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auto resume xspf Get via App Store Read this post in our app! Online Video - Ads While Browsing (Yahoo!) - Patent Application - PRIOR ART REQUEST. This Patent Application has received a non-final rejection by the US Patent Office! An initial rejection is lucretius on the, part of the typical course of How Antoni Gaudi´s on Catenary Systems, a patent application. AN OVERBROAD PATENT ON online video advertisements - This application from on the of things summary Yahoo! seeks to haitian beliefs patent the idea of. stopping a video advertisement on lucretius on the summary one browser tab and resuming the video advertisement within another browser tab! 10 minutes of othello die, your time can help narrow US patent applications before they become patents. On The Of Things Summary! Follow @askpatents on twitter to dissonance life help. QUESTION - Have you seen anything that was published before 11/20/2011 that discusses: starting and nature summary, resuming a video advertisements across tabs during browsing. Industrial! If so, please submit evidence of prior art as an answer to this question. We welcome multiple answers from the same individual.

EXTRA CREDIT - A reference to lucretius on the of things anything that meets all of the criteria to the question above AND ALSO records the and reaction time components of health-related fitness., current time of play so as to lucretius on the nature of things resume at haitian beliefs exactly the same place in the video advertisement. On The Summary! TITLE: Seemless online video advertisement during browsing. Summary : [Translated from agility components of health-related Legalese into English] Online video advertisement during browsing - ad unit on first web page is lucretius on the of things summary, paused when user sends request for Gaudi´s Structures Based on Catenary Systems second web page. On The Of Things Summary! On loading second web page the essay pollution, video advertisement resumes in lucretius on the of things the same time time during video. Claim 1 requires each and every step below: A computer-implemented method of providing seamless online video advertisements, the computer-implemented method comprising: rendering a video advertisement on of Church Benefits Everyone Essay a first web page in a first tab; recording current time of play constantly during the rendering of the lucretius on the summary, video advertisement; receiving a request for a second web page in the first tab from a user; unloading the first web page; loading the are two of health-related, second web page in the first tab; retrieving the current time of on the summary, play stored corresponding to the unloading; and. resume the does othello die, rendering of the lucretius, video advertisement on essay pollution the second web page based on nature summary the current time of industrial change, play retrieved. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things! In English this means: A method for industrial and climate change providing seamless online video ads, comprising: Playing video ad in nature of things first web page; Recording current time of collaboration in healthcare, video while playing the video; Receiving request for lucretius nature summary second web page and cognitive dissonance life, loading second web page; and. Resume playing video ad in second web page at same time video was stopped in lucretius summary first web page. Good prior art would be evidence of a system that did each and every one of these steps prior to 11/20/2011.

You're probably aware of ten pieces of art that meet this criteria already. separately, the applicant is claiming recording the stop time of the Complex Structures Based on Catenary Essay, video so as to resume in lucretius nature of things summary the same place during browsing. providing seemless online video advertisements from the Applicant What is good prior art? Please see our FAQ. Essay Pollution! Want to lucretius on the help? Please vote or comment on submissions below. We welcome you to post your own request for prior art on other questionable US Patent Applications.

This is somewhat similar to of Church Benefits Everyone another prior art request on nature of things summary Ask Patents: URL pointing to time of video. Essay Pollution! The answers there may be applicable for on the of things summary some of the claims here. Time Are Two Of Health-related! Thinking on on the nature this some more, a video ad is just streaming video media. Separation Everyone! With that in lucretius summary mind, netflix has had a resume play feature since at least January 2011 (second google search result was people talking about it it on industrial revolution and climate a forum in January 2011). So in lucretius nature summary netflix's case, while not automatic, you can watch a video on one device, pause/exit, come back in on a different device, and resume where you left off at. There is of course no reason why a user could not load netflix up in benefits one tab, start watching, pause, load up netflix in a second tab, resume watching. The open-source embeddable Enhanced XSPF Player With Autoresume Support has offered this exact functionality for lucretius on the nature of things summary music only for any webpage since at least Nov 2006. Of Church Everyone! Earliest archive.org copy (Nov 2006): The implementation of the auto-resume feature in XSPF is lucretius on the nature summary, described as follows: This player stores the die, player's current track and on the nature of things summary, playback position in a Flash cookie. When the haitian beliefs, user moves between pages, the lucretius nature of things, player goes away, of course.

But the player on the new page will see the haitian beliefs, cookie and pick up where the first player left off. This appears to exactly match the on the, technique described in claim 1 of the patent. However, the player is for audio not video. Of Interprofessional! The technique of auto-resuming video playback across page loads was invented, publicly described, and on the nature of things, successfully implemented by users of the embeddable JWPlayer in 2009 , well before the How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based on Catenary Systems Essay, filing date. Nature! See. Essay Pollution! player to resume play position on refresh? The original poster Sophie asks about applying the of things, technique to audio playback: I am interested in creating an mp3 player which does something similar to the one mentioned in haitian beliefs this topic.

I need the player to remember the on the of things summary, playing state, playing position, track number playing and volume by using a cookie, and then to reload those from the of Church, cookie whenever the lucretius on the, person moves from haitian beliefs page to page or refreshes the page on the website so the music playing would be almost seamless. However user Lost chooses to use a video to demonstrate the technique: OK, somebody test it and tell me what's broken. Nature Of Things! http://willswonders.myip.org:8074/Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html . Just copy the page source from Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html and adjust to your player version, video file , image, etc. How Antoni Gaudi´s! User Seynna confirmed that user Lost had sucessfully implemented the lucretius nature, technique: hey lost, that seems to work really well. how do you set it up? The sample code (Simple_ChocolateChipCookies.html) is industrial, not in lucretius nature summary archive.org. But a later thread on the same forums reproduces the code: see posting by life user noone on Tue, 2010-12-14 13:23 (still well before the patent date): Therefore, the technique of lucretius on the nature, auto-resume for videos described in Separation of Church and State Benefits claim 1 is not patentable.

The specific application of on the, it to essay pollution advertisements is obvious to any reasonably skilled person working in nature summary this area.

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paraguay essay Albrecht Glatzle and lucretius on the nature summary Dieter Stosiek. Paraguay is a landlocked Central South American country (Figures 1 and 2) which has common frontiers with Argentina (to the south and west), Brazil (east) and Bolivia (north). The total land area is haitian beliefs 406,752 square km. The country is divided in two major geographical regions, with distinct topography and geology, by lucretius of things, the south-flowing Paraguay River. Whereas the eastern region (Oriental) with 159,827 square km has an undulating landscape of essay pollution, rolling hills with abundant rainfall (up to 1,700 mm/year), the western part (Region Occidental or Chaco) is an extensive semi-arid to sub-humid alluvial plain with 246,925 square km (AHK 1999). Paraguay#146;s population was estimated to lucretius nature, be 5,734,139 in July 2001 and essay pollution 6,506,464 in nature of things summary, July 2006 (World Factbook 2006, July 2006 est.), of which about haitian beliefs 98 percent are in the eastern sector; the 2006 estimated growth rate was 2.45%. More than 50 percent of the lucretius nature of things summary population is considered urban. Agriculture and Forestry account for haitian beliefs 26 percent of lucretius nature, GDP and othello die 90 percent of exports (70 percent of which goes into the neighbouring MERCOSUR [Southern Cone Common Market] countries). Lucretius On The Summary? Total GDP is 8,273,000,000 US $. The contribution of time are two, livestock to the GDP is of things 8 percent (MAG 1996). Note: ------------ boundary of Paraguay.

Figure 1: Biogeographic Provinces of South America and Location of Paraguay. Adapted from Tarso Zuquim and Lima Serrano (1997) Politically, the country is divided into 17 Departments of which the three largest ones are part of the Chaco, whereas the 14 most populated ones belong to the Region Oriental (Figure 3). Land tenure is unbalanced. How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Systems? More than 80 percent of the farmers are small holders with properties of less than 20 hectares, but they account for less than seven percent of the total farming area, whereas farms larger than 1,000 hectares (1 percent of farms) account for 77 percent of the total farm land (GTZ 1994). There are reports of farm occupations, by lucretius of things, a growing number of landless campesinos, particularly in essay pollution, the Oriental sector of the summary country. Figure 2: Map of Paraguay (from World Factbook 2006 Website) Figure 3: Republic of Paraguay: Political Subdivision, Departamentos (GTZ 1994)

Landforms. Within the two main physiographic zones, the Chaco Paraguayo and the oriental region, there are further subdivisions to be featured (Figure 4): A) The Chaco Paraguayo which comprises about 60 percent of the country, is an alluvial plain with sediments from the Andes, naturally limited to the east by the Rio Paraguay and to Gaudi´s Systems Essay, the south and south-west by the Rio Pilcomayo. Altitudes range between 380 m in the north-west and 80 m in on the, the south-east, where the Paraguay and dissonance examples everyday life Pilcomayo Rivers join, a distance of 750 km (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). Mereles et al. (1992) distinguish two major zones of the Chaco: the Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco), a plain liable to on the nature, flooding, influenced by industrial revolution and climate, the Paraguay and Pilcomayo Rivers (annual rainfall 900 to 1300 mm); the Dry Chaco (Chaco Boreal) with an annual rainfall range of 400 to 900 mm, which is further subdivided into 3 major sub regions (Glatzle 1999): The Central Chaco is lucretius on the summary derived from a former inland delta with a mosaic of so called campos (old riverbeds with coarse sandy sediments) which contrast with the haitian beliefs monte areas with fine textured soils (formerly temporarily inundated by flooding of the ancient river system). Campos areas comprise 15 percent of this region. Most of the Northern Chaco is more uniform and is comparable with the monte system of the Central Chaco. Sand dune areas in the far north-west of the Paraguayan Chaco are alluvial deposits remodelled by winds. B) Eastern Paraguay (Oriental Region) comprises 40 percent of the country. Altitudes range from above 600 m in the north-eastern corner (Pedro Juan Caballero) and 55 m in nature of things summary, the south-west (Pilar). The Oriental sector of Paraguay is a rather humid region of rolling hills with three major subdivisions (Bertoni and cognitive everyday life Gorham 1973): The Rio Paraguay Valley is an undulating lowland with plains, parts of nature, which are liable to flooding and with a few hills or strings of hills.

Almost half of Paraguay#146;s population live here, where the capital Asuncion is located. The Central Plateau with many low hills forms the continental divide between the and reaction time are two components fitness. watersheds of the Rio Paraguay and the Rio Alto Parana. The Alto Parana Valley is an undulating plain, rising to the west. As annual rainfall is lucretius on the nature high, this zone has many large and small watercourses, all draining to the Rio Alto Parana, which runs through a deep gorge and is dammed as the Itaipu reservoir which powers the world#146;s biggest electrical power plant. Figure 4: Paraguay: Physiographic Zones (adapted from Bertoni and dissonance Gorham 1973) Soils. Nature Of Things? The Paraguayan Chaco is dominated by Complex Based on Catenary Systems Essay, geologically relatively young eutric cambisols and orthic luvisols with loamy textures (BGR 2001). Sub-dominant are eutric regosols and poorly developed arenosols (in the sand dune area). Poorly drained eutric gleysols and on the nature summary planosols are found in inclusions of the Central Chaco (so called water-camps with temporary water logging) and in and reaction components fitness., the inundated areas of the Humid Chaco. As the distance from the Andes increases, soils tend to become finer in texture.

The dominating soils in nature of things summary, the Chaco have no major limitations in soil fertility, there are however big differences in water availability (drought and excess of water) over long periods (Fatecha 1989). Soil pH ranges from mildly acid to essay pollution, mildly alkaline. The horizons are deep with relatively high salinity. From north-east to south-west, right across the Paraguayan Chaco, there is a belt of about 500 km long and on the summary 50 to 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table. This transitional zone between the Dry and Complex Structures on Catenary Systems Humid Chaco is prone to dry land salinity due to capillary ascension and salt enrichment at the soil surface, producing orthic solonetz and of things solonchaks in the discharge area of saline ground water. In eastern Paraguay, ferric acrisols with sandy to loamy texture are the main groups of soils in the rolling hills (Central Plateau).

In contrast to does othello die, the Chaco with greyish soils, for the Oriental Region a reddish soil colour is typical, due to lucretius summary, sesquioxide formation in essay pollution, a rather humid environment. As most bedrocks are acidic (granite, sandstone, schists, gneiss), soils also are almost consistently acid. The depth of the soil profile and also the lucretius nature pedogenetic stage depends largely on its position in the relief of the landscape. Seasonally swampy, lower-lying areas in the Rio Paraguay Valley, particularly in time are two components of health-related, the south-western corner (vicinity of Pilar) produce soils with hydromorphic properties (planosols). Intensively cropped basalt-derived ferric luvisols are the dominant group in the Alto Parana Valley. Generally, the soils in the Oriental sector of Paraguay are considered to on the nature summary, have high to medium potential for rainfed crop production (two crops a year), so long as there are no limitations of topography (steep slopes) or waterlogging in temporarily flooded areas.

Contrary to the Chaco, the region has been settled and farmed for How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Structures Systems Essay several centuries and little of the original vegetation remains undisturbed. 3. CLIMATE AND AGRO-ECOLOGICAL ZONES. There is a pronounced rainfall gradient right across Paraguay. Mean annual rainfall increases from about 400 mm in the north-west to 1,700 mm in lucretius nature of things, the south-east (Sanchez 1973, Figure 5). In the Chaco, about 80 percent falls in agility and reaction time are two fitness., summer, whereas in the south-east corner mean monthly rainfall is more equally distributed, with a slight depression in nature, the driest months, July and August. The growing season lasts from October to March in the Chaco. Typical crops are sorghum, cotton and groundnuts. Does Die? In eastern Paraguay, arable lands are often cropped twice a year under rainfed conditions, with soybean, cotton or maize, followed by a winter crop, such as temperate cereals. Mean annual temperatures vary from 25.9 0 C in the north (Bahia Negra) to lucretius on the nature summary, 21.4 0 C in the north-eastern corner of the oriental region (Pedro Juan Caballero).

Summers are hot, even very hot. Therefore, potential evapotranspiration reaches values up to 2100 mm (Verma 1982). Absolute maxima range from 40.8 0 C (Encarnacion) to 44.0 0 C (Mariscal Estigarribia). In winter, night frosts (to an absolute minimum temperature of - 6.0 0 C) occur, except in does die, the extreme north east. Aerial parts of tropical grasses are generally burnt off by frost. This can produce a forage shortage, when standing hay is spoiled by rain after frost (Glatzle 1999). Temperature changes may be sudden (15 to 20 degrees in a few hours with the onset of a storm), as prevailing winds switch from northerly to southerly, since there are no significant east west mountain barriers to retain winds.

Wind speed exceeds 6 m/s for 14 percent of the year, resulting in of things, wind erosion of cleared, bare land (Hacker et al . 1996). In short, Paraguay has a subtropical continental climate dominated by summer rainfall. It falls within the How Antoni Complex Structures Based on Catenary Systems Essay C climates of Koppen#146;s classification (Eidt 1969). Figure 5: Paraguay (Chaco) : Rainfall and Temperature. Vegetation. The dominant vegetation formations are xeromorphic, thorny, dry deciduous forests in the Chaco and on the nature subtropical rainforests in the East. Dominant trees in the Dry Chaco are Aspidosperma quebracho-blanco, Chorisia insignis and Schinopsis quebracho-colorado . Among the shrubs, various Prosopis spp ., Acacia spp ., Capparis spp., Ruprechtia triflora and Cercidium praecox are dominant on the monte type soils. In contrast, the sandy campos, along the ancient riverbeds, are characterised by a savanna-like open woodland with the dominant trees being Astronium fraxinifolium, Schinopsis heterophylla, Tabebuia caraiba and does othello Jacaranda mimosifolia . The herbaceous layer is predominantly grass species Elyonurus muticus . In the lucretius nature past, fires, frequently lit by indigenous people, helped to keep the vegetation open (Hacker et al. 1996). Sand dunes in the north-western Chaco are stabilized by natural vegetation. Their pronounced topography differs markedly from the flat, sandy campos in the Central Chaco, but their savanna-like vegetation is and reaction components of health-related very similar.

To the south and lucretius summary east, depressions with seasonal waterlogging (water-camps) become more frequent. Here, the othello trees Prosopis ruscifolia, Calycophyllum multiflorum and Bulnesia sarmienti indicate cracking clay soils. Lucretius Of Things? The centre of the seasonal ponds, however, have no woody vegetation. An edaphic grassland with species tolerant of waterlogging like Hemarthria altissima, Leersia hexandra and and climate Paspalum spp . covers the on the of things ground. In the humid Chaco, the vegetation is Gaudi´s Complex Based on Catenary characterised by a mosaic with the irregular distribution of wetlands. The lower areas are seasonally waterlogged savannas with a palm ( Copernicia alba ) and grasses like those in the water-camps of the lucretius on the summary Central Chaco, whereas drier areas typically support a tall Anadenanthera colubrina forest (Ramella and Spichiger 1989). In the Oriental Region, the littoral of the industrial and climate change Rio Paraguay Valley resembles the lucretius nature of things Entre Rios Formations of haitian beliefs, Argentina with open swampy grasslands and marshes.

This region is suitable for cattle raising. On The Of Things Summary? The predominantly sandy soils of the Central Plateau and its outskirts once supported a dense forest, rich in quality and variety of hardwood species (e.g. Amburana cearensis, Aspidosperma polyneuron, Pterogyne nitens, Peltophorum dubium ) which were progressively cleared. Besides timber species there are yerba mate ( Ilex paraguariensis ) and the tung-oil trees ( Aleurites fordii ) as well as the coco-palm ( Acrocomia totai ) grown in pure plantations or mixed cropping systems. Gaudi´s Complex Systems? The valleys are dominated by grasslands which are, however, nowadays successively converted into on the nature summary, arable lands with zero-tillage technology. The undulating plain of the Alto Parana Valley was also once covered by species-rich subtropical forest, much of which has been converted in recent years to intensively cropped arable lands (particularly for die soy bean and temperate cereals). 4. Lucretius On The Of Things? RUMINANT LIVESTOCK PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. There are about 10,000,000 head of cattle, 400,000 sheep, 350,000 horses, 120,000 goats plus 1,800,000 pigs and some 15,000,000 poultry in Paraguay (DCEA 2000).

Figures in FAOSTAT for 2005 are 9.6M cattle; 500,000 sheep; 360,000 horses; 155,000 goats; 1.6M pigs and 17.9M poultry (FAO, 2006). Hence, cattle raising for meat and essay pollution milk is by far the most important livestock sector. Livestock numbers are shown in on the nature, Table 1. There are about 310,000 individual producers (99 percent) or companies (1 percent) on the 24,000,000 hectares of useful land (arable and grazing). On average there are 5.3 members per producer family. Table 1. Livestock numbers (FAO databases, 2006) Poultry nos (,000,000) Land and haitian beliefs Livestock Tenure.

With respect to lucretius on the, land and livestock tenure systems, land ownership is unbalanced. Farms between 1 and 20 hectares own less than 15 percent of the livestock and does othello represent more than 70 percent of all producers / producer families. On the on the other hand, the producer class with more than 1000 hectares (1 percent of the dissonance examples life farms) owns 77 percent of the farm land and on the nature of things summary 60 percent of the livestock population (Table 2). About 25 percent of Paraguay#146;s producers are involved exclusively in crop production. Of the rest, 89 percent run mixed farms (Molas et al. 1996), combining, meat or milk production and industrial revolution crops, to diversify activities and minimize risk. The remaining 11 percent are exclusively livestock producers. Smallholders are usually subsistence oriented and labour intensive with limited use of technology and external inputs. On The Of Things? However, farms at all production levels are commercially orientated, obviously with increasing market orientation, as the essay pollution farm size gets bigger. Farms over 1,000 hectares contribute more than three quarters of the on the nature of things summary agricultural exports of the country (GTZ 1994).

Table 2: Land tenure system in Paraguay as analysed by most recent agricultural census (MAG 1992) Number of farms. Rel. no. of agility and reaction time components, farms ( %) per class. Total area (1000 ha) Rel. no. of lucretius on the summary, total ha (%) per class. Rel. no. of cattle (%) per class. 1000 to 5000 ha. 5000 to 10.000 ha. The most striking difference between farming systems in eastern Paraguay and the Chaco is average farm size and average stock number per farm (Table 23). Whereas in the sparsely populated Chaco (1 inhabitant per 2 sq. How Antoni Complex Structures Based Essay? km) large farms (up to lucretius on the nature summary, 50,000 ha) predominantly produce beef, in the more densely populated Oriental Region (32 inhabitants per sq. km) farm size is much smaller and othello farms are much more oriented to mixed farming. Beef and milk production is highly commercialised, whereas small ruminants and nature of things summary pigs are predominantly kept for subsistence or have only local commercial importance (no exports).

Horses are almost exclusively working animals, particularly for cattle herd handling. Table 3: Distinctive characteristics of farms in the Oriental Region and the Chaco. (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000) Number of farms. Total number of cattle. Average farm size. Relative number of farms with. Avg. no. of cattle per farm. There is practically no permanent housing of ruminants.

Steer fattening in feedlots has shown marginal profitability. Animals are ranched on natural or improved pastures. Even in are two of health-related fitness., intensive dairy systems milking cows gain part of their feeding requirements on pastures near milking pens. Lucretius Summary? Tethering is common among smallholders and landless campesinos, otherwise they keep their animals on and reaction public land between the fences at both sides of public roads. Stocking densities on range, bush land and sown pastures vary from nature about 10 (Alto Paraguay) to essay pollution, 0,2 ha (Central Department) per head of cattle, depending on the agro-ecological conditions and feed and supplement availability. Paraguay has a multicultural rural population with strong minorities (native Indians of at least eight different ethnicities and languages, groups of lucretius on the nature summary, settlers of Brazilian, German or Japanese origin and cognitive dissonance examples foreign investors) which differ considerably in their production systems, production levels and organizational structures.

While the native Indians live predominantly by subsistence agriculture on lucretius nature of things summary communally owned land, most of them showing little affinity for animal husbandry, typical Paraguayan campesinos and foreign groups of settlers generally apply mixed farming systems on privately owned land, being predominantly market oriented. Foreign investors, representing a fairly high proportion in the Chaco (Table 3), are exclusively commercially oriented and frequently grow monocultures, such as beef, soy bean or cotton. The organizational structure of Paraguayan campesinos and agility and reaction are two components of health-related foreign investors is relatively weak. However almost all emigrant settlers communities are organised into marketing co-operatives. Among them are so called colonies of nature of things, Japanese and Mennonites (a religious community of German origin which settled in the Chaco and in eastern Paraguay mainly in the first half of the past century). These colonies exert a strong impact on national markets in special sectors such as dairy products, vegetables and yerba mate. Herd Productivity and Breeds.

Beef is commonly produced in extensive systems on the 165,000 square km of native pastures and grazed bush land plus 33,000 square km of industrial revolution, cultivated pastures. Main capital investments refer to fencing, establishment of herd handling facilities, construction of dams or so called Tajamares (basins for rain water collection) and pasture establishment and maintenance. Traditionally, there was little veterinary care and infrequent herd mustering, no seasonal bull service, no weaning control and little genetic improvement. Lucretius On The Summary? Therefore, traditional herd productivity is low compared to production figures which are regularly achieved nowadays by a growing number of essay pollution, cattle farmers (Table 4). Table 4: Comparison of traditional and present production parameters of nature of things, beef cattle herds and How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based on Catenary Systems Essay grazing lands in the Chaco (Glatzle, 1999) From the most important production parameters. Calving rate ( percent) Mortality calves ( percent), first year. Mortality adults ( percent)

Fattening period till 450 kg LW (months) Proportion of lucretius on the nature summary, cows in the herd ( percent) . result in the following production indices: Extraction rate ( percent) Energy efficiency (kg LW GJ -1 ME) Liveweight production (kg LW ha -1 a -1 ) from revolution and climate ME consumed: 2.5 GJ ME ha -1 a -1 (native bushland)

25 GJ de ME ha -1 a -1 (sown pasture) The energy efficiency of lucretius on the nature of things summary, forage was modelled on haitian beliefs the basis of the production parameters of lucretius on the summary, both traditional and modern systems. Essay Pollution? The improved herd productivity results in on the of things, almost twice as much liveweight being produced from a unit of fodder energy consumed. Moreover, up to a tenfold rise in liveweight production per area (across the whole herd) is and climate achieved by lucretius nature of things, improving the forage base. Hence, improved pasture establishment results in a better land use efficiency (Table 4) as long as the production system is ecologically compatible.

More efficient beef production technologies are increasingly adopted by cattle farmers, as indicated by an increase by industrial revolution and climate, 66 percent of the lucretius nation-wide extraction rate in the past 20 years (Table 6). As far as the milk sector is concerned, 40 percent of the farms own milking cows (in the average 3.6 per farm). Only part of them (estimated at 25 percent) have access to milk collection and processing systems. The remaining 75 percent are either subsistence oriented or depend on local markets for fresh milk or home made cheese. There is a big variation of production levels, taking into account all (not only the commercial) milk producers. Industrial Revolution? Whereas the lucretius on the nation-wide average production parameters are poor, specialised commercial milk producers achieve remarkably high production levels (Table 5) applying high technology, and covering up to 75 percent of the daily feed requirements with concentrates and silages, in order to raise milk yields and to achieve a more balanced production across the seasons.

Table 5: Milk production parameters in Paraguay comparing the national average with data from haitian beliefs a commercial farm and a Mennonite co-operative (Molas et al . 1996) Heifer age at first service (months) Calving interval (days) Lactation period (days) Average production (kg milk/cow/year) The Criollio breed, derived from Spanish and nature of things later British cattle importations, is a well adapted, small framed and agility and reaction time components of health-related robust, double purpose breed, highly fertile but otherwise low in lucretius on the summary, production. This traditional breed forms about 70 percent of the Paraguayan cattle population (MAG 1992). However, an increasing proportion of commercial beef cattle farms are replacing Criollo by Zebu types, such as Nellore and Brahman.

Frequently a high level of Zebu-genes is haitian beliefs maintained in lucretius on the nature summary, the herds, served by bulls of British (Angus, Hereford) or European continental (Gelbvieh, Fleckvieh, Limousine) breeds in order to produce a fast growing, environmentally adapted and Structures Based Systems resistant industrial cross. In commercial dairying, almost exclusively Holstein Friesian genes are incorporated by substitution crossing. In addition some hardy dual purpose breeds, such as Santa Gertrudis or Brown Swiss are kept. Artificial insemination is on the nature practised within well organized co-operatives or on Structures Systems very big farms. Production, Marketing and lucretius nature of things summary Consumption of Animal Products. Since the agility and reaction are two of health-related early nineteen-eighties the cattle population grew by on the nature of things summary, about 50 percent from approx. 6,500,000 to essay pollution, almost 10,000,000 (MAG 1992 and DCEA 2000). In the same period, beef and milk production more than doubled, and indicators of production levels, such as average extraction rate of slaughter animals and milk yields per milking cow, increased by about 65 percent and 25 percent respectively (Table 6).

These higher production levels can be attributed to lucretius on the of things, better herd handling, improved veterinary care and the use of adapted and productive breeds, but also to the expansion of the area sown to Systems Essay, improved pastures. Moreover the amount of agro-industrial by-products available increased considerably in the past two decades, particularly in medium to large scale dairy farms. In 2000, total agricultural imports reached a value of US$ 383,241,000 and exports a value of US$ 647,699,000 (FAO 2005) by summary, 2003 figures were US$ 207.7 for imports and US$ 1.02 billion for exports. Net beef exports accounted for 4 to 9 percent of the dissonance examples life total beef production in on the summary, the past years (Table 6). Beef exports vary from year to year and depend very much on the outbreaks of Foot and Mouth Disease and a positive immunological status of the animals due to compulsory vaccinations; meat exports beyond South America are insignificant. Industrial Revolution And Climate? Beef imports are negligible, like imports and exports of other meats.

Almost all wool and hides are processed locally or discarded. There is only commercial milk production where an efficient and reliable collection system and a processing plant have been built up. This is the case in the Central Department (around the capital Asuncion) with about 1,000,000 inhabitants, in the Boqueron and Presidente Hayes Departments (Chaco) and the Departments Caaguazu and Alto Parana (Oriental Region). Insignificant amounts of dairy products are exported since national production does not cover consumption. Imported milk equivalents (predominantly from Argentina) account in recent years for 7 to 13 percent of the lucretius summary national production of commercialised milk (Table 6). More than half of the essay pollution meat consumed is beef. As stated in Table 6, total meat consumption is high in Paraguay. On the other hand the supply of processed milk is unsatisfactory (less than 2/3 of the lucretius nature summary 150 kg/head/yr. recommended by revolution and climate change, the FAO). Table 6: Paraguay statistics of production, exports and consumption of animal products and important agro-industrial by-products used as animal feeds (FAO 2006) (percent cattle slaughtered) 1. Live cattle net export.

Net beef export. (1000 t) incl. offal. Mutton and goat meat production (1000 t) Pig meat production. Poultry meat production. Production of cattle hides. Milk production 2. Milk production 2. per milking cow (kg/yr.) Net milk product imports. (1000 kg milk equiv.)

Bovine meat supply. Total meat supply. Milk supply (kg/cap/yr.) Agro-industrial by-products for lucretius on the nature of things concentrates: 1 Sources: MAG (1992), DCEA (2000) and FAO (2006) 2 Only commercialised milk. 3 Bran yield: about 25 percent of wheat production - wheat exports. 4 Seed cakes (production - exports) of soy bean, cotton, sunflower and industrial revolution and climate groundnuts. The main forage resource for ruminant livestock is natural pasture, cultivated pastures, and native bush . The total area dedicated to livestock production is 19,900,000 ha which are distributed in the Oriental and the Occidental Regions as shown in Table 7. Table 7: Areas (millions of lucretius of things summary, hectares) of native and cultivated pastures and extensively grazed bush land in cognitive examples, Paraguay (Molas et al . 1996)

Native Grazing Resources in nature of things summary, Eastern Paraguay. Most of the grazing lands in How Antoni on Catenary, the Oriental Region are marginal for agriculture due to natural constraints such as poor drainage, shallow soils, and rocky soil . Basically there are two types of nature, native pastures in How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures Based on Catenary, Eastern Paraguay. Lowland grazing (Praderas Bajas): grazing lands on hydromorphic, periodically waterlogged and even swampy soils, mostly on the banks of rivers (particularly Rio Paraguay). However, there are also extended stretches of plains with hydromorphic planosols with an summary impermeable clayey subsoil towards the change central Oriental Region along riverain zones. Within these grazing lands, the dominant herbaceous species are large tussock grasses generally with low palatability and lucretius on the nature nutritive value Sorghastrum agrostoides, Panicum prionitis, Andropogon lateralis , and A. condensatus , and grasses of low growth habit, such as Andropogon selloanus, Leersia hexandra, Luziola peruviana, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Panicum millioides, Paspalum almum, Hemarthria altissima, Rottboellia selloana, Paspalum notatum, Axonopus compressus, A. affinis , and Paspalum plicatulum , all considered as highly palatable and essay pollution nutritive. Lucretius On The Of Things Summary? Moreover, herbaceous legumes such as Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, Macroptilium lathyroides and Arachis spp . are valuable components commonly found in the lowlands of the Oriental Region.

Hillside grazing (Praderas Altas): These are grazing lands in haitian beliefs, the rolling hills of eastern Paraguay, predominantly at lucretius on the of things summary, sites, sub-optimal for cropping in How Antoni Based on Catenary Essay, the Central Plateau and the Alto Parana Valley. Though generally not cultivated, native hillside grazing lands developed under human influence in forest clearings. Most of them maintain the aspect of a savanna or open woodland with varying densities of trees (even the planted coco-palm Acrocomia totai ). In the Central Plateau, grazing lands are often restricted to sandy soils with rocky outcrops (granite, sandstone, schist) and lucretius of things summary of limited fertility (high acidity, high aluminium and low phosphorous contents). In the Alto Parana Valley, fertility characteristics of the basaltic soils are better, however, grazing lands frequently present slopes marginal for agriculture. The most important indigenous forage grasses of hillside grazing lands are Paspalum notatum, Axonopus affinis, A. compressus, Paspalum plicatulum and Andropogon lateralis . Haitian Beliefs? Common valuable native legumes are Chamaecrista rotundifolia, Stylosanthes guianensis, Arachis spp . , and Alysicarpus sp . . Of Things? Among the components fitness. grasses of lucretius on the summary, low stock acceptability are Imperata brasilensis and Aristida spp . . And Reaction Time Fitness.? Weedy dicotyledoneous species commonly found are Vernonia chamaedrys, Baccharis sp ., Psidium araca, Butia yatay and Campomanesia obversa . Native Grazing Resources of the Chaco Region. On The Of Things Summary? The Occidental (Chaco) Region is an essay pollution extended alluvial plain with a gradient of rainfall and soil texture from lucretius on the nature north-west to south-east (more rain and industrial change finer texture as the on the of things distance from the does Andes Mountains increases). The agro-ecological conditions are good for permanent pastures.

However cropping faces some limitations and risks from the quantity and distribution of rainfall (Dry Chaco) and temporary waterlogging (Humid Chaco) respectively (Figure 4). The native grazing resources in the two major physiographic sub regions of the Chaco can be described as follows: The Humid Chaco (Bajo Chaco) : The grazing lands of the Humid Chaco are predominantly palm savannas with Copernicia alba on poorly drained, hydromorphic gleysols and planosols. The palm Copernicia tolerates fires and temporary waterlogging. It is lucretius on the nature summary found in densities of up to 100 trunks per hectare and its spread is promoted by cognitive dissonance examples everyday life, livestock (Degen 1996). These natural grazing lands contain many grasses of medium to high nutritive value and palatability, such as Leersia hexandra, Hemarthria altissima, Panicum elephantipes, Diplachne uninervia, Hymenachne amplexicaulis, Paspalum lividum, P. Lucretius Of Things? alcalinum, P. almum, Cynodon dactylon, Pennisetum nervosum and haitian beliefs Eriochloa montevidensis . Frequently found herbaceous legumes are Desmodium canum, Aeschynomene americana, A. denticulata, Desmanthus virgatus, Dolichopsis paraguariensis and Macroptilium lathyroides . Tussock grasses with rather low palatability are Sorghastrum agrostoides, Paspalum paniculatum, P. plicatulum and P. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things? conspersum. Reported carrying capacities are one American Livestock Unit (454 kg LW) per 2 to 4 ha (Ramirez and haitian beliefs Laneri 1989). Besides mechanical or chemical treatments or burning of the shrubby weeds ( Acacia curvifructa, Prosopis ruscifolia and Geoffroea decorticans, and Tessaria dodoneaefolia ), there are practically no interventions for the maintenance of good grazing economically feasible or necessary (Glatzle 1999).

Periodically and episodically flooded areas with waters from the Pilcomayo river in regions with rather low rainfall (below 750 mm) are to be considered as a transitional zone between the nature of things summary Humid and haitian beliefs the Dry Chaco. This zone along the left side riverbanks of the upper Picomayo-river is lucretius on the nature summary exposed to an extremely varying water regime, which may cause seasonally flooded grasslands to be reconverted into xeromorphic bush and vice versa within a few consecutive years. The Dry Chaco : Traditionally the most important natural grazing resource in time components, the Dry Chaco are the espartillo grasslands (campos) on the regosols or arenososls in old riverbeds of the former inland delta which shaped the landscape of the Central Chaco. These grasslands are characterised by abundance of the grass Elyonurus muticus (espartillo), not particularly palatable. Other grasses are Aristida circinalis, Paspalum chaseanum, Heteropogon contortus and Sporobolus pyramidalis . The espartillo-grasslands present a wealth of on the of things summary, native legumes as soon as fire frequency is reduced and disturbance by grazing increased. Among the more important legumes are Aeschynomene histrix, Stylosanthes leiocarpa, Galactia sp ., Macroptilium bracteatum, Mimosa chacoensis, M. Does? nuda, Rhynchosia balansae, Chamaecrista rotundifolia and on the of things summary Zornia crinita (Hacker et al.

1996). Industrial Revolution And Climate? Typical pasture weeds coming up in overgrazed espartillos are Sida spp ., Croton cujabensis, Aloysia virgata and Acacia aroma . On The Nature Of Things Summary? In former decades, a relatively high proportion of the campos was used for cropping by early European settlers and indigenous horticulturalists. Agility Time Components? Although the fertility status (organic matter, P, K) of virgin regosols is lucretius on the nature of things summary relatively high, continuous cropping with frequent tillage and without fertilization drastically reduced soil fertility. Nowadays, rundown regosols are restored establishing a permanent pasture (e.g. Haitian Beliefs? with Pangola grass) and introducing a suitable legume (e.g. Stylosanthes hippocampoides or Alysicarpus vaginalis ). Towards the sub-humid parts of the summary Central Chaco (south and east), inclusions of edaphic grasslands on poorly drained gleysols (so called water-camps ) are found with increasing density. The forage species occurring in the water-camps are essentially those listed for the Copernicia savannas in the Humid Chaco. Another important traditional natural forage resource in and reaction time of health-related fitness., the Dry Chaco is the native bush land ( montes ). Browsing the on the of things summary mostly thorny woody plants, such as Acacia praecox, A. Time Of Health-related Fitness.? aroma, Caesalpinia paraguariensis, Ruprechtia triflora, Capparis tweediana and lucretius nature summary C. retusa and eating the pods of various Prosopis and Acacia spp. (Morello and Toledo 1959) supports an change average stocking density of about one bovine animal unit to 10 to 15 ha of bush (Fretes et al.

1969). Understorey grasses are virtually absent: Setaria globulifera, S. fiebrigii and Digitaria sacchariflora are practically the only grasses found, but in very low frequency. There are studies demonstrating a severe degradation of the monte soils due to overgrazing under traditional grazing regimes. However, Adamoli et al. (1990) estimated the area affected by soil degradation in Chaco bush land to be less than one percent of the total area. Abril and Bucher (2001) reported that soil organic carbon losses are much lower under cultivated pastures than in over utilised bush land. 6. OPPORTUNITIES FOR IMPROVEMENT OF FODDER RESOURCES. Sown Pastures with Introduced Forages . The establishment of lucretius on the nature of things summary, pastures with selected grasses and legumes on cleared land raises herd productivity per unit area about ten fold (Glatzle and Cabrera 1996, and Table 3). Hence it is not surprising that the area of cultivated pastures increased five to six fold since 1980, mostly at the expense of native forests and bush. Large scale land clearing and pasture establishment obviously has adverse effects on landscape and species diversity and carbon sequestration. Therefore it is indispensable to take into cognitive dissonance life, account a number of land clearing regulations in order to maintain or create a healthy and diverse agro-ecosystem.

A steadily increasing number of farmers leave at least 25 percent of the forest, woodlands or bush of a property intact (Ley Forestal 422/73). Leave intact a bush strip of 100 m width in lucretius on the of things, east-west orientation, perpendicular to the prevailing wind (north-south) every 500 m and haitian beliefs around the property (Resolucion No. 729/2000) Leave bush borders at least 100 m wide around all types of temporary or permanent waters (rivers, lagoons, water-camps) (Decreto No. 18.831/86). A significantly higher biodiversity was found when pastures contained a large number of native bush niches (strips and islands) and lucretius on the when the examples everyday use of fire as a management tool was restricted or avoided (Glatzle 1999). Moreover, at sites with an elevated dry land salinity risk (high water table of saline ground water in a semi-arid climate, such as the Chaco), native bush fulfils the important role of preventing salinity due to the very high suction forces produced by many Chaco woody species, capable of lucretius summary, keeping the ground water at a low level (Glatzle et al. 2001).

Bush clearing at sites prone to salinisation has resulted in the loss of valuable pasture land. Pasture establishment in Paraguay with selected forages has a relatively short history but has reached significant importance during the past two decades (Table 7). Probably with the introduction and multiplication of buffel grass ( Cenchrus ciliaris ) by an American agricultural advisor of the Mennonite colonies in the Central Chaco, Robert Unruh, in the early nineteen fifties, cultivated pastures attained economic importance for the first time. Later on, a number of other introduced grasses gained commercial importance and were multiplied on Complex on Catenary Essay a national level (Table 8). When the German-Paraguayan Project Estacion Experimental Chaco Central started in the early nineteen-nineties, a new era started for the commercial use of lucretius of things, introduced pasture legumes (Table 8). In order to maintain productivity, cultivated pastures require, even more than native grazing lands, a correct adjustment of agility and reaction fitness., stocking rates.

Typical stocking rates range from about 0.5 to 2 bovine units per hectare along the rainfall gradient across Paraguay, from north-west to south-east. Lucretius On The? Maximum energy conversion from Panicum maximum cv. Gatton and Cynodon nlemfuensis pastures in the Central Chaco by grazing steers (into animal liveweight per essay pollution ha) was attained by a stocking rate of 1.8 AU/ ha (Stosiek et al. 1997). This figure exceeds, however, the lucretius recommended long term ecological optimum stocking rate for this zone (0.8 to 1.2 AU/ ha). Maintenance interventions, such as woody weed control, are necessary to maintain long term profitability of sown pastures. Other grasses cultivated on agility and reaction are two components a commercial scale, but of much less importance than the ones mentioned in Table 8, are: Chloris gayana cv. Callide, Panicum coloratum cv. Lucretius On The Of Things Summary? Bambatsi, Brachiaria decumbens, B. mutica, B. humidicola, Cynodon sp . Examples? Tifton 85 and Callie, Digitaria milanjiana, Cenchrus ciliaris Bella, Acroceras macrum and Dichanthium caricosum . Pasture legumes of on the nature of things, secondary importance are: Macroptilium atropurpureum Siratro, Lotononis bainesii, Stylosanthes scabra cv.

Seca and Siran, S. hamata cv. Industrial Revolution And Climate? Amiga, Clitoria ternatea cv. Milgarra and Chamaecrista rotundifolia cv. Lucretius On The Nature Summary? Wynn. Other Fodders. Among the does most important cultivated forages is Silage Sorghum for dairy enterprises. In the Central Chaco (accounting for about 50 percent of the national milk production), the area cultivated with Silage Sorghum is lucretius on the summary estimated at over 10,000 hectares. At smallholder level in Eastern Paraguay some silage is made from Pennisetum purpureum (Cameroon grass). Part of the grain Sorghum (23,000 t on dissonance examples life 16,000 ha in Paraguay) and maize (900,000 t on 370,000 ha in Paraguay) is lucretius on the of things summary used for concentrates, to be mixed at farm or at small commercial enterprise level with the cognitive everyday life agro-industrial by-products obtained predominantly from oilseeds (Table 6). No statistics are available on total concentrate feed production, nor on the proportions used to feed dairy cows, pigs, horses or poultry.

However, concentrates used for beef production are negligible. A typical emergency feed is sugar cane, grown on a small area on many farms and harvested in the dry season. During prolonged drought periods (about one in 10 years), whole sugar cane (produced in more humid Eastern Paraguay) is sold to lucretius on the of things summary, cattle farmers in the Dry Chaco to enable them to maintain at othello die, least their breeding herd. There is little haymaking in Paraguay. Similarly, there is virtually no irrigated fodder production due to the absence of irrigation water in the Chaco (and poor external drainage) the high rainfall reliability in Eastern Paraguay the of things high opportunity costs (irrigated vegetables are more profitable than forages).

Table 8: Commercially important pasture grasses and legumes in Paraguay. Cultivar or/and common name. Since 1990 most important grass for revolution and climate change newly cleared lands. In the on the nature of things Chaco, many 100,000 hectare of highly productive Gatton pastures. Colonial and Tanzania. Grown on the more fertile basaltic soils in East Paraguay. Less important in die, the Chaco. Buffel grass, Texas 4464. Since nineteen fifties.

Several 100,000 ha in of things, the Dry Chaco. Otherwise replaced by Gatton. Several 100,000 ha along the limit of the othello die Dry and Humid Chaco, in the Humid Chaco, and on the fertile soils in East Paraguay. Wide spread in East Paraguay predominantly on infertile sandy soils. Nature? In the Chaco not frequent.

Tolerant to cognitive examples life, spittle bug. Digitaria eriantha var . pentzii. Several 10,000 hectare on sandy soils and at shortly inundated sites in East and West Py. Important since 1995 in lucretius on the nature, the Chaco to restore rundown Gatton and buffel pastures. Restores rundown arable regosols in Gaudi´s Complex Based, the Chaco. Combines well with Pangola. Also used as a summer active ley legume. Excellent to restore rundown arable regosols. Combines well with Pangola.

Cultivated legume, native to the Chaco. Adapts well to summary, heavy textured soils. Unsatisfactory long term persistence under grazing is limiting factor. Cunningham and Tarramba. Used as a fodder bank by an increasing number of How Antoni Complex Structures Essay, smallholders and big farms. Winter active, to be mixed into permanent pastures in the Alto Parana Valley, East Py. Winter active ley legume, relatively rare. Constraints. The main constraints to pasture establishment, grassland management, forage and ruminant production and product marketing in Paraguay are the following: Shrubby weed invasion in cultivated pastures and native grasslands (requires interventions every two to three years) Soil compaction due to overstocking and lucretius on the nature of things loss of soil plasticity (loss of organic matter) Reduced pasture productivity due to nitrogen deficiency in older pastures Uncontrolled fires entering from neighbouring properties, destroying fodder reserves Wind erosion on sandy, denuded soils Increasing pests and diseases, such as leaf cutting ants ( Acromyrmex landolti and Atta vollenweideri ), grasshoppers ( Staurorhectus longicornis ), caterpillars ( Spodoptera frugiperda ), spittle bugs ( Zulia sp . ), red spider mite ( Tetranychus sp. ), buffel blight ( Pyricularia grisea ), ergot ( Claviceps maximensis ) etc. Unexpectedly prolonged droughts, particularly in the Chaco High risks of dryland salinity within a belt of about 500 km long and 50 to revolution and climate, 75 km wide with a shallow saline ground water table, right across the lucretius nature of things Paraguayan Chaco from north-east to haitian beliefs, south-west Long distances to the slaughter houses (reduces profitability for beef) Absence of on the of things summary, milk collection systems in many parts of the country. Pasture seed production.

There is a strong small to medium scale pasture seed production in the Central Chaco of Paraguay at farm level. The seed produced are Panicum maxium cv. How Antoni Complex Systems? Gatton, Cenchrus ciliaris cv. Texas 4464 and Bella, Urochloa mosambicensis, Chloris gayana cv. Callide, selections of Digitaria milanjiana , Panicum coloratum cv. Bambatsi, Sorghum sudanense, Leucaena leucocephala, Alysicarpus vaginalis, Desmanthus virgatus cv. Filadelfia and Stylosanthes hippocampoides cv. Oxley. Total seed production attains several hundred tons a year.

Although there is no pasture seed certification, seed quality commonly competes with certified Argentine or Brazilian seed. Most seed is locally marketed directly between farms or via the lucretius nature of things co-operatives of the zone. Does? Bigger seed producers also export Gatton Panic seed to neighbouring Argentina and Bolivia. However, practically all Brachiaria spp . On The Nature Summary? seed and most Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania and die cv. Colonial seed which are used in lucretius nature, Paraguay, are imported from Brazil, because seed yields are too low under local conditions.

7. RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATIONS AND PERSONNEL. At present little research is carried out actively in Paraguay in does othello die, the fodder and pasture sector. However, in the past, international or bilateral programmes and projects introduced and nature of things summary screened pasture species, initiated trials on pasture and herd handling and grazing management, and disseminated innovations in the forage and livestock sector. For example: an American agronomist employed by the MCC (Mennonite Central Committee) who introduced buffel grass and dissonance everyday initiated pasture cultivation in lucretius nature summary, the Chaco the Gaudi´s Based on Catenary Systems Servicio Tecnico Interamericano de Cooperacion Agricola (STICA) who evaluated for the first time cattle breeds, native and introduced to Paraguay a Swiss project in lucretius on the summary, connection with the Instituto Agrario Nacional (IAN) in Caacupe a USAID project in connection with PRONIEGA (Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera) in Pozo Colorado a French project in connection with the Fondo Gandero in La Patria a German project in co-operation with DIA (Direccion de Investigacion Agricola) in agility and reaction time are two of health-related, the Central Chaco (Estacion Experimental Chaco Central, Cruce de los Pioneros). Besides that, there were many initiatives by individual farmers to introduce and test species they brought in from other countries, mostly Brazil and Argentina. Most of the Brachiaria species and a number of Cynodon cultivars came in through this channel and were spread from farmer to farmer. More recently, livestock farmers interested in applied experimentation became privately organised in the Consorcio Ganadero para la Experimentacion Agropecuaria (CEA). CEA holds a highly appreciated international congress on technology transfer every year in Asuncion at the headquarters of the Asociacion Rural del Paraguay (ARP).

CEA members even organised an information travel of farmers to Queensland, Australia, from where a lot of new ideas and aspects on cattle breeds and grass cultivars came into the country. Moreover, the ARP is the organiser of a big annual Agricultural Trade Fair, where regularly cattle breeds and adapted pasture seed are exposed and marketed. On a regional level, farmers conscious of sustainable and profitable production systems organise themselves in so called CREA-groups (Consorcio Regional de Extension Agropecuaria). Some private CREA groups work very efficiently, and sometimes contrast favourably with public extension services, such as divisions of the of things summary Ministry based Direccion de Extension Agricola y Ganadera (DEA) or even services offered by How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based Systems, credit institutes, such as CAH, BNF and Fondo Gandero. Only about one in ten farms is reached by a pubic extension service at a nation-wide average (Molas et al. 1996). However, many producers#146; co-operatives provide competent technical assistance to their members. A new programme has started in October 2001 at Loma Plata, Chaco, the nature of things summary Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS), initiated by the private foundation DeSdel-Chaco (Fundacion para el Desarrollo Sostenible del Chaco), and sponsored by the Swiss foundation AVINA (Accion para la Vida y la Naturaleza).

This programme integrates, co-ordinates and complements the industrial and climate change on-farm-experimentation and technology dissemination activities carried out by various co-operatives and their extension services, and on the of things summary private farmer groups within the Paraguayan Chaco. Furthermore, INTTAS is to reactivate a virtually paralysed public research station in the Chaco Region, implementing joint research programmes, and to promote regular exchange of experience with private and public entities of interest from the cognitive examples everyday other Chaco countries, Argentina and lucretius summary Bolivia. The Direccion de Investigacion Agricola (DIA), part of the Ministry of Agriculture, carries out othello die research mainly in the cropping sector in lucretius on the nature summary, 9 research stations spread over the country. However, little importance is given to research in pastures and forages. The mandate of another Ministry-dependent research unit, the Direccion de Investigacion de Produccion Animal (DIPA), is to conduct research in the animal production sector in three stations across the country. Again, the products of co-operative based and other private initiatives on animal breeding, animal selection and improvement of and reaction time of health-related fitness., herd handling are more obvious than public efforts in this field. The low efficiency of on the nature, public research in Paraguay is othello primarily due to the lack of operational funds. More than 80% of the small budgets available (including revenues generated on the research stations) are used to cover the personnel costs.

In contrast to many other countries throughout Latin America efforts to revamp public-sector agricultural research and development agencies in Paraguay have yet to come to fruition. Major change was proposed in summary, the mid-1990s in the form of the establishment of a national agricultural research institute, the Paraguayan Institute of Agrarian Technology (IPTA), as a joint public-private venture with multiple funding sources. The proposal for the creation of IPTA is still pending, however, and it now appears that no legislative decision will be made until at least 2002, following a public reform process that is currently underway in Paraguay Beintema et al. (2000). On the other hand meanwhile, a strong negative selection process is being observed, by essay pollution, skilled technicians and of things summary scientists moving away from the public sector (DIA and revolution change DIPA) into private research and development entities. Some kind of extension work and small scale experimentation in the forage and livestock sector is done by institutions of on the nature of things summary, higher education which are:

Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias (FCV) - Universidad Nacional de Asuncion (UNA) Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Catolica Nuestra Senora de Asuncion (UCA) Facultad de Ingenieria Agronomica Ciencias Agrarias (FCA) - Universidad Nacional del Este (UNE) Distinguished Technicians currently engaged in public or private research programmes in the pasture and forage sector are: Jefe Seccion Pastura. Estacion Experimental Chaco Central. Cruce de los Pioneros. Ruta Trans-Chaco - km 412.

Estacion Experimental Pilar. Tacuary esq. Dr. Mazzei. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Dpto. Revolution? Produccion Animal. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco.

C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias, UNA. Campo Universitario, San Lorenzo. Servicio Agropecuario, Chortitzer Komite. Loma Plata - 101 / Chaco. C.d.c. 883 Asuncion. Tel: xx 595 918 2301. Abril, A. and E.H.

Bucher (2001): Overgrazing and soil carbon dynamics in the western Chaco of Argentina. Applied Soil Ecology 16, 243 - 249. Adamoli, J., E. Sennhauser, J.M. Acero and A. Rescia (1990): Stress and disturbance: Vegetation dynamics in on the of things, the dry Chaco region of essay pollution, Argentina. Journal of Biogeography 17, 491 - 500. AHK (1999): PARAGUAY . Deutsch-Paraguayische Industrie- und Handelskammer, Asuncion, Paraguay. Beintema, N.M., P. On The Nature? Zambrano, M. Nunez, and P.G. Pardey (2000): Agricultural RD in Paraguay: Policy, Investments, and Institutional Profile. International Food Policy Research Institute, Washington D.C. Bertoni, G.T. and J.R. Gorham (1973): The Geography of Paraguay.

In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays. And Reaction Time Components Fitness.? Academy of the Arts and Sciences of the Americas, Miami, pp. 9 - 18. BGR (2001): Proyecto Sistema Ambiental del Chaco. Inventario, evaluacion y recomendaciones para la proteccion de los espacios naturales en la Region Occidental.

Bundesanstalt fur Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover. DCEA (2000 ): Sintesis Estadistica 1999/2000. Direccion de Censos y Estadisticas Agropecuarias, Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. Degen, R. (1996): Dinamica poblacional de Copernicia alba Morong Caranda#146;y. Lucretius Of Things? Direccion de Ordenamiento Ambiental and Estacion Experimental Chaco Central (unpublished report) Eidt, R.C. Agility And Reaction Are Two Components Fitness.? (1969): The climatology of South America. Of Things Summary? In E.J.J. Illes, H. Klinge, G.H. Schwabe, and H. Sioli (eds.). Biogeography and cognitive examples everyday life ecology of South America. Vol.

1. Dr. W. Junk, The Hague. FAO (2006): Online Statistical Database. http://apps.fao.org. Fatecha, A. (1989): Present and potential area for agricultural use in the Arid Chaco of on the nature summary, Paraguay. In M. Hump and agility and reaction time are two of health-related fitness. M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . Lucretius Of Things? DSE Feldafing, pp. 26-49.

Fretes, R., C. Gay and R. Samudio (1969): Las praderas naturales del Paraguay. I. Clasificacion y caracterizacion. Programa Nacional de Investigacion y Extension Ganadera. Publicacion No. 6, San Lorenzo.

Glatzle, A. and examples life A.J.N. Cabrera (1996): Potencial de las pasturas cultivadas en el Chaco Paraguayo. In Consorcio de Ganaderos para Experimentacion Agropecuaria (ed.): CEA #146;96 ; Forrajes. III er Congreso Internacional de Transferencia Tecnologica Agropecuaria (17 y 18 de Nov. Summary? 1996), Asuncion, 155 - 168. Glatzle, A. (1999): Compendio para el Manejo de Pasturas en el Chaco . Edicion El Lector, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, A., R. Schultze-Kraft, and R. Mitlohner (2001): Potential Role of Native Bush in the Chaco for Mitigation of revolution and climate, Dryland Salinity in Grassland . XIX International Grassland Congress, February 2001, Piracicaba, Brazil, ID 24-02. Gorham, J.R. (1973): The Paraguayan Chaco and Its Rainfall.

In J.R. Gorham (ed .). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . On The Summary? Academy of the Arts and time components Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 39 - 60. GTZ (1994): PARAGUAY. Perfil del pais con informaciones y comentarios relacionados al desarrollo economico y socia l. Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Technische Zusammenarbeit, Eschborn, Germany. Hacker, J.B., A. Glatzle and R. Vanni (1996): Paraguay - a potential source of new pasture legumes for the subtropics. Tropical Grasslands 30, 273 - 281. MAG (1992): Censo Agropecuario Nacional 1991 . Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay. MAG (1996): Lineamiento Estrategico para el Desarrollo del Sector Agropecuario y Forestal. Ministerio de Agricultura y Ganaderia, Asuncion, Paraguay.

Mereles, F., R. Degen and N. Nature? Lopez de Kochalca (1992): Humedales en el Paraguay: Breve resena de su vegetacion. Essay Pollution? Amazoniana 12, 305 - 316. Molas, O., R. Heyn and R. Arias (1996): Documento base sobre el sector pecuario y su impacto ambiental. On The Nature Of Things Summary? ENAPRENA, Asuncion, Paraguay. Morello, J. and C. Saravia Toledo (1959): El Bosque chaqueno.

II. La ganaderia y el bosque en el Oriente de Salta. Time Are Two Components Of Health-related Fitness.? Revista Agronomica del Noroeste Argentino 3 (1-2), 209 - 258. Ramella, I. and R. Spichiger (1989): Interpretacion preliminar del medio fisico y de la vegetacion del Chaco Boreal. Contribucion al estudio de la flora de la vegetacion del Chaco. Candollea 44, 639 - 680. Ramirez, E.G. and J.L.

Laneri (1989): Fodder and Feeding of Cattle in the Paraguayan Chaco. Lucretius Of Things Summary? In M. Hump and M.A. Tiefert (eds.). Agricultural Production under Semi-Arid Conditions with Special Reference to the Paraguayan Chaco: Strategies and Appropriate Technologies . Essay Pollution? DSE Feldafing, pp. Nature? 139-148.

Sachez, T.F. (1973): The climate of Paraguay. In J.R. Gorham (ed.). Paraguay: Ecological Essays . Academy of the Arts and essay pollution Sciences of the Americas, Miami, U.S.A., pp. 33 - 38. Stosiek, D., A. Glatzle and R. Schultze-Kraft (1997): Utilized Metabolizable Energy and Its Impact on the Management of Grass Pastures in the Central Chaco of lucretius nature, Paraguay. Industrial And Climate Change? Proc. XVIII th International Grassland Congress , Winnipeg and Saskatoon, Canada, 29-7 - 29-8. Tarso Zuquim, P. and I. Lima Serrano (1997): Tuiuiu: Under the skies of the Pantanal. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things? Empresa de Artes, Sao Paulo, Brazil (work sponsored by change, Monsanto do Brazil)

Verma, G.P. (1982 ): Research needs for the development and improvement of dryland agriculture in the Paraguayan Chaco . Unpublished report of the Technical and nature of things Economic Co-operation between the does die Government of the Republic of India, New Delhi, India and the Government of the Republic of Paraguay, Asuncion, Paraguay. Glatzle, Dr. Albrecht. Asesor Tecnico Administrativo de la Iniciativa para la Investigacion y Transferencia de Tecnologia Agraria Sostenible (INTTAS)

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2.1: Introduction to on the summary, Writing Secure PHP Code. If you write enough code, you will accidentally write a vulnerability at some point in your career as a developer. This section of the Wordfence Learning Center is designed to help you as a beginner or advanced level developer reduce the probability that you will release a vulnerability into production. We will do this by Structures Systems, starting with a conceptual overview of PHP security. We will then explore types of vulnerabilities with examples. On The Nature Of Things Summary. In later sections we will provide you with a few tools to help you detect vulnerabilities in your code. We recommend you go through each article in order to build a solid foundational knowledge that you can build on revolution, as you progress.

The time you invest here will benefit you and users of your web applications for years to come by helping you create more secure PHP applications. Much of the advice we provide is lucretius nature of things summary applicable to PHP development in general, but we do include functions and examples in these articles that are specific to WordPress development. Even if you are not writing WordPress applications, we encourage you to read these articles because they will provide you with an excellent foundation for writing secure PHP code. If you later decide to join the WordPress community and write your first plugin, you will be able to produce high quality secure code that will gain you friends in the community and make your code more valuable to employers and Complex Structures Based on Catenary Systems, your customers. This introductory article will provide you with a conceptual understanding of how vulnerabilities are introduced into PHP code in general and WordPress plugins in particular. Where and on the summary, Why Vulnerabilities Appear in Complex Based Systems Essay WordPress. WordPress as a publishing platform consists of WordPress core , which is the core content management system. This consists of PHP code, HTML, javascript code and CSS rules.

WordPress cores code is nature of things inspected often by the open source community. As Eric Raymond says in the Cathedral and the Bazaar , Given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow In other words, there are so many people looking at WordPress core these days, its unlikely that someone wont notice a bug or vulnerability, report it and take credit for it. A WordPress site also includes a theme which is mostly HTML, CSS and examples life, javascript and usually includes a small amount of PHP code. Sites dont change their themes often once theyve installed them, so new vulnerabilities or bugs are not likely to be introduced into a sites theme. Themes dont usually contain much PHP code and lucretius nature of things, the code complexity is low. With just WordPress core and a theme, you have a basic site that provides the usual functionality that WordPress includes. So far you havent introduced much new PHP code into the system.

By adding WordPress plugins , a website gains complex new features and behaviors. WordPress plugins may include: Comment spam filters like Akismet E-commerce platforms like WooCommerce Auction systems to turn your site into a kind of eBay Security plugins like Wordfence. There are over 40,000 plugins in the WordPress official plugin repository alone with over 1 billion total downloads. They provide a huge range of cognitive dissonance examples life, functionality to WordPress sites. WordPress plugins include a large amount of PHP code in fact they are mostly PHP. The level of complexity of the PHP code in a plugin is also high. Lucretius Nature Of Things Summary. This makes them more likely to contain vulnerabilities. Most vulnerabilities are introduced into WordPress via plugins. You can see this in action if you view WPVulnDB.com, which maintains a database of WordPress vulnerabilities.

As you can see there are a handful of vulnerabilities reported every year in WordPress core and in die themes, while plugins provide a constant stream of vulnerability reports. Because plugins are by far the biggest source of new vulnerabilities in WordPress, we will spend some time in our guides on writing secure PHP code focusing on WordPress plugins and how to nature of things, improve their security. Basic Principles of Writing Secure PHP Code. If you can memorize the above line Never Trust User Input and incorporate it into your daily coding practices, you are already halfway to writing more secure PHP code. The majority of vulnerabilities in PHP code are caused by a developer that did not properly mistrust user input. In other words, the developer did not include code to correctly or sufficiently sanitize some form of user input. In the essay pollution, Akismet vulnerability reported in October of lucretius on the nature of things summary, 2015, Akismet was not correctly sanitizing user input via comments, which led to a Cross Site Scripting vulnerability (an XSS). In August of 2015 a vulnerability in agility time of health-related WordPress core was discovered where WordPress core was trusting user input to provide a valid post ID, without verifying it. A subscriber level user could use an invalid post ID (along with a race condition) to elevate their privilege level to a higher access level. If core had been correctly checking whether a post existed before checking if a user had the correct level of access, the vulnerability could have been avoided.

We encourage you to lucretius summary, read the essay pollution, vulnerability disclosure in the latter case because it will give you a good idea of lucretius summary, how closely your code may be scrutinized by a researcher. [Hint: VERY closely. This was an extremely advanced vulnerability] The most recent 7 plugin vulnerabilities at cognitive dissonance life the time of writing this are all caused by lucretius of things summary, incorrectly trusting user input. They are either XSS, CSRF, RFI or SQL Injection vulnerabilities, all of which are caused by agility time, a developer not correctly sanitizing user input before using it in the application or by not sanitizing output before it is sent to the web browser. Remember this saying: Sanitize input early, sanitize output late

Our applications are not very useful without user input in the form of comments, blog posts, star ratings, forms that visitors fill out and so on. When data arrives in your web application from a site visitors browser, it needs to be sanitized as it arrives. You must ensure that you sanitize it as soon as it arrives or as early as possible before other parts of the application interact with the on the nature summary, data. Our web applications are also much more interesting when they can share user input with other site visitors by sending it back to a web browser. We might display comments, show published posts, share the results of a survey with other site visitors and so on. All this data is stored user input that is cognitive examples everyday life being output to the browser. Of Things Summary. Even if youve sanitized this data as it arrives, it needs to be re-sanitized when it is displayed to other site visitors. When you sanitize output, you need to sanitize as late as possible . Haitian Beliefs. That way you can be sure that it is not modified after it is on the of things sanitized and you only sanitize it once: right before it is revolution change sent to the web browser. That is why we invented the saying above: Sanitize input early, sanitize output late. Use this as a reminder you need to sanitize user data once as soon as it arrives and again right before it leaves. Sometimes you might be receiving user input data from an API or a data feed into your application.

You might be relying on another application to sanitize the data for you. Ideally you would re-sanitize any data that arrives in on the your application, but this is not always feasible for performance reasons or because the data is large and complex and it would require a lot of code to sanitize it. In this case you need to remember to, at the very least, sanitize the output. Its easy to cognitive examples everyday life, forget that data you are receiving from somewhere other than your own application might also be user input data, and on the nature, might contain malicious code. Sometimes you dont control the output. Occasionally you might receive data from users on haitian beliefs, your website and send it to an external application via, for example, a REST API that you have published. Make sure that you sanitize all user input early, as it arrives in lucretius of things summary your application before you send it out via the API. By doing this you help keep users of your data safe.

You should not assume that developers using your API are sanitizing data on and reaction time components, their end and that you can send them raw user input. How to Sanitize, Validate and Escape Input. In the lucretius on the, above discussion, we use the term sanitize or sanitization as a global term to describe the idea of making sure that your data arriving at an application is safe for the application to interact with, and data leaving (being outputted) is safe for consumption. There are three ways to make sure data is safe: Validation: Validation makes sure that you have the right kind of data. For example, you might make sure that a field specifying a number of and climate change, items in a cart is an integer by using PHPs is_numeric() function.

If it returns false then you send an of things summary error back to haitian beliefs, the browser asking them for a valid integer. On The Of Things. When you test input for valid data and return error messages to the user, that is components of health-related fitness. validation. Sanitization: This removes any harmful data. On The Nature Of Things Summary. You might strip out script tags from form data. Or you might remove quotes from an and climate change HTML attribute before sending it to the browser. This is all sanitization because it removes harmful data. On The Nature Summary. Escaping: This takes any harmful data and makes it harmless. Essay Pollution. For example, you might escape HTML tags on output.

If someone includes a script tag which can result in an XSS vulnerability, you might output it as lt;scriptgt; where you have escaped the greater and less than signs to make it harmless. Validation routines are normally used in a conditional statement e.g. Sanitization takes some data and cleans it for you, returning the clean version. e.g. Escaping routines make potentially harmful data safe. They are frequently used as follows: When to Sanitize, Validate and Escape. As we mentioned above, to ensure that your code and your application users are safe, you need to of things, make sure that your data is agility time are two components fitness. safe when it arrives and when it leaves. That means you need to on the nature of things, perform checks at input and examples everyday life, output. As data arrives your first step should be to validate it.

Make sure integers are in fact integers and that no unusual or disallowed data is arriving in lucretius summary your application. The next step at essay pollution input is to nature summary, sanitize it and strip out anything potentially harmful. You will rarely escape data at essay pollution input because your application will most likely need to work with the raw data, and you have already made it safe by validating and sanitizing. As data leaves your application, you need to remove any potentially harmful data again through sanitization. The reason you sanitize again on lucretius on the, output is because a hacker may have tricked your application into creating harmful data for output, so you need to re-check that your output data is How Antoni Structures on Catenary safe. Then you need to escape the data to make sure it is suitable for whatever medium it is being output to. Lucretius Of Things. You may need to turn HTML tags into HTML entities to make them safe for the web browser.

Or you may need to remove single and essay pollution, double quotes if your output is going to on the nature of things, be used as an How Antoni Complex Structures Based on Catenary HTML attribute. Output Vectors and lucretius on the nature of things, Vulnerabilities. Most people think of output as writing from a PHP application back to the web browser. Die. But there are different places data leaves your application and lucretius summary, they are closely related to the kinds of vulnerabilities that your code can introduce into haitian beliefs, an application. We discuss the different kinds of output here. We have named these output vectors because the phrase attack vectors is lucretius of things used to describe different entry points into die, an application. Output vectors we feel is an appropriate term because where you write your data is lucretius nature of things closely tied to components of health-related, the vulnerabilities or attack vectors you introduce into your application. The most common place data is nature of things sent to by a PHP application is to a site visitors web browser. Essay Pollution. This is trivial to on the nature of things summary, do in PHP using the echo() function. Because it is so commonly used and industrial revolution change, so easy to do, it also introduces the most common form of vulnerability in web applications: The Cross Site Scripting, or XSS vulnerability. Here is how easy it is to nature, write an XSS vulnerability:

If you visit a web page with the above code, and use a URL as follows: You will see an alert box appear. This simply proves that you can execute javascript code fed to the application. To avoid this vulnerability in a WordPress plugin, you should have done the following: As you can see, we are first validating that we received a number as it arrives in the application. Then we sanitize before output by How Antoni, stripping out anything that isnt a number before sending the data back to lucretius on the of things summary, the web browser.

We will go into more detail on XSS vulnerabilities in a later section. Another place data exits your application is into the database. A database is change a fully functioning application in its own right that can respond to on the summary, commands from your application. If you allow a visitor to your website to cognitive dissonance, send anything they want to your database, they could persuade your database to give them all of of things summary, your data, which would be a disaster for your site members privacy. For this reason you need to dissonance examples, make sure that any data sent to your database is lucretius safe.

The most common attack on and climate, your database is a SQL injection attack. This is a way for an attacker to send arbitrary commands to your database to either add or update data in an unauthorized way, or read data they should not have access to, like passwords or member email addresses. Many PHP applications and nature of things, WordPress plugins write data to files. If an attacker can trick an application into haitian beliefs, writing PHP code into a file with the correct name, they can then execute that file and on the, gain full access to your website. For this reason its important to make sure that data being written to a file is safe, and the filename being used is Essay safe too. One of the most famous vulnerabilities in WordPress was the lucretius on the of things summary, TimThumb vulnerability that fetched images from the web and stored them as files on a website. An attacker could trick a WordPress plugin to fetch a PHP file instead and store that on the filesystem of the haitian beliefs, website. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things Summary. The attacker then visited the Gaudi´s Structures on Catenary Systems, PHP file and it would execute. On The Nature Of Things. Using this technique, the haitian beliefs, attacker could get the website to download malicious PHP code and then execute that code. The problem with the TimThumb vulnerability was that the nature summary, application never validated and sanitized the contents of the file it was fetching.

It also never sanitized and escaped the data it was writing to the file when it saved it on the websites filesystem. And furthermore, it never made sure that the filename being used was a non-executable filename. As you can see, if the developer was validating, sanitizing and haitian beliefs, escaping correctly at input and lucretius on the, output, they would have had several opportunities to essay pollution, catch this kind of attack. A shell command is another data output vector in your application. It is a place where you could potentially output user-data which may allow an attacker to trick your application into nature of things, executing undesirable shell commands.

It is industrial unusual to execute shell commands from a PHP web application and in general we recommend against it. Lucretius Nature Of Things Summary. Instead use built-in PHP functions to do things like directory listings, file manipulation, text searching in files and so on. Components Fitness.. Very occasionally, shell commands are unavoidable. If you are executing a shell command, we strongly recommend against including any user data or data that has arrived from an external source. If you absolutely must execute a shell command in of things summary PHP that involves external data, you should use very strict validation, sanitization and escaping. Othello. Functions like intval() that strip out everything except integers are useful for sanitization in this scenario.

This brings us to the conclusion of lucretius nature, our introduction to does, PHP security. We havent looked at much code yet. This was a conceptual introduction to help you understand how vulnerabilities are introduced into an application, how they are avoided and to which areas of your application you should be paying attention. We go into more detail in the coming sections. Did you enjoy this post? Share it! 2.2: How to Prevent Cross Site Scripting Attacks. The WordPress Security Learning Center.

From WordPress security fundamentals to expert developer resources, this learning center is nature of things summary meant for every skill level. Get serious about WordPress Security, start right here. Protect your websites with the #1 WordPress Security Plugin.

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Advertising Campaign for Strongbow Essay Sample. Advertising is an essential marketing tool that most companies employ because it creates consumer awareness of the on the summary, firms product/service offering thereby generating demand and increasing sales which ultimately lead to profit. Effective advertising must be tailored to resonate with the target market segment (of the brand/product/service being offered). The message communicated to the consumer (about the product) must therefore be catchy, exciting, simple and haitian beliefs, easy to understand (Exforsys Inc., 2009). Our company, Loves ads, understands and applies these basic principles of advertising excellence. That is why we are counted among the worlds foremost advertising companies. This report proposes the activation of a 6-month advertising campaign for Strongbow Cider in the UK. The campaign is aimed at winning over a newer, younger demographic of alcoholic beverage consumers and ultimately increasing market share for our client, Strongbow.

The report details how we will attain this objective via our Strongbow real man campaign. Loves ads is a globally renowned advertising agency which was established in 1998. We are headquartered in London, UK and currently operate in 50 countries around the world. In the previous year 2011, Loves ads generated revenue of up to 1.1 billion GBP leading to a profit of 110 million GBP. Loves ads major proficiencies are: * Strategic Brand Management. * Marketing Communications Research. Lucretius Of Things? * Strategic Ad Promotional campaigns. * Brand Repositioning Campaigns. Through these proficiencies we have consistently delivered the haitian beliefs, following outcomes for our clients: * Improving brand awareness/recognition. * Boosting sales/Market Penetration. * Creating memorable, creative and effective ads. Although we work with a diverse array of businesses in on the of things, different sectors, we specialize mostly in FMCGs and have delivered excellent results for many of our FMCG clients, in several cases exceeding our projected ROI for our ad campaigns.

Our major clients include: Gillette, Canon, LOreal, Kelloggs, Diageo (Guinness), Pepsico, Red Bull, Absolut Vodka etc. Industrial Revolution And Climate? Most notable among our recent successes, is our Red Bull gives you wings to fly campaign for Red Bull, which culminated in our One giant leap for mankind sub-campaign, chronicling the adventures of brand ambassador; Felix Baumgartner as he defied all odds and lucretius nature, became the first man to break the industrial change, sound-barrier with his 24-mile space jump. Nature? Our timely association of the brand with the industrial, sky-divers exploits demonstrates our knack for timely innovation. Our ethos remains Love for creativity and excellence in advertising, and thats why we consistently produce the on the nature of things summary, most profitable ads for our clients. II. Client brief.

Strongbow cider is a low alcohol beverage produced using a traditional English recipe. It comprises an ad-mixture of haitian beliefs, bitter-sweet cider, apple concentrates and sugar. At least, 50 varieties of nature, culinary apples grown in England and France are used in does, the production process (GAB, 2012). The Strongbow bottle is strikingly similar in appearance to a beer bottle. The drink is available in the UK on draught (with 4.5% alcohol content) and on the of things, also in cans and bottles (with 5% alcohol content) (Bargain Booze, 2012). Each Strongbow bottle or can features the haitian beliefs, signature colours, black and on the nature of things, gold with white lettering plus the brand logo; a male figure in relief stretching a bow in haitian beliefs, order to of things summary, launch an die, arrow. The brand name and logo of Strongbow are based on lucretius on the of things Richard Strongbow de Clare, A Norman knight who was nicknamed Strongbow for his dexterity with the bow and arrow. The logo depicts his bow-stance before shooting the arrow and emphasizes strength and masculinity, values that are associated with the brand (Strongbow Gold, 2012).

The UK cider market is growing increasingly competitive due to expansion of the Based Systems Essay, market size and the continual introduction of on the nature of things summary, newer brands. Somersby by Carlsberg is the latest entrant, having been launched officially into the UK market in early October (Marketing Week, 2012). Within the past three years alone, assessments by market watchers indicate that the cider market has increased by 3% in essay pollution, sales volume and 5% in sales value. Research shows that ciders and other low-alcohol beverages currently constitute 38.3% of the alcohol market. On The Nature? The last eight years has seen the market for Gaudi´s Complex Structures Based Systems cider become stronger as initial perceptions of cider as a drink for females (due to their low alcohol and lucretius summary, sweet taste) are waning. This marked consumer attitude change is mainly attributable to Strongbows marketing communications which remained focused on men while other ciders primarily targeted women. This approach has paid dividends as Strongbow, remains the market leader with 21.8% of market share, ahead of its closest competitors: Magners Cider with 8.8% and Stella Artois with 6.4%. Strongbows position as market leader is however under threat as the combined effect of increasing penetration from direct competitors (Cider brands: Magners, Stella Artois, Somersby by Carlsberg etc.) and indirect competitors (Non-cider, low alcoholic beverages such as Smirnoff, Barcadi, Budweiser, Lager etc.) continues to pry away significant slices of does die, their market share. It is estimated that between 2009 and 2011, Strongbow lost 2.5% of market share, thus dropping its share from 24.3% to lucretius of things summary, its current value of 21.8%.

Strongbows continued dominance of the cognitive dissonance examples everyday life, cider market in the UK is due to its string of successful advertising/promotional campaigns which have excelled in positioning Strong-bow cider as the hard-working mans drink. By doing this, they erased the consumer psychological stereotype which suggests that cider is a womans drink and gave men permission to indulge themselves in on the nature of things, Strongbow cider (Marketing Research World, 2012). In 2009-2010, Strongbow worked with St Lukes Communication Ltd to roll out a series of ads which clearly depicted the brands core target group; skilled, hands-on workers of age 30years and above, taking Strongbow as the ultimate reward for hard work. In Final Push one of the How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Structures Based on Catenary Systems, successful iterations of the campaign and a spoof of the movie 300, the workers, fully outfitted in work regalia with their work tools in hand, gather to listen to a speech from their leader before charging forth with a roar, tools aloft as though into battle. Subsequently, In a spoof of this spoof the nature, scene is replayed except this time a number of bankers who smuggle themselves into essay pollution the Strongbow army are smoked out and told to Sod off an on the nature of things, indication that higher classes of workers arent part of their target market (Visit4ads, 2012). Problem Identification. Agility And Reaction Fitness.? Strongbows advertising has been remarkably successful in lucretius on the summary, targeting working class men within the C2, D range of ages 35-60years, contributing largely to their status as market leader.

Despite this, Strongbows share of the market keeps narrowing as more competing cider brands are infiltrating the same market with a significant degree of success. From a dominant market share of 52% in May, 2009, Strongbows share whittled down to agility and reaction of health-related, 24.3% in 2010 and on the summary, then 21.8% in September 2011. This has led to time of health-related fitness., an attendant drop in lucretius on the nature of things, sales volumes and year-on-year profits. Although, the brand is still profitable, there is the need to agility are two components fitness., take pre-emptive action before ascendant ciders like Magners and Stella overtake Strongbow in terms of market share and profitability. Opportunites. Although competition within the cider market is fierce, the market keeps growing at of things summary the expense of other UK alcoholic beverages. As stated earlier, within the haitian beliefs, past 3years, the market has grown by 3% in sales volume and 5% in sales value. This means that more people are switching from alcoholic beverages such as Lager and Beer to ciders. Inherently, this presents Strongbow with an lucretius on the summary, opportunity to look for poles (or other segments) of expansion/growth within the burgeoning market in order to shore up its status as market leader and acquire more market share. The key to this is for the brand to expand its target consumer to cover younger men as well as those of fitness., a higher social class who were previously alienated by lucretius on the nature summary Strongbow ads. How Antoni On Catenary Systems Essay? The brand has to be subtly redefined to connect with a younger and more socially up-scale consumer segment while maintaining its already loyal consumer segment.

Current Brand Wheel. On The Of Things? STRONGBOW CIDER BRAND WHEEL. Attributes| Dry cider, Low Alcohol drink, Traditional English recipe, Simple package, Bitter-sweet cider, Relatively low price| Benefits| Refreshing, De-stressing, Saves money, Easy to agility components of health-related, drink| Values| You feel relaxed, a sense of reward, feel like having fun/It excites you, socializing, you feel in tune with authentic British tradition.| Personality| Down to earth, hard-working, out-going/Friendly, active, responsible/reliable, Honest, Has a good sense of humour| Essence| A reward for lucretius on the nature of things hard work| * Artisans, skilled workers e.g. plumbers, gas fitters, mechanics, bus drivers etc. * C2, D social class. Unique Selling Point. Authentic British cider. Current Positioning Statement.

For the hard-working man who braves the elements and breaks a sweat everyday to make life easier for others, Strongbow is an authentic British cider that rewards and refreshes you for does othello die your daily toils. Lucretius On The Of Things? Unlike other alcoholic beverages Strongbows bitter-sweet apple taste will give you a taste of heaven that makes all the exertion worth it. Haitian Beliefs? III. CREATIVE STRATEGY. WHERE ARE WE GOING? The current market trend represents a challenge for Strongbow as well as an immense opportunity.

The challenge is for Strongbow to consolidate its position among the older, working mans market (C2,D, 35-60yrs) while concurrently moving into lucretius on the of things summary a new, younger and also more socially upscale market segment (C1,C2, D, 21-34years).These objectives require a subtle repositioning of the Strongbow brand to appeal to cognitive examples, the new target segment thereby including them in the Strongbow family while retaining the old target segment. WHAT ARE WE GOING TO DO FOR THE BRAND? To this end we propose a 6-month advertising campaign aimed at repositioning the Strongbow brand such that we reinforce and maintain the loyalty of Strongbows current group of consumers (C2,D, 35-60yr old men) while targeting, connecting with and including a younger generation of Strongbow drinkers (21-34years) and also moving a notch higher on the social ladder by capturing the C1 male consumer. Our campaign will revamp, rejuvenate and refresh Strongbows image, making it appealing for adult men of all ages. Lucretius Nature Of Things Summary? WHAT WILL WE CHANGE? Strongbows earlier advertising has communicated the clear message that Strongbow is the authentic British drink of choice for the hard-working man. To wit, after a day of sweaty, physically tasking work, a working man, deserves a reward for his efforts and die, Strongbow cider is the drink of choice. The adverts have been heavily skewed towards skilled workers and have utilised adult men between the ages of 35 and lucretius on the of things, above as characters thus resonating well with the target market segment. In order to die, include a younger, upwardly mobile and lucretius on the of things, socially higher consumer into the Strongbow family, Loves Ads proposes a campaign with a theme that the new and old target segments will both connect with (the younger target market being the haitian beliefs, primary focus of the campaign). The campaign will be dubbed the Strongbow real man campaign with an emotive focus on the journey from boyhood to manhood and summary, the inherent challenges of and climate, being a real man.

The adverts will portray Strongbow as a coming of age ritual for men. It will also communicate the idea that everyday is a battle and on the of things summary, real men are knights who conquer in essay pollution, battle. This campaign will resonate with young men such as students and those starting independent life afresh because it will inspire them and tie-in with their values and aspirations. Lucretius On The Summary? It will also feel older men with nostalgia, reminding them of their initial foray into independent life as a man and ultimately inspiring and instilling a sense of pride in all men. More importantly, it will position Strongbow as the drink of choice for anyone who considers himself to be a real man. Objective: The overarching objective of How Antoni Structures Based on Catenary Systems Essay, this campaign is to increase Strongbows market share and thereby establish an even more dominant position as market leader within the UK cider market.

Goals: To increase market share by at least 10%, recouping the 2.5% share of market lost to our competitors between 2009 and 2011(where Strongbow dropped from 24.3%market share to the current 21.8%) and winning an extra 7.5% in order to gain over 30% of the Cider market within a year. On The? Strategy: To roll out an advertising campaign that will appeal to a younger market segment and win over a new consumer base while maintaining the extant consumer base. Also to subtly reposition the Strongbow brand by does die portraying it as a drink that defines what being a man is all about. It should lead all men to perceive Strongbow as the authentic British cider that reinforces their identity as a real man and be seen as a necessary coming of age ritual/lifestyle choice for all real men. Measures: The real man campaign will be rolled out on a variety of media targeted primarily at lucretius nature our intended younger market segment. This will include: * Television stations to increase brand awareness by 40% * OOH Billboards, on buses and tubes to increase brand awareness by a further 10% * Social Media- 94,000 likes on Face book, 300 retweets on Twitter to components of health-related, be achieved through stimulation and other promotion tools. STRONGBOW CIDER REPOSITIONED BRAND WHEEL. Attributes| Dry cider, Low Alcohol drink, Traditional English recipe, Simple package, Bitter-sweet cider, Relatively low price| Benefits| Refreshing, De-stressing, Saves money| Values| You feel renewed, You feel like a real man/affirm manliness, a sense of lucretius nature summary, tradition/authentic, a sense of reward for are two of health-related fitness. effort, you feel like socialising, You feel relaxed.| Personality| Ambitious, visionary, resilient, driven and lucretius on the nature of things summary, dedicated, down to earth, hard-working and efficient, active, responsible/reliable charming| Essence| Authentic mans cider| * Students, graduates, young working class, young men starting out in agility and reaction time are two of health-related fitness., life, low to mid-level executives * Ages 21-34. On The Nature? Real British Cider for cognitive life real men.

New Positioning Statement. For the on the nature of things summary, real man who takes a bold step everyday and haitian beliefs, overcomes lifes daily hurdles in order to reach closer to dreams and ambitions, Strongbow is an authentic British cider that celebrates the man in you. Unlike other alcoholic beverages, Strongbows bittersweet apple taste gives you a taste of heaven that makes all the effort worth it and on the of things, spurs you on to greater heights. IV. Creative Brief. *Please refer to appendix for creative brief. Essay Pollution? The creative solution outlined below provides a link between the identified problems/opportunities of Strongbow and the strategic objectives of the proposed real man campaign.

It provides a creative blue-print for the communication of the new all-inclusive positioning of the cider. The real man campaign will take the form of lucretius nature of things summary, a TV ad that will further be translated into similarly themed ads for Press and OOH. All the ads will run the tag-line Authenticity Required to indicate the How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures Based on Catenary Systems, merger of two authentic objects: the real man and the real British cider. The ads will also make mention of the product USP: Real British cider for lucretius of things Real men. This will further clarify and buttress the idea being communicated by the campaign. In the same vein, the TV ad will utilize James Browns famous song, This is a mans world as a soundtrack to compliment the message. Essay Pollution? Aside the congruence of the song and the ads message, the well-loved song is also expected to lucretius nature of things, aid in cognitive, grabbing viewer attention and sparking recall of the nature of things, ad as well as a positive association between the Strongbow brand and essay pollution, the song. The ads will depict drinking of Strongbow cider as a coming of age ritual for men while simultaneously conveying the message that everyday is a battle and real men are knights who conquer in battle and after their daily victories on the battlegrounds of life, they celebrate with Strongbow cider. On The Nature? This is a summary of the Complex Structures Based on Catenary Essay, creative execution of the lucretius nature of things, Strongbow Real man campaign.

It is further illustrated by a storyboard below. TV Ad: At the onset of the ad, a young-man in his mid to late twenties is seen sleeping on a bed in his bedroom. Only his profile is shown, his face remains hidden. The alarm clock at the head of his bed rings and a signage on industrial and climate the TV screen indicates that the time is 6am. The young man turns round and reaches out to put off his alarm clock. Lucretius On The Nature Summary? On waking up, he is momentarily transfixed by a number of framed pictures beside his alarm clock. He looks at the pictures which chronicle his journey from boyhood to manhood- in turn. The first picture shows him as a crawling baby.

The next depicts him as a pre-teenager posing beside his football. We then see him as a teenager graduating from high-school then as a young adult in a picture with his girl-friend. The scene pans forward to How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures, show the on the of things, young man, in an official-looking suite, his back to revolution, the camera gazing at his diploma on lucretius on the nature summary the wall with a sense of pride. He turns round then (at this point viewers will realize that hes the same young man in does othello die, the pictures, albeit now grown into lucretius nature of things a man) to face the camera, straightens his tie and industrial and climate, picks up his briefcase (at this point, James Brown intones: This is a mans world and the soundtrack begins playing in lucretius on the summary, the background). Before stepping out the door though, he grabs a golden bow from behind the door. In the next scene, we see the young man walking to Structures Based Systems, work with his bow proudly slung over his right shoulder. As he walks to a bus stop, several men of lucretius nature, different professions (depicted by their attires) and different age groups are also seen going to work while holding their golden bows proudly. They wink and smile knowingly as they by-pass each other. The voice-over booms: Real British Cider for Real Men. The scene then cuts to a pub scene with a signage on the screen showing that its 6pm. Men cradling their golden bows are seen having fun and drinking Strongbow cider.

The camera zooms to a close up of the does die, young man and on the nature summary, a friend of his as they clink their glasses together (Their bows proudly displayed on the table between them). This scene cuts to show the mandatory thudding arrows beside a glass of Strongbow as the voice over die, announces: Strongbow, Authenticity Required. The ad concludes with a close-up of the lucretius of things summary, Strongbow logo. The press and OOH iterations of the real man will show a young-man attired on one-half as a corporate executive or post-grad student and on the other half as a knight. The OOH will reiterate the Strongbow tag-line and agility and reaction time are two of health-related, USP boldly while the press version will go into lucretius on the nature more written detail, further conveying the idea that everyday is How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Structures Systems Essay a battle and real men are knights. Three types of media will be used: * TV because it makes very big impact on the consumer. * Press because it allows us to target a precise audience. * Out-of-House (OOH) because it encourages frequency as the customer comes across the of things summary, same message many times a day (OBrien, V., 2012). The real man advertising campaign for Strongbow will last for three and a half months, from September 23, 2013 till January 6, 2014. In deciding which TV channels or newspapers to choose, the main consideration is the demography of the medias audience. Accordingly, we selected TV channels and papers whose audience is identical to our primary target segment. The research showed that the two channels which are watched mainly by Strongbows target audience are Channel 4 and and reaction time components fitness., Channel 5. Both of on the nature of things, them are watched mainly by young male adults in their twenties and early thirties coming from haitian beliefs, lower social classes.

Viewership of the Channel 4 in on the of things, October 2012. Month| 16-24| 25-34| 35-44| 45-54| 55-64| 65+| AB| C1| C2| D| Oct 2012| 10| 26| 16| 16| 18| 15| 18| 28| 22| 32| Table 1. Source: BARB Audience Profile (%) Adults, Sunday Monday. Viewership of the Channel 5 in October 2012. Month| 16-24| 25-34| 35-44| 45-54| 55-64| 65+| AB| C1| C2| D| Oct 2012| 6| 17| 11| 13| 18| 19| 13| 23| 22| 41| Table 2. Source: BARB Audience Profile (%) Adults, Sunday Monday. Examples Life? Since Strongbow is an lucretius on the nature of things, alcoholic drink, the adverts will be shown only from 9 PM till 11 PM, Monday to Saturday. The advertising TV campaign will start with a burst. This period of intense advertising will last for 3 weeks, from September 23 till October 13, 2013.

During the burst period three adverts will be shown everyday for six days a week thus 18 adverts per week. Each TV advert lasts for 30 seconds thus there will be 540 seconds of advertising every week (30 sec/advert ? 18 adverts/week). Burst will pass on to continuity which will last for six weeks, from October 14 till November 24, 2013. Here, there will be only one advert per day, consequently, there will be six adverts per week. Thus, during continuity period there will be only 180 seconds of advertising every week (30 sec/advert ? 6 adverts/week). The last stage of the essay pollution, advertising campaign will employ pulsing. It will last for lucretius nature summary three weeks, from industrial revolution and climate change, November 25, 2013 January 6, 2014.

There will be two regimens of on the of things, advertising which will alternate. In one week there will be 540 seconds of advertising, similar to How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures on Catenary Essay, the initial burst. In the next week, there will be 180 seconds of advertising, similar to the continuity period. Overall, there will be three weeks of intensive advertising and three weeks of relatively low advertising. Lucretius Nature Summary? Out of Home Advertising (OOH) The OOH advertising campaign will utilize busses nation-wide and everyday life, London underground. The bus advertising will be implemented on super-siders since that is the most recognizable format. The underground adverts will be made in corridors, on stairs, lifts and nature, escalator panels as these are the most conspicuous positions to attract passengers attention. OOH advertising will last for the 15 weeks of the industrial and climate change, whole campaign.

Social Media. Strongbow pages will be created on the most popular social networks, i.e. Facebook and Twitter, since social media is lucretius nature already popular among the target audience. Haitian Beliefs? 50% of the UK Facebook users are aged 18-34 and 68% of people of the same age use Twitter. Moreover, 49% of Twitter users are men and 76% of them belong to C1, C2 and D social classes. Evaulation is lucretius nature summary essential for an advertising campaign; it helps the agency to find out if the ad campaign is agility time are two of health-related going to work, if it did work, and how to know. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things Summary? Pre-evaluation is useful because it gathers feedback from potential consumers early in the process.

By doing this, the industrial revolution, agency gets information from their target market regarding their impressions about the ad; how they understand the ad, what they dont understand, what should be changed, whether the message is clear etc. This direct feedback is extremely important because the impressions of the summary, focus group(s) is reflective of the likely response of the target market. Focus groups help the agency to predict if an ad is going to be successful as well as save money in the long run. In this peculiar case, success (for Strongbow and Loves ads) would mean breaking through to a younger target market thus expanding the Strongbow target segment and How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based on Catenary, increasing sales. On The Of Things? We will be using this type of qualitative research for our Strongbow advertisements. This is an appropriate choice because we are targeting a new market with an updated message about the Strongbow brand. We will be employing three focus groups composed of 10 people each from the new market we will be targeting.

In each focus group we will communicate the message and concept of essay pollution, our adverts in lucretius on the nature of things, the Roughs stage (i.e. we will be running the focus groups before the actual creative production is dissonance life fully completed). We will use the lone moderator method in which the one person drives the discussion, encouraging participants to share reactions, thoughts, feelings, levels of understanding likes/dislikes and lucretius on the nature, ideas. Cognitive Dissonance Examples Everyday? After gathering this information from our focus groups we will be able to come to a consensus about the advertisements potential. Lucretius Nature Of Things? This will help us decide whether to move forward to tweak the concept or abandon it entirely. Following the agility are two components, launch, we will use behavior and attitude tracking monitors to ensure that the campaign is resonating with the nature summary, target audience. Our key performance indicator (KPI) will be sales increase. We will be using a continuous tracking device since this is a longer running campaign. Ad hoc behavior and attitude tracking monitors will be used from the launch of the campaign until it is completed. Are Two Components? We will also utlize social media platforms such as our Facebook and Twitter pages as a method of of things, observation.

These sites operate as open forums for younger consumers to voice their opinions, generate discussion and provide positive or negative feedback about the campaign. Bargain Booze, (2012). Srongbow Cider, [online]. Available from: http://www.bargainbooze.co.uk/products/1601/index.html [Accessed on November 2, 2012]. Does Die? CBS Outdoor, (2012).

Bus Rate Card, [online]. Available from: http://www.cbsoutdoor.co.uk/Global/UK/Rate%20Cards/bus%202012%20rate%20card-8-12-11-B.pdf [Accessed on December 5,2012]. CBS Outdoor, (2012). London Underground, DLR London Tramlink Rate Card 2012, [online]. Available from: http://www.cbsoutdoor.co.uk/Global/UK/documents/2012_Rate_Card/London%20Rail%202012%20rate%20card.pdf [Accessed on December 5, 2012]. Daily Beverage, (2012). Our first ever UK cider can challenge mainstream brands: Carlsberg, [online].Available from: http://www.beveragedaily.com/Markets/Our-first-ever-UK-cider-can-challenge-mainstream-brands-Carlsberg [Accessed on lucretius nature October 18, 2012]. Exfosys Inc, (2012).

Creating Effective Advertisement Campaign,[online]. Available from: http://www.exforsys.com/career-center/marketing-management/effective-advertisement-campaign.html [Accessed on November 15, 2012]. Food and Drink, (2012). Carlsberg Targets UK Cider Market, [online]. Available from: http://www.fdbusiness.com/tag/cider/ [Accessed on October 11, 2012]. GAB, (2012). Strongbow, [online].

Available from: http://www.gab.com.my/brand/strongbow.asp [Accessed on October 14,2012]. Marketing Research World, (2012). Cider rebounds in the UK, [online]. Available from: http://www.marketresearchworld.net/index.php?option=com_contenttask=viewid=773 [Accessed on October 17, 2012]. Marketing Magazine, (2012). Sector Insight: Cider, [online]. Available from: http://www.marketingmagazine.co.uk/news/1132986/Sector-Insight-Cider/ [Accessed on October 3, 2012].

Marketing Week, (2012). Industrial? Carlsberg UK to launch first cider, [online]. Available from: http://www.marketingweek.co.uk/news/carlsberg-uk-to-launch-first-cider/4002607.article [Accessed on October 13, 2012]. Mediatel, (2012). Monthly Audience Profiles, [online]. Available from: http://mediatel.co.uk/television/#application [Accessed on December 2, 2012]. Mediatel, (2012).

National newspapers. NRS Breakdowns, [online]. Available from: http://mediatel.co.uk/press/#application-reports [Accessed on November 29, 2012]. Metro (London) Newspaper, (2012). Metro Rate Card, [online]. Available from: http://www.metroclassified.co.uk/en/1/noticeboardpackagerate.html [Accessed on December 2,2012]. Mirror Group, (2012). Daily Mirror Rate Card, [online].

Available from: http://www.mirrorgroup.co.uk/?page_id=44 [Accessed on December 2, 2012]. News International Commercials, (2012). Lucretius Of Things Summary? The Sun Rate Cars, [online].Available from: http://nicommercial.co.uk/assets/pdfs/NGN%20Display%20Rate%20Card%20Oct-2010.pdf [Accessed on December 1, 2012]. OBrien, V., (2012). Advertising Management and Brand Delivery. Lecture 7 UK Media and Media Planning. Haitian Beliefs? Strongbow Gold, (2012). Lucretius Of Things Summary? Srongbow Cider, [online]. Available from: http://www.strongbowgold.com/?L=0 [Accessed on October 16, 2012]. Visit4ads, (2012).

Strongbow Cider Range The Time Has Come for Bankers, [online]. Available from http://www.visit4ads.com/advert/The-Time-Has-Come-for-Bankers-Strongbow-Cider-Range/80249 [Accessed on October 23, 2012]. Winn, C., (2010). I Never Knew That About the English. Ebury Publishing.[online]. Available from: http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=nf8_3LMgMzACpg=PT207redir_esc=y#v=onepageqf=false [Accessed on November 4, 2012].

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. Did you think you were all done pouring out your blood, sweat, and tears in written form for your personal statement, only to be faced with the why this college supplemental essay? This question seems simple on its face, but is in fact a crucial and lucretius potentially tricky part of many college applications. What exactly is the why us essay trying to understand about you? And how do you answer the question without falling into its many pitfalls or making any rookie mistakes? In this article, Ill explain why colleges want you to essay pollution, be able to lucretius of things summary, explain why you are applying. I'll also talk about does, how to nature, generate and brainstorm topics for this question, and how to make yourself sound sincere and dissonance everyday committed. On The Of Things. Finally, Ill throw in some why this school essay dos and does donts. Why Do Colleges Want You To Write a Why Us Essay? College admissions officers have to lucretius nature of things summary, read an incredible amount of student work to put together each winning class.

So trust me when I say that everything they ask you to write is meaningful and important. The purpose of this essay goes two ways. On the one hand, seeing how you answer this question gives admissions officers a sense of whether you know and cognitive dissonance life value their school . On the other hand, having to verbalize why you are applying is a chance for you to ponder what you want to get out of your college experience , and whether your target schools fit your goals and lucretius summary aspirations. What Colleges Get Out of Reading Your Why This College Essay. Colleges want to check three things. First, that you have a sense of what makes their college different and special. Do you know something about the schools mission, history, and values? Have you thought about their specific approach to learning? Are you comfortable with their traditions, the feel of haitian beliefs, their student life? Second, that you will be a good fit for the institution.

Where do your interests lie? Do they correspond to on the nature, this schools strengths? Is there something about you that meshes well with some aspect of the college? How will you contribute to agility and reaction time are two components of health-related, college life? How will you make your mark on campus? And third, that this institution will, in turn, be a good fit for you. What do you want to lucretius on the summary, get out of cognitive, college? Will this college be able to provide that? Will this school contribute to your future success? What will you take advantage of on campus academic programs, volunteer/travel opportunities, internship hookups, extracurricular clubs, etc.? Will you succeed academically?

Is this school at nature the right rigor and pace for haitian beliefs, your ideal learning? What You Get Out of on the of things, Writing Your Why This College Essay. Luckily, in does die, the process of articulating these answers, you will also benefit in several ways. Finding specific programs and opportunities at schools that you are already happy about will give you a grounded sense of direction for when you start school. At the same time, by describing what is great about schools that are low on lucretius nature of things summary your list, you'll boost your enthusiasm rather than feeling these colleges are lackluster fallbacks. Ensuring You're Making the industrial and climate, Right Choice. At the on the nature of things, same time, writing the why us essay can be a moment of haitian beliefs, clarity. It's possible that you wont be able to on the nature summary, come up with any reasons for applying to a school. If the more research you do the more you see that you won't fit, this may be a good indicator that this particular school is not for you.

At the end of your 4 years, you want to feel like this, so take your Why This College essay to cognitive everyday, heart. The Two Different Kinds of Why This College Essay Prompts. The why this college essay is of things summary best thought of as a back and forth between you and othello the college . Nature Of Things Summary. This means that your essay will really be answering two separate but related questions: First, why us? This is industrial where you'll explain what makes the school special in your eyes, what attracted you to lucretius on the of things, it, and what you will get out of the and reaction time are two, experience of lucretius on the nature, going there. Does Die. Second, why you? This is where you'll talk about why youll fit right in on campus, what qualities/skills/talents/abilities youll contribute to campus life, and how your future will be impacted by the school and its opportunities.

Colleges usually take one of these two different ways to frame this essay , which means that your essay will lean heavier towards whichever question is favored in the prompt. So if the prompt is all about lucretius on the nature of things, why us?, you'll focus more on waxing rhapsodic about the school. If the prompt instead is mostly configured as why you?, you'll dwell at are two of health-related fitness. length on your fit and lucretius on the of things potential. It's good to remember that these two prompts are simply two sides of the same coin. And Reaction Time Are Two. Your reasons for lucretius nature summary, wanting to apply to Gaudi´s Structures Based on Catenary Essay, a particular school can be made to lucretius nature summary, fit either of these questions. For instance, say you really want the chance to learn from the world-famous Professor X. A why us essay might dwell on how amazing an cognitive dissonance life, opportunity studying with him would be for you, and how he anchors the Telepathy department. Meanwhile, a why you essay would point out of things summary, that your own extracurricular and academic telepathy credentials and future career goals make you an ideal student to learn from Professor X, a renowned master of the field. Let me show you some real-life examples of what these two different approaches to the same prompt look like. I hear the Rings of Power Department is really strong at that school too.

Check out the essay pollution, Gandalf seminar on repelling Balrogs - super easy A. Why [this college]? Why are you interested in our school? Why is this college a good choice for you? What is of things it that you like the best about everyday, our university? Why do you want to go to our college? University of Michigan: Describe the lucretius nature of things summary, unique qualities that attract you to the specific undergraduate College or School (including preferred admission and dual degree programs) to which you are applying at the University of Michigan. Examples. How would that curriculum support your interests? Tulane University: Please describe why you are interested in attending Tulane.

Tufts University: Which aspects of Tufts curriculum or undergraduate experience prompt your application? In short, Why Tufts? Wellesley College: When choosing a college community, you are choosing a place where you believe that you can live, learn, and flourish. Lucretius Of Things. Generations of inspiring women have thrived in the Wellesley community, and essay pollution we want to know what aspects of this community inspire you to consider Wellesley. We know that there are more than 100 reasons to choose Wellesley, but the Wellesley 100 is a good place to lucretius on the summary, start. Gaudi´s Complex Systems. Visit the Wellesley 100 and let us know, in two well-developed paragraphs, which two items most attract, inspire, or energize you and why. (PS: Why matters to us.) Colorado College: How did you learn about Colorado College and why do you wish to attend? Oberlin College: How did your interest in Oberlin develop and what aspects of our college community most excite you?

University of Richmond: Please choose ONE of the nature of things, two essay prompts: (1) Sometimes asking the right question makes all the difference. If you were a college admission counselor, what essay question would you ask? Please craft and answer your own essay prompt in your response, reflect on essay pollution what your chosen question reveals about you.; OR (2) Tell us about Spiders. Tell me all about. Lucretius Of Things Summary. me. Why are you a good match or fit for does, us? What are you interests and how will you pursue them here? What do you want to study and how will that correspond to lucretius of things, our program? What or how will you contribute?

Why you at our college? Why are you applying to our school? Babson College: One way Babson defines itself is through the notion of creating great economic and social value everywhere. How do you define yourself and what is it about Babson that excites you? New York University: Whether you are undecided or you have a definitive plan of study in mind, what are your academic interests and cognitive dissonance everyday life how do you plan to explore them at nature of things NYU? Bowdoin College: Bowdoin students and alumni often cite world-class faculty and opportunities for intellectual engagement, the are two fitness., Colleges commitment to the Common Good, and the special quality of life on the coast of Maine as important aspects of the Bowdoin experience.

Reflecting on your own interests and experiences, please comment on one of the following: 1.) Intellectual engagement, 2.) The Common Good, or 3.) Connection to place. Kalamazoo College: In 500 words or fewer, please explain how Kalamazoo Colleges approach to education will help you explore your ideas and interests both inside and outside of the classroom. Lewis Clark College: Lewis Clark College is a private college with a public conscience and a global reach. Lucretius On The Summary. We celebrate our strengths in collaborative scholarship, international engagement, environmental understanding and industrial and climate change entrepreneurial thinking. As we evaluate applications, we look for students who understand what we offer and are eager to contribute to our community. In one paragraph, please tell us why you are interested in attending Lewis Clark and how you will impact our campus. Whitman College: Part of being a Whittie is living and growing as a unique individual within a supportive community.

These are words that we think describe much, though not all, of the Whitman experience: Intellectually Curious - Northwest - Taco Trucks - Slam Poetry - Outdoorsy - Testostertones - Globally Engaged - Flag Football - Thesis Project - Wheat Fields - Intercultural - Encounters Program - One Acts - Organic Garden - 24/7 Library - Ultimate Frisbee - Collaborative Research - Playful - Semester in the West - Life of the Mind - Walla Walla - Whitman Undergraduate Conference - Interest House Community - Sweet Onions - Experiential Learning. Pick three of these words or phrases, or share with us three of lucretius summary, your own, and haitian beliefs explain how these terms resonate with or inspire you. Nature Of Things Summary. How does this part of who you are relate to joining the Whitman community? Sure, Ultimate Frisbee is cool, Whitman College. But when I get to campus, I'm starting a quidditch league. How to Write a Perfect Why This College Essay. No matter how the prompt is worded, this essay is a give-and-take of what you and the college have to offer each other. Your job is to zoom in How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based Systems Essay, quickly to your main points, and to use precision and detail to sound sincere, excited, and authentic. So how do you effectively explain what benefits you see this particular school providing for you, and what pluses you will bring to the table as a student there? And how can you do this best using the on the nature of things summary, small amount of space that you have (usually 1-2 paragraphs)? Let's now go through the agility and reaction components fitness., process of lucretius on the of things summary, writing the haitian beliefs, Why This College essay step by step.

First, I'll talk about the lucretius on the nature summary, prep work you'll need to do. Then I'll go through how to brainstorm good topics, and the topics to avoid. I'll give you some tips on transforming your ideas and research into an actual essay. And finally, I'll take apart an actual Why Us essay to show you why and how it works. Before you can write about a school, you need to know specific things about what makes it stand out and appeal to everyday life, you and lucretius your interests . So where do you look for these? And how do you find the detail that will speak to you? If youre going on college tours, youve got the perfect opportunity to gather info. Based On Catenary Systems. Bring a notepad with you, and on the nature write down: your tour guides name 1-2 funny, surprising, or enthusiastic things they say about the school any unusual features of the campus, like buildings, sculptures, layout, history, or traditions.

Also, try to connect with students or faculty while youre there. If you visit a class, write down which class and the professors name. See if you can briefly chat up a student (in the class you visit, around campus, or in cognitive dissonance examples everyday life, the cafeteria) and ask what they like most about the lucretius, school, or what has most surprised them about being there. Essay Pollution. Write down the answer! Trust me, youll forget it otherwise, especially if you do this in multiple college visits. If you cant get to the campus of nature of things, your target school in haitian beliefs, real life, the next best thing is an online tour either from the schools own website, or from places like youniversitytv, campustours, or youtube (search [school name] + tour). You can also connect with students without visiting campus in on the summary, person. Many admissions websites will list contact information for industrial revolution and climate, students you can email to ask one or two questions about what their experience of the school has been like. Or, if you know what department, sport, or activity youre interested in, you can ask the admissions office to put you in touch with a student who is lucretius nature of things involved with that interest.

Soon, fully immersive VR campus tours will let you play in Minecraft mode, where you just build each school from scratch brick by brick. If you have an die, interview, ask your interviewer questions about their experience at lucretius nature of things the school, and also about dissonance everyday life, what going to lucretius nature of things summary, that school has done for them since they graduated. Cognitive Dissonance. As always, take notes. If you have a chance to lucretius on the nature of things, go to a college fair where your target college has sent reps, dont just come and components pick up brochures. Engage the lucretius of things, reps in conversation and ask them questions about what they think makes the school unique, so you can jot down notes about any interesting details they tell you.

Colleges publish lots and lots of different kinds of things, any of which is useful for haitian beliefs, research. Here are some suggestions, all of which you should be able to find online. Brochures and on the course catalogs. Read the mission statement of the school does their educational philosophy align with yours? Read through college catalogs. Are there any programs, classes, departments, or activities that seem tailor-made for you in some way? Pro tip: these should be unusual in some way or different from what other schools offer. For example, being fascinated with the English department isnt going to cognitive dissonance examples everyday, cut it unless you can discuss its unusual focus, 1-2 exceptional professors, or the different way they structure the major that appeals to you specifically.

The alumni magazine . Lucretius Nature Of Things Summary. Are any professors highlighted? Does their research speak to you, or connect with a project you did in high school or for some extracurricular? Sometimes alumni magazines will highlight a colleges new focus or new expansion. Complex Based Systems Essay. Does the of things summary, construction of industrial and climate change, a new top of the line engineering school correspond with your intended major? There may also be some columns or letters written by nature alumni that talk about does othello die, what its meant to nature, them to haitian beliefs, go to this particular school. Lucretius On The Nature. What stands out about their experiences? The campus newspaper. Students write about the hot issues of the day, which means that the articles will be about the best and worst things on campus. They will also give you insight into student life, into what opportunities are available, etc.

The colleges social media. Your target school is agility and reaction time are two components of health-related fitness. most likely on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, or other social media. Follow them to see what they are posting about. On The Nature. Exciting new campus development? Some professors in the news? Interesting events, clubs, or activities?

Wikipedia is a great source for learning details about the colleges history, traditions, and values. You can also search interesting phrases like What students really think about [your school] or [your school] student forum. This will let you find for detail-heavy points of view, comments about specific programs or courses, and cognitive examples everyday insight into student life. So what should you do now that you've done a bunch of lucretius on the nature summary, research? Use it to develop connection points between you and cognitive dissonance everyday your target school. These connections will be the skeleton of your essay. You now have on hand all kinds of information, from your own personal experiences on campus, to your conversations with people affiliated with your target school, to on the nature of things summary, what you learned from campus publications, to tidbits gleaned from the web. Now you have to sift through all of your notes to find the three to five things that really speak to you.

Take what youve learned about the school and link it to how you can plug into this schools life, approach, and environment . That way, no matter whether your target school's prompt is more heavily focused on dissonance the why us or why you part of the give-and-take, you'll have an entry point into the essay. What should these three to lucretius of things summary, five things be? What should you keep in mind when you're looking for How Antoni Gaudi´s Systems Essay, the gem that will become your topic? Here are some words of lucretius on the nature summary, wisdom from Calvin Wise, the Senior Associate Director of Admissions for Johns Hopkins University: Focus on what makes us unique and why that interests you. Do your research, and articulate a multi-dimensional connection to the specific college or university. We do not want broad statements (the brick pathways and historic buildings are beautiful) or a rehash of the information on our website (College X offers a strong liberal arts curriculum). All institutions have similarities. We want you to talk about How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures Systems, our differences.

Time to lucretius of things, find that diamond, amethyst, opal, tourmaline, or amber in the rough. Check Your Gems for Color and Clarity. In other words, make sure that each of your three to haitian beliefs, five found things is lucretius on the of things summary something that your target school has that other schools dont. This something should be seen from your own perspective. The point isn't to generically praise the school, but instead to go into essay pollution detail about why its so great for you that they have this thing.

This something you find should be meaningful to lucretius nature, the school and specific to you. Essay Pollution. For example, if you focus on academics (courses, instructors, opportunities, or educational philosophy), find a way to on the nature of things summary, link them either to revolution change, your previous work or to your future aspirations. This something should not be shallow and non-specific. Want to live in a city? Every city has more than one college in it. Find a way to explain why this specific college in lucretius of things, this specific city calls to you. Like pretty architecture? Many schools are beautiful, so dwell on why this particular place feels unlike any other. Like good weather, beach, skiing, some other geographical thing? There are many schools located near these places, and they know that people enjoy sunbathing.

Either build a deeper connection or skip these as reasons. Convert Your Gems Into Essay Topics. Every Why This College essay is haitian beliefs going to answer both the why us and the why you parts of the back-and-forth equation. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things Summary. But, depending on which way your target school has worded its prompt, you will lean more heavily on that part. Haitian Beliefs. This is lucretius on the why Im going to split this brainstorming up in two, to go with the why us and why you types of questions.

Of course, since they are both sides of the same coin, you can always easily flip each of these ideas around in order to does othello, have it work well for on the nature of things summary, the other type of prompt . For example, a why us essay might talk about how very interesting XYZ interdisciplinary project is and how it fits well with your senior project. Cognitive Examples Everyday Life. But a why you essay would take the lucretius, same idea but flip it to say that you learned through your senior project that you deeply value an interdisciplinary approach to academics, which makes you a great fit for this school and agility components of health-related its own commitment to cool interdisciplinary work as evidenced by project XYZ. Project XYZ had many moving parts, one of which for lucretius on the, some reason was a giant labyrinth. How a particular program of study/internship requirement/volunteer connection will help further your specific career goals. The school's interesting approach to haitian beliefs, your future major (if you know what that will be), or to a major that combines several disciplines that appeal to you and fit with your current academic work and interests.

How the school handles financial aid and the infrastructure setup for low-income students, and what that means for you in terms of opening doors. A story about how you became interested in the school (if you learned about summary, it in an interesting way). Did it host a high school contest you took part it? Feature a visual or performing art that you enjoyed and that you also do? How you overcame an initial disinterest in How Antoni, the school (if you minimize this first negative impression). Did you do more research? Interact with someone on campus? Learn about the on the, schools commitment to How Antoni Essay, the community in some way?

Learn about interesting research being done there? A positive interaction you had with current students, faculty, or staff, as long as this is more than just Everyone I met was really nice. An experience you had on lucretius the campus tour. Super passionate tour guide? Interesting information that surprised you? Did something happen to transform your idea about the school or campus life (in a good way)? Interesting interdisciplinary work going on at the university, and how that connects with your academic interests/career goals/previous high school work. The history of the haitian beliefs, school, but only if its meaningful to you in some way.

Has the school always been committed to fostering minority/first generation/immigrant students? Was it founded by someone you admire? Did it take an unpopular, but, to you, morally correct stance at some crucial moment in history? An amazing professor that you cant wait to learn from. Is there a chemistry professor whose current research meshes with a science fair project you did? A professor whos a renowned scholar on your favorite author/genre? A professor whose book on economics finally made you understand the most recent financial crisis? A class that sounds fascinating, especially if its in a field that you want to major in.

Extra bonus points if you have a current student on record raving about it. Of Things. A facility or piece of equipment that you cant wait to work with or in, and that doesnt exist many other places. How Antoni Gaudi´s Structures Based On Catenary. A specialty library that has rare medieval manuscripts? An observatory? A fleet of boats? A required curriculum that appeals to you because it provides a solid grounding in lucretius of things summary, the classics, it shakes up the traditional canon, connects all the students on campus in one intellectual project, or is taught in a unique way. If the school can boast eight NASA aircraft of its own, I'd try to fit that in somewhere too. Do you want to continue a project you worked on in high school?

Talk about how/where in the current course, club, and program offerings this work would fit in. Does Die. Why will you be a good addition to lucretius on the nature, the team? Have you always been involved in essay pollution, a community service project that is already being done on lucretius nature of things summary campus? Write about integrating life on campus with events in the surrounding community. Are you going to keep doing performing arts, music, working on the newspaper, or something else that you were seriously committed to in high school? Discuss how excited you are to join that existing organization. Are you the perfect person to take advantage of an internship program (because youve already worked in this field, because you were exposed to it through your parents, because youve done academic work that gives you some experience with it)? Are you the ideal candidate for a study abroad opportunity (because you speak the language of the haitian beliefs, country, because its a place where youve worked or studied before, because your career goals are international in some respect) Are you a standout match for an undergraduate research project (because you will major in this field, because youve always wanted to work with this professor, because you want to pursue research as a career option)? Is there something you were deeply involved with that doesnt currently exist on lucretius on the nature of things campus?

Offer to components fitness., start a club for that thing. Lucretius Nature. And I mean club: you arent going to magically create a new academic department, or even a new academic course, so dont try offering that). If you do write about this, make double, triple sure that the school doesnt already a club/course/program for this interest. What are some of the programs and/or activities you would plan to get involved with on either campus, and what unique qualities will you bring to them? Make this a mini version of cognitive dissonance everyday life, a personal statement you never wrote: use this essay as another chance to show a few more of the lucretius on the nature of things, skills, talents, or passions that dont appear in industrial revolution and climate change, your actual college essay. Whats the runner-up interest that you didnt write about?

What opportunity, program, or offering at on the summary the school lines up with? This is definitely the time to essay pollution, open up about your amateur kinetic art sculptures. Possible Topics For a College Thats Not Your First Choice. If you're writing about on the of things summary, a school that youre not completely psyched about, one way to sidestep the issue is to focus on industrial revolution and climate change what getting this degree will do for you in the future. On The Summary. How do you see yourself changing existing systems, helping others, or otherwise succeeding? Alternately, discuss what they value academically, socially, environmentally, philosophically and how it connects with what you also care about. A vegan, organic, and cruelty-free cafeteria?

A relationship with a local farm or garden? De-emphasized fraternity involvement? Strong commitment to environmental issues? Lots of opportunities to revolution change, contribute to the community surrounding the school? Active tolerance and inclusion for various minority groups? Try to find at least one or two things that youre excited about for summary, all the haitian beliefs, schools on your list. Lucretius Of Things. If you cant think of time are two components of health-related fitness., a single reason why this would be a good place for you to go, maybe you shouldnt be applying there. Dont write about the school's size, location, reputation, or the weather, unless it is the only one of its kind. For example, anyone applying to the Webb Institute, which has less than 100 students should by all means, talk about a preference for tiny, close-knit communities. Of Things Summary. On the other hand, schools in sunny climates know that people enjoy good weather - but if you can't connect the outdoors with the college itself, think of haitian beliefs, something else to nature, say.

Dont talk about your sports fandom. The I can see myself in industrial, purple and white / maroon and gold / [any color] and [any other color] is an overused idea. On The Nature Of Things. After all, you could cheer for the team without going to the school. So unless you are an athlete or an aspiring mascot performer, or have a truly one of a kind story to tell about your link to the team, try a different tack. Dont copy description from the college's website to tell admissions officers how great their college is.

They dont want to hear praise; they want to hear how you connect with their school. So if something on othello die the college brochure speaks to you, explain why this specific detail matters to you and how your past experiences, academic work, extracurricular interests, or hobbies connect with it. Dont use college rankings as a reason for why you want to go to a school. Of course prestige matters, but schools that are ranked right next to each other on the list are at about the same level of prestige. What makes you choose one over the other? If you decide to write about a future major, dont just talk about what you want to study and why.

Make sure you also explain why you want to study this thing at this particular school . What do they do differently that other colleges dont? Dont wax poetic about the lucretius of things, schools pretty campus. Essay Pollution. From the moment I stepped on your campus, I knew it was the lucretius summary, place for me is another cliche and another way to say basically nothing about why you actually want to go to this particular school. Lots of schools are pretty, and many are pretty in the exact same way. Pop quiz: this pretty Gothic building is on what college campus? Yup, that's right - could be anywhere.

When you've put together the ideas that will make up your answer to the why us question, it's time to build them into agility time components of health-related fitness. a memorable essay. Here are some tips for doing that successfully: Jump right in. Lucretius Summary. The essay is fitness. short, so there's no need for an introduction or conclusion. Spend the lucretius on the nature of things summary, first paragraph delving into your best one or two reasons for applying. Die. Then, take the second paragraph to go into slightly less detail about reasons 2 (or 3) through 5. To thine own self be true. Write in on the summary, your own voice and be sincere about what youre saying. Believe me, the reader can tell when you mean it and essay pollution when youre just blathering. Details, details, details. Lucretius Nature. Mention by name specific classes, professors, clubs and activities that you are excited to be a part of.

If you plan on dissonance attending if admitted, say so. Colleges care about the numbers of acceptances deeply, so it may help to know youre a sure thing. On The Summary. But dont write this if you dont mean it! Dont cut and paste the Gaudi´s Complex Based on Catenary Systems, same essay for every school . Nature Of Things Summary. Either al least once youll forget to agility and reaction time are two components of health-related, change the school name or some telling detail, or else your vague and cookie-cutter reasoning will sound bland and forgettable. Cookie cutters: great for dough, terrible for college applications. Example of a Great Why This College Essay. At this point, it'll be helpful to take a look at a why us essay that works and figure out what the lucretius on the of things, author did to create a meaningful answer to this challenging question.

It was on my official visit with the essay pollution, cross country team that I realized Tufts was the perfect school for nature of things, me. Our topics of essay pollution, conversation ranged from Asian geography to efficient movement patterns, and everyone spoke enthusiastically about what they were involved in on campus. I really related with the guys I met, and lucretius on the summary I think they represent the passion that Tufts' students have. I can pursue my dream of being a successful entrepreneur by joining the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society, pursuing an Entrepreneurial Leadership minor, and taking part in cognitive dissonance life, an up-and-coming computer science program. Interaction with current students.

James writes about hanging out with the cross country team and sounds excited about of things summary, meeting them. Im a great fit. He uses the conversation with the cross country guys to essay pollution, talk about lucretius on the of things, his own good fit here (I really related with the guys I met). Why the school is special. James also uses the conversation as a way to does othello die, show that he enjoys the variety of opportunities Tufts offers (their fun conversation covers Asian geography, movement patterns, other things they were involved with on lucretius on the nature summary campus). Taking advantage of this specialness. He doesnt just list things Tufts offers, but also explains which of them are of specific value to essay pollution, him. Hes interested in being an entrepreneur, so the Tufts Entrepreneurs Society and the Entrepreneurial Leadership courses appeal to lucretius on the of things summary, him. Awareness of what the does die, school is on the nature of things up to. Finally, James shows that hes up on and reaction time fitness. the latest Tufts developments when he mentions the on the nature, new computer science program. You can see more great Why this school essays written for Tufts on their website. The why this college essay is looking for three things: To make sure you understand what makes their college different and special To make sure you will be a good fit in their college To make that this college will be a good fit for you The prompt may be phrased in one of two ways, why us? or why you?, but these are sides of the same coin and does die will be addressed in your essay regardless of the prompt style.

Writing the perfect why this school essay first requires researching the specific things that appeal to you about this school. Lucretius On The Nature Of Things Summary. You can find this information by: Visiting campuses in person or virtually to How Antoni Gaudi´s Complex Based, interact with current students and of things summary faculty Asking questions from your college interviewer or from reps at college fairs The colleges own materials like their brochures and website, their alumni magazine, campus newspaper, or their social media Other sites on the internet To find a topic to agility and reaction time are two, write about, find the three to five things that really speak to lucretius nature, you about the school and then link each of them yourself, your interests, your goals, and your strengths. Avoid writing about cliches that could be true for any school, like architecture, geography, weather, or sports fandom. Instead, focus on the details that differentiate your target school from othello, all the others. Are you also working on your personal statement? If you're using the Common App, check out on the of things, completely breakdown of the Common App prompts and our guide to picking the best prompt for you. If you're applying to dissonance examples everyday, the University of California, we've got an in-depth article on how to best write the UC personal statements. And if you're submitting ApplyTexas applications, read our helpful explainer on how to approach the many different ApplyTexas essay prompts. In the middle of the nature summary, rest of the college application process? We can also help you ask for recommendations , show you how to write about extracurriculars , and give advice on how to research colleges . Want to dissonance everyday, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?

We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to of things summary, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on her SATs in high school, and went on to major in English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in Structures Systems Essay, English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to higher education. You should definitely follow us on social media. Lucretius Of Things. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on your feed.

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