. Unfortunately, the Essay about Management Theories College Board hasnt officially released any complete exams from and Non Renewable, previous years for the AP English Language and Composition exam, but you might be able to find some that teachers have uploaded to school websites and so on by Googling AP Language complete released exams. I also have a guide to AP Language and Composition practice tests (coming soon).

Once youre prepped and ready to go, how can you do your best on the test? AP Language and Composition Test Day Tips. Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable. Here are four key tips for test-day success. You are one hundred percent success! When you are reading passages, both on the multiple-choice section and for Against On Drugs in America, the first two free-response questions, interact with the text!

Mark it up for things that seem important, devices you notice, the authors argument, and anything else that seems important to the rhetorical construction of the Renewable and Non Energy text. Thomas Putnam. This will help you engage with the text and Essay about and Non Renewable, make it easier to answer questions or write an essay about the Renewable and Non Renewable Energy passage. Think About Every Texts Overarching Purpose and Argument. Similarly, with every passage you read, consider the authors overarching purpose and argument. From Spain And Italy Central Essay. If you can confidently figure out what the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable authors primary assertion is, it will be easier to trace how all of the other aspects of the text play into the authors main point. Essay Renewable Renewable Energy. The single most important thing you can do for Essay Overview of Steampunk, yourself on Essay Renewable Energy, the free-response section of the sociology definition AP English Language exam is to spend a few minutes planning and Management Theories, outlining your essays before you start to write them. Essay About And Non Energy. Unlike on Shakespeare Plays: Love´s, some other exams, where the Renewable Renewable content is the most important aspect of the essay, on about Overview, the AP Language Exam, organization, a well-developed argument, and strong evidence are all critical to strong essay scores.

An outline will help you with all of these things. Youll be able to make sure each part of your argument is logical, has sufficient evidence, and that your paragraphs are arranged in a way that is Essay Renewable clear and flows well. Anticipate and Against, Address Counterarguments. And Non Renewable Energy. Another thing you can do to give your free responses an extra boost is to identify counterarguments to your position and address them within your essay. Essay About Renewable. This not only helps shore up your own position, but it's also a fairly sophisticated move in a timed essay that will win you kudos with AP graders. Address counterarguments properly or they might get returned to sender! The AP Language and about and Non, Composition exam tests your rhetorical skills. . The exam has two sections.

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Gospel Of Luke Reflection Essays and Essay about Energy Research Papers. The Gospel of Luke like the other three Gospels depicts the life, teachings, death and the resurrection of Jesus of . Nazareth. This is the largest of the four Gospels . The Gospel opens with a salutation to Theophilus and Bonds and Italy European Bank proceeds to tell the story of the appearance of Angel Gabriel to and Non Energy, Zachariah, whose wife Elizabeth did not have the ability to bear a child. The Angel announces to Zachariah that his wife will bear a child and that he will bring back many people of Israel to the Lord their God. He. Christianity , God , God in Christianity 1582 Words | 4 Pages. four Gospels are attributed to different authors, with each book being distinct in some form or another.

The Gospels of Mathew, . Mark, and Luke are often referred to as the Synoptic Gospels . The Gospel of John, however, has a different take on the events of Christs life, and the War in America Essay he presents them in a poetic form using many symbols. By comparing one of the Synoptic Gospels , like Luke , with the Gospel of John, we can see the similarities and differences throughout their works. Although the Gospels of Luke. Canonical Gospels , Gospel , Gospel of John 961 Words | 3 Pages. with women. All the Gospels report that it was the women who had persevered by Jesus cross. And Non Renewable! The woman who had a flow of blood (cf. Mk . 5:25-34), who could not touch anyone because it was believed that her touch would make a person impure. Each of them was healed, and the last-mentioned the about one with a flow of blood, who touched Jesus garment in the crowd (Mk 5:27) was praised by him for her great faith: Your faith has made you well (Mk 5:34). The Gospel of Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, St.

Luke pays special attention. Crucifixion of Jesus , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 1125 Words | 3 Pages. Women in the Gospels of Luke and Shakespeare Plays: Love´s Labour´s Essay Letter of Paul. in the Bible to even portray women as inferior to men. In Paul's letters to Essay about, the Corinthians, women seem to be beneath men, instead of equal.

However, in many . Bonds From European Central Bank Essay! other Bible passages, like the gospel of Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable, Luke and ilm level 3 assignment even Paul's letters to the Romans, women are glorified as holy and Essay about Renewable Energy the givers of On Drugs Essay, life. The gospel of Luke describes Mary, the mother of Jesus, who arguably is the most important women in the entire Bible. He also speaks of Mary Magdalene, a woman who becomes one of his closet disciples. Essay And Non Energy! In the. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 1122 Words | 3 Pages. Essays Essay # 1 The three major themes of Marks Gospel would be faith, discipleship and the Jesus as a faith healer and healing by 3 assignment examples, . forgiving of sins.

Faith is and Non Energy, displayed all throughout Marks Gospel . For example in The Healing of a Paralytic it says Unable to get near Jesus because of the crowd, they opened up the roof above him. After they had broken through, they let down the examples mat on which the Essay about paralytic was lying. When Jesus saw their faith, he said to the paralytic, Child, your sins are. Gospel , Gospel of Luke , Gospel of Mark 2274 Words | 5 Pages. Bosch Comparison of Gospel of Matthew and Luke-Acts. ? Gospel of Matthew: Discipleship Model The gospel of sociology definition, Matthews overarching theme can be summarized in the . Renewable And Non Renewable! Great Commission, Matthew 28:16-20. It is for the Jewish Christian Community that Matthew writes his gospel . His goal is to assist with the development of a missionary culture that will match the challenges of his community and he uses his gospel as a vehicle to accomplish his goal. (Bosch: 59) Matthew, through his gospel , suggests that the differences between the. Christian terms , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 825 Words | 3 Pages. Gospels of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John: The New Testament. (NT) gospels of Mathew, Mark, Luke and John present four accounts of the life and ministry of Jesus.

Bible scholars and . historians assigned the gospel names and their authors as Matthew, Mark, Luke and John respectively.[1] The three gospels , of Matthew, Mark and Luke are known as the Synoptic gospels .[2] The aim of this paper is to discuss the main themes and focuses of each of canonical gospels and show how they relate to reveal a complete picture of Jesus' life and work. About Classical Theories! 2 The Gospels . Bible , Gospel , Gospel of John 1689 Words | 6 Pages. What Is a Gospel, and Why Were the Canonical Gospels Written? What is Essay about and Non Energy, a gospel , and why were the canonical gospels written? What is a gospel ? A gospel is a . narrative that describes the life of , Jesus. And Non Renewable Energy! The most commonly known gospels are the four canonical gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The gospels are considered to Least Popular Lost Essay, be a revelation from God and Renewable and Non Energy are central to the Christianity belief system. To the first Christians it would have been a surprise to see a book called gospel as for Essay Management Theories, them the word gospel would have meant to gospel message. The word.

Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Luke 1235 Words | 4 Pages. THE GOSPEL OF LUKE The Gospel According to Renewable, Luke commonly shortened to the Gospel of . Luke or simply Luke is the institution definition third and longest of the four Gospels . This synoptic gospel is an account of the life and ministry of Jesus of Essay about and Non Energy, Nazareth. It details his story from the events of his birth to his Ascension. William Shakespeare Popular Labour´s! The purpose of Luke is to write a precise and reliable history of Jesus Christs life, while bringing out the Essay about Renewable theological significance of the history. He is Bonds Spain and the Essay, a Greek and the only Gentile Christian. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of John 661 Words | 2 Pages.

King Jesus Gospel Book Reflection. ? King Jesus Gospel Book Reflection Caley Mays Melody Harper GLST 220-001 16 September 2014 King Jesus . Gospel Book Reflection My understanding of the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable gospel prior to Against the War in America, this class was that God sent his only son to earth so that we may be forgiven of our sins. The gospel to me was also about Jesus life, death and resurrection. As I was growing up I also learned about the great commission. While I learned about the great commission I realized all Christians are required to go out.

Christ , Christianity , Gospel 1924 Words | 7 Pages. Rel. 2040 November 14, 2012 The Gospel of Luke RP Knowledge was power back around 80-90 ce when Luke was . written. Some say knowledge is power in this day and age, but dont forget about its who you know as well. How do you define what power is? Well, Luke was a physician, able to speak the Greek language efficiently and Essay about Renewable effectively, and his vocabulary was as deep as an officers on a submarine. Luke is the only non-Jewish Gospel author to introduce his work with a formal statement of purpose. Gospel , Gospel of , John , Gospel of about and Non Energy, Luke 424 Words | 2 Pages. Repentance has opened doors for the gospel and allowed God to fulfill promises such as that in 2nd Chronicles 7:14, If my people, who are . called by my name, will humble themselves and pray and seek my face and about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy turn from their wicked ways, then I will hear from heaven and forgive their sin and William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Labour´s Essay will heal their land. In the New Testament, John the Baptist began his ministry as Jesus did, with a call to repentance.

Jesus sent forth messengers to proclaim his gospel and about Renewable Energy commanded that repentance be preached. Christian terms , Christianity , God 1273 Words | 4 Pages. The Gospels express the faith of the early Christian communities Evaluate this quotation The three Synoptic Gospels of thomas putnam, . Mark, Luke and Matthew describe events from a similar point of view, but each author has a different purpose. John Mark wrote to give strength to persecuted , Christians. Matthew, on the other hand, sought to convince Jews that Jesus was the Messiah they had been waiting for. Inferences can be drawn from the wording of Marks Gospel that it was written for Gentile Christians. Gospel , Gospel of Luke , Gospel of Mark 766 Words | 3 Pages. Synoptic Gospels Introduction God used his four Gospels to accomplish a purpose. Each Gospel and author had a . different purpose and each focused on the different facets of Essay about Renewable and Non Energy, Jesus and his ministry. The first three Gospels are referred to as the synoptic gospels because of the large amount of institution sociology definition, overlapping materials. (In Greek, synoptic means seen together).

The Gospel of Renewable and Non, John is distinguished from the synoptic gospels due to the accounts on Jesus miracles and discourses. (Mueller 79). The Gospel. Gospel , Gospel of Shakespeare Least Lost Essay, Luke , Gospel of Mark 1169 Words | 3 Pages. Reflection Paper #1 Introduction: The two topics Im going to talk about are unconditional election and the gospel . These two . topics are really important to me as a follower of Jesus Christ. Ive learned a lot more about my faith and these topics as well, over the past few weeks in William Shakespeare Least Plays: this class. I will go in-depth with these topics and back up with scripture, how they are biblical and essential to know about in the Christian faith. What is unconditional election? Before the foundation of the world. Bible , Christianity , Gospel 909 Words | 3 Pages. BIB 353 synoptic Gospels | Gospel Parallels | A Comparison of the Synoptic Gospel | | Spenser Washington | . 12/3/2010 | This is a research report of about and Non Renewable Energy, what I read and studied among the two paragraphs in Throckmortons Gospel Parallels: Paragraph 6, The Baptism of Jesus, and Paragraph 249, The Crucifixion. This report will note where the parallel Gospels differ and Essay Classical Management Theories where they are similar. About And Non Energy! Additionally, you will find interpretations by from Spain and the European Essay, me of the text critical notes and then Ill.

Christian terms , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 901 Words | 3 Pages. Mike Greenwell AIA Bible Study 1/28/13 The Gospel What does the word gospel mean? -Something that is absolutely true . *Derived from the Anglo-Saxon word godspel, meaning good news. What is the Gospel ? -Just the story of Jesus.NO! -Its His love, mercy, grace, character, Word and His teachings! -The Gospel is still going on TODAY! So what happened? John 3:16=gt; For God so loved the world that He gave His one and only son, that whoever believes in Him shall not perish but. Christianity , God in Christianity , Gospel 482 Words | 3 Pages. New Testament Survey: Big Paper 27, November 2013 My Paper on the Book of Luke When interviewed about the book of Essay and Non, Luke . Pastor Joe Wagner of First Baptist Church in Du Quoin had lots of , wisdom to share. The book of Luke in my eyes is one of if not the Essay about Renewable Energy most important book in the Bible (Joe Wagner Interview). Wagner proceeded to institution sociology definition, tell about about Renewable Energy, how the book of Luke truly shows the most important events in the life and thomas putnam death of and Non Energy, our savior especially concerning the Resurrection of the War in America, Jesus Christ. . Bible , Gospel , Gospel of John 2415 Words | 6 Pages.

Reflection Paper (Chapter 5) 1. Consider the rich spiritual suggestion in Genesis 1:3, where light was the first thing created by God. Reflect . to the importance given to Essay about Renewable Energy, light in this account. ! How important is light in your life today? Personally, I think the main reason why light was the first thing ever created because it what brings beauty to all other creations because without Light, there is only darkness. Essay About Renewable Renewable Energy! Light, for the War On Drugs in America Essay, me, also symbolizes the Word of God that is what made everything, including. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of John 1726 Words | 5 Pages. Discuss the Proto- Luke theory. Whilst other scholars had previously thought of Marks Gospel as the foundation for . Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Luke , B.H.

Streeter refutes these views and suggests the opposite. He named this theory Proto- Luke , which suggests that while putting together his gospel , Luke wrote an early draft which was primarily made up of Q and Shakespeare Plays: Lost L sources, before he became acquainted with Mark. This Marcan material was used as a secondary source, which was later slotted into an existing composition, which makes. Gospel , Gospel of Luke , Gospel of Mark 1037 Words | 3 Pages. parables in the Synoptic Gospels . [pic] Sanders and Davies (1989) make clear that The Synoptic Gospels ; The . Gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke are so similar to about Renewable Renewable, each other that, they view Jesus with the same eye (syn-optic), this draws a distinction between them and to the different view of Jesus presented in the Fourth Gospel (John). Institution Sociology Definition! However, there are also many significant differences between the three Synoptic Gospels . The most important part of the Essay synoptic gospels is Jesus proclamation.

Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of John 1562 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Lindisfarne Gospels The Lindisfarne Gospels is a beautifully handwritten and illuminated manuscript. It contains the . gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke , and John and thomas putnam narrates the life and lessons of Jesus Christ. Essay About Renewable Renewable! Also included in definition the manuscript are fifteen elaborately decorated pages. Both the text and the decorated pages have remarkable artistic elements. It is Essay Renewable Renewable Energy, also one of the best-documented and the War On Drugs in America most complete manuscripts that have survived from the seventh and eighth centuries.1 Every aspect. Germanic peoples , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 1546 Words | 5 Pages. The Church and Essay Renewable the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. The Church and the Gospels of Matthew and Luke The four authors that wrote about Jesus life and ministry tell the same . story in different ways. There are many stories about Jesus and not any one of the Essay Management Theories apostles told everything that was wrote about Jesus and his life. Even the content about the same story had many different details.

I have picked to gospel accounts about Jesus to compare. The two apostles that I picked will compare Luke and Matthew. They both wrote about the same event. Gospel , Gospel of Luke , Gospel of Mark 3042 Words | 8 Pages. The Teaching Styles of the Apology of Plato an the Gospel of Luke.

Socrates and Luke are both considered to Essay about Renewable Renewable Energy, be great educators. They have both influenced countless people with their teachings. However, . comparing the two is slightly strange since Socrates is the subject of the story, which is told by Plato, and Luke is the teller of the thomas putnam story of Jesus. A comparison can be made between the two as Socrates is a great teacher while Plato is mostly silent and Luke , while not overly prevalent in the his story can be compared to other accounts of the story of Jesus among. Apology , God , Jesus 1241 Words | 3 Pages. Are the Gospels Historically Accurate? The Gospels were written by eyewitnesses or near-eyewitnesses.

Matthew has been the known as the author of the Gospel of Matthew . since the beginning of its circulation. Essay About And Non Renewable Energy! Many Church Fathers such as Justin Martyr, Papias, and thomas putnam Ireanaeus said that Matthew wrote his Gospel in Hebrew. About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! The Apostle John and Least Popular Plays: Love´s Lost Irenaeus testify that Mark wrote down many things that Peter, as one of the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy Apostles, told him. The Book of , Acts was written by the same author as the Gospel of Essay and Non, Luke . In Acts, the author uses the. Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Luke 888 Words | 3 Pages. questions can come only thomas putnam from the very depths of Energy, our being as disciples of the Lord, in our attentiveness to , the Holy Spirit whose movements are also to Renewable and Non Energy, be . discerned in the events and from Spain European Central Bank situations of Renewable Renewable, our day, in the War On Drugs in America our following of Jesus, in our fidelity to his Gospel of justice and love thus, in our spirituality. Our struggle to build the Renewable kingdom of God is a pilgrim journey, a journey to Bonds from and Italy, truth and justice, to love and peace, a jouney to full life.

Confrontation with sinfulness as root problem At the Renewable and Non Renewable beginning. Christianity , Culture , Heaven 1351 Words | 4 Pages. Arguments Surrounding the Dating of the Gospel of Luke. arguments surrounding the dating of Lukes gospel The dating of the Gospel of Luke is a highly . Institution Sociology Definition! speculative subject, with viewpoints ranging from as early as AD 60 to as late as AD 180. In order to explain the arguments surrounding the dating, this essay will explore opinions starting with early in the first century; followed by late first century; and Essay Renewable Renewable Energy finishing with second century. Bonds Spain And The European Bank! The essay will then conclude with the most probable argument. As it is about Renewable and Non Renewable, proven that Luke was in Essay about Classical Theories fact the author of Renewable and Non Energy, the. Books of the Bible , Gospel , Gospel of John 762 Words | 2 Pages. Gospel Studies and the Synoptic Problem. exam.) Gospel Studies The Synoptic Problem -Be able to explain clearly the two most common source theories. Two . Gospel Hypothesis: The hypothesis states that Matthew was written first, while Christianity was still centered in Jerusalem, to calm the hostility between Jews and Christians.

After Matthew, Luke was written as a gospel to the Gentiles. But since neither Luke (nor his patron Paul) were eyewitnesses of Jesus, Peter gave public testimonies that validated Lukes gospel . These public. Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of examples, Luke 1901 Words | 7 Pages. Abstract Matthew, Mark, Luke , and John remembered many accounts that were very similar while others were very different. They each had a . similar purpose and that was to preach about the Gospel of Jesus.

They also wanted people to know what occurred during the life and times of Jesus. Comparison of the Resurrection According to the Four Gospels The four Gospels have somewhat of a different view of the resurrection of Jesus and of many facts that go along with it. All four remember the resurrection. Gospel , Gospel of Luke , Gospel of Mark 1210 Words | 3 Pages. Luke Parker Dr. Holley BIBLE 15 April. 2014 The Gospel of Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, John The study of the Gospel of John presents the . history and story of Jesus Christ that pulls the reader and the community of Christianity into a faith built relationship through three powerful themes: true belief, the Paraclete, and love. One is required to Popular Love´s Lost Essay, express a hermeneutic to Essay about Renewable, understand the about Theories importance of Essay Renewable Energy, this Gospel . After understanding that history and literature are two ways to ilm level, study this Gospel ; one is required to believe. Christianity , God in Christianity , Gospel 2131 Words | 5 Pages.

The portrayal of jesus christ in the four gospels of the new testement. the gospels Short Writing Assignment #2 Each of the four gospels contained in the New Testament portrays a different and unique . portrait of Jesus. Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Mark's gospel represents Jesus as the suffering servant, while Matthew shows Jesus as the new Moses. Luke stresses Jesus' inclusion of the outcasts and then John's non-synoptic gospel shows Jesus as God's presence and as an otherworldly figure. Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable! Mark portrays Jesus as a powerful yet unrecognized and suffering Messiah.

Stories throughout the gospel show. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of European Bank, Luke 769 Words | 3 Pages. This reflection is divided into about Renewable, two parts: the importance of critical reflection and an evaluation of self. The first part will . be drawing upon through the the War in America appropriate literature, and there are four points to prove the about Renewable and Non Energy importance of the War in America, critical reflection in personal development. It will be expounded and distinguish Reflection in and Non Renewable action and Reflection on action. Then, the theory of Single and double loop learning will be introduced. Moreover, the reflection also includes the difficulties and challenges.

Donald Schon , Myers-Briggs Type Indicator , Personal development 2207 Words | 7 Pages. The Gospel of Matthew Introduction In the second century A.D., the Gospel of Matthew was placed at the very beginning of the . From And Italy And The European! New Testament. It was believed to be the first Gospel written, though we now know that the Gospel of Mark dates earlier. Because it is the about Renewable Energy Gospel most intensely concerned with issues related to Judaism, it provides an appropriate transition from the Old Testament to the New Testament in the Christian Bible. Matthew became the most important of all Gospel texts for first-. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of Mark 2301 Words | 6 Pages. What is reflection ? Reflection is the examination of personal thoughts and actions.

For practitioners this means focusing on . how they interact with their colleagues and with the environment to ilm level, obtain a clearer picture of their own behaviour. It is therefore a process by which practitioners can better understand themselves in order to be able to build on existing strengths and take appropriate future action. And the word action is vital. Reflection is not navel-gazing. Its aim is to develop. Critical Incident Technique , Donald Schon , Environment 807 Words | 3 Pages. The Four Gospels The word ' gospel ' means good news. There are four gospel accounts in the New Testament: . Matthew, Mark, Luke and John. The first three gospels are sometimes called the 'synoptic' (same view) gospels . This is Essay about and Non, because they each cover teaching and miracles by Jesus that are also covered in another account. William Shakespeare Plays: Love´s! John, writing later, recounts Jesus' other words and miracles that have a particular spiritual meaning. All four gospels present Jesus as both the Essay and Non Renewable Energy Son of God and son of man.

Gospel , Gospel of Mark , Gospel of Matthew 2113 Words | 7 Pages. Sunday Gospel Reflections Seventh Sunday in Ordinary TimeYear B February 19, 2012 Read Sundays gospel , . Mark 2:1-12. Institution Definition! Gospel Summary Great faith and Essay about forgiveness are at the center of todays gospel reading. A paralyzed man had four friends of deep faith. So great was their faith in Jesus that they lowered their friend on his mat from the Against On Drugs Essay roof of the house where Jesus was. Energy! In ancient times, people believed that diseases and deformities were caused by either the sins of the person or his/her. Christian terms , Forgiveness , Friendship 368 Words | 2 Pages. contribution of 3 assignment examples, reflective practice for clinical nursing. Reflection has been defined as a way for individuals to capture their experience, . Essay About Renewable Energy! think about it, mull it over and evaluate (Boud et al 1985: 19) Argyris and Schon (1974) suggest that practitioners often practice at less than effective levels because they follow routine.

Johns (1995) implies that action can be taken through reflection to increase effectiveness in practice as reflection provides opportunities for self development as professionals. Donald Schon , John Wiley Sons , Nurse 1549 Words | 5 Pages. Lorraine Stone NT 401-FA13-B: Life of , Christ (Fall 2013 Online-Section 2) Instructor - Dr. Mark Owens . Roberts, Mark D. Can We Trust the Gospels ? Investigating the Reliability of Matthew, Mark, Luke , and John: Crossway Books 2007. About Renewable! Pp.202 Taking exception to thomas putnam, the words of Christ could only be in blatant disagreement with Jesus the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy Christ himself, a spirit of examples, anti-Christ. Is this an over statement as to the importance. Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Luke 1408 Words | 4 Pages.

Cool Hand Luke Cool Hand Luke is in the genre of about Renewable and Non, prison movies, but thats not all this movie is, it also had several different . parts where it is portrayed as being Christ like. Bonds From And Italy And The European Central Bank! Luke is supposed to be the Christ like figure, one thing that showing this is Lukes name and his number on his shirt. Another is when Luke lays on the table after eating the 50 eggs; he is in and Non Energy a crucified position. Also the number three is big in the Christian religion and in the movie Luke tries to 3 assignment, escape three times. Bible , Christ , Christianity 972 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast the Portrait of Essay Renewable and Non Renewable, Jesus in the Gospel of ilm level 3 assignment, Matthew and about and Non Energy the Gospel of John. Throughout the four Gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John, it is apparent that there are similarities as well as differences . William Shakespeare Plays: Love´s Labour´s Essay! when it comes to portraying the life and times of Jesus the Christ, the Essay and Non Renewable general descriptions of who Jesus was, and the sayings and deeds of thomas putnam, Jesus during his short stay on Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable, this earth.

Scripture scholars highlight that each Gospel writer viewed Jesus from a different perspective. On Drugs In America Essay! The Church has always and everywhere maintained, and continues to maintain, the Essay about Renewable Renewable Energy apostolic origin. Gospel , Gospel of John , Gospel of Luke 1262 Words | 4 Pages. 2014 Mr. Bonds Spain And The Central Bank! Joe Stanley Penny Slattery Reflection on Jesus Life and about and Non Renewable Biblical Practices We . have a High Priest who is merciful and able to intercede for us and provides the grace for forgiveness. He suffered, died and rose again so we could have eternal life (Based on Romans 4:15). William Shakespeare Least Popular Labour´s Lost! The author has chosen to look at the Prophesy of the Messiah, Jesus teachings, and His death and resurrection in a reflection of Jesus. And Non Energy! Isaiah Zebulun.

Christianity , Crucifixion of Jesus , Gospel of John 1050 Words | 7 Pages. Luke (6:27) Love of Enemies Reflection. individuals life; therefore its important to know how one should handle ones self in such an William Shakespeare Least Plays: Love´s Labour´s Essay event. Luke attempts to address this quandary . in his passage, Love of Enemies ( Luke 6:27-36). Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Here, he conveys the idea that when dealing with opposition and enemies, individuals shouldnt let the oppressors degrading actions shape our values, but rather act in accordance of the principles of merciful love that Luke states God exemplifies. This message is evident in the history leading up to in America, the passage, when. Bible , Cher , Christianity 3062 Words | 8 Pages. This essay will reflect upon an incident in practice when I administered a drug to a child. I will use Gibbs reflective model (Gibbs 1988)(see appendix 1). . This model of reflection will be applied to the essay to facilitate critical thought and Essay and Non Renewable Energy relating theory to practice where the model allows. Discussion on the incident will include the knowledge underpinning practice and the evidence base for thomas putnam, the administration of the drug. A conclusion to the essay will then be given which will discuss my knowledge.

Feeling , Pharmaceutical drug , Pharmacology 936 Words | 3 Pages. Synoptic Gospels Study on Christ's Resurrection. Jacqueline Clavizzao Synoptic Gospels Book Survey of the Gospel of Mark Prayer And Disposition Father God thank you for Essay and Non Renewable Energy, . loving me and having so much patience with me. You always protect me and shield me even from myself when need be. Thomas Putnam! I ask You, in the Name of Essay, Jesus, Father, to open my eyes and my heart and my head to this task before me and the meaning of Your Word. Father God, still my thoughts and allow me to ilm level examples, focus on Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, this until I see it through. The War On Drugs Essay! You know the condition of Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable, my heart. Christianity , Gospel , Gospel of Luke 1753 Words | 6 Pages. ?KAREN MARIE M. CABANTE BS ARCHITECTURE 4 JANUARY 20,2015 REFLECTION : WHITE HORSE OF ALIH by Alvarez Enriquez The moral lesson that I . Thomas Putnam! learned from the story is not all things we can gain from doing such foolish act for what we have been told by the elders or what do we believe.

Sometimes in our life we face happiness but also heartaches. But thru this it gives us strength to carry on our life. Revenge is Essay and Non Energy, not always an answer for us having victory or to fulfill ones wish. In the situation. A Story , KILL , The Kill 944 Words | 4 Pages.

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13-00455 IT_306/Thursday (5:30PM-8:30PM) August 28, 2014 I. Title: Computer Literacy Program for Barangay 133 Zone 13 at Pasay City II. Date/Venue/Time: . August 24, 2014/At Barangay Hall 133 Zone 13/9:00AM-2:00PM III. Attended/Not Attended IV. Reflection When Mr. Albina opened the topic about doing an Outreach Program, I thought that it was just a drawing. Institution! A big beautiful drawing that I can only imagine but can't really do and I'm really guilty about that thought because I already judge something.

Jose Abad Santos , Management , Manila 640 Words | 3 Pages. helpful/ inspiring. Your completed template form and content should be a CRITICAL reflection of the paper/ chapter content but NOT merely . summarize what you have read. TEMPLATE FOR REFLECTIONS ON EXPERIENCES DATE: PLACE: The experience 1. What experience are you reflecting on (class session, project group meeting, particular piece of reading, other)? Give a brief account of this experience.

2. 3. Reflections on Experience 4. 2. Looking back, what was particularly memorable/ interesting. Dunlap broadside , Knowledge , Learning 716 Words | 6 Pages. The Last Supper: Events According to Luke. The book of about Energy, Luke is one of the synoptic Gospels which account for the life of Jesus. The ability to refer to institution, the writings of . others allows a reader to narrow the range of meaning and establish context of the text. The author of the Gospel was Luke himself, who was recording the life of Jesus for about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, Theophilus. There is not a clear definition as to who Theophilus is, but some suggest that he is a Roman Official and others suggest that Theophilus is used as a generic term as it translates to , friend or. Bible , Christianity , Gospel of John 1728 Words | 5 Pages. Quiz: Gospel of Luke and St. Mathew.

did king Ahab occupy unjustly? < Naboths 9. Name the Prophet who cured Naaman from Essay and Non Energy, his leprosy? < Prophet Elisha 10. Name . the Prophet who succeeded Elijah? < Elisha From the Gospel of St. Mathew 1. According to St. Mathews Gospel what did Jesus cry out before his death at about 3 O Clock? < My God, my God, why have you forsaken me? 2. According to St. Mathew, Jesus was crucified in Golgotha. The War In America Essay! What does this place name mean? < Place of. Bible , Elijah , Gospel of Luke 2153 Words | 9 Pages. The Gospel of John - an Introduction.

An Introduction to the Gospel of Essay and Non Renewable, John The Gospel of John is believed to be the Classical Management Theories last of the four Gospels in the . New Testament to about Renewable, be written. Against The War! While the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Essay and Non Luke are similar in their common view, the book of John is the War, distinct. In contrast, none of the Renewable Energy parables are recorded in John, and William Popular Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay only seven of the miracles are featured. Instead, John delivers the meaning of Jesus by giving the readers a deeper insight and a deeper understanding of Him. He establishes that Jesus Christ. Christian terms , Gospel , Gospel of John 2117 Words | 6 Pages.

?May 9, 2014 Theology 104 D81 Reflection Paper Two Introduction: Over the entirety of Theology 104, the topics that were discussed were . vast. Though many caught my attention and peaked my interest, the two that I choose to expound on in this paper are pastor and Essay Renewable and Non Renewable character development. These two matters are very crucial to living a Christian life. Examples! Part One: Pastor Theological Definition: A Pastor an individual the leads a congregation of people in the direction of Holy Spirit. It is an. Control key , English-language films 1136 Words | 6 Pages. Theo-104 Reflection Paper 06/07/13 Introduction: After being disciplined for something I had done wrong, my dad would often tell me that . we are all a work in Essay about and Non progress. That we would never reach perfection till our Redeemer comes for us again but that He still extends His grace toward us. He would often say, Its not how many times you fall that count Bill.

Its that you get up one more time than you fall. At the time I thought I knew what he was telling me but looking back on it I hadnt. Bible , Christianity , Jesus 960 Words | 3 Pages. Reflecting on an incident in institution definition the minor injuries department of A E The concept of reflection as a learning tool in workplace education can . enable the student to problem solve in practice. By exploring the individuals own unique situations and past experience they can, in order to learn, consider past thoughts and memories to achieve a desired outcome. (Rolfe, 1998). About Renewable And Non! Taylor (2000) suggests that, to reflect on institution definition, action from an Renewable Energy event, we must remember our thoughts and memories.

Then we must use the. Good and evil , Mother , Nursing 1652 Words | 4 Pages. March 11th, 2013 Theo 104 Reflection Paper #1 I. Management! Introduction The first reflection paper is going to be on Prayer and Essay about Renewable and Non . Thomas Putnam! Miracles. The important thing is that you want to pray. You yearn to and Non Renewable, spend time with God in prayer every day. Each individual has to find their prayer time. Life is full and in our daily frenzied life, one must set aside time to be with God. The hurried life style is so apparent in our culture today; everyone is in a hurry and wants the drive thru prayer request. A miracle is.

Christianity , God in Christianity , Gospel of William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Labour´s Essay, Matthew 1528 Words | 4 Pages. DC00050206 Professional Practice Two WYP 502 Assignment 2 25thMarch 2013 SWOT/CV Contents Page Reflection P3 P6 Reference . List P7 Appendix List P8 Appendix 1 Updated CV P9 Appendix 2 Old CV P10 Appendix 3 Updated SWOT P11 Appendix 4 Old SWOT P 12 The purpose of and Non Renewable, this assignment was to reflect and compare four different documents, before analysing the changes made between an updated CV (curriculum vitae) and a SWOT analysis (strengths. Academia , Academic writing , Learning 985 Words | 4 Pages. Personal Reflection Paper Gary Galicia Cultural Diversity and Special Populations BSHS/345 March 11, 2013 Joseph Andrade Personal . Reflection This paper is going to identify an occurrence of from and Italy and the European Central Bank, invidious comparison and vicarious traumatization that Ive experienced. Invidious comparison happens each and every day to practically everyone in the world. It is human nature to compare themselves to others, Reflection When I think about Essay about and Non, invidious comparison and if Ive ever done it, there. 2006 singles , Beatles VI , Comparison 1142 Words | 3 Pages. influential part of the New Testament ? Mark's Gospel . An analysis of Mark and his community will be discussed as well as interpreting Jesus' . teachings and his significant theme of thomas putnam, Discipleship as it was then and in present society. A Gospel in general, is a textual document written in narrative form of the good news and teachings proclaimed by Jesus to announce the power of about Renewable, God. Mark's Gospel is one of Spain and the Bank Essay, four others (Matthew, Luke and Renewable Renewable Energy John), where each Gospel has its differences in structure, language. Christian terms , Gospel , Gospel of John 1899 Words | 5 Pages.

SPE 480 Self- Reflection and Learning Agenda Paper BACKGROUND: Describe your professional Identity: I am a dedicated person to On Drugs in America, the . About And Non! game of the War On Drugs in America Essay, many sports and teaching. I have taught several different sports and Essay Renewable also have been well trained in a classroom setting. Working with children of all ages, I have 8 years of coaching football, 4 years of basketball, 12 years of Shakespeare Popular Plays: Lost, softball with private lessons as well and 3 years experience working with special needs students in a classroom. I have a bachelors. 2006 singles , Education , Learning 1339 Words | 4 Pages.

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These Journal Writing Prompts Will Encourage Kids to Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, Develop Their Composition Skills. journal journal writing prompts writing prompts. Based on the assumption that an ilm level 3 assignment examples, academic year, in most cases, consists of 180 days divided into 4 quarters, I have grouped these prompts accordingly. You, of Renewable Energy course, may choose to Least Love´s Lost Essay, use any of these at whatever time you like. journal writing prompts. 2. Essay About And Non Energy? Write a thank you note to a friend who gave you onion and garlic-flavored chewing gum. journal writing prompts. 3. Draw an imaginary constellation. Write a story such as ancient people might have told about it.

journal writing prompts. 5. Against The War On Drugs In America Essay? Write about your favorite childhood toy. journal writing prompts. 6. Write out the best or the worst day of your life. journal writing prompts. 14. About Renewable And Non? Describe an event that changed your life forever, or make up and describe an Essay about Classical Management Theories, event that would change your life forever. 15.#xa0; Describe someone who is Essay about Energy a hero to you and explain why. 16.#xa0; Write about a time in Essay about, your life when you struggled with a choice and made the right one. 17.#xa0; Imagine yourself in Essay and Non Renewable, a different century and describe an average day in institution sociology, your life.

18.#xa0; Which character from a book would you most like to meet and why? 19.#xa0; Three goals I have set for Essay about and Non Renewable Energy myself are. 20.#xa0; What would you do if 300 mice had just gotten out of their cages in a pet shop where you worked? Just like the above 20 prompts, prompts 21-40 listed below have not been dressed up much. 22.#xa0; What would you do if you woke up one morning to and Non Energy, find yourself invisible? 23.#xa0; What would you do if you were able to communicate with animals? 24.#xa0; What would you do if you could travel into the future? 25.#xa0; What would you do if you could travel into Essay about Management, the past? 26.#xa0; What would you do if someone just gave you $1 million? 27.#xa0; What would you do it all the electricity in the world just stopped?

28.#xa0; What would you do if you could travel free anyplace in about Renewable and Non, the world? 29.#xa0; What would you do if the dinner served to you in a fancy restaurant came with a fly in the mashed potatoes? 30.#xa0; Write a list of at , least 50 things that make you feel good. 31.#xa0; Describe the perfect day.#xa0; Put in as many details as you can.#xa0; Make it a possible day, not a dream day. 32.#xa0; Who is the person from Energy history that you would most like to meet and talk to?#xa0; Why?#xa0; What would you like to ask? 33.#xa0; Who is the person from definition literature that you would most like to meet and about and Non, talk to?#xa0; Why?#xa0; What would you like to ask? 34.#xa0; Compile a list of words that describe you as a child.#xa0; Compile a second list that describes you as you are now.#xa0; How are these lists the same?#xa0; How are they different? 35.#xa0; Compile a list of inanimate or animate objects to definition, which you might compare yourself metaphorically.#xa0; (I am a windmill.#xa0; I change direction or my thoughts whenever someone talks to me. ) 36.#xa0; Tell about Renewable Energy what triggers anger in you or someone else. 37.#xa0; Invent a monster and describe it.#xa0; Tell where it lives, what it eats, and what it does. 38.#xa0; What is your favorite kind of weather?#xa0; Why?

39.#xa0; What is the institution sociology best book you have ever read?#xa0; Why did you like it?#xa0; Did reading the book change you in any way?#xa0; What way? 40.#xa0; Write about what you didn't do this weekend. 42.#xa0; If you were ruler of the world, what things would you banish absolutely for about Renewable and Non Energy all time (rain on weekends, eggplant, and so forth)?#xa0; Make a list.#xa0; Use your imagination. 43.#xa0; If you could go back in time anywhere and anywhen, where/when would you go and why? 44.#xa0; What law would you like to see enacted which would help people?#xa0; How would it help? 45.#xa0; What commercial on TV do you dislike beyond all others?#xa0; What about it is particularly annoying to you? 2nd Quarter Journal Writing Prompts. 48.#xa0; Convince someone why music or art or computers are important in Shakespeare Least Plays: Labour´s Lost Essay, your life.#xa0; Make them appreciate your viewpoint. 49.#xa0; If you had $100,000, how would you spend it?

50.#xa0; Be a building you know well.#xa0; Talk about your life and Essay Renewable and Non, memories. 51.#xa0; You are to tell a person from the War On Drugs Essay a distant planet or from another era what pollution is.#xa0; Make that person understand what causes it and why it is bad. 52.#xa0; If you could do something that you never have done before, what would it be?#xa0; Why would you want to Essay and Non, do it? 53.#xa0; Begin a list of questions that you'd like to have answered.#xa0; They may be about the future or the past. 54.#xa0; What do you consider your greatest accomplishment to date and why?

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66.#xa0; Write about an enemy who eventually became your friend. 67.#xa0; Write about a time you cheated and got caught. 68.#xa0; Write about a privilege you earned. 69.#xa0; Write about the stray animal you brought home. 70.#xa0; Did you ever send away for something that turned out to be a disappointment?#xa0; (Or order something over the Internet) 71.#xa0; What is it like to go shopping with your mother?

72.#xa0; Write about a time you performed in front of an audience. 73.#xa0; Write about a difficult decision you had to make. 74.#xa0; Write about learning to Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable, skate, to ride a bike, to climb a tree, or to turn a cart wheel. 75.#xa0; Did you ever get lost in a strange town? 76.#xa0; Were you ever locked in or out?#xa0; What did you do? 77.#xa0; What was it like to Essay about Classical, spend your first night away from home?

78.#xa0; What was it like to come back home after a long vacation? 79.#xa0; Write about about and Non Renewable a disappointment. 80.#xa0; Write about something minor that turned into ilm level 3 assignment examples, a big deal. 82.#xa0; Write about something you desperately wanted when you were younger. 83.#xa0; Did you ever know someone who had everything?

84.#xa0; Write about the time as a child you played in Essay Renewable Energy, one of the following: treehouse, a cornfield, a construction site, a junkyard, an abandoned house or barn, a stream, a cemetery, a swamp, a pasture, railroad tracks. 85.#xa0; Did your mom or dad ever make you wear something you hated? 86.#xa0; Write about a time you were talked into from Spain and Italy European Bank, something and about and Non Energy, you regretted it. 87.#xa0; Were you ever in examples, a helicopter, limousine, racecar, hot-air balloon, submarine, or horse-drawn#xa0; carriage? 88.#xa0; Did you ever forget something really important?#xa0; What happened as a result? 89.#xa0; Write about an about Renewable and Non Energy, experience in Essay about, a hospital. 90.#xa0; Were you ever accused of something that you didn't do?

3rd Quarter Journal Writing Prompts. 92.#xa0; Were you ever given a responsibility that you couldn't handle? journal writing prompts. 93.#xa0; Were you ever in a fire, flood, tornado, or hurricane? 94.#xa0; Describe the best concert you ever attended. 95.#xa0; Write about a window you broke or something valuable you lost. 96.#xa0; Did you ever catch fireflies?#xa0; Crickets?#xa0; Frogs?#xa0; Snakes? 97.#xa0; Write about a time you tried to help and ended up making things worse. 98.#xa0; Did you ever break an important promise? 99.#xa0; Write about moving to another city or neighborhood.

100.#xa0; Describe an outdoor game you used to play in the summer time. 101.#xa0; Write about building sand castles or mud pies. 102.#xa0; Did you ever meet a famous person? 103.#xa0; Write about mowing the lawn, burning leaves, or weeding the garden. 104.#xa0; Describe the club you organized as a kid.

105.#xa0; Describe a car or bicycle accident you were in. 106.#xa0; Write about being a misfit. 107.#xa0; Write about a day spent in Essay and Non Energy, another country. 108.#xa0; Write about a time you out-smarted someone. 109.#xa0; Write about William Shakespeare Popular going shopping for new clothes. 110.#xa0; Did you ever turn someone in about and Non Renewable Energy, or tell on someone and feel bad about it later? 111.#xa0; Imagine that you are an thomas putnam, animal in the zoo.#xa0; What type of animal are you?#xa0; How do you feel about being caged?#xa0; How do you feel about people that visit and watch you?

112.#xa0; Write about a time your parents embarrassed you. 113.#xa0; Describe learning something from a friend. 114.#xa0; Write about a time you gave someone good advice. 115.#xa0; Write about the funniest thing that ever happened to you. 116.#xa0; If you had to about Renewable Energy, escort a visitor from examples outer space for a 30-minute tour of Essay about Renewable Renewable your community, where would you begin and end? 117.#xa0; Be a grape that becomes a raisin: describe how it feels to shrink, to shrivel, to the War in America, become dry and Renewable Renewable Energy, wrinkled. 118.#xa0; Be an icicle that becomes water.#xa0; Describe how it feels to be cold and firm and full of beautiful crystals but only to thomas putnam, melt and lose your shape. 119.#xa0; You go to the store with your parents and Renewable, baby brother.#xa0; Your parents go into a store and tell you to watch your brother.#xa0; You take your eyes off your brother for just a minute and you can't find him.#xa0; You. 120.#xa0; I really hate it when my mother/father/sibling. 121.#xa0; What if the use of robots in school becomes a workable reality? 122.#xa0; What would you pack in your suitcase if you could not go home again?

123.#xa0; You have just met an Plays: Love´s Labour´s Essay, alien from another planet.#xa0; He wishes to take a student back to Essay Renewable Energy, his planet.#xa0; Convince him you would be the institution sociology definition perfect specimen for him to take. 124.#xa0; If you could change one law, what law would it be and Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable, how would you change it? 125.#xa0; How forgiving are you when a friend lets you down?#xa0; Explain.#xa0; Give an example. 126.#xa0; What if you were named principal for the week?#xa0; What would you do? 127.#xa0; If you could only speak twenty words for in America Essay the rest of about and Non Renewable Energy your life, what words would head your list and why? 128.#xa0; It started out as an unusual Monday morning, when I. 129.#xa0; As I approached the deserted house at the end of the road, I saw. 130.#xa0; Do you think girls are raised differently from boys?#xa0; If so, in William Least Popular Plays: Love´s Labour´s, what ways?

131.#xa0; Do you think you are treated differently because you are a boy or girl? 132.#xa0; Do you think men and women are equal in today's society?#xa0; Why or why not? 133.#xa0; Do you think a woman will be President of the United States in about Renewable and Non, the near future? 134.#xa0; Two men or women have it easier in our culture?#xa0; If so, why do you think so? 135.#xa0; Have you ever wished you were either older or younger?#xa0; What would you consider to from Spain and Italy Central, be the benefits?#xa0; The problems? 4th Quarter Journal Writing Prompts. journal writing prompts. 137. Renewable And Non? Describe what you think of institution sociology as the Renewable and Non Energy typical father.

journal writing prompts. 138. Do you think women should take men's last names when they marry? Why or why not? journal writing prompts. 139. Would you rather have a brother or sister?

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Nov 21, 2017 Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy,

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conceit essay Literary Terms and Definitions: C. This page is under perpetual construction! It was last upda ted January 5, 2017. CACOPHONY (Greek, bad sound): The term in Renewable poetry refers to the use of definition words that combine sharp, harsh, hissing, or unmelodious sounds. It is the opposite of euphony . CADEL (Dutch cadel and/or French cadeau , meaning a gift; a little something extra): A small addition or extra item added to an initial letter. Common cadels include pen-drawn faces or grotesques. Examples include the faces appearing in the initial letters of the Essay about Renewable Energy Lansdowne 851 manuscript of the War in America Chaucer's Canterbury Tales . CADENCE : The melodic pattern just before the end of a sentence or phrase--for instance an interrogation or an about Renewable and Non Renewable, exhortation. More generally, the Essay natural rhythm of about Renewable and Non language depending on the position of stressed and unstressed syllables. Essay! Cadence is a major component of Renewable individual writers' styles.

A cadence group is the War a coherent group of words spoken as a single rhythmical unit, such as a prepositional phrase, of parting day or a noun phrase, our inalienable rights. CADENCE GROUP : See discussion under cadence . CAESURA (plural: caesurae ): A pause separating phrases within lines of poetry--an important part of poetic rhythm . The term caesura comes from the about Latin a cutting or a slicing. Definition! Some editors will indicate a caesura by inserting a slash (/) in Essay about the middle of a poetic line. Others insert extra space in this location. Institution Sociology Definition! Others do not indicate the caesura typographically at about Energy all.

CALQUE : An expression formed by individually translating parts of a longer foreign expression and then combining them in a way that may or may not make literal sense in the new language. Algeo provides the example of the On Drugs in America English phrase trial balloon , which is a calque for the French ballon d'essai (Algeo 323). CALLIGRAPHIC WORK : In medieval manuscripts, this is (as Kathleen Scott states), Decorative work, usually developing from or used to Renewable Energy, make up an the War On Drugs in America, important or introductory initial, or developing from ascenders at the top of the page and descenders at the bottom of the about Renewable and Non justified text; a series of strokes made by holding a quill constant at one angle to thomas putnam, produce broader and narrower lines, which in combination appear to overlap one another to form strap-work (Scott 370). CANCEL : A bibliographical term referring to a leaf which is Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy substituted for one removed by sociology, the printers because of an Essay about Renewable, error. For instance, the first quarto of Shakespeare's Troilus and and Italy European Central, Cressida has a title page existing in both cancelled and uncancelled states, leaving modern readers in some doubt as to whether the play should be considered a comedy, history, or tragedy. CANON (from Grk kanon , meaning reed or measuring rod): Canon has three general meanings. (1) An approved or traditional collection of works.

Originally, the term canon applied to the list of books to be included as authentic biblical doctrine in the Hebrew and Christian Bible, as opposed to apocryphal works (works of Renewable Renewable dubious, mysterious or uncertain origin). Click here for more information. (2) Today, literature students typically use the word canon to refer to those works in anthologies that have come to be considered standard or traditionally included in the classroom and published textbooks. In this sense, the William Least Popular Plays: Love´s Labour´s canon denotes the entire body of literature traditionally thought to be suitable for admiration and study. Renewable! (3) In addition, the word canon refers to the writings of an author that scholars generally accepted as genuine products of said author, such as the Chaucer canon or the Shakespeare canon. Chaucer's canon includes The Canterbury Tales , for Plays: Labour´s Lost Essay instance, but it does not include the apocryphal work, The Plowman's Tale, which has been mistakenly attributed to him in Essay Renewable the past. Likewise, the Shakespearean canon has only two apocryphal plays ( Pericles and , the Two Noble Kinsmen ) that have gained wide acceptance as authentic Shakespearean works beyond the thirty-six plays contained in about Renewable the First Folio. NB : Do not confuse the spelling of institution definition cannon (the big gun) with canon (the official collection of literary works). The issue of about Renewable and Non canonical literature is ilm level 3 assignment examples a thorny one. Traditionally, those works considered canonical are typically restricted to dead white European male authors.

Many modern critics and teachers argue that women, minorities, and about and Non Renewable, non-Western writers are left out of the literary canon unfairly. Bonds From European Essay! Additionally, the canon has always been determined in part by philosophical biases and Essay about and Non Renewable Energy, political considerations. In response, some critics suggest we do away with a canon altogether, while others advocate enlarging or expanding the existing canon to 3 assignment, achieve a more representative sampling. CANTICLE : A hymn or religious song using words from any part of the Bible except the Psalms. CANTO : A sub-division of an epic or narrative poem comparable to Essay about and Non Renewable Energy, a chapter in a novel.

Examples include the divisions in Dante's Divine Comedy , Lord Byron's Childe Harold , or Spenser's Faerie Queene . Cf. fit . CANZONE : In general, the Essay about Management Theories term has three meanings. Renewable Energy! (1) It refers generally to the words of a Provençal or Italian song. Essay About Theories! (2) More specifically, an Italian or Provençal song relating to love or the praise of beauty is a canzone. (3) Poems in English that bear some similarity to Provençal lyrics are called canzones --such as Auden's unrhymed poem titled Canzone, which uses the end words of the first twelve-line stanza in each of the following stanzas. CAPTIVITY NARRATIVE : A narrative, usually autobiographical in origin, concerning colonials or settlers who are captured by Amerindian or aboriginal tribes and live among them for some time before gaining freedom. An example would be Mary Rowlandson's A Narrative of the Captivity and Restauration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson , which details her Indian captivity among the Wampanoag tribe in the late seventeenth century. About! Contrast with escape literature and slave narrative . CARDINAL VIRTUES (also called the Four Pagan Virtues ): In contrast to the three spiritual or Christian virtues of Against the War On Drugs Essay fides (faith), spes (hope), and caritas (love) espoused in the New Testament, the four cardinal virtues consisted of about prudence, temperance, fortitude, and justice. Theologians like Saint Augustine argued Christians alone monopolized faith in a true God, hope of a real afterlife, and the ability to love human beings not for their own sake, but as a manifestation of examples God's creation. About Renewable Energy! However, these early theologians argued that pagans could still be virtuous in the cardinal virtues, the old values of the Roman Empire before the coming of Christianity. In Latin terminology, pagan Rome espoused the four cardinal virtues as follows: The Latin four-fold classification--later adopted by Saint Augustine and Against in America, Saint Thomas Aquinas--originates in much older Greek philosophy.

In The Republic , Plato uses similar virtues as a way to dissect the roles different citizens would play in an ideal state. Cf. pietas . Cf. Seven Deadly Sins . CARET (Lat., it lacks): Also called a wedge , an up-arrow , or a hat , this editorial mark looks much the Greek letter lambda or an arrowhead pointing upwards. Here is an example: ^ . An editor will write a caret underneath a line of text to indicate that a word, letter, or punctuation mark needs insertion at Essay Renewable Renewable the spot where the two lines converge. CARMEN : (Lat. song or poem): The generic Latin term for a song or poem--especially a love-song or love-poem. After Ovid was banished to Tomis by Classical Management, the Emperor in the year 8 AD, he wrote that his crime was carmen et error (a song and a mistake). This has led some scholars to Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, wonder if his scandalous poem The Ars Amatoria (The Art of Love) may have invoked the wrath of Emperor Augustus whose Julian Marian laws sought to Shakespeare Plays: Labour´s Essay, curb adultery and illicit sexuality.

CARPE DIEM : Literally, the phrase is Essay Energy Latin for seize the day, from carpere (to pluck, harvest, or grab) and the accusative form of die (day). The term refers to a common moral or theme in classical literature that the reader should make the about Classical most out of life and about Renewable Renewable, should enjoy it before it ends. Poetry or literature that illustrates this moral is often called poetry or literature of the carpe diem tradition. Examples include Marvell's To His Coy Mistress, and Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time. Cf.

Anacreontics , Roman Stoicism , Epicureanism , transitus mundi , and the ubi sunt motif. CASE : The inflectional form of a noun, pronoun, or (in some languages) adjective that shows how the about and Non Energy word relates to the verb or to other nouns of the same clause. For instance, them is the objective case of they , and their is the possessive case of they . Common cases include the nominative, the accusative, the institution sociology definition genitive, the dative, the ablative, the vocative, and the instrumental forms. Patterns of particular endings added to words to indicate their case are called declensions . Click here for expanded information. CASTE DIALECT : A dialect spoken by Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, specific hereditary classes in a society. Against On Drugs In America Essay! Often the use of caste dialect marks the speaker as part of that particular class. For instance, a dalit or untouchable is the lowest caste in the Indian Hindu caste system while a brahmin is the Renewable highest caste. Although the William Least Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay two groups may frequently share a common language, they each also have specialized vocabulary and speech mannerisms that to about and Non Renewable Energy, a native speaker may quickly advertise their social background. CATACHRESIS (Grk. misuse): A completely impossible figure of speech or an Bonds Spain and Italy European Central Bank, implied metaphor that results from combining other extreme figures of speech such as anthimeria , hyperbole , synaesthesia , and metonymy . The results in each case are so unique that it is hard to state a general figure of speech that embodies all of the possible results. Renewable And Non! It is thomas putnam far easier to give examples. For instance, Hamlet says of Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Gertrude, I will speak daggers to her.

A man can speak words, but no one can literally speak daggers. In spite of Shakespeare Essay that impossibility, readers know Shakespeare means Hamlet will address Gertrude in a painful, contemptuous way. In pop music from the 1980s, the performer Meatloaf tells a disappointed lover, There ain't no Coup de Ville hiding the bottom of a crackerjack box. The image of Essay about Renewable Energy a luxury car hidden as a prize in the bottom of William Least Plays: Labour´s Lost Essay a tiny cardboard candybox emphasizes how unlikely or impossible it is Essay Renewable and Non his hopeful lover will find such a fantastic treasure in someone as cheap, common, and , unworthy as the speaker in these lyrics. Sometimes the catachresis results from stacking one impossibility on top of another. Consider these examples: There existed a void inside that void within his mind. Joe will have kittens when he hears this!

I will sing victories for you. About And Non! A man that studies revenge keeps his own wounds green.--Bacon I do not ask much: / I beg cold comfort. Ilm Level! --Shakespeare, ( King John 5.7.41) His complexion is perfect gallows--Shakespeare, ( Tempest 1.1.33) And that White Sustenance--Despair--Dickinson The Oriel Common Room stank of logic --Cardinal Newman O, I could lose all Father now--Ben Jonson, on the death of his seven-year old son. The voice of your eyes is Essay about Renewable deeper than all roses --e.e. cummings. For a more recent example, consider the disturbingly cheerful pop song by Foster the People, Pumped Up Kicks, which deals with a school shooting. Here, the shooter/narrator thinks, I've waited for a long time. Yeah, the sleight of my hand is now a quick-pull trigger. / I reason with my cigarette. One can reason with induction or deduction, but how does one reason with a cigarette? Here, the catachresis might evoke the idea of the cool kid using personal style instead of a persuasive argument, or it might evoke the imagery of torture--burning victims with a cigarette-butt to make one's point. This sort of evocative, almost nonsensical language is the heart of good catachresis. Other examples, in The Lord of the about Management Theories Rings, Tolkien uses catachresis to describe Legolas's disgusted outburst at Essay about and Non encountering an Orc by asserting, 'Yrch!' siad Legolas, falling into his own tongue.' One call fall into a pool of water or fall into a bed, but how does one fall into a language? As Milton so elegantly phrased it, catachresis is all about blind mouths.

Such catachresis often results from hyperbole and , synaesthesia . A special subtype of catachresis is abusio , a mixed metaphor that results when two metaphors collide. Essay About Renewable Renewable! For instance, one U. S. senator learned of an unlikely political alliance. He is said to have exclaimed, Now that is a horse of a different feather. This abusio is the result of Essay about Management two metaphors. The first is the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable cliché metaphor comparing anything unusual to a horse of a different color. The second is the proverbial metaphor about how birds of a feather flock together.

However, by Essay about, taking the Essay about Renewable Energy two dead metaphors and combining them, the Bonds and the Central Essay resulting image of a horse of Essay about a different feather truly emphasizes how bizarre and the War in America Essay, unlikely the resulting political alliance was. Intentionally or not, the about and Non Renewable senator created an ungainly, unnatural animal that reflects the ungainly, unnatural coalition he condemned. Purists of languages often scrowl at abusio with good reason. Too commonly abusio is the result of ilm level 3 assignment sloppy writing, such as the history student who wrote the dreadful hand of totalitarianism watches all that goes on around it and growls at its enemies. About And Non Renewable Energy! (It would have been better to stick with a single metaphor and state the eye of totalitarianism watches all that goes on ilm level 3 assignment around it and glares at about and Non Renewable its enemies. We should leave out the mixed imagery of Bonds Spain Essay watchful hands growling at people; it's just stupid and inconsistent.) However, when used intentionally for a subtle effect, abusio and catachresis can be powerful tools for originality. CATALECTIC : In poetry, a catalectic line is a truncated line in which one or more unstressed syllables have been dropped, especially in the final metrical foot. For instance, acephalous or headless lines are catalectic, containing one fewer syllable than would be normal for the line. For instance, Babette Deutsche notes the second line in Essay Renewable Renewable Energy this couplet from ilm level 3 assignment A. E. Housman is catalectic: And if my ways are not as theirs, Let them mind their own affairs. On the other hand, in trochaic verse, the final syllable tends to be the truncated one, as Deutsche notes about the first two lines of Shelley's stanza:

Music, when soft voices die, Vibrates in the memory-- Odours, when sweet violets sicken, Live within the senses they quicken. The term catalectic contrasts with an acatalectic line, which refers to a normal line of poetry containing the expected number of syllables in each line, or a hypercatalectic line, which has one or more extra syllables than would normally be expected.

CATALEXIS : Truncation of Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy a poetic line--i.e., in poetry, a catalectic line is shortened or truncated so that unstressed syllables drop from a line. And Non! The act of such truncation is called catalexis. If catalexis occurs at the start of Bonds Spain a line, that line is said to Essay about Renewable, be acephalous or headless. See catalectic . CATALOGING : Creating long lists for poetic or rhetorical effect. The technique is common in Popular Lost epic literature, where conventionally the poet would devise long lists of famous princes, aristocrats, warriors, and mythic heroes to be lined up in battle and slaughtered. The technique is also common in the practice of giving illustrious genealogies (and so-and-so begat so-and-so, or x, son of y, son of z etc.) for famous individuals. Essay About Renewable! An example in American literature is Shakespeare Lost Essay Whitman's multi-page catalog of American types in section 15 of about and Non Renewable Song of Least Love´s Lost Myself. An excerpt appears below: The pure contralto sings in the organ loft, The carpenter dresses his plank, the tongue of his foreplane whistles its wild ascending lisp, The married and unmarried children ride home to their Thanksgiving dinner,

The pilot seizes the king-pin, he heaves down with a strong arm, The mate stands braced in Essay about and Non the whale-boat, lance and harpoon are ready, The duck-shooter walks by silent and cautious stretches, The deacons are ordained with crossed hands at William Popular Love´s Labour´s Essay the altar, The spinning-girl retreats and advances to Essay Renewable, the hum of the big wheel, The farmer stops by the bars as he walks on thomas putnam a First-day loaf and looks at the oats and rye, The lunatic is carried at last to the asylum a confirmed case. [etc.] One of the and Non more humorous examples of cataloging appears in the Welsh Mabinogion . In one tale, Culhwch and Olwen, the protagonist invokes in an oath all the names of King Arthur's companion-warriors, giving lists of their unusual attributes or abilities running to Against On Drugs, six pages. CATASTROPHE : The turning downward of the Essay Renewable plot in a classical tragedy. By tradition, the catastrophe occurs in the fourth act of the play after the climax. (See tragedy .) Freytag's pyramid illustrates visually the normal charting of the catastrophe in a plotline.

CATCH : A lyric poem or song meant to be sung as a round, with the words arranged in each line so that the audience will hear a hidden (often humorous or ribald) message as the groups of singers sing their separate lyrics and space out the wording of the poem. For example, one might write a song in which the first line contained the words up, the word look appears in the middle of the institution definition third line, the word dress appears in Renewable Renewable the second line, and William Shakespeare Popular Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost, the word her appears in Renewable Energy the middle of the fourth line. When the song or poem is sung as a round by four groups of singers, the word order and timing is arranged so that the singers create the hidden phrase look up her dress as they sing, to the amusement of the audience as they listen to an otherwise innocent set of lyrics. Robert Herrick's To the Virgins, to Make Much of Time is an example of a catch, and Against the War On Drugs in America Essay, when William Lawes adapted the poem to music for Milton's masque Comus , it became one of the most popular drinking songs of the 1600s (Damrosche 844-45). CATCHWORD : This phrase comes from printing; it refers to Energy, a trick printers would use to keep pages in their proper order. The printer would print a specific word below the text at the bottom of a page.

This word would match the first word on the next page. A printer could thus check the order by flipping quickly from one page to Energy, the next and making sure the catchword matched appropriately. This trick has been valuable to modern codicologists because it allows us to note missing pages that have been lost, misplaced, or censored. CATHARSIS : An emotional discharge that brings about a moral or spiritual renewal or welcome relief from tension and anxiety. According to Aristotle, catharsis is the marking feature and ultimate end of any tragic artistic work. He writes in his Poetics (c. Bonds And Italy Central Bank! 350 BCE): Tragedy is an imitation of an about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; . . . through pity [ eleos ] and fear [ phobos ] effecting the proper purgation [ catharsis ] of Spain and Italy European Bank Essay these emotions (Book 6.2). (See tragedy .) Click here to download a pdf handout concerning this material. CAVALIER : A follower of Essay Renewable Charles I of England (ruled c. Institution! 1625-49) in his struggles with the Puritan-dominated parliament.

The term is used in Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy contrast with Roundheads , his Puritan opponents. Cavaliers were primarily wealthy aristocrats and courtiers. Institution Sociology! They were famous for their long hair, fancy clothing, licentious or hedonistic behavior, and their support of the arts. See Cavalier drama and Cavalier poets , below. Ultimately, Cromwell led the about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Roundheads in a coup d'état and established a Puritan dictatorship in England, leading to the end of the definition English Renaissance and its artistic, scientific, and cultural achievements. To see where Charles' reign fits in English history, you can download this PDF handout listing the reigns of English monarchs chronologically. CAVALIER DRAMA : A form of about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy English drama comprising court plays that the Queen gave patronage to in the 1630s. Most critics have been underimpressed with these plays, given that they are mostly unoriginal and written in a ponderous style.

The Puritan coup d'état and the later execution of King Charles mercifully terminated the dramatic period, but unfortunately also ended their poetry, which was quite good in comparison. CAVALIER POETS : A group of Cavalier English lyric poets who supported King Charles I and about and Non, wrote during his reign and who opposed the Puritans, his political enemies. The major Cavalier poets included Carew, Waller, Lovelace, Sir John Suckling, and Herrick. They largely abandoned the sonnet form favored for a century earlier, but they still focused on the themes of Least Love´s Lost love and sensuality and about, their work illustrates technical virtuosity as J. A. Cuddon put it (125). They show strong signs of Ben Jonson's influence. CAVE, THE : Not to be confused with Plato's allegorical cave , this term is a nickname for the War On Drugs a gathering of Tolkien and fellow Oxford English scholars in the 1930s before the Inklings formed. As Drout's J.R.R. Tolkien Encyclopedia summarizes the details, the name comes from I Samuel 22:1-2, where the Cave of Adullam became the place for David's conpiracies against King Saul, possibly implying that the members of the Cave at Oxford saw themselves as righteously subversive of the academic establishment. Members of the Cave included C.S. Lewis, J.R.R. Tolkien, Neville Coghill, Hugh Dyson, and and Non Renewable Energy, Cleanth Brooks.

They were distinguished scholars of various fields. Eventually, in 1933, C.S. Lewis's brother Warnie retired to Oxford after a bout with alcoholism and could not regularly make meetings at Against On Drugs the Cave. C.S. Lewis took it upon himself to raid the Cave for similarly-minded scholars to become a part of the new Inklings group (Lobdell cited in Drout 88). Cf. Inklings and Renewable, Cave, Plato's below. CAVE, PLATO'S : In Plato's Republic , Socrates, Plato, and several of their fellows debate the nature of ideal government. In the Shakespeare Popular Essay section on education in Essay about this ideal Republic, they argue about the purpose of education. As part of Socrates' argument, the discussion veers into ilm level examples an allegory in and Non which human existence is being trapped in a cave of ignorance, chained in place and unable to thomas putnam, view anything except shadows cast on the wall.

Some of those shadows are vague outlines of actual unseen truths beyond the Essay about and Non Renewable Energy perception of the senses; others are false images deliberately designed to mislead the cave-dwellers, keeping them content and unquestioning. The purpose of education becomes freeing the 3 assignment examples imprisoned human and forcing him to leave the cave, to look at the actual objects that make the Essay about Energy shadows. Cf. Platonic Forms . While reading Plato's cave as an allegory of education is a common interpretation, some philosophers (especially medieval readers) often took a more mystical approach to the Greek text, interpreting the cave as the ilm level examples material or physical world, while the shadows were mere outline of a greater spiritual truths--hidden and eternal beyond the physical world. C. S. About Renewable! Lewis coopts this idea in The Last Battle , in ilm level 3 assignment examples which the characters discover after death that Narnia has merely been a crude approximation of about and Non Energy heaven, and the further they travel in the onion ring, the larger and William Least Labour´s, more beautiful and more true the inner rings become. CELLERAGE : The hollow area beneath a Renaissance stage--known in Renaissance slang as hell and entered through a trapdoor called a hellmouth . The voice of the ghost comes from this area in about Renewable Energy Hamlet , which has led to Against, scholarly discussion concerning whether or not the ghost is really Hamlet's father or a demon in disguise. CELTIC : A branch of the Indo-European family of languages. Celtic includes Welsh and Breton. Celtic languages are geographically linked to western Europe, and they come in about two general flavors, goidelic (or Q-celtic) and brythonic (or P-celtic).

CELTIC REVIVAL : A literary movement involving increased interest in Popular Love´s Labour´s Essay Welsh, Scottish, and Irish culture, myths, legends, and literature. It began in the late 1700s and continues to this day. Thomas Gray's Pindaric ode The Bard (1757) and about, Ieuan Brydydd's publication of Some Specimens of the Poetry of the Ancient Welsh Bards (1764) mark its emergence, and Charlotte Guest's translation of The Mabinogion in 1839 marks its continued rise. Matthew Arnold's lectures on Celtic literature at Oxford helped promote the foundation of a Chair of Celtic at that school in 1877. The Celtic Revival influenced Thomas Love Peacock, Alfred Lord Tennyson, Gerard Manley Hopkins, and W. B. Yeats, and the War On Drugs in America, probably led to the creation of the Abbey Theatre . A continuing part of the Essay about Renewable and Non Celtic Revival is the Irish Literary Renaissance , a surge of extraordinary Irish talent in the late nineteenth and twentieth century including Bram Stoker, James Joyce, William Butler Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, and Seamus Heaney. CENOTAPH : A carving on a tombstone or monument, often in the form of a verse poem, biblical passage, or literary allusion appearing after the deceased individual's name and date of birth/death. Thomas Putnam! Often used synonymously with epitaph . CENSORSHIP : The act of hiding, removing, altering or destroying copies of art or writing so that general public access to it is partially or completely limited.

Contrast with bowdlerization. Click here to download a PDF handout discussing censorship in about Renewable Renewable Energy great detail. Institution Sociology Definition! The term originates in an occupational position in the Roman government. After the fifth century BCE, Rome commissioned censors. These censors at first were limited to conducting the census for tax estimations, but in latter times, their job was to impose moral standards for citizenship, including the Essay Renewable Renewable removal of unsavory literature. Thomas Putnam! See also the Censorship Ordinance of 1559 and Essay about Renewable and Non, the Profanity Act of institution sociology definition 1606 . CENSORSHIP ORDINANCE OF 1559 : This law under Queen Elizabeth required the Essay Renewable Renewable Energy political censorship of public plays and all printed materials in matters of religion and the government. The Master of Revels was appointed to monitor and control such material. All of Shakespeare's early works were written under this act. We can see signs of alteration in his early works to conform to ilm level 3 assignment, the requirements of the Essay and Non Renewable censors. Contrast with the Profanity Act of 1606 . CENTAUR MYTH : In mythology and literary use, a common motif is the centaur (a hybrid of horse-body with a human torso where the horse's head would be).

This mythic creature has gone through a number of allegorical transformations in different literary periods. In classical Greek artwork and literature, centaurs were associated with sex and violence. Ilm Level 3 Assignment! Their lineage traces them to Centaurus, the twin brother of King Lapithes. Both Centaurus and Lapithes were the offspring of Apollo and a river nymph named Stilbe. Essay Renewable Energy! Stilbe gave birth to twins, with the elder Lapithes being strong, brave and handsome, but the younger twin Centaurus was ugly, brutish, and deformed.

Unable to institution, find a woman willing to marry him, Centaurus engaged in bestiality with mares, who in turn gave birth to half-human, half-horse hybrids that terrorized the land, becoming the first centaurs. Many Greek temples such as the Parthenon included a prominent carved scene called a centauromachia , which depicted the battle between Pirithous, a later king of the Lapith tribe, as he battled with centaurs who party-crashed his wedding and attempted to abduct the bride and bridesmaids. The scene was also popular in Greek pottery and wall-painting, and Essay Renewable Renewable Energy, it helped cement the Shakespeare Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay Greek idea that centaurs were generally loutish creatures symbolizing bestial natures--especially the lower passions of gluttony, rapine, and sexuality. Only a few exceptions (such as Chiron) were exceptions to this rule, and Greek heroes like Hercules spent a great deal of time beating up centaurs who sought to kidnap their wives and lovers. Later, medieval bestiaries revisited and Christianized the centaur myth. One medieval bestiary/commentary used centaurs as symbols of hypocrisy. After pews gradually become common in late medieval churches near the turn of the Renaissance, such bestiaries depicted the centaur as standing in and Non Renewable Energy a pew so that only the human-looking upper half of the body was visible while the lower animal half was unseen. The commentators stated that even thus wicked people in churches would look virtuous in their public appearance, but their truly monstrous nature would remain concealed. By the William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Love´s Lost Essay Enlightenment, pastoral artwork and paintings tended to depict centaurs more as frolicking, playful creatures--erasing earlier overtones of rape and evil, and by the late 19th-century, fantasy writers at Energy the time of George MacDonald rehabilitated them, making them deuteragonists and tritagonists that heroes would encounter on their quests.

Among the Inklings of the 1940s, C.S. Lewis in Bonds from Spain and the European Bank Essay particular become fascinated with idealizing centaurs as noble creatures and developed them into a private symbol for spiritual and bodily perfection. Lewis saw the upward human half of a centaur as being an emblem of reason and nobility, and the lower half being an Essay about and Non Renewable Energy, emblem of natural biological or animal passions. Thus, the centaur became his emblem for Essay about Theories the healthy union of the material body and Essay about and Non Energy, the intellectual/spiritual domains--an organism as God intended humans to be before the ilm level 3 assignment fall, or the perfect amalgamation of the chariot-driver, chariot, and horses in the allegory of the charioteer that Plato retells in Phaedrus . CENTUM LANGUAGE : One of the two main branches of Indo-European languages. These centum languages are generally associated with western Indo-European languages and they often have a hard palatal /k/ sound rather than the sibilant sound found in equivalent satem words. See discussion under Indo-European . CHAIN OF BEING : An elaborate cosmological model of the universe common in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. The Great Chain of Being was a permanently fixed hierarchy with the about Renewable Renewable Judeo-Christian God at the top of the chain and inanimate objects like stones and mud at the bottom. Intermediate beings and objects, such as angels, humans, animals, and William Shakespeare Popular Plays: Love´s Essay, plants, were arrayed in descending order of intelligence, authority, and capability between these two extremes. The Chain of about Renewable Energy Being was seen as designed by , God. The idea of the Chain of Being resonates in art, politics, literature, cosmology, theology, and Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, philosophy throughout the thomas putnam Middle Ages and Renaissance. It takes on particular complexity because different parts of the Chain were thought to correspond to each other. (See correspondences .) Click here for more information.

CHANSON (French song): A love-song or French love-poem, especially one the Provençal troubadour poets created or performed. Conventionally, the chanson has five or six stanzas, all of identical structure, and an envoi or a tornada at the end. They were usually dedicated or devoted to a lady or a mistress in the courtly love tradition. CHANSON DE GESTE (French, song of Essay about and Non Renewable deeds): These chansons are lengthy Old French poems written between the William Shakespeare Least Labour´s eleventh and about Renewable Renewable, fourteenth centuries glorifying Carolingian noblemen and sociology, their feudal lords. Essay About Energy! The chansons de geste combine history and legend . They focus on religious aspects of William Least Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost chivalry rather than courtly love or the Essay about and Non Energy knightly quests so common in the chivalric romance . Typical subject-matter involves (1) internal wars and intrigue among noble factions (2) external conflict with Saracens, and (3) rebellious vassals who rise up against Against On Drugs in America Essay their lords in acts of betrayal. Typical poetic structure involves ten-syllable lines marked by assonance and stanzas of varying length. The chansons de geste are in many ways comparable to epics . Over eighty texts survive, but The Song of Roland is by far the most popular today. CHANSON À PERSONNAGES (French, song to people): Old French songs or poems in dialogue form. Common subjects include quarrels between husbands and wives, meetings between a lone knight and a comely shepherdess, or romantic exchanges between lovers leaving each other in the morning. See aubade . CHARACTER : Any representation of an individual being presented in a dramatic or narrative work through extended dramatic or verbal representation.

The reader can interpret characters as endowed with moral and dispositional qualities expressed in what they say ( dialogue ) and what they do ( action ). E. M. About And Non! Forster describes characters as flat (i.e., built around a single idea or quality and unchanging over the course of the narrative) or round (complex in temperament and motivation; drawn with subtlety; capable of Essay Classical Management growth and change during the course of the narrative). The main character of Renewable Renewable Energy a work of Classical Management a fiction is typically called the protagonist ; the character against Essay about and Non Renewable whom the protagonist struggles or contends (if there is one), is the from and the European Bank antagonist . About Renewable And Non! If a single secondary character aids the protagonist throughout the narrative, that character is the deuteragonist (the hero's side-kick). A character of tertiary importance is a tritagonist . These terms originate in classical Greek drama, in which a tenor would be assigned the role of protagonist, a baritone the role of deuteragonist, and a bass would play the institution sociology definition tritagonist. Compare flat characters with stock characters . CHARACTERIZATION : An author or poet's use of description, dialogue, dialect, and action to create in the reader an emotional or intellectual reaction to a character or to Essay Renewable, make the character more vivid and institution sociology definition, realistic. Careful readers note each character's attitude and thoughts, actions and reaction, as well as any language that reveals geographic, social, or cultural background. CHARACTONYM : An evocative or symbolic name given to a character that conveys his or her inner psychology or allegorical nature. Essay About Renewable Energy! For instance, Shakespeare has a prostitute named Doll Tearsheet and a moody young man named Mercutio . Institution Sociology Definition! Steinbeck has the sweet-natured Candy in Of Mice and Essay Renewable and Non, Men . Spenser has a lawless knight named Sansloy (French, without law) and an arrogant giant named Orgoglio (Italian, pride). William Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s Labour´s! On a more physical level, Rabelais might name a giant Gargantua or C.S. Lewis might call his talking lion Aslan (Turkish for lion). These names are all simple charactonyms. Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Cf. eponym . CHASTUSHKA (plur. chastushki ): In 19th-century Russian literature, a short song, usually of four lines--usually epigrammatic and humorous and nature, commonly focusing on topics such as love and commonly associated with young artists.

Chastushki on political topics became more common in the 20th century. Institution Definition! Most modern examples rhyme and use regular trochaic meter, though in the oldest examples, these features are less regular, with cadences that are feminine or dactylic (Harkins 121). CHAUCERISM : In the Renaissance, experimental revivals and new word formations that were consciously designed to imitate the sounds, the feel, and Essay about Renewable Energy, verbal patterns from an older century--a verbal or grammatical anachronism . Spenser uses many Chaucerisms in The Fairie Queene . CHEKE SYSTEM : As summarized by Baugh, a proposed method for indicating long vowels and standardizing spelling first suggested by Sir John Cheke in Renaissance orthography. Cheke would double vowels to indicate a long sound. For instance, mate would be spelled maat , lake would be spelled laak , and so on. Silent e 's would be removed, and the letter y would be abolished and an i used in its place (Baugh 209). It did not catch on. CHIASMUS (from Greek, cross or x): A literary scheme in which the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable author introduces words or concepts in a particular order, then later repeats those terms or similar ones in reversed or backwards order. It involves taking parallelism and deliberately turning it inside out, creating a crisscross pattern. For example, consider the chiasmus that follows: By day the frolic, and the dance by night . If we draw the Renewable and Non Renewable Energy words as a chart, the words form an x (hence the word's Greek etymology, from institution sociology definition chi meaning x):

The sequence is Essay about Renewable Energy typically a b b a or a b c c b a . I lead the life I love ; I love the 3 assignment life I lead . Naked I rose from the earth ; to the grave I fall clothed . Biblical examples in the Greek can be found in Philippians 1:15-17 and Colossians 3:11, though the artistry is often lost in English translation. Chiasmus often overlaps with antimetabole . CHICANO / CHICANA LITERATURE : Twentieth- and twenty-first-century writings and poetry by Mexican-American immigrants or their children--usually in Essay about Renewable English with short sections or phrases in Spanish. An example would be Sandra Cisneros' writings, such as The House on Mango Street or My Wicked Wicked Ways . Following the about Theories grammatical conventions for gender in Spanish, the adjective Chicano takes an -o suffix in reference to male authors and an -a suffix in Energy reference to female authors. Cf. Latino Writing . CHIVALRY : An idealized code of military and social behavior for the aristocracy in the late medieval period.

The word chivalry comes from Old French cheval (horse), and chivalry literally means horsemanship. Normally, only rich nobility could afford the expensive armor, weaponry, and warhorses necessary for mounted combat, so the act of becoming a knight was symbolically indicated by giving the knight silver spurs. The right to knighthood in the late medieval period was inherited through the father, but it could also be granted by the king or a lord as a reward for services. The tenets of chivalry attempted to civilize the brutal activity of warfare. The chivalric ideals involve sparing non-combatants such as women, children, and helpless prisoners; the Renewable Renewable Energy protection of the church; honesty in word and bravery in deeds; loyalty to one's liege; dignified behavior; and single-combat between noble opponents who had a quarrel. Other matters associated with chivalry include gentlemanly contests in arms supervised by witnesses and thomas putnam, heralds, behaving according to the manners of polite society, courtly love , brotherhood in arm s , and feudalism . See knight for additional information. This code became of Renewable Energy great popular interest to British readers in the 1800s, leading to a surge of historical novels, poems, and paintings dealing with medieval matters. Examples of this nineteenth-century fascination include the Pre-Raphaelite Movement , William Morris's revival of medieval handcrafts, Scott's novels such as Ivanhoe , and the earnestly sympathetic (though unrealistic) depiction of knighthood in Tennyson's Idylls of the King . In Tennyson's poem Guinevere , King Arthur describes the ideals of knighthood thus:

I made them lay their hands in mine and swear. To reverence the King, as if he were. Their conscience, and their conscience as their King. To break the heathen and definition, uphold the Christ, To ride abroad redressing human wrongs, To speak no slander, no, nor listen to it, To honor his own word as if his God's, To lead sweet lives in purest chastity, To love one maiden only, cleave to her, And worship her by years of noble deeds, Until they won her.

For the best modern scholarly discussion of Essay Renewable and Non chivalry as a historic reality in the Middle Ages, read Maurice H. Keen's Chivalry (Yale University Press, 1984). CHORAGOS (often Latinized as choragus ): A sponsor or patron of a play in On Drugs in America Essay classical Greece. Essay About! Often this sponsor was honored by serving as the leader of the chorus (see below). CHORIC FIGURE : Any character in any type of narrative literature that serves the same purpose as a chorus in sociology drama by remaining detached from the main action and commenting upon or explaining this action to the audience. About Renewable And Non Renewable! See chorus , below. CHORUS : (1) A group of singers who stand alongside or off stage from the principal performers in a dramatic or musical performance. (2) The song or refrain that this group of singers sings. In ancient Greece, the chorus was originally a group of male singers and Bonds Spain and the Bank Essay, dancers ( choreuti ) who participated in religious festivals and dramatic performances by singing commenting on the deeds of the characters and interpreting the significance of the events within the play. This group contrasts with the actors (Greek hypocrites ). Shakespeare alters the traditional chorus by replacing the singers with a single figure--often allegorical in nature.

For instance, Time comes on stage in The Winter's Tale to explain the passing years. Likewise, Rumor appears in and Non Energy Henry IV, Part Two to William Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s Lost, summarize the gossip about Prince Hal. See also choragos and choric figure , above. CHRISTIAN NOVEL : A novel that focuses on about Energy Christianity, evangelism, or conversion stories. Ilm Level 3 Assignment! Sometimes the plots are overtly focused on this theme, but others are primarily allegorical or symbolic. Traditionally, most literary critics have rated these works as being of lower literary quality than the canon of great novels in Western civilization.

Examples include Bodie Thoen's In My Father's House , Catherine Marshall's Christy , Par Lagerkvist's Barabbas , Henryk Sienkiewicz's Quo Vadis , and Lloyd C. Douglas's The Robe . CHRISTOLOGICAL FIGURE : In theology, Christology is the study of Jesus' nature, i.e., whether Christ had both a human and about and Non Energy, divine nature, whether he had one sentient will alone or one human will and one divine will, whether he was theoretically capable of sin like humanity or perfectly righteous like the other persons in the trinity, whether he shared in institution the Father's omniscience or suffered from human afflictions like doubt or ignorance, whether he existed or not before his biological birth, whether he was equal in authority and power to the other persons in the trinity, and whether he actually had a physical body (the orthodox view) or was composed entirely of spirit (the Arian view). In literary studies, the term christological has been commandeered to refer to Essay about Renewable, (1) an object, person, or figure that represents Christ allegorically or symbolically, or (2) any similar object, person, or figure with qualities generally reminiscent of Christ. Examples of christological figures include the Essay about Classical Theories Old Man in Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea , who after his struggle with the fish ends up bleeding from his palms and lying on the floor in Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy a cruciform pattern; the lion Aslan in C. S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia , who allows himself like the lion of the institution sociology definition tribe of Judah to be slain in order to redeem a traitorous child; and the unicorn in about Renewable Renewable Energy medieval bestiaries, which would lie down and place its phallic , ivory-horned meekly in a maiden's lap so that hunters might kill it--which medieval monks interpreted as an allegory of Christ allowing himself to enter the thomas putnam womb of the virgin Mary so that he might later be sacrificed. Zora Neale Hurston creates a christ-figure in Delia Jones, who in the short story Sweat suffers to Essay about Renewable, support her ungrateful husband and crawled over thomas putnam, the earth in Gethsemane and up the rocks of Calvary many, many times . . . and so on. CHRONICLE : A history or a record of events.

It refers to Essay Renewable, any systematic account or narration of events that makes minimal attempt to interpret, question, or analyze that history. Because of this, chronicles often contain large amounts of folklore or other word-of-mouth legends the Spain and the European Bank Essay writer has heard. In biblical literature, the about Renewable and Non Energy book of Chronicles is 3 assignment one example of a chronicle. Essay About Renewable Energy! Medieval chronicles include Joinville's account of the Crusades and Geoffrey of Monmouth's History of the Kings of Britain , a source for much Arthurian legend. In the Renaissance , Raphael Holinshed, Edward Hall, and other chroniclers influenced Shakespeare.

Chronicles were popular in England after the British defeated the Spanish Armada in 1588. The accompanying patriotic fervor increased the public's demand for plays about English history. If Chronicles are written in the form of annual entries, they are also called annals . See also lepotis . CHRONOLOGICAL SNOBBERY : C. S. Thomas Putnam! Lewis's term for what he describes as the uncritical acceptance of . . . the assumption that whatever has gone out of date is on about and Non that account discredited, i.e., the unthinking belief that past ideas or literature are obsolete and examples, that current or present ideas are superior to Essay Renewable and Non Energy, them, the myth that all change is beneficial progress. Lewis initially felt torn between his love of medieval literature and the sense that it made him a dinosaur out of touch with the 20th century, and he felt depressed to think the William Popular Labour´s Lost Essay fictions of the past as beautiful lies. In a fierce philosophical debate ( The Great War ) with Owen Barfield, Barfield convinced him that such a view was wrong, and Lewis states Barfield made short work of my chronological snobbery (qtd. in Duriez 45). CHRONOLOGY (Greek: logic of Essay and Non Energy time): The order in which events happen, especially when emphasizing a cause-effect relationship in history or in a narrative. CHTHONIC : Related to the dead, the grave, the underworld, or the fertility of the earth.

In Greek mythology, the 3 assignment Greeks venerated three categories of spirits: (1) the Olympian gods, who were worshipped in about Renewable and Non Renewable public ceremonies--often outdoors on William Least Love´s Labour´s the east side of large columned temples in the agora , (2) ancestral heroes like Theseus and Hercules, who were often worshipped only in local shrines or at specific burial mounds, (3) chthonic spirits, which included (a) earth-gods and death-gods like Hades, Hecate, and Persephone; (b) lesser-known (and often nameless) spirits of the departed; (c) dark and Essay and Non Renewable, bloody spirits of vengeance like the Furies and Nemesis, and from Central, (d) (especially in Minoan tradition) serpents, which were revered as intermediaries between the surface world of the living and the subterranean realm of the dead. About Renewable Energy! This is Essay about why snakes were so prominent in Essay about Renewable and Non the healing cults of Aesclepius. It became common in ilm level examples Greek to speak of the Olympian in Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy contrast to the cthonioi (those belonging to Least Love´s Labour´s, the earth). See Burkert 199-203 for detailed discussion. CHURCH SUMMONER : Medieval law courts were divided into civil courts that tried public offenses and ecclesiastical courts that tried offenses against the church. Summoners were minor church officials whose duties included summoning offenders to Essay Renewable Energy, appear before the church and in America Essay, receive sentence.

By the about Renewable Renewable fourteenth century, the job became synonymous with extortion and corruption because many summoners would take bribes from the individuals summoned to court. Chaucer satirized a summoner in The Canterbury Tales . CINQUAIN : A five-line stanza with varied meter and rhyme scheme, possibly of medieval origin but definitely influenced after 1909 by Japanese poetic forms such as the Least Popular Plays: Labour´s Lost tanka . Most modern cinquains are now based on Essay Renewable Energy the form standardized by an American poet, Adelaide Crapsey (1878-1918), in which each unrhymed line has a fixed number of syllables--respectively two, four, six, eight, and two syllables in each line--for a rigid total of 22 syllables. Here is probably the most famous example of a cinquain from Crapsey's The Complete Poems ; Three silent things: The falling snow. the hour. Before the dawn. the mouth of one. Perhaps under the influence of diamante poems, many modern elementary school teachers have begun adding an additional set of conventions to the cinquain in which each line has a specific structural requirement:

Line 1 - Consists of the two-syllable title or subject for the poem. Line 2 - Consists of two adjectives totaling four syllables describing the subject or title. Line 3 - Consists of three verbs totaling six syllables describing the institution definition subject's actions. Line 4 - Consists of four words totaling eight syllables giving the writer's opinion of the about and Non Energy subject. Line 5 - Consists of one two-syllable word, often a synonym for the subject. These secondary conventions, however, are usually limited to children's poetic exercises, and professional poets do not generally follow these conventions.

CIRCULAR STRUCTURE : A type of artistic structure in which a sense of completeness or closure does not originate in coming to a conclusion that breaks with the earlier story; instead, the sense of closure originates in the way the institution definition end of a piece returns to subject-matter, wording, or phrasing found at the beginning of the narrative, play, or poem. Essay About Renewable And Non Renewable! An example of circular structure might be The Secret Life of the War On Drugs in America Essay Walter Mitty, which ends with an ellipsis identical to the opening sequence, indicating that the middle-aged protagonist is engaging in yet another escapist fantasy. Leigh Hunt's poem Jenny Kissed Me is an example of Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy a circularly-structured poem, since it ends with the same words that open the speaker's ecstatic, gossipy report. Langdon Smith's poem Evolution is circular in Against the War On Drugs in America its concluding repetition of the about and Non Energy opening phrase, When you were a tadpole, and I was a fish, but it is also thematically circular, in that it implies the Theories cycle of reincarnated love will continue again and again in spite of death. In many ways, the smaller tales within a larger frame narrative act as part of a circular structure, because each small tale begins by Essay and Non Renewable Energy, breaking the reader away from the larger, encompassing narrative and concludes by , returning the Renewable Renewable Energy reader to that larger frame-narrative. CITY DIONYSIA : See discussion under dionysia . CIVIC CRITICS : A school of 19th-century Russian literary scholars who judged the value of writing primarily by its political context and progressive ideas. They commonly wrote in oposition to the aesthetic theories of the Parnassian Poets (Harkins 55). Example critics include Belinski (active in about Classical Management the 1840s), Dobrolyubov, and Chernyshevski. CLANG ASSOCIATION : A semantic change caused because one word sounds similar to another.

For instance, the word fruition in Middle English meant enjoyment. In Modern English, its meaning has changed to completion because it sounds like the word fruit --hence the idea of ripeness, of about Renewable and Non Energy growing to full size, as Algeo notes (314). CLASSICAL : The term in Western culture is usually used in reference to the art, architecture, drama, philosophy, literature, and history surrounding the ilm level 3 assignment examples Greeks and Romans between 1000 BCE and 410 BCE. Works created during the Greco-Roman period are often called classics . The Golden Age of Classical Greek culture is commonly held to be the fifth century BCE (especially 450-410 BCE). The term can be applied more generally to any ancient and revered writing or artwork from a specific culture; thus we refer to Classical Chinese, Classical Hebrew, and Classical Arabic works. For extended discussion, click here. To download a PDF handout placing the Essay about and Non Renewable periods of literary history in order, click here. CLASSICAL HAIKU : Another term for the hokku , the predecessor of the institution sociology modern haiku . See hokku and haiku . CLAUSE : In grammatical terminology, a clause is any word-construction containing a nominative and a predicate, i.e., a subject doing a verb.

The term clause contrasts with the Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy term phrase . ! A phrase might contain nouns as appositives or objects, and Renewable and Non Renewable, it might contain verb-like words in the form of On Drugs in America Essay participles or gerunds, but it crucially lacks a subject doing a verb. For example, consider this sentence: Joe left the building after seeing his romantic rival. Clause : Joe left the building. Phrase : after seeing his romantic rival. If the clause could stand by about Renewable Energy, itself as a complete sentence, it is known as an about Classical, independent clause . If the clause cannot stand by itself as a complete sentence (typically because it begins with a subordinating conjunction), it is Essay about Renewable and Non Energy said to be a dependent clause . For expanded discussion and examples, click here. For a discusion of clauses according to functional type, click here ( TBA).

CLERIHEW : In light verse, a funny poem of closed-form with four lines rhyming ABAB in irregular meter, usually about a famous person from history or literature. Typically the thomas putnam historical person's name forms one of the rhymes. The name comes from Edmund Clerihew Bentley (1875-1956), the Essay about Renewable and Non Energy purported inventor. ! He supposedly had a habit of scribbling down such rhymes during dull lectures at school, including this one from his chemistry class: Sir Humphrey Davy. He lived in Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable the odium.

Of having discovered sodium. CLICHÉ : A hackneyed or trite phrase that has become overused. Clichés are considered bad writing and bad literature. Click here to about Classical, download a PDF handout for more information. Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. Cliché rhymes in poetry include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Essay Renewable Renewable Energy! Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICHÉ RHYME : Cliché rhymes are rhymes that are considered trite or predictable. They include love and dove , moon and June , trees and breeze . Sometimes, to avoid cliché rhymes, poets will go to hyperbolic lengths, such as the trisyllabic rhymes in Least Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay Lord Byron's Don Juan . CLICK : A sound common in some non-Indo-European languages in Polynesia made by clucking the tongue or drawing in air with the Essay about Renewable Energy tongue rather than expelling it from the lungs--such as the sound represented by the letter combination tsk-tsk . Some linguists indicate this sound in transcribing Polynesian languages by inserting an exclamation mark to indicate the palatal click.

For instance, the !chung tribe has a palatal click as part of its name. CLIFFHANGER : A melodramatic narrative (especially in films, magazines, or serially published novels) in which each section ends at a suspenseful or dramatic moment, ensuring that the audience will watch the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy next film or read the next installment to find out what happens. Institution! The term comes from the common 1930's film-endings in which the main characters are literally left hanging on the edge of about Renewable Energy a cliff until the story resumes. William Shakespeare Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay! The term cliffhanger has more loosely been applied to any situation, event, or contest in which the outcome remains uncertain until the Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable last moment possible. CLIMAX, LITERARY (From Greek word for ladder): The moment in a play, novel, short story, or narrative poem at which the crisis reaches its point of greatest intensity and is thereafter resolved. It is also the peak of emotional response from a reader or spectator and about Renewable Renewable Energy, usually the turning point in the action. The climax usually follows or overlaps with the crisis of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. Ilm Level 3 Assignment! (Contrast with anticlimax , crisis , and denouement ; do not confuse with rhetorical climax , below.) CLIMAX, RHETORICAL : Also known as auxesis and crescendo , this refers to an artistic arrangement of a list of items so that they appear in a sequence of increasing importance. See rhetorical schemes for more information.

The opposite of climax is Renewable Renewable bathos . CLIP : To form a word by abbreviating a longer expression, or a word formed by the same process. For instance, the word auto (as in auto shop) is a clipped form of institution sociology automobile . CLOSE READING : Reading a piece of literature carefully, bit by about Renewable and Non Renewable, bit, in institution definition order to analyze the significance of every individual word, image, and artistic ornament. Click here for more information. The term is sometimes used synonymously with critical reading , though I arbitrarily prefer to reserve close reading as a reference for about and Non Renewable Energy analyzing literature and critical reading as a reference for breaking down an essay's argument logically. Cf. Essay About Classical Management Theories! critical reading . CLOSED POETIC FORM : Poetry written in a a specific or traditional pattern according to the required rhyme, meter, line length, line groupings, and Essay and Non, number of lines within a genre of poetry. Examples of a closed-form poetry include haiku , limericks , and Essay Classical, sonnets , which have set numbers of syllables, lines, and traditional subject-matter. About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Contrast with open poetic form . CLOSURE (Latin clausura , a closing): Closure has two common meanings. First, it means a sense of completion or finality at the conclusion of play or narrative work--especially a feeling in the audience that all the Against in America problems have been resolved satisfactorily. Frequently, this sort of Essay Renewable Energy closure may involve stock phrases (and they lived happily ever after or finis ) or certain conventional ceremonial actions (dropping a curtain or having the 3 assignment actors in a play take a bow).

The narrative may reveal the Essay about Renewable solution of the the War On Drugs Essay primary problem(s) driving the plot, the death of a major character (especially the Essay and Non Renewable Energy antagonist, the ilm level 3 assignment protagonist's romantic interest or even the protagonist herself), or careful denouement . An example of extended denouement as closure occurs in George Eliot's Middlemarch , in which the author carefully explains what happened in later years to Essay Renewable Renewable, each character in the novel. ! Closure can also come about by a radical alteration or change in the imaginary world created by an author. For instance, in J. Essay! R. 3 Assignment Examples! R. Tolkien's The Lord of the Rings , much of the Essay Renewable Energy closure to the saga comes from the departure of the elves and wizards, who sail across the sea, leaving the world of human men and Against On Drugs in America, women forever, an act which apparently causes magic to fade. Shakespearean comedies often achieve closure by having major characters find love-interests and declare their marital intentions. Essay About And Non Renewable! Other more experimental forms of literature and poetry may achieve closure by circular structure , in which the poem or story ends by coming back to the narrative's original starting spot, or by returning a similar situation to what was found at the beginning of the tale. See discussion under denouement . Ilm Level! Do note that some narratives intentionally seek to frustrate the audience's sense of closure. Examples of literature that reject conventions of closure include cliffhanger serials (see above), which reject normal closure in about Renewable and Non an attempt to , gain returning audiences. Many postmodern narratives influenced by existential philosophy, on the other hand, reject closure as too simplistic and artificial in comparison with the complexities of human living. Secondly, some critics use the term closure as a derogatory term to imply the reduction of a work's meanings to a single and complete sense that excludes the claims of other interpretations. For extended discussion of closure, see Frank Kermode's The Sense of An Ending: Studies in the Theory of Essay Renewable Energy Fiction , as reprinted in 2001.

CLOWN : (1) A fool or rural bumpkin in Shakespearean vocabulary. Examples of this type of clown include Lance, Bottom, Dogberry, and other Shakespearean characters. (2) A professional jester who performs pranks, sleight-of-hand and juggling routines, and who sings songs or tells riddles and jokes at court. By convention, such jesters were given considerable leeway to speak on nearly any topic (even criticizing court policy) as long as the criticism was veiled in riddles and wordplay. Examples of this type in Shakespeare's work include Touchstone, Feste, and Lear's Fool. The War On Drugs In America! Cf. fool . COCKNEY : Originally, in Essay Energy Middle English times, the term cockney was a derogatory term for a dumb city-dweller. It comes from cock's egg, the idea that an uneducated urbanite would be so ignorant he or she would not realize that a male rooster (a cock) would be the wrong gender to Essay Theories, lay an egg.

By Renaissance times, the word was applied to those living in the Bow Bells area of London in Cheapside, a working class district. Essay! Today, the term implies most strongly the spoken dialect of that area. From And The Central Essay! Cockney dialect tends to be non-rhotic, with final -er pronounced as a schwa, and it often shows signs of t -glottalization. It frequently substitutes /r/ with /w/, and merges lexical sets like north/force and thought/start . The imprecise term Estuary English refers to about Renewable and Non Renewable, spoken English in the southeast of Britain that merges linguistic traits of RP and Cockney, and recent dialect shift that appears to William Least Love´s Labour´s Essay, be spreading across the island. See also Cockney Rhyming Slang , below. COCKNEY RHYMING SLANG : A form of slang in which the speaker substitutes one word in a sentence with another word or phrase that rhymes with the implied word--but which leaves out the actual, final rhyming part.

This wordplay is associated with the dialect appearing in the Cheapside district of London's East End. The resulting sentence is baffling for outsiders unfamiliar with the tradition but provides a pleasing word puzzle to Cockney speakers. For examples, instead of stating that The woman had exquisite legs, a Cockney speaker might say, The woman had exquisite bacons. And Non Renewable! Here, the phrase bacon- and-eggs rhymes with legs , so the speaker substitutes it for Against the War in America Essay legs in the sentence, but deletes the final rhyming part of the phrase. CODE-SWITCHING : In bilingual or multilingual speech, rapidly changing from the vocabulary, grammar, and patterns of and Non Renewable Energy one language to another--often in mid-sentence. An example sentence to illustrate this process using Latin, Spanish, German, and French might read as follows: Imprimus, el commander qui runs his troops y sus attendants to death in Spain and Italy and the Bank a blitzkrieg isn't tres sapiens, n'est-pas? [In the first place, the commander who runs his troops and his attendants to death in a sudden attack isn't very wise, right?]

Although the term code-switching is one used in linguistics, code-switching as a phenomenon does appear in literature. The character of Essay about and Non Energy Salvatori the monk in Umberto Eco's The Name of the Rose engages continuously in code-switching among Latin, Spanish, French, Italian, and German tongues, for instance. Code-switching is a common feature in Hispanic American English and in the fiction writings of Chicano authors. Cf. dog-latin and macaronic texts . CODICOLOGY (from Latin codex , book): The study of books as physical artifacts. COGNATE : Cognates are words that (1) match each other to thomas putnam, some degree in sound and meaning, (2) come from a common root in about Renewable and Non Renewable an older language, but (3) did not actually serve as a root for each other. For instance, in Bonds from Spain and Italy and the European Central Bank European Romance languages, many words trace their roots back to Latin.

The Latin word unus (one) later became the root for a number of words meaning one such as une (French) and uno (Spanish). Essay Renewable Energy! Une and uno are cognates --cousins or siblings on the family tree of languages--but unus is the root or ancestor for these relatives. The Hebrew shalom , Arabic salaam , and the Aramaic shelam are similar cognates all meaning peace. Cognates play an important part in reconstructing dead languages such as proto-Indo-European , and Bonds Spain and Italy and the Central Bank Essay, they can be enormously helpful in learning new languages. The amateur philologist should be cautious of false cognates, folk etymology , and Essay and Non Renewable Energy, faux amis , however. Thomas Putnam! False cognates are words that happen to have a similar sound and meaning, but which are actually unrelated semantically and historically. Folk etymologies are erroneous accounts of about Renewable Energy how a word came into existence.

Typically, the about Classical Management originator of the error hears or reads an Renewable Renewable, unfamiliar word. The orginator then fabricates a spurious source by linking the strange word to a more familiar expression or then fashions a pun based upon sound similarities. Faux amis are technically cognates in terms of their morphology, but in terms of their meaning, the words have drifted apart from each other across time, such as the English verb embarass (to humiliate) and the War On Drugs Essay, the Spanish embarazar (to impregnate). COLLECTIVE NOUN, COLLECTIVE PRONOUN : A noun such as team or pair that technically refers to a collective group of individuals or individual items. What makes them tricky in Essay about Renewable and Non Energy grammar? They can be singular or plural (e.g., one team , two teams , or one pair, two pairs .) Many students forget that and institution definition, mistakenly treat the grammatically singular word as if it were always plural. Likewise, collective pronouns like some use the Renewable modifier rather than the headword for singular versus plural structure. Thomas Putnam! For instance, Some of the Essay about Renewable and Non the workers are gone uses a plural verb, but Some of the work is done uses a singular verb.

COLLECTIVE UNCONSCIOUS : In twentieth-century Jungian Psychology , this term refers to a shared group of archetypes (atavistic and Least Plays: Love´s Essay, universal images, cultural symbols, and recurring situations dealing with the fundamental facts of human life) passed along to Essay about Renewable, each generation to the next in folklore and stories or generated anew by the way must face similar problems to those our ancestors faced. Within a culture, the collective unconscious forms a treasury of powerful shared images and symbols found in our dreams, art stories, myths, and religious icons. See more detailed discussion under archetypal criticism . COLLOCATION : The frequency or tendency some words have to combine with each other. For instance, Algeo notes that the phrases tall person and high mountain seem to fit together readily without sounding strange. 3 Assignment Examples! A non-native speaker might talk about a high person or tall mountain, and this construction might sound slightly odd to a native English speaker. The difference is in collocation.

COLLOQUIALISM : A word or phrase used everyday in plain and relaxed speech, but rarely found in formal writing. (Compare with cliché , jargon and slang .) COLONIAL PERIOD : American and British historians use this term somewhat differently. Essay And Non Renewable Energy! American scholars usually use the term colonial period to refer to the years in the American colonies before the American Revolution against the British Monarchy--usually dating it from 1607 (when Jamestown was founded) to Essay Management Theories, 1787 (when Congress ratified the Federal Constitution). This period coincides roughly with the Reformation in England and continues up through the end of the Enlightenment or Neoclassical Period. American writers from the Essay about Renewable Energy colonial period include Ben Franklin, Thomas Paine, and Anne Bradstreet. See also Neoclassic . Click here to download a PDF handout placing this period in William Shakespeare Least Love´s Lost Essay historical context with other literary movments. When British historians use the term, they sometimes tend to apply the word colonial in more general reference to the British expansions into the Americas, the Indies, India, Africa, and the Middle-East over the course of several centuries, even up to the nineteenth century and early twentieth century. Essay About Renewable Renewable Energy! See colonialism , below. COLONIALISM : The term refers broadly and generally to the habit of powerful civilizations to colonize less powerful ones. On the obvious level, this process can take the ilm level 3 assignment examples form of a literal geographic occupation, outright enslavement, religious conversion at gun-point, or forced assimilation of native peoples.

On a more subtle level, this process can take the form of bureucratic policy that incidentally or indirectly leads to the extinction of a minority's language or culture, economic exploitation of cheap labor, and globalistic erasure of Essay about and Non Renewable Energy cultural differences. The term is often applied in academic discussion of literature from the colonial period. We can see the concerns of colonialism and imperial ambition in the works of George Orwell's Shooting an Elephant, in Essay Rudyard Kipling's fictional tales about India, and in Josef Conrad's novella, Heart of Darkness . Essay! See Colonial Period , above. COMEDY (from Greek: komos , songs of merrimakers): In the original meaning of the word, comedy referred to a genre of institution sociology drama during the Dionysia festivals of ancient Athens. The first comedies were loud and boisterous drunken affairs, as the word's etymology suggests. Later, in medieval and Renaissance use, the word comedy came to mean any play or narrative poem in which the main characters manage to avert an impending disaster and have a happy ending.

The comedy did not necessarily have to be funny, and Essay about Renewable, indeed, many comedies are serious in tone. It is only in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries that comedy's exclusive connotations of humor arose. See also Low Comedy, High Comedy, Comedy of the Absurd , Comedy of Humors , and thomas putnam, Comedy of Manners . COMEDY OF THE ABSURD : A modern form of comedy dramatizing the meaninglessness, uncertainty, and pointless absurdity of human existence. Essay Renewable Renewable! A famous example is Samuel Beckett's Waiting for sociology Godot . Renewable Renewable! Cf. existentialism . COMEDY OF HUMORS : A Renaissance drama in which numerous characters appear as the embodiment of stereotypical types of people, each character having the the War physiological and behavioral traits associated with a specific humor in the human body. The majority of the Renewable Energy cast consists of such stock characters. (See humors, bodily for Against more information.) Some of Shakespeare's characters, including Pistol, Bardulph, and others, show signs of having been adapted from the stereotypical humor characters. In literature, a humor character was a type of Essay and Non flat character in Popular Labour´s Lost whom a single passion predominated; this interpretation was especially popular in Elizabethan and other Renaissance literature. Essay And Non Energy! See also stock character . COMEDY OF INNOCENCE : We have two definitions here. (1) In anthropological terms, a comedy of innocence is a ritualized symbolic behavior (or set of institution such behaviors) designed to alleviate individual or communal guilt about an execution or sacrifice or to hide the blame for such an action. Essay About And Non! In ancient Greece, the ax or dagger used in a sacrifice might be put on trial (instead of the institution definition priest wielding it). The sacrificial animal might be required to volunteer by Essay, shaking its head or by walking up to the altar to eat the grain sitting on William Shakespeare Plays: Labour´s Lost Essay it. The sacrificial victim might be condemned to execution after being released where it could set foot in Essay a forbidden holy grove or taboo sacred mountain (cf.

Exodus 19:12-13 and Judges 11:30-40). In America, we see remnants of the comedy of innocence in customs such as the 19th-century's hangman's black mask (to erase the executioner's identity) or the custom of granting the condemned prisoner's last request or final meal (to alleviate any sense of cruelty on the jailer's part). (2) A specific myth told by later generations to erase or hide ancient evidence of what looks like the practice of Against the War in America Essay human sacrifice in earlier times. About Renewable And Non Energy! For instance, a number of local Greek myths describe characters like Leucothea, Palaemon, and Glaucus; they fall or are thrown into the sea where they are magically transformed into sea-gods. Given the relative insignificance of these gods in the Greek pantheon , it is likely this sort of tale either (a) developed out of local hero cults or (b) the tale alludes to Essay about Classical Theories, an ancient or prehistoric belief that drowned sacrificial victims would live on as animistic spirits. Renewable And Non! Another common version of the comedy of innocence is the motif of a human sacrificial victim (usually a child) who is miraculously saved ( deus ex machina ) and an animal substituted in thomas putnam his or her place. For example, in some Greek myths, Iphigenia is Renewable and Non Renewable replaced by a white hind before her father can sacrifice her to gain good winds for the Trojan voyage.

Phrixus gets whisked to safety by a Golden Ram, which is Against the War then sacrificed in the young boy's place. About Renewable Energy! In the Hebrew Bible, Yahweh stops Abraham from killing Isaac, and he directs Abraham's attention to a ram with its horns caught in a thicket (Genesis 22:9-13). Scholars of mythology often see the dozens of from and the Central Essay such tales appearing cross-culturally and interpret them as having their origins in the comedy of innocence. COMEDY OF MANNERS : A comic drama consisting of five or three acts in which the attitudes and customs of a society are critiqued and Essay Renewable and Non, satirized according to high standards of Spain Central Bank intellect and morality. Essay Renewable Energy! The dialogue is usually clever and sophisticated, but often risqué . Characters are valued according to their linguistic and intellectual prowess.

It is the opposite of the slapstick humor found in a farce or in a fabliau . COMIC OPERA : An outgrowth of the Essay eighteenth-century ballad operas, in which new or original music is about Renewable Energy composed specially for the lyrics. (This contrasts with the ballad opera , in which the Shakespeare Least Labour´s lyrics were set to pre-existing popular music.) COMIC RELIEF : A humorous scene , incident, character , or bit of dialogue occurring after some serious, tragic, or frightening moment. About Energy! Comic relief is examples deliberately designed to relieve emotional intensity and simultaneously heighten and highlight the seriousness or tragedy of the action. Macbeth contains Shakespeare's most famous example of comic relief in the form of Renewable and Non Renewable a drunken porter. William Popular Plays: Love´s Essay! Another is just after the Essay Energy climactic scene in Dante's Inferno , in which Dante encounters Satan himself frozen in ice.

The demon initially terrified Dante, but the William Least Popular narrator's fear falls way to the reader's laughter in a comic reversal in which Dante and Virgil climb down Satan's body and Essay about Energy, move through the center of the earth's gravity, at which point Dante is confused by thomas putnam, the way gravity reverses, looks upward, and finds himself directly staring at Satan's nether regions, writing, . . . I beheld him upward hold his legs. // And if I then become disguieted, / Let stolid people think who do not see / What the point is beyond which I had passed (34.90-93). COMING-OF-AGE STORY : A novel in which an adolescent protagonist comes to adulthood by a process of experience and disillusionment. This character loses his or her innocence, discovers that previous preconceptions are false, or has the security of childhood torn away, but usually matures and strengthens by this process. Essay About Renewable Energy! Examples include Wieland's Agathon , Herman Raucher's Summer of '42 , Ray Bradbury's Dandelion Wine , Joyce's A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man , and Jane Austen's Northanger Abbey . About Management Theories! The most famous examples are in German. In German, a tale in the genre is and Non Renewable Energy called a Bildungsroman or a Erziehungsroman . Examples include Goethe's Die Leiden des jungen Werthers and Thomas Mann's Königliche Hoheit . COMITATUS : (Latin: companionship or band): The term describes the tribal structure of the Anglo-Saxons and other Germanic tribes in which groups of men would swear fealty to definition, a hlaford (lord) in exchange for and Non Energy food, mead, and heriot , the loan of fine armor and weaponry.

The men who swore such an oath were called thegns (roughly akin to Bonds from and Italy and the, modern Scottish thane), and they vowed to fight for their lord in battle. It was considered a shameful disaster to outlive one's own lord. The comitatus was the functional military and government unit of early Anglo-Saxon society. The term was first coined by the classical historian Tacitus when he described the Germanic tribes north of Essay Renewable Renewable Rome. COMMEDIA DELL'ARTE : A genre of Italian farce from the sixteenth-century characterized by stock characters , stock situations, and spontaneous dialogue. Typically, the plot is an Essay, intrigue plot and it involves a soubrette who aids two young lovers in foiling the rigid constraints of their parents.

In many such plays, a character named Sganarelle is a primary figure in the work. About Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Often there is a zani , or foolish-servant, who provides physical comedy in contrast to the anguish of the young lovers. In the institution sociology definition end, the couple achieves a happy marriage. Commedia dell'arte may have influenced Shakespeare's comedies, such as The Merry Wives of Windsor , and Moliere's plays, such as L'amour Medecin , commonly translated into English as Love is the Doctor . COMMON MEASURE : Also called common meter , common measure consists of closed poetic quatrains rhyming ABAB or ABCB , in which the lines of Renewable and Non Renewable Energy iambic tetrameter (eight syllables) alternate with lines of iambic trimeter (six syllables). This pattern is most often associated with ballads (see above), and Essay Classical Management, it is occasionally referred to as ballad measure.

Many of Emily Dickinson's poems are in loose common measure using slant rhyme , for instance: Much Madness is divinest Sense-- To a discerning Eye-- Much Sense--the starkest Madness-- 'Tis the Majority. A fun and simple test to recognize common measure in poetry is to take a stanza and try singing it aloud to a well-known tune written in common meter, such as Gilligan's Isle, Amazing Grace, or House of the Rising Sun. Essay About Renewable! If the syllabification fits these familiar ditties, you are looking at a case of common measure. COMMONIZATION : The linguistic term for Essay Renewable Renewable Energy an eponym--a common word that is derived from the proper name of a person or place. For instance, the Classical sandwich gained its name from Renewable and Non Renewable its inventor, the from Spain and Italy European Bank fourth Earl of Sandwich. Essay About And Non Energy! The word lynch comes from Captain William Lynch, who led bands of vigilantes to hang hoboes and bums residing near Pittsylvania County.

The verb shanghai , meaning to kidnap or press into forced labor, comes from the practices of conscription common in the oriental city of Shanghai. The word stentorian comes from the loud-mouthed Stentor in Greek legend, and herculean comes from the muscle-bound Hercules, and so on. COMPERT (plural: comperta ): Specifically, birth-tales in Old Irish literature that detail the conception and birth of a hero. Examples include the Compert Con Culainn ( Birth of Cú Chulainn ). Usually supernatural or extraordinary events involve themselves in the conception, such as the Druid Cathbad's seduction of Nessa after prophesying what the and Non Renewable Energy hour would be lucky for (begetting a king upon a queen!) or the visitation of a god like Lug to a woman who then becomes pregnant after the divine visitation. The birth-tale in general is not limited to Old Irish Literature, but is found worldwide (Duffy 102-03). Examples outside of Irish literature include the birth of Jesus, or the Buddha, or Leda and Hercules in Greek myth, Pryderi's conception in the First Branch of The Mabinogion , or King Arthur's conception in Arthurian legends. COMPLETENESS : The second aspect of Aristotle's requirements for a tragedy.

By completeness, Aristotle emphasizes the logic, wholeness, and Essay Management, closure necessary to and Non Renewable, satisfy the audience. COMPOSITE MONSTER (in architecture, often called a chimera after the Greek monster): The term is one mythologists use to describe the Essay and Non fantastical creatures in from Spain and Italy and the European Central Assyrian, Babylonian, Greek, and medieval European legends in which the beast is composed of the Renewable and Non body-parts of various animals. For instance, in Greek mythology, the chimera has the body of a lion, tale of a serpent, wings of a bat, and a goat-head, a lion-head, and a serpent's head. Likewise, the sphinx has a lion's body and a woman's head and breasts; the centaur has a horse's body and human torso and a human head where the horse-head should be; the minotaur has a bull's head and a man's body; and about Renewable, the harpy has an avian body and a woman's head, breasts, and arms. Earlier examples in Mesopotamian mythology include the Bonds from Spain and Italy and the Bank ekimmu (a bloodsucking albino ghost with a bull's head) and the lamassu (a winged horse with a human head). In the medieval period, composite monsters include the formecolion, with an ant's body and a lion's head; the mermaid, with a human top and a fish bottom; and the cockatrice, which mingles parts of a rooster and a serpent. About And Non Energy! Contrast with additive monster , above. Composite monsters were common in the legends of classical and ancient cultures, but diminished in favor after the Renaissance. Sociology! Many theories propose to Renewable Energy, explain the common tendency to create composite monsters. Theories include mistranslation in traveler's tales, in Essay which an animal is describing as having a head like such-and-such a creature, but the simile is lost in translation; the encounter of fossil remnants of extinct animals, or bones found jumbled together and Essay Renewable Renewable, misassembled; and definition, the heraldic practice of dimidiation , in which a nobleman's son might take two animals found on Essay Renewable and Non his father's and mother's coats of arms combine them into a composite creature to illustrate his genealogy.

An example in 20th century films includes The Fly . In this 1950s horror classic, a fly and a human trade bodies and , heads. Cf. therianthropic and theriomorphic . COMPOSITOR : A typesetter in a Renaissance print shop. Essay And Non Renewable! To speed the printing process, most of Shakespeare's plays appear to have been set by multiple compositors. As Greenblatt notes, Compositors frequently followed their own standards in spelling and punctuation. Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s Labour´s Lost Essay! They inevitably introduced some errors into the text, often by selecting the wrong piece from the type case or by setting the correct letter upside-down (1141). COMPOUNDING : A term from linguistics used to describe the creation of a new word ( neologism ) that comes about by about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, taking two existing words and sticking them together to create a brand new concept (Horobin 192). All languages do this to some extent. For instance, the word hydrogen comes from two Greek words meaning water and stuff. However, Germanic languages and Germanic poetry (including derivatives like English) are particularly prone to creating new words this way. Thousands of examples English words result from two older words being compounded together, such as bathtub (bath + tub), eyesore (eye + sore); window (from two Old Norse words meaning wind and about Renewable and Non Energy, eye), and so on.

However, poets regular invent neologisms by compounding to create artificial words of sociology their own. Even Chaucer engaged in this trick, coining the word newfangled from the English new and the Middle French fanglere , meaning to make or to fashion. See neologism , blending , and kenning . COMPURGATION : In addition to trial by ordeal , compurgation was the medieval law practice among Christianized Anglo-Saxon tribes to Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, determine innocence. A man accused of the War in America Essay a crime would publicly swear to his innocence. The judge then gave the defendant thirty days to to collect a number of and Non Energy oath-helpers who would also swear to his innocence (or at least his good character).

If he was unable to find the required number, he was either found guilty or he could appeal to trial by ordeal. If the defendant had been caught in the act, or was considered untrustworthy, the procedure could be reversed, and the plaintiff would bring forth oath-helpers to prove his charge through similar compurgation. CONCEIT (also called a metaphysical conceit) : An elaborate or unusual comparison--especially one using unlikely metaphors, simile, hyperbole, and contradiction. Before the beginning of the seventeenth century, the term conceit was a synonym for thought and roughly equivalent to idea or concept. It gradually came to denote a fanciful idea or a particularly clever remark. In literary terms, the word denotes a fairly elaborate figure of speech, especially an extended comparison involving unlikely metaphors , similes , imagery , hyperbole , and oxymora . One of the most famous conceits is John Donne's A Valediction: Forbidding Mourning, a poem in which Donne compares two souls in love to William Least Love´s Lost, the points on a geometer's compass. Shakespeare also uses conceits regularly in Renewable and Non his poetry. ! In Richard II , Shakespeare compares two kings competing for power to two buckets in Essay about Renewable a well, for instance. A conceit is usually classified as a subtype of metaphor . Contrast with epic simile and dyfalu . CONCRETE DICTION / CONCRETE IMAGERY : Language that describes qualities that can be perceived with the five senses as opposed to using abstract or generalized language.

For instance, calling a fruit pleasant or good is abstract , while calling a fruit cool or sweet is concrete . The War In America! The preference for abstract or concrete imagery varies from century to century. Essay About Renewable! Philip Sidney praised concrete imagery in poetry in his 1595 treatise, Apologie for Poetrie . Essay Classical Management Theories! A century later, Neoclassical thought tended to Renewable and Non Renewable, value the generality of abstract thought. In the early 1800s, the Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Shelley once again preferred concreteness. In the 20th century, the distinction between concrete and abstract has been a subject of some debate. Ezra Pound and T. E. Hulme attempted to Essay Classical, create a theory of concrete poetry. T. Renewable Energy! S. Eliot added to this school of thought with his theory of the objective correlative. Contrast with abstract diction / abstract imagery . CONCRETE POETRY : Poetry that draws much of the War its power from the way the text appears situated on the page. The actual shape of the lines of text may create a swan's neck, an altar, a geometric pattern, or a set of wings, which in some direct way connects to the meaning of the words. Also called shaped poetry and visual poetry, concrete poetry should not be confused with concrete diction or concrete imagery (see above). And Non Energy! The object here is to present each poem as a different shape.

It may appear on the page, on glass, stone, wood, or other materials. The technique seems simple, but can allow great subtlety. Famous concrete poets include Apollinaire, Max Bill, Eugen Gomringer and the Brazilian Noigandres Group, which exhibited a collection of definition concrete art at Sào Paulo in 1956. In Germany, this school of Essay about Renewable poetry is called konkretisten by critics. It includes Ernst Jandl, Achleitner, Heissenbüttel, Mon, and Rühm.

Since World War II, further experimentation in concrete poetry has taken place by British poets, including Simon Cutts, Stuart Mills, and Ian Hamilton Finlay. See also diamante . CONFLATION : In its more restricted literary sense, a conflation is Shakespeare Popular Love´s Lost Essay a version of a play or narrative that later editors create by combining the text from Essay about Renewable more than one substantive edition. Institution Sociology Definition! For example, Greenblatt notes that most versions of King Lear published since the 1700s are conflations of the Quarto and First Folio editions of the Essay about and Non Renewable original Renaissance texts. CONFLICT : The opposition between two characters (such as a protagonist and an antagonist), between two large groups of people, or between the protagonist and thomas putnam, a larger problem such as forces of Essay and Non Renewable nature, ideas, public mores, and so on. Conflict may also be completely internal, such as the protagonist struggling with his psychological tendencies (drug addiction, self-destructive behavior, and so on); William Faulkner famously claimed that the most important literature deals with the subject of the human heart in conflict with itself. Conflict is the engine that drives a plot.

Examples of narratives driven mainly by conflicts between the protagonist and nature include Jack London's To Build a Fire (in which the Classical Theories Californian struggles to save himself from freezing to death in Alaska) and Stephen Crane's The Open Boat (in which shipwrecked men in a lifeboat struggle to stay alive and get to shore). Examples of narratives driven by conflicts between a protagonist and Renewable Renewable Energy, an antagonist include Mallory's Le Morte D'arthur , in which King Arthur faces off against his evil son Mordred, each representing civilization and institution sociology, barbarism respectively. Examples of narratives driven by internal struggles include Daniel Scott Keyes' Flowers for Algernon, in which the hero struggles with the Essay about Renewable and Non loss of his own intelligence to congenital mental retardation, and Edgar Allan Poe's The Tell-Tale Heart, in which the Against in America protagonist ends up struggling with his own guilt after committing a murder. In complex works of literature, multiple conflicts may occur at once. Essay About And Non Renewable! For instance, in Shakespeare's Othello , one level of conflict is the unseen struggle between Othello and the machinations of Iago, who seeks to destroy him. About Classical Management! Another level of conflict is Othello's struggle with his own jealous insecurities and his suspicions that Desdemona is cheating on him.

CONFUCIAN CLASSICS : Five ancient Chinese writings commonly attributed to Confucius, though it is likely they are actually compilations of traditional material predating him. The five classics include the I Ching ( The Book of Changes ), the Shu Ching ( The Book of History ), the Shih Ching , ( The Book of Essay about Renewable Odes ), the Record of Rites ( Li Chi ), and ilm level 3 assignment, the Spring and Autumn Annals . To see where this material fits in an outline of Chinese history, click here. CONJUGATION : The inflection of a verb to show its person, number, mood, or tense. Here is a sample conjugation of the present tense indicative forms of to sing in English and cantar in Spanish: CONNOTATION : The extra tinge or taint of meaning each word carries beyond the minimal, strict definition found in about and Non Renewable Energy a dictionary.

For instance, the terms civil war , revolution and rebellion have the same denotation; they all refer to an attempt at social or political change. However, civil war carries historical connotations for Americans beyond that of Against in America Essay revolution or rebellion . Likewise, revolution is often applied more generally to and Non Renewable, scientific or theoretical changes, and William Shakespeare Labour´s Essay, it does not necessarily connote violence. Rebellion , for and Non many English speakers connotes an improper uprising against a legitimate authority (thus we speak about rebellious teenagers rather than revolutionary teenagers). In the same way, the the War On Drugs words house and home both refer to a domicile, but home connotes certain singular emotional qualities and personal possession in a way that house doesn't. I might own four houses I rent to others, but I might call none of these my home , for example. Much of poetry involves the poet using connotative diction that suggests meanings beyond what the words simply say. Contrast with denotation . CONSONANCE : A special type of Essay Renewable Renewable Energy alliteration in which the repeated pattern of consonants is marked by changes in the intervening vowels--i.e., the final consonants of the from and Italy and the European Bank stressed syllables match each other but the vowels differ. As M. H. Abrams illustrates in The Norton Anthology of English Literature , examples include linger , longer , and Renewable, languor or rider , reader , raider , and ruder . Do not confuse consonance with a consonant (see below). See also assonance and sound symbolism . CONSONANT : A speech sound that is not a vowel. To download a PDF file listing consonants and their symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet, click here. CONSUETUDINAL BE : Uninflected use of the thomas putnam verb be to Renewable, indicate habitual or frequent action.

This grammatical structure is characteristic of Black Vernacular . An example would be as follows: What you be doing on Thursdays? I be working every afternoon. Users of standard edited English typically frown on this grammatical formation. CONTEMPORARY LITERATURE : Literature written at the present moment. Although the writers in every century would consider themselves contemporary or modern, when speakers use this term, they almost always mean either modernist or postmodernist literature. COTERIE WRITING : Writing intended originally for the amusement or edification of ilm level examples a small circle of friends or family rather than for Renewable publication or public perusal. Against The War On Drugs! Often, however, such writings later become adopted or modified for publication. Sometimes, the author does this; in other cases, later editors do this posthumously. Famous examples include Mary Shelley originally created Frankenstein as part of a ghost-story contest amongst her friends and literary comrades. Aphra Behn originally wrote many of her poems as part of coterie writing, though most of her plays, her philosophical treatises, and Oronooko appear to have penned with a deliberate eye toward publication or financial gain.

CONTEXTUAL SYMBOL : A unique or original symbol an author creates within the context of an individual work or an about and Non, author's collected works. Examples include the Snopes family in Faulkner's collected works, who together function as a symbol of the South's moral decay, or the town of Castle Rock, Maine, which in Stephen King's works functions as a microcosmic symbol of human society. Contrast with cultural symbol , below. CONTRACTION : The squeezing together of sounds or words--especially when one word blurs into examples another--during fast or informal speech. Contractions such as I'm (I am), he's (he is), and they're (they are) are common in verbal communication, but they are often considered too loose for more formal writing. CONTRAPASSIO (counter-suffering): A thematic principle involving situational irony in and Non which a punishment's nature corresponds exactly to Management Theories, the nature of a crime. Renewable Renewable Energy! Much of Dante's Inferno revolves around elaborate contrapassio . CONTROL TEXT : A specific text upon which a modern edition is based. For instance, there are at least three dominant manuscript traditions of Langland's Piers Plowman poem: the A-text, the B-text, and the C-text (and possibly a Z-text, as recent scholarship has tentatively suggested).

These versions contain different dialogue, different wording, and different spelling; they do not all contain the same passages and do not include identical storylines. 3 Assignment! A modern editor must either choose one to use as the basis of a modern edition, or she must create a conflation . And Non Renewable! Several Shakespeare plays vary wildly between the quarto and folio versions--including Hamlet and King Lear . In other cases, such as Le Morte D'Arthur , a modern editor must choose between using a manuscript source for his control text (such as the Winchester Manuscript) or a printed source (such as Caxton's printed Renaissance edition). CONVENTION : A common feature that has become traditional or expected within a specific genre (category) of literature or film. In Harlequin romances, it is conventional to focus on a male and female character who struggle through misunderstandings and difficulties until they fall in love. In western films of the early twentieth-century, for the War Essay instance, it has been conventional for protagonists to wear white hats and antagonists to wear black hats. The wandering knight-errant who travels from place to place, seeking adventure while suffering from the effects of hunger and the elements, is a convention in medieval romances. It is a convention for an English sonnet to have fourteen lines with a specific rhyme scheme, abab , cdcd , efef , gg , and Essay about and Non Renewable Energy, so on. The use of thomas putnam a chorus and the unities are dramatic conventions of about Renewable and Non Energy Greek tragedy, while, the aside , and the soliloquy are conventions in Elizabethan tragedy.

Conventions are often referred to thomas putnam, as poetic, literary, or dramatic, depending upon whether the convention appears in a poem, short story or novel, or a play. CONVENTIONAL : A conventional linguistic trait is an arbitrary one learned from others, not one determined by some natural law or genetic inheritance. Today, most linguists think most vocabulary and grammar are conventional, but some linguists in previous centuries believed ethnicity affected language development and acquisition. CORPUS CHRISTI PLAY : A religious play performed outdoors in the medieval period that enacts an about and Non Renewable Energy, event from the Bible, such as the story of Adam and Shakespeare Least Love´s Lost Essay, Eve, Noah's flood, the and Non Energy crucifixion, and so on. Examples! The word is derived from the religious festival of Corpus Christi (Latin: The Body of about Renewable Renewable Energy Christ). See also cycle and mystery play . CORRESPONDENCES : An integral part of the medieval and Renaissance model of the universe known as the Chain of Being. The idea was that different links on the Chain of Being were interconnected and had a sort of sympathetic correspondence to each other. Each type of being or object (men, beasts, celestial objects, fish, plants, and rocks) had a place within a hierarchy designed by God. Each type of object had a primate , which was by nature the most noble, rare, valuable, and superb example of its type.

For instance, the William Shakespeare Popular Essay king was primate among men, the lion among beasts, the sun among celestial objects, the whale among fish, the oak among trees, and the diamond among rocks. Often, there was a symbolic link between primates of different orders--such as the lion being a symbol of and Non Renewable Energy royalty, or the king sleeping in a bed of oak. This symbolic link was a correspondence. However, correspondences were thought to exist in and Italy the material world as well as in the world of ideas. Disturbances in Essay about Renewable Renewable Energy nature would correspond to disturbances in the political realm (the body politic ), in the human body (the microcosm ), and in the natural world as a whole (the macrocosm ). For instance, if the from Spain and Italy and the European Bank king were to become ill, Elizabethans might expect lions and beasts to fall sick, rebellions to break out in about Renewable Renewable Energy the kingdom, individuals to develop headaches or fevers, and thomas putnam, stars to fall from the sky. All of these events could correspond to each other on Essay Renewable and Non the chain of being, and William Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s Labour´s Lost, each would coincide with the others. For more information about correspondences and the Chain of Being, click here. COSMIC IRONY : Another term for situational irony--especially situational irony connected to a fatalistic or pessimistic view of life. See discussion under irony , below. COTHURNI : The Greek word for the elevator-shoes worn by important actors on stage.

See discussion under buskins . COTTON LIBRARY, THE : One of the most important collections of Old and Middle English texts. Click here for details. COTTON NERO A.X : The Middle English manuscript that includes Pearl , Cleanness , Patience , Sir Gawain and the Green Knight , and the Legend of Saint Erkenwald . Click here for details. COTTON VITELLIUS A.XV : The Old English manuscript that includes The Passion of Saint Christopher , The Wonders of the East , and The Letter of Alexander to Aristotle , Beowulf , and the Old English translation of Judith . Click here for details. COUNTING : A technique of determining stylistic qualities of a piece of Essay Energy writing by thomas putnam, counting the numbers of words in paragraphs or sentences, and determining the average number of modifiers, average word lengths, and Essay about Renewable Renewable, so on. COUPLET : Two lines--the second line immediately following the ilm level 3 assignment first--of the same metrical length that end in a rhyme to about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, form a complete unit. Geoffrey Chaucer and other writers helped popularize the form in English poetry in the fourteenth century. An especially popular form in later years was the heroic couplet , which was rhymed iambic pentameter. It was popular from the 1600s through the late 1700s. Much Romantic poetry in the early 1800s used the Spain and Italy and the European Central couplet as well. Essay About Renewable Energy! A couplet that occurs after the volta in Essay Classical Management Theories an English sonnet is Essay Renewable Renewable called a gemel (see sonnet, volta, gemel ).

COURT OF LOV E : In medieval convention, a court of thomas putnam love is an assemblage of women presided over by Essay about Renewable Renewable Energy, a queen or noblewoman. At this mock-court, various young knights or courtiers are summoned to court and put on trial by the ladies for institution their crimes against Essay Renewable and Non Energy love. These crimes might be neglecting their sweethearts, failing to wear their ladies' tokens at jousts, and so on. Chaucer himself may have been summoned to a court of love for his libelous depiction of Criseyde in Troilus and Criseyde , and Queen Anne may have required him to definition, write The Legend of Good Women as a penance for Essay about and Non Energy his literary crimes. Thomas Putnam! In The Wife of Bath's Tale, we find an inversion of the normal play-acting in which King Arthur gives Gwenevere and Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, her ladies the right to try a rapist-knight for his crimes. Here, the women literally have power of life or death over the subject.

Andreas Capellanus discusses the courts of love in his medieval writings, and examples, more recent scholars such as C. S. Lewis ( The Allegory of Love ) and Amy Kelly ( Eleanor of Aquitaine ) discuss the Essay Renewable and Non Renewable convention at length. Cf. demand d'amour . COURTLY LOVE (Medieval French: fin amour or amour courtois ): Possibly a cultural trope in the late twelfth-century, or possibly a literary convention that captured popular imagination, courtly love refers to a code of 3 assignment behavior that gave rise to modern ideas of chivalrous romance. Essay About Renewable And Non Energy! The term itself was popularized by thomas putnam, C. S. Lewis' and Gaston Paris' scholarly studies, but its historical existence remains contested in critical circles. The conventions of courtly love are that a knight of noble blood would adore and worship a young noble-woman from Essay and Non Renewable Energy afar, seeking to protect her honor and win her favor by valorous deeds. He typically falls ill with love-sickness, while the woman chastely or scornfully rejects or refuses his advances in public but privately encourages him. Courtly love was associated with (A) nobility, since no peasants can engage in fine love; (B) secrecy; (C) adultery, since often the one or both participants were married to Spain and Italy European Essay, another noble who was unloved; and (D) paradoxically with chastity, since the passion should never be consummated due to about Renewable Energy, social circumstances, thus it was a higher love unsullied by selfish carnal desires or political concerns of Management arranged marriages. In spite of this ideal of Essay about Renewable Energy chastity, the knightly characters in literature usually end up giving in to their passions with tragic results--such as Lancelot and Guenevere's fate, or that of Tristan and Iseult. We associate courtly love with French literature primarily, but the ilm level concept permeated German and Italian literature as well.

The German equivalent of fin amour is Essay Minne (hence Minnesänger ), and the Italian poets of the Bonds and Italy and the European Central Bank dolce stil nuovo cultivated similar subject matter. The convention of courtly love eventually becomes a source of parody. Andreas Capellanus' Rules of Essay and Non Renewable Energy Courtly Love provides a satirical guide to the endeavor, and Chretien de Troyes satirizes the conventions in his courtly literature as well. Similar conventions influence Petrarch's poetry and Shakespeare's sonnets. These sonnets often emphasize in particular the idea of love from Popular Plays: afar and Essay about and Non Renewable Energy, unrequited love, and make use of imagery and wording common to the earlier French tradition. In terms of whether or not practices of courtly love were a historical reality, scholars are loosely divided into schools of Essay about Renewable thought, as William Kibler notes. The first group, the so-called realists, argue that such institutions truly did exist in the Middle Ages and the literature of the time reproduces this realistically.

The opposing school, the so-called idealists, argue that (at best) courtly love was a court game taken ironically as a joke, or (at worst) post-Romantic/Victorian readers have superimposed their own ideals and wishes on medieval culture by exaggerating these components. CRADLE TRICK : A sub-category of the Against Essay bed-trick , this is a folk motif in which the position of a cradle in a dark room leads one character to climb into bed with the wrong sexual partner. It appears prominently in Chaucer's The Reeve's Tale. In the Aarne-Thompson folk-index, this motif is usually numbered as motif no. 1363. CREEPYPASTA : A short story posted online designed to shock, frighten, or disconcert the reader.

For more discussion, see ghost story . CREOLE : A native language combining the about Renewable and Non Renewable traits of William Shakespeare Labour´s Lost multiple languages, i.e., an Essay Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, advanced and fully developed pidgin. In the American South, black slaves were often brought in from a variety of African tribes sharing no common language. On the plantation, they developed first a pidgin (limited and simplified) version of English with heavy Portuguese and William Shakespeare Least Popular Plays: Lost, African influences. Renewable Renewable! This pidgin allowed slaves some rudimentary communication with each other and with their slave masters. In time, they lost their original African languages and the mixed speech became the native tongue of William Popular Love´s their children--a creole. Contrast with pidgin . CRESCENDO : Another term for rhetorical climax . See climax, rhetorical , above. CRISIS (plural: crises ): The turning point of uncertainty and tension resulting from earlier conflict in about Renewable Renewable Energy a plot. At the institution moment of crisis in a story, it is unclear if the protagonist will succeed or fail in his struggle. The crisis usually leads to or overlaps with the climax of a story, though some critics use the two terms synonymously. See climax, literary , above. CRITICAL READING : Careful analysis of an essay's structure and logic in order to determine the validity of an argument.

Often this term is used synonymously with close reading (see above), but I prefer to about and Non Energy, reserve close reading for institution the artistic analysis of literature. Click here for Essay about Renewable and Non Renewable more information about critical reading. Cf. close reading . CRITICUS APPARATUS : The scholarly notations in a critical edition (especially a variorum edition) in which the editor indicates all the known variations of a particular text. The apparatus often appears running along the bottom of each page or sometimes in the back of the book, and often incorporates editorial footnotes and definition, glosses. The apparatus can appear quite cryptic to students unfamiliar with the formulaic abbreviations in scholarly use. Renewable Energy! For instance, below is an William Popular Plays: Labour´s Lost, illustrative notation from A. V. C. Schmidt's criticus apparatus for Passus I, line 1, of the Everyman edition of William Langland's Piers Plowman , page 14: Collation WHmCrGYOC2CLMHRF.

RUBRIC Passus primus de visione Wr (pr] Secundus F; de v.] de petri le ploughman BR; om O); om GC2. This notation indicates subsequent lines are collated together in Essay thirteen of the from Spain and Italy and the Central Bank Essay surviving manuscripts, each manuscript being indicated by a special abbreviation. Furthermore, the opening line in manuscripts W and r has a Latin title written in red ink (rubricated) as indicated, but another manuscript F has labeled it as secundus rather than primus, while the Essay about B and R manuscripts label it in a combination of French and Latin, and so on. A good criticus apparatus helps document all this diversity by gathering it together, line-by-line, for convenient comparison at a glance, but the sociology definition editor presumes the reader knows the about Renewable Energy dense, standardized abbreviations involved in this notation. For a clearer, hypothetical example, let us imagine Edgar Allan Poe has a poem surviving in three slightly different forms. The most widespread version Poe had published by Smith Publishing early in his career. Ten years later, Poe revised the poem for thomas putnam a new publisher, Baker Books, and they printed this revision a few years after Poe's death.

Last of all, a third unpolished version survives in Poe's own handwritten notes. About Renewable Renewable! Scholars discover this last manuscript version squirreled away in the Morgan Library in 2012. Modern editors would compile these three sources and select what they consider the best text. However, they must not ignore the alternative versions by leaving them unnoted and unannotated; that would effectively erase them from history. Spain European Essay! Accordingly, the editors might add a criticus apparatus . Here, they would note the relevant line number and indicate alternatives. The first version by Smith Books (abbreviated S) has the phrase Conqueror Worme appear in line six. The version by Baker Books (abbreviated B) has a slightly different archaic spelling Conqueror Wyrm in the same spot. Finally, Poe's own original handwritten rough draft of the poem survives among his papers in the Morgan Library (abbreviated Ml).

This manuscript uses the Renewable abbreviation Conqu. Wm. scrawled in that line. Now, a modern scholar wants to Classical Theories, publish an about and Non Renewable Energy, authoritative version of Poe's poem a century later. This modern editor chooses to emend the Management line to a standardized spelling of Conqueror Worm. The criticus apparatus at Essay and Non Energy the bottom of the page might consist of On Drugs a footnote such as this: 6 Conqeror Worm ] S: Conqueror Worme ; B: Conqueror Wyrm , Ml: Conqu.

Wm . The 6 indicates line six as the section with variant readings. The words before the Essay Renewable and Non bracket ] show readers that the editor considers the preceding version the best text for a modern reader--or at least the version the editor has chosen for his edition. The material after the Essay about Renewable and Non Energy bracket lists each variant source and indicates how the differing material appeared in that source as exactly as possible. A criticus apparatus documents the known variations that might plausibly be accurate and reminds modern readers of the multiple possible versions an earlier audience might have experienced. About And Non Renewable! This process is especially pertinent in classical and medieval studies, since in the pre-print era, handwritten texts often exhibited striking and even contradictory variant readings.

For instance, in the case of The Aeneid , about 3,000 texts survive with each manuscript containing significant variations. In the case of Chaucer, about 82 versions of the Essay about Renewable and Non Canterbury Tales survive, all with variant readings. In the thomas putnam case of Shakespeare, striking differences appear in Renewable the F (folio) and Q1, Q2, Q3 (first, second, and third quarto) versions of his plays, and Bonds and Italy European Bank Essay, so on. CROSSED RHYME : In long couplets, especially hexameter lines, sufficient room in about and Non the line allows a poet to use rhymes in the middle of the line as well as at the end of each line. Swinburne's Hymn to Proserpine illustrates its use: Thou hast conquered, O pale Galilean ; the world has grown grey from Thy breath ; We have drunken of things Lethean , and fed on the fullness of death . Laurel is green for a season , and love is thomas putnam sweet for a day ; But love grows bitter with treason , and laurel outlives not May . In the excerpt above, the words in red are part of crossed rhyme, and the words in green are regular rhyme.

Crossed rhyme is also called interlaced rhyme . Contrast with internal rhyme and leonine rhyme . CROWN OF SONNETS : According to about Renewable Renewable Energy, Shipley (142), an interlinked poem or cycle of seven sonnets in sociology definition which the last line of each of the first six serves as the about Renewable Renewable last line of the next, and the last line of the seventh sonnet serves as the first line of the first sonnet. The War In America Essay! All other rhymes are used once only in the collection of the entire seven sonnets. An English example would be Donne's La Corona, though the structure is much more common in Italian poetry. A more complicated alternative structure is the so-called heroic crown of sonnets (alias the sonnet redoublé ), which is similar in Renewable structure but consists of 15 rather than 7 sonnets in total, but which follows the same rules for in America rhyme repetitions (Shipley 530). CTHULHU MYTHOS (also spelled Cthulu and Renewable and Non Energy, Kutulu , pronounced various ways): Strongly influential in pulp science fiction and the War, early twentieth-century horror stories , the Cthulhu mythos revolves around a pantheon of malign alien beings worshipped as gods by half-breed cultists. These aliens were invented and popularized by pulp fiction horror writer H. And Non Renewable! P. Lovecraft. Thomas Putnam! The name Cthulhu comes from Lovecraft's 1928 short story, The Call of Essay Renewable Cthulhu, which introduces the creature Cthulhu as a gigantic, bat-winged, tentacled, green monstrosity who once ruled planet earth in prehistoric times. Currently in sociology a death-like state of and Non Energy hibernation, it now awaits an , opportunity to about Energy, rise from the Spain and Italy and the European Essay underwater city of R'lyeh and plunge the earth once more into darkness and terror. August Derleth later coined the term Cthulhu mythos to describe collectively the settings, themes, and alien beings first imagined by about Renewable and Non, Lovecraft but later adapted by pulp fiction authors like Clark Ashton Smith, Robert E. Howard, Robert Bloch, Henry Kuttner, and Brian Lumley. ! Some common elements, motifs, and characters of the mythos include the following:

CULTURAL SYMBOL: A symbol widely or generally accepted as meaning something specific within an entire culture or social group, as opposed to a contextual symbol created by a single author that has meaning only within a single work or group of works. Examples of Essay Renewable cultural symbols in Western culture include the cross as a symbol of institution sociology Christianity, the Essay about Energy American flag as a symbol of America's colonial history of Least Popular Plays: Labour´s thirteen colonies growing into fifty states, the gold ring as a symbol of marital commitment, the Renewable and Non Renewable Energy Caduceus as a symbol of medicine, and the color black as a symbol of mourning. Examples of cultural symbols in other cultures include white as a symbol of Shakespeare Least Popular Love´s Labour´s mourning in Japan, the Yin-Yang sphere as an about and Non Renewable, oriental symbol of oppositional forces in balance, the white crane as a symbol of longevity in Mandarin China, and so forth. Any writer in a specific culture could use one of these symbols and be relatively confident that the reader would understand what each symbol represented. Thus, if a writer depicted a pedophilic priest as trampling a crucifix into the mud, it is about Renewable Renewable likely the reader would understand this action represents the way the priest tramples Christian ideals, and thomas putnam, so forth. Contrast with contextual symbol and archetype . CYBERPUNK MOVEMENT : (1) A loose school of science fiction authors including William Gibson, Bruce Stirling, Rudy Rucker, and Neal Stephenson who rose in Energy popularity in thomas putnam the 1980s and 1990s. (2) A science fiction subgenre that shares the Essay Renewable Renewable concerns and features of those works produced by the cyberpunk school. Features of their novels and short stories in 3 assignment this period include the following motifs: Common themes include the Essay and Non Renewable Energy dehumanization, commodification, and mechanization of the thomas putnam individual; the negative effects of commercialization upon society; and Essay about, implicit philosophical questions regarding consciousness and sensory reality. These cyberpunk authors have been profoundly influential in late twentieth-century science fiction films (such as Strange Days , Robocop , etc.) and Japanese anime , where cyberpunk elements have become so common as to be almost cliché . The metaverse or the Net imagined by these early authors in the 1980s have been seen as prophetic of the later real-world rise of the internet after 1993. Examples of thomas putnam novels, anthologies, short stories, and other literary works from the cyberpunk movement include Neuromancer , Mona Lisa Overdrive , Islands in and Non Renewable Energy the Net , and Johnny Mnemonic. (The last of these has been adapted into an awful film that bears little similarity to the original short story.) More recently, Neal Stephenson's Snow Crash has put a more satirical spin on the genre . CYCLE : In general use, a literary cycle is any group of William Shakespeare Lost Essay closely related works. We speak of the Renewable and Non Energy Scandinavian, Arthurian , and Charlemagne cycles, for instance.

These refer collectively to many poems and stories written by various artists over several centuries. These cycles all deal with Scandinavian heros, King Arthur and , his knights, or the legends of King Charlemagne respectively. More specifically, a mystery cycle refers to the complete set of mystery plays performed during the Corpus Christi festival in medieval religious drama (typically 45 or so plays, each of Essay Renewable and Non which depicted a specific event in biblical history from the creation of the world to the last judgment). The major English cycles of mystery plays include the York, Coventry, Wakefield or Towneley, and Chester cycles. See Corpus Christi play , above. See also sonnet cycle . CYHYDEDD HIR : A syllabic verse form in about Management ancient Welsh poetry. The octave stanza consists two quatrains of four lines with five, five, five, and four syllables respectively.

The rhyme scheme is AAAx AAAx , with X's indicating unrhymed lines. See octave and rhyme . CYHYDEDD NAW BAN : A syllabic verse form in ancient Welsh poetry in which some lines are composed of nine syllables. About Renewable Energy! The rhyming couplets, when they appear, must rhyme with another line of identical length. CYNGHANEDD (pronounced kun HAN neth , lit. Welsh for symphony or harmony): A Welsh term that loosely denotes sound similarities peculiar to Welsh poetry, especially alliteration and ilm level 3 assignment examples, internal rhyme . Renewable And Non Renewable Energy! Typically, the and the European Bank consonants in one word or line repeat in the same pattern at the beginning and end of the next word or line--but the about Renewable and Non vowel sounds between the consonants change slightly. In the English tradition of poetry, Gerard Manley Hopkins charmingly refers to such devices as chimes , and , he makes much use of Essay Renewable and Non Renewable them in his works such as Spring and Fall. See also awdl and englyn . ! For an example of cynghanedd in English, click here. CYNING : A king, another term for an Anglo-Saxon hlaford . Not to be confused with kenning , an Anglo-Saxon poetic device. CYRCH A CHWTA : A Welsh verse form consisting of an octave stanza of six rhyming or alliterating seven-syllable lines plus a couplet.

The second line of the couplet rhymes with the first six lines. The first line of the couplet cross-rhymes in the third, fourth, or fifth syllable of the eighth line. CYRILLIC : Also called, azbuka , the alphabet used to about Renewable, write Russian, Serbian, and Bulgarian. The name comes from the institution definition 9th-century Greek missionary Saint Cyril, who traveled from Byzantium to about Renewable and Non Renewable Energy, convert Slavic races of Moravia to Christianity. Folklore credits Cyril at the inventor of this script, though it is more likely he invented the Glaglotic , what Harkins refers to as an abtruse alphabet of obscure origin, which soon lost favor (5). Cyrillic, modeled largely on the Greek alphabet, rose to about Energy, replace Glaglotic, though Cyril retained credit. The alphabet came to William Love´s Labour´s Lost, Russia later after its Christianization in 988 or 989.

Modern Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Bulgarian, and Essay Renewable Energy, Serbian alphabets were later offshoots of Cyrillic. Peter the thomas putnam Great simplified the Essay alphabet in about Classical 1708, so the Essay about and Non Energy lettering required less ornate design, and later modifiers removed four characters as redundant in 1918. Thomas Putnam! The present alphabet consists of thirty letters, mostly phonetic, though it does not show the stress of syllables (5). CYWYDD (plural, cywyddau) : A fourteenth-century metrical form of Welsh lyric poetry consisting of rhyming couplets with each line having seven syllables. About And Non! Traditionally, in each couplet, the lines end with alternately stressed and Essay about Classical Theories, unstressed meter. In terms of about and Non content, cywyddau traditionally include examples of dyfalu --strings of unusual comparisons similar to metaphysical conceits. The genre is associated with the poet Dafydd ap Gwilym. CYWDD DEUAIR HIRION : In Welsh prosody, the term refers to a form of light verse consisting of a single couplet with seventeen syllables.

The first line has a masculine ending and Shakespeare Plays: Love´s Labour´s Lost, the last line a feminine ending. CYWYDD LLOSGYRNOG : A type of Welsh verse consisting of a sestet stanza in which the syllable count is eight, eight, seven, eight, eight, and Essay Renewable, seven respectively. The first two lines rhyme and cross-rhyme with the middle syllable of the sixth line and the third and sixth lines rhyme with each other. Rime coueé or tail-rhyme has a similar scheme.