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Nov 21, 2017 The Electoral College Essay,
book tv essay DISADVANTAGES OF TELEVISION. Essay. In today modern world television is the sun in greek most popular and The Electoral Essay, recognized from of media and Fate in Romeo and Juliet by William, most homes in the western and The Electoral Essay, developed worlds own one. Fate Essay. That small (in some cases rather large) box sitting in your lounge is your connection to College Essay, the outside world. It is an essays, indispensable item and many of us cannot imagine life without it. The Electoral. As with everything there are advantages and disadvantages with the television. Philosophy. The main advantage is The Electoral College Essay, televisions ability to bring you news as it happens. A second advantage is the the tank fact we are using more than one sense when viewing.
The final advantage in Essay this essay is the manhattan cable tv vast amount of The Electoral Essay, information and documentaries available for viewing. Investigating. However the first disadvantage is the amount of Essay, time spent watching television is sparknotes act 1, often considered a waste of time. The second disadvantage is the fact that families may be in College Essay the same room but with the television on may not even acknowledge each other. The final disadvantage illustrated in Fate in Romeo by William Shakespeare Essay this essay is that young children are often being exposed to sex scenes and scenes of violence. Firstly, for many of The Electoral, us the a home burglary Essay television is College, our first or only source of news and current events. Most channels have news updates up to the tank, four times a day and current affairs programmes which take a deeper look at College Essay, the news that has affected the world that day or week. Theses programmes are often family friendly and are sometimes the only form of Investigating burglary Essay, media available or easy to College Essay, understand for philosophy children or non-speakers of English. These news shows keep people up to date on the outside world it is possible to College, know everything that happened in in Romeo by William Shakespeare Essay a day without even going outside.
However these news shows can try and monopolize people's opinions and be a bias to one political party or one side of The Electoral, a war. Historians Have Evaluated Abolitionism As. Secondly, what many of Essay, us do not realise is Fate in Romeo and Juliet by William, that we use at College, least two senses to herbal essences, enjoy television. We use our eyes to watch the television screen and The Electoral College Essay, the visual on philosophy, the screen. We also use our ears or hearing to Essay, listen to the dialogue and noises on the screen. Sun In Greek. Compared to Essay, other forms of have evaluated as, media which usually involve only one sense e.g. the radio only requires the The Electoral College hearing sense and a book only requires sight. Even though the mythology television lets us see and hear things it can cause eyesight problems and many people turn there televisions up which can cause hearing problems. The Electoral College. The final advantage is the vast amount of essences parent, educational programming available for viewing particularly on channels like the The Electoral discovery channel and greek, national geographic which can educate and stimulate people and wet every audience member's appetite. The Electoral College Essay. It is also the fastest way to in Romeo Shakespeare Essay, improve your knowledge and help you learn something completely new. The Electoral Essay. Where else can you learn about Marylyn Monroe and Winston Churchill in the same afternoon? Many people who cannot afford university or night courses or simply just want a basic knowledge of one particular subject or event.
Use documentaries to Essay, quench their thirst for College learning. Sparknotes. The first disadvantage is that many people do not realise how much time they spend watching television if you spend one hour a day watching television. That is 365 hours a year and 3607 hours in ten years. The Electoral College. You can only sparknotes, imagine what you could do with that time, it is possible to learn a language or do a university course. Many value their television shows over exercise or physical activity which can lead to obesity and College, 'couch potato'. Investigating Essay. Many people also feel the The Electoral Essay desire to watch a favourite television show every day or every week and neglect social commitments and therefore becoming anti-social. A second disadvantage is that many people neglect their families so they can watch television. In Romeo Shakespeare Essay. A family may be in The Electoral College the same room but would not say a word to each other or acknowledge each other. Many families now also eat dinner in front of the who invented television which means normal dinner table conversation is lost. Most large families also have multiple televisions so that each member can watch the programme they would like to The Electoral, watch this means that some families may spend less than an hour in historians evaluated abolitionism each others company before going to bed.
A final disadvantage of College, watching television is the violence and parent, sex scenes that young children are often exposed too. Many of The Electoral College, us find shows with crime or violence entertaining but these are not suitable for children of young ages. The Crucible Sparknotes. These scenes are practically common on crime dramas. Children may not intentionally be being exposed but by simply being in College Essay or near the philosophy same room as an older child or adult watching the Essay programme. With children being exposed to these scenes it can corrupt there innocent minds leading them in philosophy some extreme cases become violent to The Electoral College, other children. The Tank. It can also lead to more permanent problems such as violence or evil thoughts well into adulthood.
Fortunately this can be easily avoided or reversed by not allowing young children to view these programmes by The Electoral, placing them in a different room from the television or sending them to bed. Who Invented The Tank. In conclusion television is perhaps the world's greatest invention though it is possible it will one day be replaced by something resembling a computer it is Essay, still indispensable in in Romeo and Juliet by William todays modern world. Television however has advantages and The Electoral College Essay, disadvantages as illustrated in this essay. It can be an historians have evaluated, educational, multi-sensory communication devise that takes up our time to exercise or our family time it can also have scenes that corrupt young minds. The Electoral. As Winston Churchill once said 'the best things are either immoral or bad for you' television is best in moderation.
So next time you're bored don't turn on mythology, the television go out and play some sport.
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Nov 21, 2017 The Electoral College Essay,
Section 5. Collecting and Analyzing Data. The Tool Box needs your help. to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules. for teaching core skills. The Tool Box needs your help.
to remain available. Your contribution can help change lives. Sixteen training modules. for teaching core skills. What do we mean by collecting data? What do we mean by Essay, analyzing data? Why should you collect and Fate in Romeo and Juliet by William, analyze data for The Electoral your evaluation? When and by whom should data be collected and analyzed? How do you collect and analyze data? In previous sections of this chapter, we’ve discussed studying the issue, deciding on philosophy essays, a research design, and creating an observational system for gathering information for your evaluation.
Now it’s time to The Electoral, collect your data and analyze it – figuring out what it means – so that you can use it to draw some conclusions about your work. In this section, we’ll examine how to do just that. What do we mean by collecting data? Essentially, collecting data means putting your design for collecting information into operation. You’ve decided how you’re going to get information – whether by direct observation, interviews, surveys, experiments and testing, or other methods – and sparknotes, now you and/or other observers have to implement your plan. There’s a bit more to collecting data, however. If you are conducting observations, for example, you’ll have to The Electoral, define what you’re observing and arrange to make observations at the right times, so you actually observe what you need to. You’ll have to record the observations in appropriate ways and organize them so they’re optimally useful. Recording and organizing data may take different forms, depending on the kind of information you’re collecting. Philosophy? The way you collect your data should relate to how you’re planning to The Electoral College, analyze and use it. Regardless of what method you decide to use, recording should be done concurrent with data collection if possible, or soon afterwards, so that nothing gets lost and essays, memory doesn’t fade.
Some of the The Electoral College, things you might do with the information you collect include: Gathering together information from Fate in Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare Essay all sources and observations Making photocopies of all recording forms, records, audio or video recordings, and The Electoral Essay, any other collected materials, to guard against loss, accidental erasure, or other problems Entering narratives, numbers, and other information into a computer program, where they can be arranged and/or worked on in various ways Performing any mathematical or similar operations needed to who invented the tank, get quantitative information ready for The Electoral College Essay analysis. These might, for instance, include entering numerical observations into a chart, table, or spreadsheet, or figuring the mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequently occurring) of the tank, a set of numbers. Transcribing (making an exact, word-for-word text version of) the contents of audio or video recordings Coding data (translating data, particularly qualitative data that isn’t expressed in numbers, into a form that allows it to Essay, be processed by a specific software program or subjected to statistical analysis) Organizing data in ways that make them easier to Investigating a home Essay, work with. How you do this will depend on The Electoral College, your research design and your evaluation questions.
You might group observations by the dependent variable (indicator of success) they relate to, by individuals or groups of act 1, participants, by time, by activity, etc. You might also want to group observations in several different ways, so that you can study interactions among different variables. There are two kinds of variables in research. An independent variable (the intervention) is College Essay a condition implemented by the researcher or community to see if it will create change and improvement. This could be a program, method, system, or other action. A dependent variable is what may change as a result of the sun in greek mythology, independent variable or intervention. A dependent variable could be a behavior, outcome, or other condition. A smoking cessation program, for example, is an independent variable that may change group members’ smoking behavior, the The Electoral College Essay, primary dependent variable. What do we mean by analyzing data? Analyzing information involves examining it in ways that reveal the relationships, patterns, trends, etc. Philosophy? that can be found within it.
That may mean subjecting it to College, statistical operations that can tell you not only essays, what kinds of relationships seem to College, exist among variables, but also to what level you can trust the answers you’re getting. It may mean comparing your information to that from other groups (a control or comparison group, statewide figures, etc.), to the crucible, help draw some conclusions from the data. The point, in terms of your evaluation, is to get an accurate assessment in order to better understand your work and The Electoral Essay, its effects on and Juliet Shakespeare Essay, those you’re concerned with, or in order to better understand the overall situation. There are two kinds of data you’re apt to be working with, although not all evaluations will necessarily include both. Quantitative data refer to College, the information that is collected as, or can be translated into, numbers, which can then be displayed and analyzed mathematically. Qualitative data are collected as descriptions, anecdotes, opinions, quotes, interpretations, etc., and Fate by William, are generally either not able to be reduced to The Electoral College Essay, numbers, or are considered more valuable or informative if left as narratives. As you might expect, quantitative and the crucible sparknotes act 1, qualitative information needs to be analyzed differently. Quantitative data are typically collected directly as numbers. Some examples include:
The frequency (rate, duration) of specific behaviors or conditions Test scores (e.g., scores/levels of College, knowledge, skill, etc.) Survey results (e.g., reported behavior, or outcomes to environmental conditions; ratings of satisfaction, stress, etc.) Numbers or percentages of people with certain characteristics in a population (diagnosed with diabetes, unemployed, Spanish-speaking, under age 14, grade of essays, school completed, etc.) Data can also be collected in forms other than numbers, and turned into quantitative data for analysis. Researchers can count the number of times an event is College Essay documented in interviews or records, for Fate in Romeo and Juliet Shakespeare instance, or assign numbers to the levels of intensity of an observed event or behavior. For instance, community initiatives often want to document the amount and intensity of environmental changes they bring about – the new programs and policies that result from their efforts. Whether or not this kind of translation is necessary or useful depends on the nature of what you’re observing and on the kinds of questions your evaluation is meant to The Electoral Essay, answer. Quantitative data is usually subjected to statistical procedures such as calculating the mean or average number of the crucible act 1, times an event or behavior occurs (per day, month, year). Essay? These operations, because numbers are “hard” data and not interpretation, can give definitive, or nearly definitive, answers to different questions. Various kinds of quantitative analysis can indicate changes in a dependent variable related to – frequency, duration, timing (when particular things happen), intensity, level, etc.
They can allow you to compare those changes to Investigating a home Essay, one another, to changes in College another variable, or to changes in another population. Greek Mythology? They might be able to tell you, at a particular degree of reliability, whether those changes are likely to have been caused by your intervention or program, or by another factor, known or unknown. College? And they can identify relationships among different variables, which may or may not mean that one causes another. Unlike numbers or “hard data,” qualitative information tends to be “soft,” meaning it can’t always be reduced to something definite. That is in some ways a weakness, but it’s also a strength. A number may tell you how well a student did on a test; the look on her face after seeing her grade, however, may tell you even more about the effect of manhattan cable, that result on her. That look can’t be translated to a number, nor can a teacher’s knowledge of that student’s history, progress, and experience, all of which go into The Electoral Essay, the teacher’s interpretation of that look. Burglary Essay? And that interpretation may be far more valuable in helping that student succeed than knowing her grade or numerical score on the test. Qualitative data can sometimes be changed into numbers, usually by counting the College Essay, number of times specific things occur in the course of observations or interviews, or by cable tv, assigning numbers or ratings to dimensions (e.g., importance, satisfaction, ease of use).
The challenges of translating qualitative into quantitative data have to do with the human factor. The Electoral College Essay? Even if most people agree on manhattan cable tv, what 1 (lowest) or 5 (highest) means in The Electoral College regard to rating “satisfaction” with a program, ratings of 2, 3, and 4 may be very different for the crucible different people. Furthermore, the numbers say nothing about why people reported the way they did. The Electoral? One may dislike the program because of the content, the facilitator, the time of day, etc. The same may be true when you’re counting instances of the mention of an event, such as the onset of a new policy or program in a community based on interviews or archival records. Where one person might see a change in program he considers important another may omit it due to perceived unimportance. Qualitative data can sometimes tell you things that quantitative data can’t. It may reveal why certain methods are working or not working, whether part of what you’re doing conflicts with participants’ culture, what participants see as important, etc. It may also show you patterns – in behavior, physical or social environment, or other factors – that the numbers in your quantitative data don’t, and occasionally even identify variables that researchers weren’t aware of. It is often helpful to philosophy essays, collect both quantitative and qualitative information.
Quantitative analysis is considered to be objective – without any human bias attached to it – because it depends on the comparison of Essay, numbers according to philosophy essays, mathematical computations. Analysis of qualitative data is generally accomplished by methods more subjective – dependent on people’s opinions, knowledge, assumptions, and The Electoral College Essay, inferences (and therefore biases) – than that of quantitative data. The identification of essays, patterns, the interpretation of Essay, people’s statements or other communication, the sparknotes act 1, spotting of College, trends – all of these can be influenced by the way the researcher sees the world. Be aware, however, that quantitative analysis is influenced by sun in greek, a number of subjective factors as well. The Electoral College? What the researcher chooses to measure, the accuracy of the essays, observations, and the way the research is structured to ask only particular questions can all influence the Essay, results, as can the researcher’s understanding and interpretation of the greek, subsequent analyses. Why should you collect and analyze data for your evaluation? Part of the answer here is that not every organization – particularly small community-based or non-governmental ones – will necessarily have extensive resources to conduct a formal evaluation. They may have to be content with less formal evaluations, which can still be extremely helpful in providing direction for The Electoral a program or intervention. An informal evaluation will involve some data gathering and analysis. The Tank? This data collection and sensemaking is critical to an initiative and its future success, and has a number of advantages. The data can show whether there was any significant change in the dependent variable(s) you hoped to influence . Collecting and analyzing data helps you see whether your intervention brought about the desired results.
The term “significance” has a specific meaning when you’re discussing statistics. The level of significance of a statistical result is the level of confidence you can have in the answer you get. Generally, researchers don’t consider a result significant unless it shows at least a 95% certainty that it’s correct (called the .05 level of College, significance, since there’s a 5% chance that it’s wrong). The level of significance is built into Fate by William Essay, the statistical formulas: once you get a mathematical result, a table (or the software you’re using) will tell you the level of The Electoral Essay, significance. Thus, if data analysis finds that the independent variable (the intervention) influenced the dependent variable at manhattan tv, the .05 level of significance, it means there’s a 95% probability or likelihood that your program or intervention had the The Electoral College Essay, desired effect. The .05 level is generally considered a reasonable result, and the .01 level (99% probability) is considered about as close to certainty as you are likely to get. A 95% level of certainty doesn’t mean that the program works on 95% of participants, or that it will work 95% of the time. It means that there’s only a 5% possibility that it isn’t actually what’s influencing the dependent variable(s) and causing the changes that it seems to be associated with. They can uncover factors that may be associated with changes in Fate Shakespeare Essay the dependent variable(s).
Data analyses may help discover unexpected influences; for instance, that the The Electoral College Essay, effort was twice as large for those participants who also were a part of a support group. This can be used to identify key aspects of Investigating, implementation. They can show connections between or among various factors that may have an College Essay effect on the results of your evaluation . Some types of statistical procedures look for connections (“correlations” is the research term) among variables. Certain dependent variables may change when others do. These changes may be similar – i.e., both variables increase or decrease (e.g., as children’s proficiency at reading increases, the amount of cable tv, reading they do also increases). Or the opposite may be observed – i.e. the two variables change in The Electoral College opposite directions (as the amount of exercise they engage in increases, peoples’ weight decreases). Correlations don’t mean that one variable causes another, or that they both have the same cause, but they can provide valuable information about associations to expect in an evaluation. They can help shed light on who invented, the reasons that your work was effective or, perhaps, less effective than you’d hoped . By combining quantitative and qualitative analysis, you can often determine not only what worked or didn’t, but why. The effect of The Electoral College, cultural issues, how well methods are used, the appropriateness of your approach for the population – these as well as other factors that influence success can be highlighted by the tank, careful data collection and analysis.
This knowledge gives you a basis for adapting and changing what you do to make it more likely you’ll achieve the desired outcomes in the future. They can provide you with credible evidence to The Electoral Essay, show stakeholders that your program is successful, or that you’ve uncovered, and are addressing limitations . Stakeholders, such as funders and community boards, want to know their investments are well spent. Showing evidence of philosophy, intermediate outcomes (e.g. new programs and policies) and longer-term outcomes (e.g., improvements in education or health indicators) is The Electoral College Essay becoming increasingly important to receiving – and retaining – funding. Their use shows that you’re serious about evaluation and about improving your work. Being a good trustee or steward of community investment includes regular review of manhattan cable tv, data regarding progress and improvement. They can show the field what you’re learning, and thus pave the way for others to implement successful methods and approaches . In that way, you’ll be helping to improve community efforts and, ultimately, quality of life for people who benefit. When and by whom should data be collected and The Electoral College Essay, analyzed? As far as data collection goes, the “when” part of this question is relatively simple: data collection should start no later than when you begin your work – or before you begin in philosophy essays order to establish a baseline or starting point – and continue throughout.
Ideally, you should collect data for a period of time before you start your program or intervention in College order to burglary, determine if there are any trends in the data before the onset of the intervention. Additionally, in order to College, gauge your program’s longer-term effects, you should collect follow-up data for a period of time following the conclusion of the program. The timing of analysis can be looked at in at cable, least two ways: One is that it’s best to analyze your information when you’ve collected all of it, so you can look at The Electoral, it as a whole. Philosophy Essays? The other is that if you analyze it as you go along, you’ll be able to adjust your thinking about what information you actually need, and to adjust your program to The Electoral College, respond to the information you’re getting. Which of these approaches you take depends on your research purposes. If you’re more concerned with a summative evaluation – finding out whether your approach was effective, you might be more inclined toward the the crucible act 1, first. If you’re oriented toward improvement – a formative evaluation – we recommend gathering information along the The Electoral College Essay, way. Both approaches are legitimate, but ongoing data collection and review can particularly lead to improvements in your work. The “who” question can be more complex.
If you’re reasonably familiar with statistics and Investigating a home, statistical procedures, and you have the resources in time, money, and personnel, it’s likely that you’ll do a somewhat formal study, using standard statistical tests. (There’s a great deal of software – both for College sale and free or open-source – available to help you.) If that’s not the case, you have some choices: You can hire or find a volunteer outside evaluator, such as from a nearby college or university, to take care of philosophy essays, data collection and/or analysis for you. You can conduct a less formal evaluation. Your results may not be as sophisticated as if you subjected them to rigorous statistical procedures, but they can still tell you a lot about Essay, your program. Just the numbers – the number of Fate in Romeo by William Shakespeare Essay, dropouts (and when most dropped out), for instance, or the Essay, characteristics of the people you serve – can give you important and usable information. You can try to learn enough about Fate in Romeo by William Shakespeare, statistics and statistical software to The Electoral College, conduct a formal evaluation yourself. (Take a course, for example.) You can collect the data and then send it off to someone – a university program, a friendly statistician or researcher, or someone you hire – to process it for cable tv you.
You can collect and Essay, rely largely on qualitative data. Whether this is an option depends to a large extent on what your program is about. You wouldn’t want to conduct a formal evaluation of effectiveness of a new medication using only qualitative data, but you might be able to draw some reasonable conclusions about use or compliance patterns from qualitative information. If possible, use a randomized or closely matched control group for comparison. If your control is properly structured, you can draw some fairly reliable conclusions simply by comparing its results to those of sun in, your intervention group. Again, these results won’t be as reliable as if the comparison were made using statistical procedures, but they can point you in the right direction. It’s fairly easy to Essay, tell whether or not there’s a major difference between the numbers for the two or more groups. If 95% of the students in your class passed the who invented the tank, test, and only 60% of those in a similar but uninstructed control group did, you can be pretty sure that your class made a difference in some way, although you may not be able to tell exactly what it was that mattered. The Electoral Essay? By the same token, if 72% of your students passed and 70% of the control group did as well, it seems pretty clear that your instruction had essentially no effect, if the groups were starting from approximately the greek, same place. Who should actually collect and The Electoral College, analyze data also depends on the form of your evaluation.
If you’re doing a participatory evaluation, much of the data collection - and analyzing - will be done by community members or program participants themselves. Essays? If you’re conducting an evaluation in which the The Electoral College, observation is specialized, the data collectors may be staff members, professionals, highly trained volunteers, or others with specific skills or training (graduate students, for example). Analysis also could be accomplished by a participatory process. Even where complicated statistical procedures are necessary, participants and/or community members might be involved in sorting out the crucible sparknotes what those results actually mean once the The Electoral Essay, math is done and the results are in. Another way analysis can be accomplished is by professionals or other trained individuals, depending upon the nature of the data to be analyzed, the methods of analysis, and the level of sophistication aimed at in the conclusions. How do you collect and analyze data? Whether your evaluation includes formal or informal research procedures, you’ll still have to collect and Fate and Juliet by William Essay, analyze data, and there are some basic steps you can take to do so. Implement your measurement system. We've previously discussed designing an observational system to gather information.
Now it’s time to put that system in place. Clearly define and The Electoral College Essay, describe what measurements or observations are needed . The definition and description should be clear enough to enable observers to the tank, agree on what they’re observing and reliably record data in College Essay the same way. Select and train observers . Particularly if this is part of tv, a participatory process, observers need training to know what to record; to recognize key behaviors, events, and College, conditions; and to the crucible act 1, reach an acceptable level of inter-rater reliability (agreement among observers). The Electoral? Conduct observations at the appropriate times for the tank the appropriate period of time . This may include reviewing archival material; conducting interviews, surveys, or focus groups; engaging in direct observation; etc. Record data in the agreed-upon ways . These may include pencil and paper, computer (using a laptop or handheld device in the field, entering numbers into a program, etc.), audio or video, journals, etc. Organize the data you’ve collected.
How you do this depends on what you’re planning to do with it, and on what you’re interested in. Enter any necessary data into College Essay, the computer . This may mean simply typing comments, descriptions, etc., into a word processing program, or entering various kinds of information (possibly including audio and video) into a database, spreadsheet, a GIS (Geographic Information Systems) program, or some other type of software or file. Transcribe any audio- or videotapes . This makes them easier to work with and copy, and allows the opportunity to clarify any hard-to-understand passages of the tank, speech. Score any tests and record the scores appropriately. Sort your information in The Electoral College Essay ways appropriate to your interest . Essay? This may include sorting by category of observation, by event, by The Electoral Essay, place, by individual, by group, by the time of observation, or by a combination or some other standard. When possible, necessary, and appropriate, transform qualitative into quantitative data . This might involve, for example, counting the number of times specific issues were mentioned in sun in interviews, or how often certain behaviors were observed. Conduct data graphing, visual inspection, statistical analysis, or other operations on the data as appropriate. We’ve referred several times to statistical procedures that you can apply to quantitative data.
If you have the right numbers, you can find out College a great deal about whether your program is causing or contributing to change and improvement, what that change is, whether there are any expected or unexpected connections among variables, how your group compares to another you’re measuring, etc. There are other excellent possibilities for analysis besides statistical procedures, however. A few include: Simple counting, graphing and manhattan tv, visual inspection of frequency or rates of behavior, events, etc., over The Electoral time . Who Invented? Using visual inspection of patterns over time to identify discontinuities (marked increases, decreases) in the measures over time (sessions, weeks, months). Calculating the mean (average), median (midpoint), and/or mode (most frequent) of a series of measurements or observations . What was the average blood pressure, for instance, of people who exercised 30 minutes a day at College, least five days a week, as opposed to that of people who exercised two days a week or less? Using qualitative interviews, conversations, and philosophy essays, participant observation to observe (and track changes in) the people or situation . Journals can be particularly revealing in Essay this area because they record people’s experiences and reflections over time. The Crucible Sparknotes Act 1? Finding patterns in qualitative data . If many people refer to The Electoral College, similar problems or barriers, these may be important in understanding the philosophy essays, issue, determining what works or doesn’t work and why, or more. Comparing actual results to previously determined goals or benchmarks . One measure of success might be meeting a goal for planning or program implementation, for example. Take note of any significant or interesting results. Depending on The Electoral, the nature of your research, results may be statistically significant (the 95% or better certainty that we discussed earlier), or simply important or unusual.
They may or may not be socially significant (i.e., large enough to solve the problem). There are a number of different kinds of results you might be looking for. Differences within people or groups . Cable Tv? If you have repeated measurements for individuals/groups over The Electoral College time, we can see if there are marked increases/decreases in the (frequency, rate) of behavior (events, etc.) following introduction of the program or intervention. When the effects are seen when and only when the intervention is the tank introduced – and if the intervention is staggered (delayed) across people or groups – this increases our confidence that the intervention, and The Electoral College Essay, not something else, is producing the the crucible sparknotes, observed effects. The Electoral? Differences between or among two or more groups . If you have one or more randomized control groups in a formal study (groups that are drawn at Investigating a home, random from the The Electoral Essay, same population as the group in your program, but are not getting the same program or intervention, or are getting none at all), then the statistical significance of differences between or among the groups should tell you whether your program has any more influence on manhattan cable tv, the dependent variable(s) than what’s experienced by the other groups. Results that show statistically significant changes . With or without a control or comparison group, many statistical procedures can tell you whether changes in dependent variables are truly significant (or not likely due to chance). These results may say nothing about the causes of the change (or they may, depending on how you’ve structured your evaluation), but they do tell you what’s happening, and College, give you a place to start. Correlations . Correlation means that there are connections between or among two or more variables. Correlations can sometimes point to important relationships you might not have predicted. Sometimes they can shed light on the issue itself, and a home Essay, sometimes on the effects of The Electoral College Essay, a group’s cultural practices. In some cases, they can highlight potential causes of an issue or condition, and Shakespeare Essay, thus pave the way for Essay future interventions.
Correlation between variables doesn’t tell you that one necessarily causes the other, but simply that changes in one have a relationship to philosophy, changes in Essay the other. Among American teenagers, for instance, there is and Juliet Shakespeare probably a fairly high correlation between an increase in body size and an understanding of algebra. This is not because one causes the The Electoral, other, but rather the manhattan cable tv, result of the fact that American schools tend to The Electoral, begin teaching algebra in the crucible act 1 the seventh, eighth, or ninth grades, a time when many 12-, 13-, and 14-year-olds are naturally experiencing a growth spurt. On the other hand, correlations can reveal important connections. A very high correlation between, for Essay instance, the use of Investigating Essay, a particular medication and The Electoral College Essay, the onset of depression might lead to the withdrawal of that medication, or at least a study of who invented the tank, its side effects, and increased awareness and caution among doctors who prescribe it. A very high correlation between gang membership and having a parent with a substance abuse problem may not reveal a direct cause-and-effect relationship, but may tell you something important about College, who is who invented the tank more at risk for The Electoral Essay substance abuse. Patterns . In both quantitative and qualitative information, patterns often emerge: certain health conditions seem to cluster in particular geographical areas; people from a particular group behave in similar ways; etc. These patterns may not be specifically what you were looking for or expected to find, but they may either be important in themselves or shed light on the areas you’re interested in. In some cases, you may need to subject them to statistical procedures (regression analysis, for example) to cable tv, see if, in fact, they’re random, or if they constitute actual patterns. Obvious important findings . College Essay? Whether as a result of statistical analysis, or of examination of your data and application of logic, some findings may stand out. If 70% of a group of who invented, overweight participants in The Electoral a healthy eating and physical activity program lowered their weight and blood pressure significantly, compared to only 20% of a similar group not in the program, you can probably assume that program may have been effective.
If there’s no change whatsoever in a home burglary Essay education outcomes after two years of your education program, then you’re either running an ineffective program, or you’re simply not reaching those who are most likely to have poorer outcomes (which can also be interpreted to mean you’re running an The Electoral College ineffective program.) Not all important findings will necessarily tell you whether your program worked, or what is the manhattan cable, most effective method. It might be obvious from your data collection, for instance, that, while violence or roadway injuries may not be seen as a problem citywide, they are much higher in one or more particular areas, or that the rates of The Electoral, diabetes are markedly higher for particular groups or those living in areas with greater disparities of income. If you have the greek, resources, it’s wise to look at The Electoral Essay, the results of your research in a number of manhattan cable tv, different ways, both to find out how to improve your program, and to The Electoral, learn what else you might do to affect the issue. Once you’ve organized your results and run them through whatever statistical or other analysis you’ve planned for, it’s time to figure out what they mean for your evaluation. Probably the most common question that evaluation research is directed toward is whether the program being evaluated works or makes a difference. Manhattan? In research terms, that often translates to “What were the effects of the independent variable (the program, intervention, etc.) on the dependent variable(s) (the behavior, conditions, or other factors it was meant to College, change)?” There are a number of possible answers to this question: Your program had exactly the philosophy, effects on the dependent variable(s) you expected and Essay, hoped it would . Statistics or other analysis showed clear positive effects at a high level of significance for essays the people in your program and – if you used a multiple-group design – none, or far fewer, of the same effects for a similar control group and/or for a group that received a different intervention with the same purpose. The Electoral College? Your early childhood education program, for instance, greatly increased development outcomes for children in the community, and also contributed to an increase in the percentage of children succeeding in school. Your program had no effect . Your program produced no significant results on the dependent variable, whether alone or compared to other groups. Burglary Essay? This would mean no change as a result of your program or intervention.
Your program had a negative effect . College? For instance, intimate partner violence increased (or at in Romeo and Juliet by William Essay, least appeared to) as a result of your intervention. (It is relatively common for reported events, such as violence or injury, to increase when the intervention results in The Electoral College improved surveillance and ease of reporting). Sun In Greek Mythology? Your program had the effects you hoped for and other effects as well . The Electoral? These effects might be positive . A Home Burglary? Your youth violence prevention program, for instance, might have resulted in greatly reduced violence among teens, and might also have resulted in significantly improved academic performance for the kids involved. The Electoral College Essay? These effects might be neutral . Philosophy Essays? The same youth violence prevention program might somehow result in youth watching TV more often after school. The Electoral? These effects might be negative . (These effects are usually called unintended consequences.) Youth violence might decrease significantly, but the the tank, incidence of The Electoral College Essay, teen pregnancies or alcohol consumption among youth in the program might increase significantly at philosophy essays, the same time. These effects might be multiple , or mixed .For instance, a program to reduce HIV/AIDS might lower rates of unprotected sex but might also increase conflict and instances of partner violence. College? Your program had no effect or a negative effect and other effects as well. As with programs with positive effects, these might be positive, neutral, or negative; single or multiple; or consistent or mixed.
If your analysis gives you a clear indication that what you’re doing is philosophy essays accomplishing your purposes, interpretation is Essay relatively simple: You should keep doing it, while trying out ways to make it even more effective, or while aiming at other related issues as well. As we discuss elsewhere in burglary the Community Tool Box, good programs are dynamic -- constantly striving to improve, rather than assuming that what they’re doing is as good as it can be. If your analysis shows that your program is ineffective or negative, however – or, for that matter, if a positive analysis leaves you wondering how to College, make your successful efforts still more successful – interpretation becomes more complex. Are you using an absolutely wrong approach? Are you using an who invented approach that could be effective, but is The Electoral College Essay poorly implement?
Is there a particular contributing factor you’re failing to take into account? Are there barriers to success – of culture, experience, personal characteristics, systematic discrimination – present in the population from which participants are drawn? Are there particular components or elements you can change to make your program more effective, or should you start again from scratch? What should you address to make a good program better? Careful and insightful interpretation of your data may allow you to answer questions like these. You may be able to use correlations, for instance, to sun in greek, generate hypotheses about The Electoral College Essay, your results. If positive or negative changes in particular variables are consistently associated with positive or negative changes in other variables, the two may be connected. (The word “may” is important here.
The two may be connected, but they may not, or both may be related to a third variable that you’re not aware of or that you consider trivial.) Such a connection can point the way toward a factor (e.g., access to sun in, support) that is causing the changes in both variables, and that must be addressed to make your program successful. Correlations may also indicate patterns in your data, or may lead to an unexpected way of looking at the issue you’re addressing. You can often use qualitative data to understand the meaning of an The Electoral College intervention, and the crucible sparknotes act 1, people’s reactions to the results.The observation that participants are continually suffering from a variety of health problems may be traced, through qualitative data, to nutrition problems (due either to The Electoral Essay, poverty or ignorance) or to lack of access to health services, or to Investigating a home, cultural restrictions (some Muslim women may be unwilling – or unable because of family prohibition – to College, accept care and act 1, treatment from male doctors, for The Electoral example). Once you have organized your data, both statistical results and anything that can’t be analyzed statistically need to be analyzed logically. This may not give you convincing information but it will almost undoubtedly give you some ideas to follow up on, and some indications of philosophy, connections and avenues you might not yet have considered. It will also show you some additional results – people reacting differently than before to the program, for example. The numbers can tell you whether there is change, but they can’t always tell you what causes it or why (although they sometimes can), or why some people benefit while others don’t.
Those are often matters for logical analysis, or critical thinking. You have to become a cultural detective to The Electoral Essay, understand your initiative, and, in some ways, every evaluation is an anthropological study. The heart of Fate Shakespeare Essay, evaluation research is gathering information about the The Electoral, program or intervention you’re evaluating and analyzing it to the crucible act 1, determine what it tells you about the effectiveness of what you’re doing, as well as about how you can maintain and Essay, improve that effectiveness. Collecting quantitative data – information expressed in numbers – and subjecting it to Essay, a visual inspection or formal statistical analysis can tell you whether your work is Essay having the desired effect, and may be able to tell you why or why not as well. It can also highlight connections (correlations) among variables, and call attention to factors you may not have considered. Collecting and analyzing qualitative data – interviews, descriptions of environmental factors, or events, and circumstances – can provide insight into how participants experience the issue you’re addressing, what barriers and advantages they experience, and what you might change or add to improve what you do. Once you’ve gained the knowledge that your information provides, it’s time to start the process again. Use what you’ve learned to who invented, continue to evaluate what you do by collecting and analyzing data, and continually improve your program.
My Environmental Education Evaluation Resource Assistant (MEERA) provides extensive information on Essay, how to Analyze Data . Within their guide, they answer various questions such as: What type of essays, analysis do I need?, How do I analyze qualitative/quantitative data?, and College Essay, What software can I use to the crucible sparknotes, analyze qualitative/quantitative data? The Pell Institute offers user-friendly information on how to Analyze Qualitative Data as a part of their Evaluation Toolkit. The site provides a simple explanation of qualitative data with a step-by-step process to collecting and The Electoral College, analyzing data. Through the Evaluation Toolkit, the Pell Institute has compiled a user-friendly guide to easily and efficiently Analyze Quantitative Data . In addition to explaining the basis of quantitative analysis, the site also provides information on data tabulation, descriptives, disaggregating data, and moderate and Fate by William Shakespeare Essay, advanced analytical methods. CDC’s Analyzing Quantitative Data for Evaluation provides steps to College Essay, planning and conducting quantitative analysis, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of using quantitative methods. Charts and a home burglary Essay, Graphs to Communicate Research Findings , from the Model Systems Knowledge Translation Center (MSKTC), will provide guidance on which chart types are best suited for which types of data and for which purposes, shows examples of preferred practices and practical tips for each chart type, and provides cautions and The Electoral Essay, examples of misuse and poor use of each chart type and how to make corrections. Collecting and Analyzing Evaluation Data , 2 nd edition, provided by the National Library of Medicine, provides information on sun in greek, collecting and analyzing qualitative and quantitative data. This booklet contains examples of commonly used methods, as well as a toolkit on using mixed methods in evaluation. Compiled for the Adolescent and School Health sector of the CDC, Data Collection and Analysis Methods is an extensive list of articles pertaining to the collection of various forms of The Electoral College, data including questionnaires, focus groups, observation, document analysis, and essays, interviews. Free Statistics is a guide to free and open source software for statistical analysis that includes a comparison, explaining what operations each program can perform. Provided by the U.S.
Department of Health and Human Services, this HRSA Toolkit offers advice on The Electoral College, successfully collecting and analyzing data. An extensive list of both for collecting and analyzing data and on computerized disease registries is available. This Human Development Index Map is a valuable tool from Measure of America: A Project of the philosophy, Social Science Research Council . It combines indicators in three fundamental areas - health, knowledge, and standard of living - into a single number that falls on a scale from The Electoral College 0 to 10, and manhattan cable, is presented on an easy-to-navigate interactive map of the United States. Research Methods Knowledge Base is a comprehensive web-based textbook that provides useful, comprehensive, relatively simple explanations of how statistics work and The Electoral College Essay, how and when specific statistical operations are used and help to interpret data. Bazeley, P. (2013). Qualitative data analysis: Practical strategies.
New York, NY: SAGE. Brown, M. Hale, K. (2014). Applied research methods in public nonprofit organizations. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.
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The beginning of the end for Obama’s Title IX rules? 07/13/2017 10:00 AM EDT. With help from Caitlin Emma, Kimberly Hefling and Michael Stratford. THE BEGINNING OF THE END FOR OBAMA’S TITLE IX RULES? Education Secretary Betsy DeVos will spend the day meeting with sexual assault survivors, students who say they were falsely accused and college officials as the Trump administration considers changing federal guidance on campus sexual assault.
Advocates on both sides believe today’s meetings will lay the groundwork for The Electoral College the administration to change the philosophy current guidance, which DeVos refused to commit to preserving during her Senate confirmation hearing. Story Continued Below. — The far-reaching Obama-era guidance, in The Electoral Essay place since 2011, tells colleges and universities they must combat sexual harassment, including sexual violence, under Title IX , the federal law that prohibits sex discrimination. It threatened a loss of federal funding to who invented the tank institutions that fail to do so. Among other things, the guidance pushed a lower standard of proof in campus disciplinary hearings than is used in The Electoral College Essay criminal trials. While many women’s groups hailed the guidance as a crucial step in cracking down on what they describe as an epidemic of campus sexual violence, critics said it has pushed college administrators to trample the rights of accused students. — DeVos will hold three 90-minute roundtable discussions with advocates for sexual assault survivors and accused students, as well as college officials. POLITICO first reported the meetings last week. Here’s a full list of the groups with which DeVos will meet. Meanwhile, advocates for survivors of sexual assault have scheduled a 9:15 a.m. Greek Mythology! protest outside the Education Department. — A day before the long-awaited meetings, DeVos’ acting civil rights chief, Candice Jackson, sparked outrage when she told The New York Times “the accusations — 90 percent of them — fall into Essay the category of 'we were both drunk,' 'we broke up, and six months later I found myself under a Title IX investigation because she just decided that our last sleeping together was not quite right.' She later issued an apology, saying, her comments “poorly characterized the conversations I’ve had with countless groups of advocates.
What I said was flippant, and I am sorry.” — Still, her comments stoked fears of the crucible sparknotes advocates for survivors of sexual assault that the deck is stacked against them . Essay! They say the Obama guidance has been an important tool to crack down on sexual violence, which research shows is prevalent on campuses and grossly under-reported. The comment “worries me about their engagement with the facts, and it worries me that they’re being advised by extreme men’s rights advocates who have a long track record of pointing to in Romeo by William Shakespeare Essay myths of sexual assault,” Fatima Goss Graves, CEO and The Electoral College Essay, president of the by William Essay National Women's Law Center, told Morning Education. The Electoral Essay! “There are a lot of experts who have been researching this issue for decades,” said Graves, who is among the advocates meeting with DeVos today. “There is a treasure trove of who invented the tank real facts to draw from.” — Title IX advocates note that DeVos has spent little time so far listening to survivors of sexual assault . “In our view, ninety minutes is hardly enough time to The Electoral Essay hear from survivors and advocates, particularly when she's also giving ninety minutes of airtime to men's rights activists and act 1, schools,” said Alyssa Peterson, a policy and an advocacy coordinator at Know Your IX, one of the groups that organized protest outside the department today. “They're going to The Electoral College Essay hear from us regardless.” — But students accused of the tank assault who felt ignored by the Obama administration say they’re happy to have their voices heard . “We’re really just excited that they’re paying attention to it, because it is Essay such a big deal,” said Michelle Owens, an attorney out of Nashville who represents students accused of assault.
Those students say the current guidance has pushed colleges to strip them of due process. A Home Burglary! Among those who will meet with DeVos today is The Electoral Jonathan Andrews, a former Hanover College student who says he was twice falsely accused of assaulting one of his fraternity brothers. Administrators first cleared Andrews, but expelled him after the second accusation. He has since filed a complaint with the Office for Civil Rights, which last year opened an investigation at the school. — Andrews told Morning Education that the 2011 guidance provides crucial protections for sexual assault survivors , but he feels the lower standard of proof worked against him in his disciplinary process. “From our standpoint, the burglary Essay ‘Dear Colleague’ letter started with really great intentions,” he said. Essay! “It’s important to realize that women and victims of sex assault haven’t always been listened to.” Andrews says his case “is one of the who invented the tank sides that hasn’t been told” and he wants “to make the point — it’s not just white men, it’s LGBTQ, it’s women, it’s black men, it’s minorities who are being affected by this.” — Critics of the guidance also point to a list of hundreds of schools under investigation by College the Office for Civil Rights for allegedly mishandling sexual violence claims . As of this week, the office had opened 344 investigations at 242 schools. “If this system was working as intended, the number of OCR complaints would have gone down Instead, they have risen dramatically,” said E. Everett Bartlett, the President of SAVE: Stop Abusive and the tank, Violent Environments, which is also meeting with DeVos. The Electoral College Essay! Jackson, meanwhile, has suggested the civil rights office may stop publishing the list of schools under investigation. — A compromise of sorts could be possible, said Garrett of Families Advocating for Campus Equality. Philosophy Essays! The American Bar Association last month issued its own recommendations to colleges, crafted by College Essay a task force that included both advocates for assault survivors and the accused.
Garrett pointed to those recommendations, which she helped write, as a possible solution. They would give colleges more leeway on the standard of proof they use in sun in greek mythology disciplinary hearings, among other things. “We’re not looking for a one-sided, make-it-impossible for complainants to have their rights vindicated,” Garrett said. “We’re looking for The Electoral College a balanced solution and we don’t believe the current enforcement, or ‘Dear Colleague’ letter offers a balanced solution.” GOOD THURSDAY MORNING AND WELCOME TO MORNING EDUCATION. Manhattan Cable! “Spider-Man: Homecoming” is my new favorite movie. Tips? Feedback? Let me know: [email protected] or @BenjaminEW. Share event listings: [email protected] And follow us on Twitter: @Morning_Edu and @POLITICOPro. BUDGET HEADLINES BUSY DAY ON THE HILL: The House subcommittee tasked with writing a bill to College Essay fund education, labor and health programs will mark up a Republican budget proposal this afternoon that varies greatly from the Trump administration’s education proposals. The bill calls for a $2.4 billion reduction in funding for the Education Department for by William Essay the 2018 fiscal year. That amounts to a 3.5 percent cut in discretionary spending on education — much less than the 13 percent reduction that Trump had proposed.
Michael Stratford has more budget details here. — The budget bill largely disregards the Trump administration’s pitch to spend about The Electoral $1.4 billion on school choice policies . Trump and DeVos had proposed directing $1 billion in Title I money for tv poor students to a new grant program for College school districts that would allow students to attend the public school of in Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare their choice. The Electoral Essay! House appropriators didn't bite on that plan. The GOP bill calls for keeping funding for the tank Title I at $15.9 billion, roughly the College same as this year. In addition, the bill does not include the the crucible act 1 $250 million the The Electoral Essay Trump administration proposed for expanding and essays, studying school vouchers that would allow low-income students to select the private school of The Electoral their choice. The Crucible Sparknotes! The Republican bill would provide a $28 million boost to funding for charter schools, bringing total funding for the Charter Schools Program grants to $370 million.
But that falls short of the $500 million that Trump requested for the program, which would have amounted to College a nearly 50-percent increase in funding. More on that here. — The Council of the tank Chief State School Officers, which represents state education chiefs nationwide, is College pleased the budget bill maintains Title I funding levels for poor students, but disappointed by the elimination of more than $2 billion for teacher and principal preparation. “State education chiefs recognize we can always improve on how state and federal funds are spent,” said CCSSO Executive Director Chris Minnich, “but cutting these funds to greek mythology zero wouldn't allow for an opportunity to improve how we spend those dollars and would turn our back on the commitments we have made to Essay teachers and students.” More. — The subcommittee will mark up the philosophy essays bill at 4:30 p.m. in Room 2358-C of the Rayburn House Office Building. Watch a livestream here. ALSO ON THE HILL: A House Education and the Workforce subcommittee this morning will hold a hearing on “Opportunities for State Leadership of The Electoral Essay Early Childhood Programs.” Witnesses include Cindy Brown Barnes, director of Education Workforce and Income Security at the Government Accountability Office; Katharine Stevens, resident scholar at in Romeo and Juliet by William Shakespeare, the conservative American Enterprise Institute; Pamela Harris, president and CEO of Mile High Montessori Early Learning Centers in Denver, Colo.; and Ericca Maas, executive director of the nonprofit Close Gaps by 5. The Electoral College Essay! The hearing starts at 10 a.m. in 2175 Rayburn. Who Invented! Tune in. — A bipartisan group of lawmakers, meanwhile, is holding a press conference to push a bill that would require hazing be reported as part of a college’s annual crime report . Rep. Patrick Meehan (R-Pa.) and Rep. Marcia L. Fudge (D-Oh.) will be joined by former Sen. Richard Lugar (R-Ind.), as well as Penn State University Provost Nick Jones and the family of a victim of The Electoral Essay a fatal hazing incident as they push the sun in greek mythology Report and Educate About Campus Hazing (REACH) Act.
— “The Racist Origins of Private School Vouchers” — Rep. Bobby Scott (D-VA), ranking Democrat on the House Education and College Essay, the Workforce Committee, will deliver remarks today at Investigating Essay, an event on “school vouchers and College, racism” hosted by the Center for sun in greek mythology American Progress and the American Federation of Teachers. The left-leaning think tank will release a report looking at “the segregationist policies and actions that led to the implementation” of a voucher system in Prince Edward County, Va., according to The Electoral College a release. Other panelists include Daniel Domenech, executive director of AASA, The School Superintendents Association; Richard Kahlenberg, senior fellow at The Century Foundation; Catherine Lhamon, chair of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights and former head of civil rights at the Education Department during the Obama administration; and who invented the tank, Justin Reid, director of African American programs at College Essay, the Virginia Foundation for the Humanities. The event starts at 3 p.m. at essays, AFT’s headquarters, 555 New Jersey Ave. NW. COONS, RUBIO URGE CREATION OF ‘COLLEGE SAVINGS ACCOUNT PILOT’: Sens. Chris Coons (D-DE) and The Electoral College, Marco Rubio (R-FL) have written to who invented the Education Department urging the creation of a “college savings account pilot program that will track academic readiness and encourage college savings.” In a letter to acting Under Secretary Jim Manning, the senators encourage the agency to “consider creating personal online accounts for low-income students that monitor higher education readiness, provide opportunities for high-impact mentoring, and The Electoral College Essay, include a college savings account. These accounts would follow students from school to school through college.”
— The senators recommend the the crucible sparknotes accounts start at an early age to “maximize … students’ expectations of The Electoral college-going and actions toward college preparedness.” They say that family members, parents, counselors and manhattan cable tv, others could access students accounts “to update student information, monitor progress, and provide college preparatory support.” The pilot is in Essay line with legislation introduced by Coons and Rubio earlier this year, called the American Dream Accounts Act, which hasn’t seen movement yet on the Hill. Read the letter. REPORT ROLL CALL. — The rate of burglary Essay homelessness among public school students was highest in College Essay city school districts at Fate in Romeo and Juliet, 3.7 percent, but was also 2 percent or higher in suburban, town and rural districts, the National Center for Education Statistics says in a new blog post based on figures from the The Electoral 2014-2015 school year. — The nonprofit Achieve reports that 10 states so far are including science in burglary Essay some way in their state accountability plans under the Every Student Succeeds Act.
— Students who participate in social and emotional learning programs are better equipped to College Essay succeed in a home school long-term, according to a study released Wednesday conducted by the Collaborative for Academic, Social and Emotional Learning, the University of Illinois at Chicago, Loyola University and the University of British Columbia. More from Ramsen Shamon. — The Education Department has released an College Essay annual report card that measures how well special education students are being served in each state. — The Data Quality Campaign, a nonprofit, says in a new report that state education data collection has expanded beyond just “accountability and compliance,” and only 18 percent of teachers believe data is philosophy being used to punish teachers and The Electoral College Essay, schools. — The National College Access Network reports the number of federal student aid applications filed through June 30 are up 6 percent over last year, reversing a four-year decline in Free Application for Federal Student Aid filing. — A Harvard faculty committee says the college should forbid students from joining all “fraternities, sororities, and similar organizations” with the goal of phasing out the groups entirely by May 2022: The Crimson. — Ohio Supreme Court refuses to block the recovery of $60 million in sun in greek mythology state funding from the ECOT online school: The Plain Dealer. — Researchers believe that ongoing stress during early childhood harms kids’ brains and other body systems, which can lead to some of the major causes of death and The Electoral Essay, disease in adulthood, including heart attacks and tv, diabetes: The Associated Press. — Alabama’s high school graduation rate is 87 percent: AL.com. — Indiana state superintendent ‘blindsided’ by fact that ESSA would make thousands of state diplomas no longer count toward a school’s graduation rate: Indiana Public Media. — Trump intervenes to The Electoral Essay grant rejected Afghan girls entry to U.S. for robot contest: POLITICO.
— Improving Louisiana test scores stall in the third year of tougher standards: The Advocate. — Potentially thousands of Ohio third graders may be held back and blocked from going to fourth grade because of in Romeo and Juliet Essay ‘errors’ in setting the scores they need on reading tests to The Electoral College Essay advance: The Plain Dealer.
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Nov 21, 2017 The Electoral College Essay,
50 Most Popular Argumentative Essay Topics. Here is a list of 50 most popular argumentative essay topics. Feel free to use them while writing your own one. If you need assistance with essay writing contact our friendly support team and The Electoral College, we will gladly help you. An argumentative essay is a type of essay which involves a set of completely developed arguments to support a thesis statement that takes a solid stance on a specific issue.
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International Commercial Law with Dissertation, LLM. International Commercial Law with Dissertation, LLM. If you are fascinated by contracts and agreements, or operations of the same company in different countries, you could be interested in studying International Commercial Law with Dissertation at The Electoral Essay, Aberdeen. The programme enables students to study a number of diverse areas in philosophy essays, commercial law, including protection of intellectual property associated with brands, products and trade, commercial arbitration and international aspects of energy law. This programme is studied on campus. By studying International Commercial Law with Dissertation at Aberdeen, you will benefit from being taught by world-class teaching staff that regularly provides consultancy and College Essay policy work at international level. You will have the opportunity to study a number of diverse areas including protection of intellectual property associated with brands, products and trade, commercial arbitration and manhattan tv international aspects of energy law. This programme was designed with the assistance of external experts, including authors of international agreements as well as our internal staff at The Electoral Essay, the University. With this collaborative input, you will gain valuable insights into international commercial law and will advance your understanding of the subject. The programme has been carefully coordinated to align with the competencies required for today’s international job market. The University of Aberdeen is known for philosophy, attracting world-class teaching staff with international experience in their specialist subjects.
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Semester 2 for January starts is the summer period during which time students write their dissertation. Between May and mid-August students prepare a 10,000 word dissertation on the tank, a topic of their choice related to their specialist LLM programme. Students are instructed through the delivery of a preparatory lecture, two supervisory meetings and a two hour dissertation planning workshop in a small group setting. Students are expected to spend considerable time on The Electoral College Essay, independent research throughout the course of the dissertation module, including; preparation of dissertation plan, amendment of plan in accordance with supervisory comments, preparation for cable, the dissertation workshop, and, of course, in the final 10,000 word dissertation itself. For January starts semester 3 is the September semester with courses starting with LS50. Students can take either LS5083 or LS5085. The petroleum industry brings together the most powerful public and private actors in the form of states and trans-national corporations. Oil and gas law has the task of arranging the Essay resultant relationships and of ensuring that the legitimate interests of each side are protected.
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This course allows a greater focus on the Asia Pacific region and is particularly relevant to those who foresee themselves working in that part of the world. The course aims to provide a thorough and critical understanding of fundamental concepts, principles and institutions of the World Trade Organisation (WTO), with emphasis on trade in goods (GATT). The main topics covered include relevant historical and institutional developments, WTO dispute resolution, core principles such as the non-discrimination, most-favour-nation (MFN) and the prohibition of quantitative restrictions on Investigating burglary Essay, international trade. The Electoral College! The security, environment, human rights, labour standards, economic emergencies and free trade areas and customs unions based exceptions and their challenges are also analytically explored. These are studied in sun in greek mythology, light of relevant WTO panel and Appellate Body cases and recommendations. ?This course aims to help students hone their analytical and advocacy skills and have those skills tested to The Electoral, the extent possible at a select international moot (such as the Willem Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot).
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The information listed below is for September start students. Essay! Information for January starts can be found under Other Ways to Study. All students must take two LS50xx courses and two LS55xx courses. All candidates must take the The Electoral Essay following course: This compulsory course provides students from diverse legal and manhattan cable educational backgrounds with a common understanding of the core research, analytical, and writing skills which would be required to excel in LLM-Taught courses. It commences with a few lectures and progresses to working within smaller groups in The Electoral, a workshop environment and finally to philosophy essays, the submission of an individual assignment. College! It also incorporates elements such as library workshops to provide students with hands-on experience with the sparknotes act 1 resources available for course and dissertation work. Four optional courses must be selected. Two should be selected from semester 1 and College Essay two from semester 2. Students may not select both LS5083 and LS5085 together.
Alternatively, one of your four choices could be selected from another LLM programme (excluding LS501E, and LS551K). The petroleum industry brings together the most powerful public and philosophy private actors in the form of states and trans-national corporations. Oil and gas law has the task of arranging the resultant relationships and of ensuring that the legitimate interests of each side are protected. Following a series of introductory lectures, students will participate in interactive seminars considering topics drawn from the state control, contracting and The Electoral College Essay regulatory aspects of oil and gas law. This course is available to LLM students on programmes other than the specialist LLM Oil and Gas Law programmes. The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys conducted consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over other dispute resolution methods.
This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works both in principle and in practice. Topics covered include; the arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, the arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. This course is greek mythology, taught together with International Commercial Arbitration in the Asia Pacific. The demand for international commercial arbitration has increased significantly over the last 20 years. Empirical surveys consistently report figures that suggest around 60% of businesses prefer arbitration over The Electoral, other dispute resolution methods. This course provides students with a solid understanding of how arbitration works in principle and in the tank, practice. Topics covered include; arbitration agreement, arbitral jurisdiction, arbitral tribunal, challenging and enforcing awards. This course is taught together with the Essay International Commercial Arbitration course. This course allows a greater focus on the Asia Pacific region and is particularly relevant to those who foresee themselves working in that part of the world.
?This course aims to help students hone their analytical and advocacy skills and have those skills tested to the extent possible at a select international moot (such as the Willem Vis International Commercial Arbitration Moot). This course will culminate with students making written submissions to a select international Moot, and if qualified to sun in greek mythology, do so, participating at the oral competition phase of the select Moot. The analytical and advocacy skills developed in this course are generic and transferrable. Through their work on this course, students will be able to bench mark their achievements in developing these skills. When international commercial lawyers work with contracts, those contracts often engage parties from multiple countries with differing legal perspectives on how to interpret that same singular contract. The Electoral Essay! This course is designed to the crucible act 1, enable commercial lawyers to understand how various legal traditions provide their own unique perspectives on a variety of contract formation and interpretation issues.
The course will explore how different aspects of contract law can lead to unexpected differences or similarities across international legal cultures, enabling an The Electoral College international commercial lawyer to be able to coordinate those issues for their clients. The course will focus on a variety of European legal systems, with additional discussions drawn from commercial systems in who invented, Asia and in the Americas. Students will explore the diverse elements of Essay law which constitute international intellectual property law. We will consider the philosophy framework of international conventions, copyright and The Electoral Essay moral rights (with a particular focus on the tank, new developments and the digital age), patents, designs, the work of the World Health Organisation and the Convention on Biological Diversity. Throughout the challenge is to identify conflicts and synergies, and areas for future development, through regard to cases, scholarship, and the activities of policy makers and activists.
Assessment is by The Electoral College an essay, an exam and who invented an individual presentation. This course is a substantive and College critical analysis of two key areas of intellectual property law, copyright and the crucible patents, with a UK and European focus, and their impact on innovation and creativity. This course complements other innovation law LLM courses which focus on commercial, policy and sector matters. We examine the questions of Essay jurisdiction and recognition and enforcement in relation to commercial matters involving private international law. We examine the general and special jurisdictional aspects of the Brussels I Regulation and the Recast Brussels I Regulation; choice of court agreements; recognition and enforcement and, international commercial arbitration. Taught by a home burglary Essay museum and The Electoral College law academics, this course will examine cultural property issues such as treasure trove, looting and repatriation, forgery, sacred and street art, and the derogatory treatment of art. Objects from the philosophy essays University Museum and collections worldwide will be drawn on to illustrate aspects of the course. Museum practice and College operational experience will also inform certain aspects. Students will be encouraged to philosophy essays, explore and develop their own ideas.
Facilitating this, the The Electoral College Essay course will include a programme of case studies and/or issue papers to be presented by students for class discussion. This LLM course as a whole addresses choice of law for business, and focuses on sparknotes, three areas, namely contractual obligations, non-contractual obligations and corporate law. Students are expected to develop a clear understanding of The Electoral College Essay relevant legislation and judgments, as well as to consider whether the law strikes an appropriate balance between party autonomy and the interests of states in prescribing relevant outcomes. The course is taught by means of greek mythology seminars and guided independent reading. Corporate environmental liability is a significant area of concern not only for those corporations engaged in activities which exhibit environmental risk but society as whole. Essay! An efficient, effective liability regime must be present to ensure that corporations do not shirk their financial liabilities. The course draws attention to the conflicting goals of Fate and Juliet Essay corporate law (i.e. the limitation of liability) and environmental law (i.e. ensuring that polluters pay for damage caused) and encourages students to consider and College develop solutions to who invented the tank, this problem.
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We consider the essays law concerning a cargo claim as it may involve the Hague Rules, the College Essay Hague-Visby Rules, the Hamburg Rules. We also evaluate the Rotterdam Rules. We consider international commercial dispute resolution of sun in cargo claims by arbitration and Essay litigation. Students will explore the diversity of laws and practices relevant to commercialising innovation. We will consider patents, trade secrets, copyright and sun in greek database rights, new business models, competition and (focussing on natural resources), communications and The Electoral College Essay activities in developing areas. Visiting speakers from practice and industry are regularly invited. Philosophy! In the first session, students develop an innovative idea, as a base for discussion in each session. Seminars involve individual and group work, and the preparation of posters. Assessment is by essay and exam.
Tax law is an integral aspect of Essay all international commercial activities; it is a home burglary, crucial for commercial lawyers to The Electoral College, have an understanding of tax law even if they are not tax lawyers. This course is a tax law course for general commercial lawyers, providing a gentle introduction to the varieties of tax laws and policies. The course enables a general commercial lawyer to understand tax law and policy discussions, both as public policy concerns and as issues related to clients' commercial matters. The course covers the basics of tax models and introduces a variety of who invented the tank tax law systems, such as income tax, property tax, sales tax and VAT taxes. The course also explains how tax policy can affect corporate and commercial interests, such as the role of tax law in environmental protection, in energy resource stewardship, or in corporate social responsibility.
In conclusion, the course is designed for The Electoral Essay, general commercial lawyers to increase their professional skills and legal knowledge related to who invented the tank, commercial tax law and policy. The complex interaction between investment protection and The Electoral Essay the sovereign right of states to regulate has been most acute in the energy sector. On the sun in greek one hand, investors require strong guarantees that states will respect the College Essay “rules of the game” that constitute the basis of their investments. On the other, states can be tempted to interfere with foreign energy investments because of their particular strategic and social importance. This course aims to analyse if existing investment disciplines are adapted to the specific regulatory risks that investors face in the energy landscape of the 21st Century. Between May and mid-August students prepare a 10,000 word dissertation on a topic of their choice related to mythology, their specialist LLM programme.
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The programme is structured to allow you the freedom to specialise within international commercial law, yet explore its many aspects. Teaching is organised on a modular basis with a dissertation to be submitted at the end of August each year. Individual Projects Lectures Research Seminars. Courses are assessed through essays, presentations, role play, group work and project work. The variety of assessments in the programme ensures that students apply theory to practical situations in order to become expert at being able to College Essay, analyse and Investigating reason issues thoroughly.
Why Study International Commercial Law with Dissertation? Ever since the University’s opening in 1495, the Law School has played a pivotal role in The Electoral, Aberdeen’s history - and there’s no substitute for who invented, experience. Our Law School is ranked 10th in the UK, out of College more than 90 law schools (The Complete University Guide 2018). In an LLM exit survey we carried out in 2016, 98% of students felt that their LLM had added value to their career prospects and 97% would recommend their course to others. There are over essays, 40 nationalities within the School of Law postgraduate community, so you will benefit from the College Essay experiences of international students from who invented the tank all over The Electoral Essay, the world. Students choose to study Law at Aberdeen because of our reputation for who invented the tank, academic excellence and unrivalled student experience. At Aberdeen, you will: Gain an advanced understanding of commercial law within an international context, enabling you to apply for jobs around the world as an adviser and consultant.
Benefit from College Essay being taught by an internationally renowned teaching staff and authors of major international agreements. Have the opportunity to sun in mythology, study the full spectrum of international commercial law across wide ranging markets. We are located in Aberdeen, Europe's energy capital, a world cosmopolitan dynamic city with worldwide links in energy, luxury brands, healthcare and international tourism. Lecturers regularly provide consultancy, policy work at The Electoral, international level and philosophy essays publish in The International Review of Intellectual Property and Competition, Journal of the Copyright Society of the USA, Law International and Comparative Law Quarterly, Modern Law Review and many other publications. Prospective students interested in studying on this programme should submit their completed application by Essay the end of May each year. All applications will then be reviewed by the programme admissions panel. Decisions will be notified by the end of who invented July. Unsuccessful applicants may, at the discretion of the The Electoral admissions panel, be offered a place on the LLM International Commercial Law with Professional Skills instead. Prospective students requiring a visa to study in greek, the UK are advised to apply as early as possible to secure a place.
Applications received after 29 July (September intake) or 2 November (January intake) from students who need to apply for a visa will not be processed in time for entry, but will be considered for entry into the next intake as appropriate. Submitting a CV with the application is optional. Normally a 2(1) honours degree in Essay, Law (or another related discipline) or equivalent. Relevant practical experience in the field of sun in greek mythology commercial law will also be beneficial. All students entering the University must provide evidence that they can use English well enough to study effectively at the University of Aberdeen. Details of our English language entry requirements can be found on our English Language Requirements webpages. This programme requires that you meet the College of Arts and The Electoral Essay Social Sciences Postgraduate Standard level of English proficiency. If you have not achieved the required scores, the University of Aberdeen offers pre-sessional English courses. Greek! Further details are available on our Language Centre website.
Nationals of some English-speaking countries or those who hold degrees from some English-speaking countries may be exempted from this requirement. Essay! Details of countries recognised as English-speaking can be found on our English Language Requirements webpages. You will be required to supply the following documentation with your application as proof you meet the entry requirements of this degree programme. Degree Transcript a full transcript showing all the subjects you studied and the marks you have achieved in your degree(s) (original official English translation) Personal Statement a detailed personal statement explaining your motivation for this particular programme Reference a reference letter from your university discussing your academic ability. If you have been out of education for a long time you may wish to use your current or most recent employer, or another professional person.
You will be classified as one of the fee categories below. In exceptional circumstances there may be additional fees associated with specialist courses, for example field trips. Any additional fees for a course can be found in our Catalogue of Courses. For more information about essays, tuition fees for this programme, including payment plans and our refund policy, please visit our InfoHub Tuition Fees page. The SFC Postgraduate tuition fee scholarship may be available for those classified as Home/EU fee status students for this programe. Visit the scholarship page for more information. View all funding options in The Electoral, our Funding Database. Having the solid foundation of a modern LLM from an ancient and respected university like Aberdeen could open up many career opportunities.
Your career options could include being an in-house counsel for a multinational corporation, a legal advisor to governments or NGOs, or even becoming a partner in an international law firm. The programme will also provide a good grounding for an academic career and help you prepare for a PhD. You will be taught by Fate a range of experts including professors, lecturers, teaching fellows and postgraduate tutors. Staff changes will occur from time to time; please see our InfoHub pages for further information. Join Internationally Renowned Experts. Internationally renowned teaching staff and The Electoral College Essay academic experts in their field. The School of Law has its own dedicated law library, Taylor Library, which is located within the who invented the tank Law School building, offering access to the Law collection, Official Publications and the European Documentation Centre. Commercial Law from Merchant Aberdeen 1495.
Law has been taught at the University of Aberdeen since 1495.