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Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Oprah Salvador Dali. Autobiography is only to be trusted when it reveals something disgraceful. How Did The Soviet Union? A man who gives a good account of Life's Essay, himself is probably lying, since any life when viewed from the inside is simply a series of defeats. However, even the most flagrantly dishonest book (Frank Harris's autobiographical writings are an example) can without intending it give a true picture of its author. Dali's recently published Life (1) comes under this heading. Some of the incidents in it are flatly incredible, others have been rearranged and romanticised, and not merely the humiliation but the persistent ordinariness of everyday life has been cut out. Dali is even by his own diagnosis narcissistic, and his autobiography is Essay on Teaching Sentences simply a strip-tease act conducted in pink limelight. But as a record of fantasy, of the perversion of instinct that has been made possible by the machine age, it has great value.

Here, then, are some of the episodes in Dali's life, from his earliest years onward. Which of Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles, them are true and which are imaginary hardly matters: the point is that this is the ms hereditary, kind of Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay, thing that Dali would have liked to do. When he is six years old there is some excitement over the appearance of Halley's comet: Suddenly one of plot, my father's office clerks appeared in the drawing-room doorway and Life's Obstacles announced that the comet could be seen from the kotter, terrace. While crossing the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's, hall I caught sight of my little three-year-old sister crawling unobtrusively through a doorway.

I stopped, hesitated a second, then gave her a terrible kick in the head as though it had been a ball, and continued running, carried away with a ‘delirious joy’ induced by this savage act. But my father, who was behind me, caught me and led me down in to his office, where I remained as a punishment till dinner-time. A year earlier than this Dali had ‘suddenly, as most of my ideas occur,’ flung another little boy off a suspension bridge. Several other incidents of the same kind are recorded, including (this was when he was twenty-nine years old) knocking down and how did the soviet union fall trampling on a girl ‘until they had to tear her, bleeding, out of my reach.’ When he is about five he gets hold of Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay, a wounded bat which he puts into a tin pail. Next morning he finds that the bat is almost dead and to Chinese is covered with ants which are devouring it.

He puts it in Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Essay his mouth, ants and all, and Essay Conditional to Chinese Students bites it almost in half. When he is an adolescent a girl falls desperately in love with him. He kisses and caresses her so as to excite her as much as possible, but refuses to go further. Oprah Overcoming Life's? He resolves to keep this up for five years (he calls it his ‘five-year plan’), enjoying her humiliation and the sense of power it gives him. He frequently tells her that at the end of the Bird, five years he will desert her, and when the time comes he does so. Till well into adult life he keeps up the practice of masturbation, and Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay likes to do this, apparently, in front of a looking-glass.

For ordinary purposes he is impotent, it appears, till the age of thirty or so. When he first meets his future wife, Gala, he is greatly tempted to push her off a precipice. How Did Union? He is aware that there is something that she wants him to do to her, and after their first kiss the confession is Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay made: I threw back Gala's head, pulling it by the hair, and trembling with complete hysteria, I commanded: ‘Now tell me what you want me to do with you! But tell me slowly, looking me in the eye, with the ms hereditary, crudest, the Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, most ferociously erotic words that can make both of us feel the greatest shame!’ Then Gala, transforming the ms hereditary, last glimmer of Winfrey:, her expression of pleasure into Dufresne:, the hard light of Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, her own tyranny, answered:

He is somewhat disappointed by this demand, since it is merely what he wanted to do already. He contemplates throwing her off the bell-tower of the Cathedral of Toledo, but refrains from how did union fall, doing so. During the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles, Spanish Civil War he astutely avoids taking sides, and makes a trip to Italy. He feels himself more and more drawn towards the Biography of Joe Essay, aristocracy, frequents smart salons , finds himself wealthy patrons, and is photographed with the plump Vicomte de Noailles, whom he describes as his ‘Maecenas.’ When the European War approaches he has one preoccupation only: how to find a place which has good cookery and from which he can make a quick bolt if danger comes too near. He fixes on Bordeaux, and duly flees to Spain during the Battle of France. He stays in Spain long enough to pick up a few anti-red atrocity stories, then makes for America. Essay? The story ends in a blaze of respectability.

Dali, at thirty-seven, has become a devoted husband, is cured of and men, his aberrations, or some of them, and Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay is completely reconciled to the Catholic Church. He is also, one gathers, making a good deal of Biography of Joe, money. However, he has by no means ceased to take pride in the pictures of his Surrealist period, with titles like ‘The Great Masturbator’, ‘Sodomy of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, a Skull with a Grand Piano’, etc. There are reproductions of these all the way through the book. Andy A Caged Bird? Many of Dali's drawings are simply representational and have a characteristic to be noted later. But from his Surrealist paintings and photographs the two things that stand our are sexual perversity and necrophilia. Sexual objects and symbols — some of them well known, like our old friend the high-heeled slipper, others, like the crutch and the cup of warm milk, patented by Dali himself — recur over Oprah Overcoming, and over again, and there is a fairly well-marked excretory motif as well. In his painting, Le Jeu Lugubre , he says, ‘the drawers bespattered with excrement were painted with such minute and realistic complacency that the whole little Surrealist group was anguished by the question: Is he coprophagic or not?’ Dali adds firmly that he is not , and that he regards this aberration as ‘repulsive’, but it seems to be only at of mice and men that point that his interest in excrement stops. Even when he recounts the experience of watching a woman urinate standing up, he has to add the Obstacles, detail that she misses her aim and dirties her shoes. It is not given to any one person to have all the vices, and Dali also boasts that he is Essay Andy Bird not homosexual, but otherwise he seems to have as good an outfit of perversions as anyone could wish for.

However, his most notable characteristic is his necrophilia. He himself freely admits to this, and claims to have been cured of Overcoming Life's Obstacles, it. Dead faces, skulls, corpses of plot, animals occur fairly frequently in his pictures, and the ants which devoured the dying bat make countless reappearances. Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay? One photograph shows an exhumed corpse, far gone in Biography decomposition. Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay? Another shows the Essay, dead donkeys putrefying on top of grand pianos which formed part of the Surrealist film, Le Chien Andalou . Dali still looks back on these donkeys with great enthusiasm. I ‘made up’ the putrefaction of the donkeys with great pots of sticky glue which I poured over them. Also I emptied their eye-sockets and Overcoming Obstacles Essay made them larger by hacking them out with scissors. In the same way I furiously cut their mouths open to make the rows of their teeth show to better advantage, and I added several jaws to each mouth, so that it would appear that although the donkeys were already rotting they were vomiting up a little more their own death, above those other rows of A Caged, teeth formed by Overcoming Obstacles Essay the keys of the black pianos. And finally there is the picture — apparently some kind of Mielziner Essay, faked photograph — of ‘Mannequin rotting in Oprah Winfrey: Essay a taxicab.’ Over the already somewhat bloated face and breast of the apparently dead girl, huge snails were crawling.

In the union, caption below the picture Dali notes that these are Burgundy snails — that is, the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, edible kind. Of course, in this long book of how did the soviet union fall, 400 quarto pages there is more than I have indicated, but I do not think that I have given an Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, unfair account of his moral atmosphere and mental scenery. It is a book that stinks. If it were possible for a book to give a physical stink off its pages, this one would — a thought that might please Dali, who before wooing his future wife for the first time rubbed himself all over with an ointment made of goat's dung boiled up in fish glue. Of Mice Plot? But against this has to Oprah Winfrey: Life's, be set the fact that Dali is a draughtsman of very exceptional gifts. He is also, to judge by the minuteness and the sureness of his drawings, a very hard worker.

He is an exhibitionist and john kotter a careerist, but he is not a fraud. He has fifty times more talent than most of the people who would denounce his morals and jeer at his paintings. Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay? And these two sets of facts, taken together, raise a question which for lack of any basis of Essay, agreement seldom gets a real discussion. The point is that you have here a direct, unmistakable assault on sanity and decency; and even — since some of Dali's pictures would tend to poison the imagination like a pornographic postcard — on life itself. Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay? What Dali has done and what he has imagined is debatable, but in Essay his outlook, his character, the bedrock decency of a human being does not exist. He is as anti-social as a flea. Clearly, such people are undesirable, and Oprah Life's Essay a society in which they can flourish has something wrong with it. Now, if you showed this book, with its illustrations, to Lord Elton, to Mr. John Kotter? Alfred Noyes, to The Times leader writers who exult over the ‘eclipse of the highbrow’ — in fact, to any ‘sensible’ art-hating English person — it is easy to imagine what kind of response you would get. They would flatly refuse to see any merit in Dali whatever.

Such people are not only unable to admit that what is morally degraded can be sthetically right, but their real demand of every artist is that he shall pat them on the back and tell them that thought is unnecessary. Oprah Winfrey: Life's? And they can be especially dangerous at a time like the present, when the Ministry of Information and the British Council put power into how did the soviet, their hands. For their impulse is not only to crush every new talent as it appears, but to castrate the Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay, past as well. Witness the renewed highbrow-baiting that is now going on in this country and America, with its outcry not only against Dufresne:, Joyce, Proust and Lawrence, but even against T. S. Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay? Eliot. But if you talk to the kind of person who can see Dali's merits, the response that you get is not as a rule very much better. If you say that Dali, though a brilliant draughtsman, is theory a dirty little scoundrel, you are looked upon Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles as a savage. If you say that you don't like rotting corpses, and that people who do like rotting corpses are mentally diseased, it is union fall assumed that you lack the sthetic sense. Since ‘Mannequin rotting in a taxicab’ is a good composition. And between these two fallacies there is no middle position, but we seldom hear much about it. On the one side Kulturbolschevismus : on the other (though the phrase itself is out of fashion) ‘Art for Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay Art's sake.’ Obscenity is a very difficult question to discuss honestly. People are too frightened either of of mice and men plot, seeming to be shocked or of Overcoming Essay, seeming not to be shocked, to be able to define the relationship between art and morals.

It will be seen that what the defenders of Dali are claiming is a kind of benefit of clergy . The artist is to be exempt from the ms hereditary, moral laws that are binding on ordinary people. Just pronounce the magic word ‘Art’, and everything is O.K.: kicking little girls in the head is O.K.; even a film like L'Age d'Or is O.K. (2) It is also O.K. Winfrey: Overcoming Essay? that Dali should batten on France for years and then scuttle off like rat as soon as France is in danger. So long as you can paint well enough to pass the test, all shall be forgiven you. One can see how false this is if one extends it to cover ordinary crime. In an age like our own, when the artist is an altogether exceptional person, he must be allowed a certain amount of of Joe Essay, irresponsibility, just as a pregnant woman is. Still, no one would say that a pregnant woman should be allowed to commit murder, nor would anyone make such a claim for the artist, however gifted. If Shakespeare returned to Oprah Overcoming, the earth to-morrow, and if it were found that his favourite recreation was raping little girls in railway carriages, we should not tell him to go ahead with it on the ground that he might write another King Lear . And, after all, the worst crimes are not always the punishable ones. By encouraging necrophilic reveries one probably does quite as much harm as by, say, picking pockets at the races. One ought to be able to hold in ms hereditary one's head simultaneously the Oprah Life's, two facts that Dali is a good draughtsman and Mielziner Essay a disgusting human being.

The one does not invalidate or, in a sense, affect the other. The first thing that we demand of a wall is that it shall stand up. If it stands up, it is a good wall, and the question of what purpose it serves is separable from that. And yet even the best wall in the world deserves to be pulled down if it surrounds a concentration camp. Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay? In the same way it should be possible to say, ‘This is a good book or a good picture, and it ought to be burned by the public hangman.’ Unless one can say that, at Dufresne: Bird least in imagination, one is shirking the implications of the fact that an artist is Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay also a citizen and a human being. Not, of course, that Dali's autobiography, or his pictures, ought to Essay on Teaching Conditional Sentences Students, be suppressed. Short of the dirty postcards that used to be sold in Mediterranean seaport towns, it is doubtful policy to suppress anything, and Dali's fantasies probably cast useful light on the decay of capitalist civilisation. But what he clearly needs is diagnosis. The question is not so much what he is as why he is Winfrey: Obstacles Essay like that. It ought not to be in doubt that his is a diseased intelligence, probably not much altered by his alleged conversion, since genuine penitents, or people who have returned to ms hereditary, sanity, do not flaunt their past vices in that complacent way.

He is a symptom of the world's illness. The important thing is not to Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay, denounce him as a cad who ought to be horsewhipped, or to defend him as a genius who ought not to on Teaching Students, be questioned, but to find out why he exhibits that particular set of aberrations. The answer is probably discoverable in Life's Obstacles Essay his pictures, and those I myself am not competent to examine. Ms Hereditary? But I can point to Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay, one clue which perhaps takes one part of the distance. This is the old-fashioned, over-ornate Edwardian style of drawing to which Dali tends to revert when he is not being Surrealist.

Some of Dali's drawings are reminiscent of union, Dürer, one (p. 113) seems to show the influence of Beardsley, another (p. Winfrey: Obstacles Essay? 269) seems to borrow something from Blake. But the most persistent strain is the Edwardian one. When I opened the kotter, book for the first time and looked at its innumerable marginal illustrations, I was haunted by a resemblance which I could not immediately pin down. I fetched up at the ornamental candlestick at the beginning of Life's Obstacles, Part I (p.

7). What did this remind me of? Finally I tracked it down. It reminded me of a large vulgar, expensively got-up edition of john theory, Anatole France (in translation) which must have been published about 1914. That had ornamental chapter headings and tailpieces after this style. Dali's candlestick displays at one end a curly fish-like creature that looks curiously familiar (it seems to be based on the conventional dolphin), and at the other is the burning candle. Oprah Obstacles? This candle, which recurs in one picture after another, is a very old friend. You will find it, with the same picturesque gouts of wax arranged on its sides, in those phoney electric lights done up as candlesticks which are popular in sham-Tudor country hotels. Of Joe? This candle, and the design beneath it, convey at once an Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay, intense feeling of sentimentality.

As though to counteract this, Dali has spattered a quill-ful of ink all over the page, but without avail. The same impression keeps popping up on page after page. The sign at the bottom of page 62, for plot instance, would nearly go into Peter Pan . The figure on page 224, in spite of having her cranium elongated in to an immense sausage-like shape, is the witch of the fairy-tale books. The horse on page 234 and Essay the unicorn on page 218 might be illustrations to James Branch Cabell. The rather pansified drawings of youths on pages 97, 100 and the soviet union elsewhere convey the Obstacles Essay, same impression. Picturesqueness keeps breaking in.

Take away the skulls, ants, lobsters, telephones and other paraphernalia, and every now and again you are back in the world of Barrie, Rackham, Dunsany and Where the how did union, Rainbow Ends . Curiously, enough, some of the naughty-naughty touches in Winfrey: Life's Essay Dali's autobiography tie up with the same period. How Did Fall? When I read the passage I quoted at the beginning, about the kicking of the Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, little sister's head, I was aware of another phantom resemblance. The Soviet Union? What was it? Of course! Ruthless Rhymes for Heartless Homes , by Harry Graham.

Such rhymes were very popular round about 1912, and one that ran: Poor little Willy is crying so sore, A sad little boy is he, For he's broken his little sister's neck. And he'll have no jam for tea, might almost have been founded on Dali's anecdote. Dali, of course, is Oprah Overcoming Obstacles aware of his Edwardian leanings, and makes capital out of them, more or less in ms hereditary a spirit of Oprah Winfrey: Life's, pastiche. He professes an especial affection for the year 1900, and claims that every ornamental object of 1900 is full of mystery, poetry, eroticism, madness, perversity, et.

Pastiche, however, usually implies a real affection for the thing parodied. It seems to be, if not the theory, rule, at any rate distinctly common for Oprah Life's Obstacles Essay an intellectual bent to be accompanied by a non-rational, even childish urge in the same direction. A sculptor, for instance, is interested in planes and curves, but he is also a person who enjoys the physical act of mucking about with clay or stone. An engineer is a person who enjoys the feel of tools, the noise of dynamos and smell of oil. A psychiatrist usually has a leaning toward some sexual aberration himself. Darwin became a biologist partly because he was a country gentleman and fond of animals. It may be therefore, that Dali's seemingly perverse cult of Edwardian things (for example, his ‘discovery’ of the 1900 subway entrances) is of mice plot merely the symptom of a much deeper, less conscious affection. The innumerable, beautifully executed copies of Obstacles, textbook illustrations, solemnly labelled le rossignol, une montre and the soviet union so on, which he scatters all over his margins, may be meant partly as a joke.

The little boy in knickerbockers playing with a diabolo on page 103 is Oprah Overcoming Essay a perfect period piece. John? But perhaps these things are also there because Dali can't help drawing that kind of thing because it is to Winfrey: Life's Essay, that period and that style of drawing that he really belongs. If so, his aberrations are partly explicable. Perhaps they are a way of assuring himself that he is not commonplace. Ms Hereditary? The two qualities that Dali unquestionably possesses are a gift for drawing and Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's an atrocious egoism. ‘At seven’, he says in the first paragraph of his book, ‘I wanted to kotter theory, be Napoleon. And my ambition has been growing steadily ever since.’ This is worded in a deliberately startling way, but no doubt it is substantially true. Such feelings are common enough. ‘I knew I was a genius’, somebody once said to me, ‘long before I knew what I was going to be a genius about .’ And suppose that you have nothing in you except your egoism and a dexterity that goes no higher than the elbow; suppose that your real gift is for a detailed, academic, representational style of drawing, your real métier to be an Life's, illustrator of scientific textbooks. How then do you become Napoleon? There is always one escape: into wickedness . Always do the thing that will shock and wound people. At five, throw a little boy off a bridge, strike an old doctor across the ms hereditary, face with a whip and break his spectacles — or, at Life's Essay any rate, dream about Essay Dufresne: A Caged Bird, doing such things.

Twenty years later, gouge the eyes out of dead donkeys with a pair of scissors. Along those lines you can always feel yourself original. And after all, it pays! It is much less dangerous than crime. Making all allowance for the probable suppressions in Dali's autobiography, it is Winfrey: Overcoming Essay clear that he had not had to suffer for his eccentricities as he would have done in an earlier age. He grew up into the corrupt world of the nineteen-twenties, when sophistication was immensely widespread and Dufresne: Bird every European capital swarmed with aristocrats and rentiers who had given up sport and politics and taken to patronising the arts. Oprah? If you threw dead donkeys at people, they threw money back. A phobia for ms hereditary grasshoppers — which a few decades back would merely have provoked a snigger — was now an interesting ‘complex’ which could be profitably exploited. And when that particular world collapsed before the German Army, America was waiting. You could even top it all up with religious conversion, moving at one hop and without a shadow of Oprah Essay, repentance from the fashionable salons of Paris to Abraham's bosom.

That, perhaps is the essential outline of Essay, Dali's history. Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay? But why his aberrations should be the particular ones they were, and why it should be so easy to ‘sell’ such horrors as rotting corpses to a sophisticated public — those are questions for the psychologist and the sociological critic. Marxist criticism has a short way with such phenomena as Surrealism. They are ‘bourgeois decadence’ (much play is made with the phrases ‘corpse poisons’ and ‘decaying rentiers class’), and that is that. But though this probably states a fact, it does not establish a connection. Andy Dufresne: A Caged? One would still like to know why Dali's leaning was towards necrophilia (and not, say, homosexuality), and why the rentiers and the aristocrats would buy his pictures instead of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay, hunting and making love like their grandfathers. Mere moral disapproval does not get one any further. But neither ought one to pretend, in the name of the soviet union, ‘detachment’, that such pictures as ‘Mannequin rotting in Life's Obstacles Essay a taxicab’ are morally neutral. They are diseased and disgusting, and any investigation ought to start out from ms hereditary, that fact.

George Orwell: ‘Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali’ First published: The Saturday Book for 1944 . — GB, London. — 1944. Machine-readable version: O. Dag. Last modified on: 2015-09-24. 1946 Secker and Winfrey: Overcoming Warburg.

London. ‘Benefit of Clergy: Some Notes on Salvador Dali’: [Index page]

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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. There's a persistent myth about the SAT Essay: the idea that you can't prepare content because you don't see the prompt until the day of the Overcoming Obstacles test. This is a myth because, in order to be standardized, the test has to kotter require the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's same complexity of argument in every SAT essay question: yes or no, this or that, what causes what. And since all these arguments are very simple, almost every SAT essay argument can be boiled down to one of the Biography Mielziner Essay 6 we list here . In addition to Winfrey: that, though, we also explain how to argue each one, and give you sample support for both sides of and men plot every argument. Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay. Read on for the inside scoop on this important aspect of the john SAT. SAT Essay prompts are unlike any other writing assignment.

The questions are extremely general, asking things like is the world changing for Winfrey: Life's Essay, the better, but they only how did the soviet, ever require a very simplistic thesis statement about a complex idea. There are, for example, many ways in which the world is and is not changing for the better. The most accurate answer would have to be yes AND no, but that's the opposite of what you should say on the SAT. Because on Oprah Overcoming Essay, the SAT Essay, simplicity and clarity is the name of the game . You are expected to make a broad, definitive statement about A Caged Bird what people 'should' do or whether something is Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, possible. You don't have to believe it, you just have to present a few examples (between one and three) that can show why your statement is correct. In this way, the and men plot SAT Essay is easier than most students think. All of the essay questions in this article are taken from real SATs or College Board prep materials. We've categorized them not by their content--for example, success or personality--but rather by their reasoning . This is because the logic of the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Essay question, not its content, is what determines the best argument on which to build your essay.

For each type of ms hereditary SAT essay question below, we give you 3 sample prompts similar to what you'll run into, and Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's a breakdown of how to argue either side of any SAT essay question of that type. You'll get detailed SAT essay examples that guide you through how to Bird construct an argument. SAT Essay Prompt Type 1: Discuss what people should do. This type of SAT essay question lends itself to many different kinds of examples. Anything that involves people and their choices is fair game. Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles. See the diagram below for more information on how this works. How Did The Soviet Fall. be valued according to their capabilities rather than their achievements? weight all opinions equally, or place more weight on informed opinions? always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones?

Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people should always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones, or no, people should not always value new things, ideas, or values over older ones. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). For example, if you argue Yes, people should value new things as your thesis, you can give evidence of Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles a time when people valued new things and it turned out union, well, or of a time when people didn't value innovation and it turned out poorly. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-world or literary examples that fit the criteria in Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles, Step 2 (see blue boxes for ideas). To support the Yes thesis with evidence of when people valued new things with success, we could talk about Civil Rights in the United States, the Essay Bird Industrial Revolution, FDR's new deal, or any other example dealign with positive innovation. We could also discuss evidence where refusal to accept new things turned out Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, poorly, like fear of vaccinations and Galileo being excommunicated for his (true) scientific beliefs. SAT Essay Prompt Type 2: Discuss which of two things is john, better. These questions can be fodder for 12-scoring essays because they can be answered so simply: this thing is better than that thing.

Then you just have to think of 1-3 examples in which that thing worked and/or in which the Winfrey: Life's Essay other thing didn't work. See the diagram below for more information on kotter, how this can be done. to take an idealistic approach or a practical approach? to do fulfilling or high-paying work? to use cooperation or competition to achieve success? Step 1 : Pick a side. It is better to use cooperation to achieve success, or it is better to use competition to Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay achieve success. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Similar to Prompt Type 1 above, in this case you can use evidence that supports your thesis, or argues against the opposite thesis. Essay Dufresne:. For example, if you write that Cooperation is Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming, better to achieve success, you can use evidence on a time when cooperation led to success, or when competition led to failure. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (blue boxes). Following our cooperation is how did the soviet union, better thesis, we can talk about when people cooperated to great success - like the Civil Rights movement, or Abraham Lincoln's cabinet during the Civil War. We could also discuss how competition is inferior through examples like the subprime mortgage crisis of 2008, or the North Korea vs South Korea standoff.

SAT Essay Prompt Type 3: Support or refute counterintuitive statements. These can be the toughest SAT essay prompts--if you don't know how to tackle them. The easiest way to Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay really knock this essay type out the soviet fall, of the park is to say yes, it is possible, and then think of an example. The other side--no, it isn't possible--is harder to logically prove , but it can be done. See the diagram below for more information on Oprah Overcoming Life's Essay, how this works. Is it possible for…. And Men. deception to have good results? working to reach an objective to be valuable even if the objective is not reached? any obstacle to be turned into Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay something beneficial?

Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, it is possible for how did the soviet union, any obstacle to be turned into Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay something beneficial, or no, it is not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Unlike the two prompt types above, this one is more simplistic - just find evidence that can support your thesis in Andy Dufresne:, a straightforward way. Oprah Life's. If you write No, it's not possible for any obstacle to be turned into something beneficial, you just need to find evidence for when obstacles exist but don't lead to Essay to Chinese anything helpful. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay. To support the No thesis, we could use the example of how gender discrimination against women and income inequality has caused far more harm than the good it has caused. SAT Essay Prompt Type 4: Cause and effect. These can be logically complicated, depending on which side you choose. If you say x is the result of y , then you just have to think of 1-3 examples that illustrate it. If you choose the other side, though, then you have a harder logical task in front of you--your examples have to fit a much narrower definition to make sense.

See the diagram below for more information on how this works. Biography. Is __ the result of Life's Essay __? Is a successful community the result of ms hereditary individuals sacrificing their personal goals? Is accomplishment the result of freedom to Winfrey: Life's Essay do things one's own way? Is learning the result of experiencing difficulties? Step 1 : Pick a side. Biography Essay. Yes, learning is the result of experiencing difficulties, or no, learning is not the result of experiencing difficulties.

Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). For example, if our thesis is Yes, learning is the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay result of experiencing difficulties, we can either argue with evidence of john kotter a time when learning IS the result of difficulty, or when a lack of difficulty led to an absence of learning. Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay. Both types of evidence support your thesis. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). For our Yes thesis, we could talk about how the difficulty of unmanageable healthcare costs in the USA led to learning and the Affordable Care Act.

We could also use the Essay on Teaching Conditional Sentences to Chinese other type of Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay evidence and talk about how Jay Gatsby's lack of difficulty in having immense wealth led to poor learning about what really makes him happy. SAT Essay Prompt Type 5: Generalize about the state of the world. These kinds of SAT essay prompts are so open-ended that they lend themselves to all kinds of examples and interpretations. But for this same reason, they can be overwhelming and confusing. See the diagram below for how did the soviet union, more information on how this works. What is the modern world like? Is the world more in need of creativity now more than ever?

Is the world actually harder to understand due to the abundance of information now available? Is the world changing in a positive way? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, the Oprah Overcoming Life's Essay world is changing in a positive way, or no, the world is not changing in fall, a positive way. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use).

Let's consider the Oprah Obstacles Yes thesis. We can use evidence that problems in of Joe, the past that are being solved today, or innovations today that didn't previously exist. Step 3 : Quickly think of Oprah Overcoming Obstacles 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the criteria in Step 2 (see blue boxes). To support our Yes thesis, we can find examples of problems that are better now - women's rights, slavery, and reduced violence. We can also discuss recent innovations that dramatically improve quality of life, like the Internet and to Chinese Students widespread access to Oprah Overcoming Life's Essay education. SAT Essay Prompt Type 6: Generalize about people. Much like the state of the world questions, these can be supported by almost anything, but can also get away from you if you're not careful. See the diagram below for some ideas of how to manage these prompts. What are people like? Do people underestimate the value of community due to our culture of individualism?

Are people defined by their occupations? Do people learn from the past? Step 1 : Pick a side. Yes, people learn from the past, or no, people do not learn from the Andy past. Step 2 : Consider what would logically support your statement (see green boxes for a breakdown of the types of support you should use). Let's consider the No thesis that people don't learn from the past - we would have to find an example of when someone repeated a mistake that they could have avoided from history. Step 3 : Quickly think of 1-3 real-life or literary examples that fit the Winfrey: Obstacles criteria in Mielziner, Step 2 (see blue boxes). Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles. A great example to use for Mielziner Essay, our No thesis is comparing Hitler and Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay Germany to john kotter Napoleon. In 1812, Napoleon fought a war on multiple fronts, fighting the Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Spanish army and the Russian Empire simultaneously.

This led to a drastic dilution of focus and led to his defeat. A century later in World War 2, Hitler fought on two fronts as well, facing the Allies in Europe and the soviet fall Russia at the same time. Overcoming Essay. He too was defeated through this mistake. Now that you know the basic types of SAT essay prompts and the types of arguments they require, what can you do with this information? A few different things: one is to practice with these questions, thinking of one or two examples to support at least one answer to Essay each question. We've written a guide to Oprah Obstacles Essay 6 SAT essay examples you can use to answer nearly every prompt.

Another is to take a look at our comprehensive SAT essay prompts article, which gives you lots more questions to think about answering and supporting with the arguments above. Finally, make sure you read our 15 SAT essay tips to know how to ms hereditary get an edge on the essay. Want to get serious about improving your SAT score? We have the leading online SAT prep program that will raise your score by 240+ points, guaranteed . Winfrey: Life's Essay. Exclusive to ms hereditary our program, we have an expert SAT instructor grade each of your SAT essays and give you customized feedback on how to improve your score. This can mean an instant jump of 80 points on the Writing section alone. Check out our 5-day free trial and sign up for Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, free: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Laura has over a decade of teaching experience at leading universities and scored a perfect score on the SAT. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on our latest articles right on Essay on Teaching Sentences to Chinese, your feed. Overcoming Life's. Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics?

Ask below and we'll reply! Series: How to Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on of mice plot, Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in Overcoming Life's Essay, a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2017.

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Essay: English language teachers’ perceptions of an Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles, activity to elicit beliefs. In this small-scale study six English teachers working at a Turkish private middle school elicited their own teacher beliefs using an adapted version of a repertory grid as proposed by Donaghue (2003). The repertory grid was introduced and union fall, used in a session in which the participants individually generated their constructs and compared them with another teacher. The participants were asked to write an evaluation of the Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, activity as an instrument to Essay, elicit beliefs. Furthermore a semi-structured interview was conducted which aimed to detect the Winfrey: Overcoming Essay, participant’s perceptions of the ms hereditary, activity and to shed further light on the value of this instrument.

Conclusions about the applicability of the repertory grid technique and, in Winfrey: Overcoming Life's, particular, the instrument used in ms hereditary, this study in Winfrey: Life's, second language teacher education and teacher development are drawn. Key words: Teacher beliefs, ELT, Elicitation Technique, Teacher Education, Professional Development. It is ms hereditary, widely accepted that people’s beliefs have an impact on their behaviour. Thought and action are interactively related: ‘What people think, believe, and Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, feel affects how they behave’ (Bandura, 1986, p. 25). Ms Hereditary? Reviewing the relevant literature, Gabillon (2012) has recently explicated the of nature foreign language teacher beliefs and their influence on teaching practice in a set of five dichotomies: (1) teacher beliefs are personal as they represent an individual understanding and interpretation of Oprah Winfrey: Life's Essay teaching practice and social, as the understanding and interpretation is shaped in a social and cultural context; (2) teacher beliefs are practical and of Joe Mielziner, theoretical in Oprah Essay, a way that theoretical knowledge (e.g. teaching methods or learning theories) is interpreted and modified in the light of practical knowledge (i.e. experienced knowledge) to fit it to ms hereditary, teacher beliefs; (3) there are teacher beliefs that are implicit, i.e. unconscious and difficult to verbalise, and those ones being explicit, i.e. teachers are able to verbalize them, to Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Essay, provide a rationale and to relate them to previous experience (professional or life experience); (4) teacher beliefs are dynamic, i.e. open to change; however, it is uncontested that teacher beliefs are not easily changed and deep-rooted key beliefs or core beliefs might be resistant; (5) teacher beliefs are systematic, i.e. John Theory? there are belief factors that are organised around themes rather systematically so that practice is linked to the belief system, while other belief factors are complex organised and Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, indeed contain conflicting perceptions which cause a mismatch between beliefs and practice. Borg (2006; 2003) has coined the term teacher cognition referring to the ‘unobservable cognitive dimension of teaching ‘ what teachers know, believe and think’ (ibid, p. 81). As such, teacher cognition plays an ms hereditary, essential role in the practice of teaching and teacher education. Oprah Essay? It is shaped by schooling (the teacher’s experience gained when she was a pupil/student) and professional coursework (the teacher’s experience gained in Dufresne: Bird, teacher education programs). Furthermore, teacher cognition is in dependence to contextual factors (physical conditions, material, curriculum etc. faced in the institutional context the teacher is Winfrey: Essay, employed in), and own classroom practice (which shapes cognition unconsciously, or consciously through reflection). Teacher cognition stands in Essay Andy A Caged Bird, an interactional relation to teacher learning and practice as it both informs them and Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles, is informed through them.

It is Dufresne: A Caged, important to Oprah Winfrey:, uncover teachers’ beliefs in order to initiate reflection on own teaching and, consequently, to facilitate professional development. Ms Hereditary? When teacher beliefs remain undetected or are ignored, teacher training and professional development programs are likely to be ineffective because input (e.g. new approaches or techniques) cannot be connected to existing teacher beliefs; consequently, new content is unlikely to be transferred into classroom practice (Freeman, 2002; V??lez-Rend??n, 2002). Uncovering beliefs and assumptions is, however, difficult since they might be subconscious or it might be challenging to articulate them (Donaghue, 2003). Furthermore teacher beliefs might consist of espoused theories which are in contrast to theories in action (Williams Burden, 1997). Among other instruments, the use of belief inventories (e.g. Richards Lockhart, 1996, pp. 48-51) or awareness raising activities (e.g. Taggart Wilson, 2005; Roberts, 1998; Wallace, 1991) have been suggested to explore teacher beliefs. Donaghue (2003) has introduced an adapted version of the repertory grid technique to Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles, elicit teacher beliefs and assumptions (see Appendix A).

Instead of using given constructs (as in questionnaires), in repertory grids participants develop and articulate their own, personal constructs. The instrument developed by Donaghue is loosely based on Kelly’s (1991) theory of personal construct, according to which an individual makes sense of the fall, world by generating constructs which shape an individual’s personal theory. Constructs are viewed as ‘dichotomous abstractions’ (ibid., p. 75), i.e. individuals perceive elements of their experience in such a way that they ‘never affirm anything without simultaneously denying something’ (Fransella, Bell Bannister, 2004, p.7). For example, an effective teacher might be considered as someone who motivates students, while an ineffective teacher might be considered to be teaching without motivating students (example taken from Life's Essay, Roberts, 1998, p. The Soviet Fall? 31). Accordingly, in the repertory grid activity proposed by Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay Donaghue (2003) the Biography Mielziner Essay, participants are asked to compare three different people and to affirm a construct in which two persons are alike, and Winfrey: Obstacles, the third is different.

The adapted version of the repertory grid was developed as an instrument to be used as an awareness-raising activity at ms hereditary the beginning of courses in teacher training or professional development. It aims at informing participants about their (often covert) beliefs and assumptions about language teaching. Differently from other repertory grids it does not contain a scale through which participants indicate how near a construct is related to an element. For this reason, conclusion from results of the instrument must be drawn with caution. It is rather ‘a catalyst to thought and reflection’ (Donaghue, 2003, p. 350) than a research tool to gain generalisable results. Consequently, this study is concerned with the applicability of the instruments and not with the gained beliefs themselves.

The study sought to find out how the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles, adapted repertory grid by Donaghue (2003) was perceived as an instrument to elicit teacher beliefs by and men plot six teachers at Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay a Turkish middle school. For this reason, the Biography of Joe Essay, participants were asked to evaluate the instrument and it was intended to Oprah Essay, find out to what dimensions of teacher cognition the participants related their own beliefs to. Fall? It was assumed that the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles, participants’ comments might be understood as an indicator for evaluating in how far the instrument is capable of initiating reflective thinking. No less importantly, the participants’ perceptions might contribute to developing the instrument. Following these considerations the study sought to answer the following questions: 1. How do the participants evaluate the elicitation technique used in this study? 2. How do the Biography of Joe, participants perceive the elicitation technique for their professional development? The participants in this study were six teachers at a private middle school in Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, a southeastern city in Turkey. The pupils attending the john theory, school come from families belonging to the middle and Oprah Winfrey:, upper middle class. In order to on Teaching Sentences to Chinese Students, get some background information, the participants were asked to fill in repertory grid evaluation form (Appendix B), which requested besides an evaluation of the activity some biographical information.

Background of the Participants in Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, the Study. Participant Sex Age Qualification Teaching experience. 1 female 33 bachelor 11 years. 2 male 45 bachelor 17 years. 3 female 27 bachelor 4 years. 4 female 29 bachelor 7 years.

5 female 29 bachelor 4 years. 6 male 32 bachelor 6 years. Table 1 shows that all participants have a bachelor’s degree in ELT and vary in teaching experience as evidenced by the years of teaching. Participants 1, 3 and 5 have had exclusively worked at Biography of Joe Mielziner Essay private schools while participant 4 had worked at a private teaching institution (dershane) for five years and participant 6 at a public school for three years before they started their current job at the private school. Participant 2 is Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's, of Syrian nationality. He had worked at state schools abroad (e.g. Kuwait), and has been working at the private school for john theory, two years.

Data Collection Procedures and Tools. The participants were invited to a session in which the activity was carried out. The activity procedure followed these steps (cf. Oprah Obstacles? Donaghue, 2003, p. 347f.): 1. The researcher introduces the Andy Dufresne: A Caged, aim of the study and explains all steps. He also introduces the repertory grid activity and explains the concept of personal constructs. 2. Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay? Participants are divided into pairs. Each pair receives one set of cards containing the elements of the how did union, grid (cf.

Appendix A). They think of Oprah Life's a real person that matches the element best. Participant A writes the name of the person at the top of the Biography of Joe, card, participant B writes it at the bottom. For confidentiality, the participants are allowed to write a pseudonym if the partner knows the person. An example is given in Figure 1. A teacher you learned well with. Figure 1. Card used in repertory grid activity (sample) 3. Cards are shuffled. Overcoming Life's Obstacles? Each participant is given a grid (Appendix A). Pairs choose three cards at random, and individually think how two persons are similar and one is different writing their personal constructs in the ‘construct’ column. And Men? Participants put a tick to the elements that are the same and a cross to the one that is different.

4. Pairs compare their constructs and discuss. 5. Pairs return the cards, shuffle them and repeat steps 3 and 4 (Donaghue, 2003, suggests 6 turns). Repertory Grid Evaluation. At the end of the session, the participants were asked to evaluate the Overcoming Obstacles, repertory grid by completing the Repertory Grid Evaluation Form (see Appendix B). Each participant was interviewed separately. The aim of the semi-structured interview was to find out if the repertory grid activity had initiated a reflective process in each of the participants.

For this purpose, the participants were invited to comment on their beliefs (see questions in Appendix C). The interviews were hold in English and audio-recorded. The interviews were then transcribed to prepare them for the data analysis. During the repertory grid activity the researcher took field notes in order to document how the ms hereditary, participants responded to Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay, the activity. Four types of data were collected during the study: the repertory grids, the of Joe Mielziner, field notes, the repertory grid evaluation and the transcription of the semi-structured interview. The repertory grids were not analysed in order to detect the participants’ beliefs; it was not assumed that they were valid tools to Overcoming Obstacles Essay, research the participants’ teacher beliefs (cf. the related remarks in the introduction of john kotter this paper). The data gained from the other data collection tools were analysed through content analysis in order to answer the Oprah Life's Obstacles Essay, research questions. For this purpose, coding categories were established after initial coding (Saldana, 2009). The coding categories were attributed to six themes: repertory grid evaluation, schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors, classroom practice and suggestions. This section is organised as follows: It starts with the participants’ general evaluation of the repertory grid activity using data both from the repertory grid evaluation form and union, the interview as there were overlaps in Oprah Obstacles Essay, the data coming from both collection tools. Then, it is reported how the teachers related the activity to their learning experience (schooling and professional coursework) as well as past and current contexts and classroom practices.

The participants’ views on how to use the elicited beliefs and suggestions on how to develop the instrument conclude this section. How did the participants evaluate the repertory grid activity in general? All the participants gave positive comments on the activity in the repertory grid evaluation form, and on Teaching Sentences, these perceptions were repeated and accentuated in the interviews. The evaluations can be summarised under three categories: its usefulness as an elicitation tool, its (potential) value as part of professional development, and its quality as an enjoyable activity. The activity as an Elicitation Tool. The participants regarded the tool as a powerful instrument to Oprah Life's Obstacles, elicit beliefs as the elicitation process is based on real people the participants are familiar with. Of Joe Mielziner Essay? Participant 1, for example, stated that she was not aware of the Winfrey: Overcoming, importance of social skills for teaching before the activity: I didn’t think about ms hereditary, some of the qualities of my teachers, my colleagues (…) I didn’t think that my colleagues are cheerful persons or friendly persons. Overcoming Life's Essay? (…) For teaching being helpful, being kind to the students, listening to them carefully [are important] (Interview, participant 1).

Two participants emphasised that that the ms hereditary, procedure helped them to Oprah Overcoming Obstacles, formulate honest answers; a teacher noted: I felt that I was giving away my experiences about my job (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 6). Two participants pointed to the part during the activity when the Essay Conditional Sentences to Chinese, teachers shared their constructs with a partner. They recognised sharing beliefs as a central point of the activity as the following excerpt from the interview illustrates: I learned much from the Oprah Obstacles, activity because one of Essay on Teaching Conditional Sentences to Chinese my colleagues wrote interesting constructs and by the way I learned them and I think this activity is something like a psychological test, but not individual-psychological, it’s just prepared for the profession and Oprah Life's Essay, our experiences (Interview, participant 6). While the responses in the previous paragraph indicate the usefulness of the activity as an elicitation tool, the activity was also perceived as incentive to reflection, i.e. Of Mice? it was perceived as going beyond a mere verbalisation of beliefs and, thus, as potentially contributing to professional development:

You think, you remember and you evaluate yourself and Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles, the other person (Interview, participant 3). Since the elicitation of and men constructs is combined with comparison of three teachers (the elements), the activity forced the participants to challenge ideas. Participant 2 illustrates this by discussing a personality trait that is negatively connoted, but in fact might be valuable as a quality of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Essay a teacher: In my point of of mice plot view I think I have to think again and Overcoming, again of so many things; for example one of the Essay, characteristics of the teacher I ticked ‘ a strict teacher, for example, I learned a lot from a strict teacher in the past; he never laughed, but really I loved him very much, although he was not so friendly with the students, but as a teacher he was a good teacher. So, sometimes like parents, I think there doesn’t have to be laughing all the Oprah Winfrey:, time with the kids in order to teach them. Sometimes we have to be strict a little bit. Of course, we have to be patient, kind, friendly and so on.

But some of the characteristics we will consider as bad characteristics, they are very useful for us teachers (Interview, participant 2). Participant 1 pointed to a further advantage of the activity: She said that she had difficulties to criticise other people or to be criticised. Of Mice And Men? As the activity helped her to Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, find own weaknesses, she concluded that it might be suitable for people having problems with criticism. Two participants perceived the activity as enjoyable, as expressed in this excerpt: Also it was enjoyable because it made me think of the past and sometimes I laughed at those days (Repertory Grid Evaluation Form, participant 1). The enjoyment the ms hereditary, participants found can be confirmed by Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles the researcher’s observations of the teachers’ active participation in the activity and the willingness to elaborate on their constructs in the interviews; the following comment indicates that the feeling of enjoyment was linked to the perception of contributing to professional development: It was enjoyable. I liked being a participant in such an activity. And Men Plot? I want to make another one, not just repertory grid, another scientific one. I want to be a participant for my profession (Interview, participant 6).

What did the participants relate their beliefs to? A major aim of the interview was to find out to what areas in their past experience and/or current situation the participants would relate their beliefs to. It was assumed that areas mentioned by the participants would match those in the framework suggested by Borg (2003, p. Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles? 82), who sees teacher beliefs (as a subcategory in john kotter theory, the all-embracing notion of teacher cognition) generated through schooling, professional coursework, contextual factors and classroom practice. The second question of the Essay, interview asked for the sources of the ms hereditary, beliefs, but did not direct the participants to any of the areas teacher cognitions are located in. Table 2 displays to what areas the participants attributed their beliefs of their own accord. Participant’s Initial Attribution of Beliefs to Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles Essay, Areas. participant area mentioned initially.

1 professional coursework. 2 contextual factors. 3 contextual factors. 5 contextual factors. 6 professional coursework. Table 2 shows that different teachers came up with different references for their beliefs when asked initially. This does not mean that there were not any other sources for kotter, their beliefs, but those ones were asked directly in Oprah Obstacles Essay, the course of the interview; it can be assumed that particularly contextual factors mentioned by participants 2, 3 and 5 were foregrounded for these teachers as they focused on them extensively during the interview.

The participants’ perceptions are reported in more detail in the following sections. Schooling was mentioned by Essay using a concrete example by participant 4, who said that her belief that teachers should be friendly was generated by her 7th grade English teacher who made her like learning English. She also talked about one of Oprah Winfrey: Essay her teachers who the pupils made fun of because of her glasses. The participant concluded that physical appearance played a role in teaching. Two participants argued that the view of schooling experience had been changed as they now appreciated teacher practice (observed in their teachers in childhood) they had not appreciated when they were children. These responses suggest that schooling experience can be modified through teaching experience; in a way, the teachers critically reflected their own beliefs they had when they were younger. Even though mentioned, professional coursework was not highlighted in the interviews; on of mice plot enquiry, the Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay, participants did not deny an influence of teacher education on their beliefs but they did not exemplify it, for example by Essay Andy Dufresne: referring to their constructs in Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming, the repertory grid. Biography Of Joe? Participant 4 mentioned the name of Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles one of john kotter her academic teachers at university who. taught a lot of things, he taught me to teach, he taught me how to behave towards the students.

We learned by Winfrey: Obstacles Essay living, by acting (Interview, participant 3). This response, particularly the last sentence, indicates the importance of not only content but also of method in teacher education. In the interviews, contextual factors were most prominently elaborated on. The participants claimed that their beliefs and assumptions were shaped by cultural norms and their immediate environment (parents, friends, colleagues), and that the context of private school had an influence on teacher behaviour and, consequently, teaching practice. Two participants addressed the impact of culture; in their explanations they did not only refer to the teacher profession.

The following excerpt summarises the responses: I think our beliefs come from our experiences, this is ms hereditary, one of the Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles, sources ‘ one of them is our home. That is very important: How did our parents teach us in the past? The morals, the ethics and something like that; one source is our experience in life in general; one of them is our culture. For example, we are Muslims, our culture is different from that of others, from Jews or Christians or other people; one of them comes from our close friends ‘ the people we love. Sometimes we find good beliefs we didn’t believe in the past (Interview, participant 2). The excerpt illustrates that the emergence of of Joe teacher beliefs is Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay, perceived as not restricted to the immediate school context.

Virtually all areas of life can contribute to professional beliefs. A further contextual factor mentioned by the participants was the context of private school which was contrasted with public schools. Essay Andy? Participant 5 said that state school teachers were sometimes ineffective, and she linked her belief to a variety of conditions. According to Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay, her, public school teachers do not care about their students’ success as they rather transmit knowledge, i.e. grammar, than teaching the four language skills; they are not supervised by principals and parents do not come to school and ask about their children’s progress; additionally, public school teachers are ‘relaxed’ as concerns salary, which contributed to Conditional Sentences, their attitude of indifference towards their profession. In a similar vein participant 3 pointed to the reduced amount of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles class hours and restricted use of material in public schools on the one hand and the willingness of private school students to learn English on the other hand. Participant 1 said that she tried to do her best because she worked at a private school. What all these voices have in common is the conviction that contextual factors influence teacher beliefs and it can be concluded that beliefs generated through contextual factors affect teaching practice. Similar as for how did fall, schooling and professional coursework, the participants did not come up with concrete examples how their beliefs interacted with their own classroom practice. From a general perspective, participant 1 (a rather experienced teacher) described classroom practice as having an ongoing impact on beliefs and Winfrey: Life's Essay, assumptions and consequently on teaching practice. She claimed she adapted her beliefs as a response to change in student behaviour: I change my ideas because every generation is different (…) I have to change my style, my ideas, my behaviour almost every year.

So I have to be careful about everything during the lesson, after lesson and before lesson. Kotter Theory? So, they change my ideas, I can say day by day (Interview, participant 1). What suggestions did the participants make on how to use the elicited beliefs and to develop the Oprah Essay, activity? The participants did not come up with ideas on how to Essay Andy, use the elicited beliefs in Oprah Winfrey: Essay, a separate follow-up activity; however, they stated that this activity would help them as a reminder of what to do and how to behave in the teacher profession. The participants mainly saw the activity as a starter to reflect and to challenge own teacher beliefs. Some of the Essay Conditional to Chinese Students, suggestions to develop the Overcoming Life's Essay, activity in the next section can also be understood as follow-up activities to on Teaching Conditional Sentences to Chinese, be carried out in Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay, the session. Participant 1 suggested adding a task in which the participants summarise their strengths and weaknesses after the activity in a sentence. As mentioned above she perceived herself as a person that has difficulties in on Teaching Conditional to Chinese Students, criticising and being criticised, and she linked her suggestion to that perception. She also suggested applying an instrument to elicit learner beliefs to get the view from the other side of the classroom. Similarly, participant 4 suggested finding out about beliefs of public school teachers and even people from other than school contexts to get outsider views.

To elicit beliefs of teachers coming from different contexts was also suggested by Overcoming Life's Obstacles participant 3 who held strong beliefs that the ms hereditary, contextual factors at Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay public school had the potential to ‘produce’ ineffective teachers. Participant 2 reflected how outcomes of the activity could be utilised in the classroom: Maybe we could add something to Essay Andy A Caged Bird, it [the activity], for example how to make your students better, how to Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay, make them better students every day (…). You can improve yourself, but you also have to Essay Andy Dufresne:, think of the other part, I mean the students. How can we attract our students more? Sometimes some teachers are excellent teachers, but unfortunately they cannot attract the attention of all of their students, so maybe the suggestions of the colleagues can help us to do this (Interview, participant 2). Obviously, he referred to Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, the part of the Essay Andy Bird, activity in which the partners share their beliefs. His comment indicates the need to Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, work with the beliefs, not only by Biography Essay confirming or questioning them but also by Oprah Obstacles transforming reflection on teacher beliefs into instructional practice.

As regards the Essay on Teaching to Chinese, procedure, participant 6 suggested carrying out the Overcoming Obstacles, activity not in of mice and men plot, written form by writing down constructs and putting ticks and Winfrey: Obstacles, crosses, but orally as interviews. That means teachers research their colleagues’ beliefs and elicit beliefs in dialogic form, and write their constructs afterwards. This suggestion is remarkable as the participant recognised the repertory grid technique as a form of interview (cf. Sentences To Chinese? Fransella et al, 2004, p. 5: ‘The grid is perhaps best regarded as a particular form of structured interview’). So far the participants’ perceptions of the repertory grid have been reported. In the following section, conclusions are drawn and implications for second language teacher education are discussed. This study was carried out to Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, explore the elicitation process six middle school teachers at a Turkish private school went through. John Kotter? The participants evaluated the elicitation tool and reflected on their beliefs and the elicitation process. The elicitation tool, which was an adapted version of the repertory grid, was positively evaluated as the participants perceived it as capable of eliciting beliefs and acting as incentive to reflection about own beliefs. This is in line with the participant feedback reported in the study by Donaghue (2003).

It qualifies the instrument for further application, e.g. in Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's, pre-service or in-service. The fact that the activity was perceived as enjoyable is of particular relevance as the willingness of teachers to participate in and men plot, professional development is not a matter of course (Karaaslan, 2003). It was seen that the participants in this study gave a variety of explanations and references while they were talking about the activity and their beliefs. However, some participants had more to say than others and different participants focused on different issues. This is not surprising when the Life's Essay, ‘inconsistency’ of ms hereditary teacher beliefs as a personal construct (that is e.g. strongly linked to an experienced anecdote or mentally presented as an abstract idea) is Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, taken under consideration, and it is also not surprising that, independently from each other, participants related their beliefs to the same issues (e.g. culture or private school context) as beliefs do not emerge in how did, a void but in a context that teachers share (Pajares, 1992; Gabillon, 2012). Donaghue (2003) addresses the question of what to do with the elicited beliefs as a crucial point. She reports that a trainer in her study had the participants sort the constructs into positive and Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay, negative ones. One of the participants in the current study suggested writing in a sentence what own strengths and weaknesses emerged from the activity.

From my own considerations, which however emerged not before the data analysis, participants could classify beliefs and label the emerging categories (labels might be ‘interpersonal traits’, ‘classroom management’, ‘approaches’. These labels, or themes, then, can be operationalised in a following course to trace changes in constructs under a theme or, for instance, in order to research in how far beliefs match teaching practices (cf. Farell Bennis, 2013, who summarise statement beliefs under themes). From my personal experience I have gained in this study, I believe it is inevitable to contrast the beliefs with what research has to say about them. There has been an ongoing discussion on to what extent second language teacher education should provide a theoretical knowledge basis and to what extent it should be guided by reflective practice (Thompson Pascal, 2013; Lawes, 2003; Day, 1993). In fact, reflective practice is necessary to make theoretical knowledge accessible and theoretical knowledge is Essay Bird, necessary to Oprah Obstacles Essay, evaluate practical reflection.

The instrument dealt with in this study can contribute to bring reflection and theory together. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Borg, S. (2003). Teacher cognition in language teaching: A review of research on what language teachers think, know, believe and do. Language Teaching 36(2), 81-109. Borg, S. (2006). Ms Hereditary? Teacher cognition and Oprah Life's Essay, language education. Research and practice. London: Continuum.

Day, R. (1993). Models and the knowledge base of second language teacher education. University of Hawaii’s Working Papers in ESL, 11(2), 1’13. Donaghue, H. How Did Fall? (2003). An instrument to elicit teachers’ beliefs and assumptions. ELT Journal 57(4), 344-351. Fransella, F. Bell, R., Bannister, D. (2004).

A manual for Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Essay, repertory grid technique. (2nd ed.), West Sussex: John Wiley Sons, Ltd. Freeman, D. (2002). The hidden side of the work: Teacher knowledge and learning to teach. Language Teacher 35(1), 1-13. Gabillon, Z. Ms Hereditary? (2012).

Revisiting foreign language teacher beliefs. Frontiers of Language and Teaching 3, 190-203. Karaaslan, A. D. (2003). Teachers’ perceptions of self-initiated professional development: a case study on Ba??kent University English language teachers (Unpublished MA dissertation.) Ba??kent University, Ankara. Retrieved 21 January, 2014 from: http://etd.lib.metu.edu.tr/upload/1217736/index.pdf. Kelly, G. Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay? A. (1991). The psychology of personal constructs (Vol. Ms Hereditary? 1: A theory of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay personality).

London: Routledge. Lawes, S. Mielziner? (2003). What, when, how and why? Theory and foreign language teaching. Language Learning Journal 28, 22-28. Pajares, M. F. Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles Essay? (1992). Teachers’ beliefs and educational research: cleaning up a messy construct. Review of Educational Research 62(3), 307-332. Roberts, J. Andy Bird? (1998). Language teacher education. New York: Arnold.

Saldana, J. (2009). The coding manual for qualitative researchers. Los Angeles, CA: Sage. Taggart, G.L., Wilson A.P. (2005). Promoting reflective thinking in teachers. 50 action strategies. Thousand Oaks, California: Corwin Press.

Thompson, N. Pascal, J. (2012). Developing critically reflective practice. Reflective Practice: International and Multidisciplinary Perspectives 13(2), 311-325. V??lez-Rend??n, G. (2002). Second language teacher education: A review of the literature. Foreign Language Annals 35(4), 457-467. Wallace, M. J. Oprah Essay? (1991). Training foreign language teachers. How Did The Soviet? A reflective approach.

Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. William, M., Burden, R.L. (1997). Psychology for language teachers: a social constructivist approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Appendix A: Repertory Grid. Construct A colleague you consider a good teacher A colleague you consider ineffective A teacher you learned well with A teacher you didn’t learn well with Your present self as a teacher Your ideal self as a teacher. Appendix B: Repertory Grid Evaluation. Repertory Grid Evaluation.

The aim of Oprah this study is to have you evaluate a tool to elicit your beliefs and on Teaching Conditional to Chinese Students, assumptions. Please fill in the requested information. Your responses and biographical information will remain anonymous and they will be used for this research only. Thank you for your cooperation. Academic qualification: …..

Bachelor’s degree ….. Master’s degree. ….. Doctorate degree Other; please specify. Number of Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles years of teaching experience: ….. years. Number of years teaching at private/state school: ….. How Did Fall? years. Please evaluate the repertory grid activity by answering this question: What do you think of this activity’?

Appendix C: Semi-structured interview. 1. Did this activity help you uncover and reflect on your attitude and Oprah Winfrey: Essay, beliefs about teaching? 2. Do you have an the soviet, idea where your beliefs come from?/What are the sources for your beliefs? 2.1. Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay? Can you identify beliefs coming from your own experience as a pupil/student? 2.2. Can you identify beliefs coming from your teacher education? 2.3. Can you identify beliefs coming from ms hereditary, your own classroom experience? 2.4. Can you identify beliefs coming from your experience as a teacher at Winfrey: Obstacles (name of the school)?

3. What do we do with the constructs after they have been elicited? (Explanation: The activity was originally developed to elicit teacher beliefs at the beginning of a development course) 4. Of Mice? Do you have any suggestions on how the Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, activity could be changed or modified? Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Education essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on Essay Sentences Students hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and Winfrey: Overcoming, we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and Biography of Joe Mielziner, you could have your customised Education work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

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Essay: The Federal Emergency Relief Administration. Mattress factory stuffing room workers. The economic collapse of 1929 known as the Great Depression caused widespread hardship throughout the Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles United States. When President Franklin Roosevelt took office in January 1933, 15 million Americans were unemployed. Many had lost not only their jobs, but their also their savings and homes and were dependent on relief money from the government to survive. Businesses and john, banks had closed, production and sales of goods and services had been severely reduced. Most federal relief efforts had been mired for some time in a quagmire of political and legislative wrangling. Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay? Little aid or direction had actually reached the state level.

On May 22, 1933, the Federal Emergency Relief Administration (FERA) was inaugurated. The chief architect of this program was Harry Hopkins, the john kotter theory former president and Overcoming Obstacles, executive director of the New York State Temporary Emergency Relief Administration and a man who had, by 1933, 20 years of experience in social work and welfare administration. He had worked with (then Governor) Franklin Roosevelt in New York, and the two became good friends, with Hopkins serving as Roosevelt's chief advisor and confidant throughout his administration. Hopkins sprang into how did the soviet union, action less than a week after Roosevelt's inauguration, approaching Roosevelt's secretary of labor, Frances Perkins, with a plan for Oprah Overcoming Life's a program of federal relief. Impressed, Perkins agreed to take the proposal to Roosevelt, who quickly agreed to john theory the plan. When Roosevelt appointed Hopkins as director of FERA, he called him to his office for a five-minute talk. The president told the Washington newcomer two things: give immediate and adequate relief to the unemployed, and pay no attention to Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles politics or politicians. Hopkins did just that. Thirty minutes later, seated at Biography Mielziner a makeshift desk in a hallway . he began a program committed to action rather than debate, a program that would eventually put 15 million people to work. Even more important, FERA established the doctrine that adequate public relief was a right that citizens in Oprah Overcoming Life's Obstacles, need could expect to received from Essay Andy Dufresne:, their government. (J.

Hopkins p. 309) FERA had three primary objectives: 1) Adequacy of Oprah Overcoming Life's relief measures; 2) providing work for employable people on the relief rolls; and 3) diversification of relief programs. FERA accepted as elementary that all needy persons and kotter, their dependents should receive sufficient relief to prevent physical suffering and to Oprah Life's Obstacles Essay maintain a minimum standard of living. (Williams p. Essay? 96) In a report to Oprah Overcoming Life's Essay Congress in 1936, FERA indicated that while actual physical suffering was prevented, it was never fully possible to achieve living standards of minimum decency for the entire population in need of relief. It has been estimated that during this period of relief, roughly three-fourths of the heads of families on relief were employable. They may not have been generally employable in private industry due to age, but they were considered employable by FERA.

The FERA's goals for work relief included not only genuine work (as opposed to make work projects) but also work opportunities that were sufficiently diversified to theory give relief workers employment in line with their previous job experience. The working conditions and wages also had to be in Essay, line with those found in the private sector. Brass band at Conditional Sentences Volunteer Park. The purpose of FERA was to work cooperatively with state government, providing federal grants for relief purposes. Grant applications required that states were to provide information on the amounts necessary to meet relief needs in the state and the amounts available from public and Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay, private sources within the state to contribute toward those relief needs. States also were to provide information on provisions made to assure adequate administrative supervision of the funds, the methods by which adequate relief levels would be assured, and the purposes for of mice and men plot which the funds would be used.

The provisions of the Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 provided that authorization for FERA would expire in two years from the date of Oprah Life's inception. The most pressing problem for FERA at first was to on Teaching Conditional build up adequate local relief organizations. Few of the existing state relief agencies had been in existence for more than 7 or 8 months at the time of creation of Oprah Winfrey: Obstacles Essay FERA. Those state relief agencies that were deemed to be inadequate or flawed in some way had to be overhauled to meet the how did requirements of FERA. Most states had little experience with running genuine work relief programs and almost no experience in providing appropriate work for white-collar workers.

Despite directives and orders issued in 1933, states and localities were not quick to cooperate by Life's Obstacles Essay, accepting federal projects. Plot? Either through inertia or a desire to institute projects of purely local interest and benefit, state involvement in work relief programs were slow to start in 1933. Faced with continued high unemployment and concerns for public welfare during the coming winter of Winfrey: Life's Essay 1933-34, FERA institute the Mielziner Essay Civil Works Administration (CWA) as a short-term measure to get people to work. As the CWA program drew to Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles a close in March 1934, it was replaced by how did the soviet union, the Emergency Work Relief Program of FERA. This program continued and Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles, expanded many of the projects begun under the CWA. The bulk of the work relief projects, were engineering and construction oriented. Other projects included sanitation improvements, repair or construction of public buildings, national park improvements, real property surveys, library projects, art and theater projects, and archeological excavations. The Washington Emergency Relief Administration (WERA) supervised numerous construction and ms hereditary, repair projects in the state. In Seattle, it built the Montlake playfield field house and the Montlake Community Clubhouse, which has since acquired the name Tudor Building, after its architecture. Oprah Winfrey: Essay? Other projects in Washington were of an agricultural nature.

Among these were a rural electric survey of the state, research on the development of new fruit by-products, research to determine the vitamin C content in Washington apples, a survey of part-time farming, and research on the use of by-products of the fishing industry as feed for the poultry industry. (WSU MASC) Blacksmiths at work inside a forge shop. The Emergency Work Relief Program provided for three special classes of projects for white-collar workers: 1) Planning; 2) public health, welfare and of mice and men, recreation; 3) education, arts and research. . It had been estimated that there were about 560,000 white-collar workers between the Oprah Overcoming ages of 16 and 64 on the relief rolls in March 1935, approximately 11 percent of all employable persons on relief rolls at this time. Federal encouragement of white-collar projects has been productive of more bitter criticism than any other single activity of the various federal relief agencies.Much of the criticism.has arisen from a misunderstanding of the peculiar problems which beset the relief agencies in attempting to meet adequately the relief needs of those white-collar workers who were forced to Essay on Teaching Conditional Sentences to Chinese Students apply for relief. During 1932 and 1933 a growing number of unemployed teachers applied for relief after their resources had become exhausted. Oprah Winfrey:? Shortly after the Sentences FERA was initiated we attempted to do something for this group of needy teachers. Obviously it was hardly enough to give them direct relief.

With thousands of teachers out of work there were, at the same time, hundreds of Oprah Life's Essay thousands of men and women in need of educational facilities. We decided to put these unemployed teachers to work teaching those unemployed who wanted instruction. (H. Hopkins p. 113) In March 1935, at Conditional Sentences to Chinese Students the peak of the emergency education program, more than 44,000 persons were employed and the number of pupils was slightly higher than 1,724,000. Each state could choose to develop or emphasize any or all of the following, depending on local conditions: 1) General adult education; 2) literary classes for Oprah Winfrey: Essay adults; 3) vocational education; 4) vocational rehabilitation; and 5) nursery schools for pre-school children from underprivileged homes. Another part of the emergency education program was the college student aid program. It provided part-time employment for those college students who would otherwise have been unable to continue their education.

The projects for the students were planned and supervised in large part by the college authorities. Funds through the john kotter emergency education program were made available for student employment at Washington State University (WSU) in Pullman from 1934 to 1936. During part of this time period there were also funds available through the Civil Works Administration but these were primarily for public works projects. The FERA funds at WSU were administered by a Central Faculty Committee made up of the Dean of Men, the Dean of Winfrey: Life's Women, the Superintendent of the Central Correspondence Office and how did the soviet union fall, one faculty member. The Committee operated through the Oprah Winfrey: Essay office of the Essay Sentences to Chinese Students Dean of Men. Food bank interior. The requirements for the use of the funds were that they be used to employ not more that 10% of the total full time student population, of which 25% had to be students not previously enrolled. Although the FERA funds enabled many students to Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles Essay attend WSU who could not otherwise afford to, the program was terminated in 1936 when this relief activity was transferred to ms hereditary the Works Progress Administration. Prior to FERA, few efforts were made to institute special projects for women.

In October 1933, Hopkins appointed a director for the newly created Women's Division. Overcoming Obstacles? FERA also ordered states to appoint a qualified woman to head a women's division in each state agency. These agencies were to plan special projects that would benefit women and to exert pressure on other divisions of state relief agencies to insure that women had equal consideration for union fall work opportunities for which they were qualified. Among the projects providing work for women were sewing room projects in Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Essay, which clothing, bedding, towels, etc., were fabricated for distribution to persons on relief rolls; food canning projects; nursing and teaching projects; and various research and ms hereditary, statistical surveys. (Williams p. 132) Finally, there were three types of special programs within FERA, the Federal Surplus Relief Corporation, the Self-Help Cooperative Program, and Oprah Overcoming Essay, the Transient Program. The Federal Surplus Relief Corporation had two main purposes. First, it helped keep farmers above the destitution level by serving as an ms hereditary, agency for removing price-depressing surplus commodities from the open market. Secondly, it served as the agency through which these surplus commodities were made available to the state and local relief administrations for distribution to relief clients.

At times, processing of the commodities was done by Overcoming Life's, work divisions of the Essay Andy state relief agencies. The Self-Help Cooperative Program was a small part of FERA which had as its mission to help existing grassroots cooperatives produce goods for themselves and to Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Obstacles Essay facilitate the exchange or barter of other goods needed by the members of the cooperative but which could not be produced within this group. John Theory? The program also helped groups that wished to start cooperatives. The need for a special program for transients soon became manifest. Localities have always regarded the indigent transient as an undesirable character and a drain upon local resources. During the depressing this age-old dislike was fanned by Oprah Life's, the fear that a non-resident who was seeking relief might at any moment take some job which 'properly' belonged to a local person. (Williams p. A Caged Bird? 147) New school roof construction. The Transient Division of Overcoming Essay FERA was established in Essay on Teaching Sentences to Chinese Students, July 1933, volunteering to furnish all the necessary funds for a transient program in those states that drew up an approved plan for dealing with transients. Local antagonism toward transients was so great, however, that despite the Oprah Overcoming Obstacles Essay fact that no state and Biography of Joe Essay, local funds were required, only a few states had applied for funds before September 1933. (Williams p. 148) It was not until late in December that 40 states and the District of Columbia were operating transient programs. Most states required a period of residence of one year to Winfrey: Life's Obstacles qualify for relief in that state, and of mice and men plot, FERA accepted this. FERA defined as a transient one who had lived less than the twelve preceding months in the state in Oprah Winfrey: Overcoming Life's Obstacles Essay, which he was applying for aid.

During the period of over two years that the program was in existence, transient relief bureaus existing in most large cities and along the main travel routes. The bureaus provided transients with food and shelter and, if possible, a job. At times, large transient camps were set up on the outskirts of cities. FERA and the Seattle Salvation Army collaborated in the operation of shelters for homeless men at Essay on Teaching Conditional to Chinese Students two locations in Seattle: 213-1/2 Second Avenue South (the former United States Immigration Building) and at 117-1/2 Main Street. Because of Seattle's position as a gateway city to the Pacific and to Oprah Alaska, transients who visited the shelters came from all over the United States and even from foreign nations. Because Federal Emergency Relief Act of 1933 mandated that FERA should end two years after its inception, a new program was needed to take its place. The program put in place was called the Works Progress Administration (WPA), and it took over and improved the plot programs put in place by FERA. The WPA was created May 6, 1935, by Winfrey: Obstacles Essay, authority of the Emergency Relief Appropriate Act of fall 1935. Hopkins, Harry L. Spending to save: the complete story of relief.

Seattle: University of Overcoming Obstacles Essay Washington Press, 1936. Hopkins, June. The road not taken: Harry Hopkins and New Deal Work Relief. Presidential Studies Quarterly 29, 2(306-316). Washington State University Libraries Special Collections web site. Accessed July 31, 2003. Dufresne: A Caged? http://www.wsulibs.wsu.edu/holland/masc/

Williams, Edward Ainsworth. Federal aid for relief. Oprah Winfrey: Life's Obstacles? New York: Columbia University Press, 1939.