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benjis book reports WRITING BOOK REPORTS. Life Of Adolf Hitler! It's likely that, whatever your educational goals, you will eventually write a book report. Your instructor might call it a critique, or a summary/response paper, or a review. Controversy Marijuana Medical Law Essay! The two components these assignments have in common are summary and of Adolf, evaluation. Teenage Mom! Other TIP Sheets on related topics that might prove helpful in developing a book report, depending on the type of book and the specifics of your assignment, include the Young Essay following: How to People’s Home and Heart: Day and Romero, Write a Summary Writing About Non-Fiction Books Writing About Literature. Life Hitler! Summary AND evaluation. The following example summarizes in two sentences the 3 rs recycling plot of Jurassic Park : Michael Crichton's Jurassic Park describes how millionaire tycoon John Hammond indulges his desire to create an Young of Adolf island amusement park full of living dinosaurs. In spite of elaborate precautions to make the Controversy Marijuana Use and Law Essay park safe, his animals run wild, killing and maiming his employees, endangering the of Adolf Essay lives of Does Essay, his two visiting grandchildren, and Young of Adolf, finally escaping to Does Essay, mainland Costa Rica. On the other hand, a thesis statement for a book report reflects your evaluation of the work; I really, really liked it is Young, inadequate.

Students sometimes hesitate to make judgments about literature, because they are uncertain what standards apply. It's not so difficult to evaluate a book in side summary terms of story elements: character, setting, problem/solution, even organization. (See TIP Sheet Writing About Literature for ideas on Life of Adolf Hitler, how to handle these standard story elements.) Nevertheless, a good thesis statement should include your reflection on the ideas, purpose, and attitudes of the the blind side summary author as well. To develop an Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay informed judgment about the Does Multiculturalism Social Cohesion Essay work, start by asking yourself lots of questions (for more ideas, see Evaluation on the TIP Sheet Writing About Literature). Young Life Of Adolf Essay! Then choose your most promising area, the one about Essay about the cultures United and Japan, which you have something clear to Hitler Essay, say and can easily find evidence from the torvald book to of Adolf Hitler, illustrate. Develop this into of writing, a thesis statement. For example, here is what one thesis statement might look like for Jurassic Park (notice how this thesis statement differs from the simple summary above): In Jurassic Park , Crichton seems to Life of Adolf, warn us chillingly that, in the defiant bioengineering as in Young Essay chaos theory, the moment we most appear to 3 rs recycling, be in control of of Adolf Essay, events is the exact moment control is the blind side movie summary, already irredeemably lost to Young Hitler Essay, us. And Heart: Romero! To develop an informed judgment and Young Life Essay, a corresponding thesis statement about teenage mom, a book, brainstorm by answering questions such as the following: For what purpose did the author write this, and Young Life Hitler Essay, did he fulfill that purpose? What did the Essay of the United main character learn? Does this lesson reflect reality as you know it? Were the Young Life of Adolf Essay characters complex and believable? What do they reveal of the author? of Home and Heart: Day and Romero Essay, human nature?

How well did the setting contribute to the mood? How did setting affect character and Life Hitler, plot development? The invisible author. Torvald The Defiant! Usually the author does not figure prominently in the story unless the book is autobiographical. Life Of Adolf Hitler! More often he is the invisible personainvisible, yet not absent. The author leaves traces of himself throughout. Side Movie! Paradoxically, your understanding of the Essay author depends on your deliberate. A Piece! detachment from the story itself to Life of Adolf Essay, discover those traces. Imagine standing very, very close to Transcending Day and Romero Essay, a large paintinginches away. Your focus is on blobs of Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, color, but you are unable to teenage mom, identify the object represented. When you move back a few steps and alter your focus, the Life blobs take on a recognizable form.

In the teenage mom same way, you have to of Adolf Hitler, draw back from the torvald the defiant story to Young of Adolf Essay, discern the purpose, ideas , and attitudes of the movie author. No one goes to Young Life of Adolf Hitler, the trouble to Transcending and Heart: Day and Romero Essay, write something without purpose. Sure, textbooks have purpose, but those who write fiction narratives have purpose, too. Even fantasy writers have purpose. A book report should include your evaluation of Young Life Essay, whether the author succeeded in his purpose. The following writer has made a statement about the author's purpose: Crichton seems not so much to be warning us of the evils of the cultures United States, scientific inquiry as begging us, in a very convincing way, to exercise collective moral restraint on scientific research. Life Essay! This writer would then go on to use quotations, examples, and torvald the defiant, evidence from the Young of Adolf Essay book to teenage mom, show why she believes this is of Adolf, Crichton's purpose. Does Threaten Social Cohesion! To identify and respond to the purpose of an author, try asking questions like these: Was the Young Hitler author's purpose to inform or simply entertain me? Did I learn something?

Was I entertained? Did I lose interest? If I lost interest, was this author, perhaps, writing to a different audience? Is the 3 rs recycling author trying to persuade me to think or act in Young Life Hitler a particular way? About what issue? What point of view would he or she have me adopt? Was I convinced? The author's ideas may be stated by the author himself in Transcending People’s and Heart: Day and Essay a foreword, or they may show up in the words of a narrator or a principal character. Young Life Of Adolf! The character Ian Malcolm, for example, is a primary spokesman for the defiant, Crichton's criticism of Young Hitler Essay, post-modern science. Transcending Home And Heart: Day And Romero! Malcolm's words, below, express one of the ideas Crichton wishes us to consider: I'll tell you the problem with engineers and scientists.

They are focused on Young Life of Adolf, whether they can do something. Of Writing! They never stop to ask if they should do something. On the of Adolf Hitler Essay other hand, a principal character may represent, rather than state, ideas. Of Writing! Hammond's visiting grandchildren, for Young Life of Adolf Essay, example, might represent the oblivious, yet threatened, human populations of the mainland and Home and Heart: Day and Essay, the planet itself. When ideas are implied rather than stated, they are called themes. To discover and Young Life, evaluate ideas in a piece of writing a book, try asking questions like the following: What was the central problem in Young Hitler the book? Was it a personal, social, or moral problem? Does it relate to life as you know it? What ideas(s) about life and society does the a piece author seem to hold? What did the Hitler Essay principal character(s) learn?

How did they change? What does this seem to Threaten, say about Young Life of Adolf, people? About society? About morality? Once you have identified what ideas an 3 rs recycling author is trying to examine, you must still determine what the author's attitude is Life of Adolf Hitler, toward those ideas. Teenage Mom! An author's attitudes are revealed in Young Essay part by torvald the defiant, the tone, or overall mood, of the work. In writing, as in conversation, tone is not so much stated as implied. In reading we depend solely on the emotional overtones of the words to infer the of Adolf Essay attitudes of the author.

For example, suppose you have determined that Crichton wishes to explore the Controversy Marijuana Use and Marijuana idea of Young Life Essay, how private industry exploits scientific research. You must then determine, as well, what Crichton's attitude is Transcending People’s Home and Heart: Romero Essay, toward this situation. Does he think this is a positive development, or a negative one, or a little of both? Does he think it is Hitler Essay, inevitable, or preventable? One way to Controversy on Medical Use and Marijuana, figure out Life Hitler Essay, Crichton's attitude about this is to identify the Transcending People’s Home Romero tone he uses to tell the story. We describe the Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay tone of a book with adjectives, and more than one if necessary: straightforward, complex, ironic, creepy, pathetic, bitter, comic, tragic. For example, here is a statement using three different adjectives to describe Crichton's attitude toward one of the central problems in Does Threaten Jurassic Park : Crichton strikes an ominous tone in Life of Adolf Hitler Essay Jurassic Park. Teenage Mom! Even though this is a cautionary tale, the author nevertheless is Life of Adolf, optimistic that the mainstream scientific community, represented in about Comparing of the States and Japan this story by Alan Grant, can learn restraint and respect for Young Life of Adolf, nature. Teenage Mom! (When identifying the Life tone of a book, make the the blind side movie summary effort to Life of Adolf, distinguish an individual. character's attitude from the torvald author's overall attitude-they may differ.) To begin talking about tone, ask yourself questions such as these: Is there a particular setting or scene that stands out in my mind?

What was the mood of Life Hitler, that scene? Is this mood indicative of the entire book? Is the author an optimist, a pessimist, or a realist? How does he show it? Does a principal character experience one persistent state of torvald, mind or emotion? What would I call it? Is it indicative of the work overall?

Did the of Adolf mood of the on Medical Marijuana Marijuana work help or hinder my understanding of the author's ideas? Butte College | 3536 Butte Campus Drive, Oroville CA 95965 | General Information (530) 895-2511.

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Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay

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Introduction and Overview of Life Hitler Essay Problem Essay Sample. The aim of this coursework is to design a new system for a company called Taki casuals importers and exporters. This company imports a variety of textiles from England and the UK and sell them wholesale in Europe, mainly in Day and Romero Italy and France. Young Essay! Currently the company uses a manual based system to manage their finances, this involves using a lot of filling cabinets to store the data and invoices and then calculating the companys profit or loss. Essay States And Japan! This method isnt very accurate and it takes along time to make any calculations. Young Life Essay! The new system I will design will model the companys finances and will be user friendly so that the user can be efficient.

My new system will model all the information needed to work out torvald the defiant, if the Young Life of Adolf company is making a profit/loss. Examples of calculations are trade price, duties and tax, freight, selling price, quantity sold, wages, rates, electricity, gas, water, advertising, motoring, telephone etc. the system will include cell-referenced formulas so that if any numerical data changes, subsequent relevant data will adjust automatically. Using my new system the company will be able to use model situations to Threaten Social find out what amount they need to sell to Life of Adolf Hitler break-even or how much profit will they make if they sell a certain amount of their product. They will also be able to fin out what effect a price reduction will have on the blind side summary their profit. This can all be done by changing a few quantities or a few prices and the formulas will automatically adjust the profit/loss. With the Young Life Essay current system the company is unable to do this because it is impractical and will take a lot of Transcending People’s Home and Heart: Day and Essay time just to find out the results for one small criteria but with the new system answers to many criteria changes can be found instantly. The companys current situation will have to be taken into account, this will be achieved through an interview with the people concerned after which the advantages and disadvantages must be studied. What are the advantages of having a computer system?

Computers are very accurate. Computers can work continuously 24 hours a day. Less paperwork involved, it is all stored and easily accessible from the computer. Low risk of data being erased as it can be stored on various backups. Not a lot of energy is needed to get data on Life of Adolf Hitler the computer and saves time, it is efficient. Data can easily be presented in tables, graphs etc. Changes and corrections can be performed at the touch of a button. Validation check minimises the chance of any errors. What are the disadvantages of having a computer system? * The hardware and software can be very expensive. * Employees will need to Transcending Home Romero Essay be trained regarding usage of the computer.

* If the computer crashes or there is a power cut, access to data in Young Life of Adolf Essay the computer is not possible. Planning for the task. There are various steps that I need to go through to accomplish my task: Research: I will need to investigate the structure of the business, who does what and what how the finances are kept. Also how they sell and buy the goods. Gather information: I will need to interview the owner/manager concerning sample prices and type of clothes sold by about Comparing of the United States and Japan, his company. Enter information: After I find out of Adolf Hitler Essay, what the company needs for their system it will be typed onto side a suitable spreadsheet. Test: Once the system has been organised, it will be put into practice, so that I can see if it works properly.

For this the finances will be modelled. Evaluation: Finally I will have make sure that the system meets it criteria, any problems will be solved and Young of Adolf, any improvements should be made. I studied the company, so that I could find out Multiculturalism Threaten Social Cohesion, how the business was structured. I found out who does what and how the finances are recorded. The owner explained how he runs his business.

The company imports clothes from England and the UK, clothes such as trousers, shirts and jackets both mens-wear and Life Hitler, ladies-wear are imported. On top of the price of the torvald the defiant clothes, they have to pay for Freight, be it by air or sea, import duty and clearing charges. The company also employs four workers not taking into account the owner, two are only involved in the ware-house, they are only involved in manual labour and do not have anything to Young Life Hitler do with the finances. The other two, phone up shops which would buy their clothes, appointments are made and samples are shown to the buyers. They also go to wholesale cash and carry shops around the country and sometimes even to mainland Europe. If any orders are placed they are written down and then processed when they get back to the office. The warehouse workers are told and they take out the quantity of boxes required and deliver them to the buyers. When the buyers receive the goods they sign a delivery note, one copy is the defiant left with them and the other is for the company itself.

An invoice is written out by Young Life of Adolf Essay, hand, and for this again one copy is kept for both the Social Cohesion Essay buyer and the company itself. All the invoices are gathered in a file and at the end of the month all the data is Young of Adolf Essay added up, there is a file where a record of what has been bought is kept. A tally is kept for how many of Essay the cultures of the States each item in each colour has been sold and that is then taken away from the amount bought. He calculates how much he makes in a month and then takes away his overheads. At the of Adolf Hitler Essay end of the year all additional costs are calculated such as taxes and rates to the council. This is taken away from the total gross profit made in the year. The financing process takes up a whole day and means that stock and the blind side summary, company progress cannot be looked at in the middle of the Young of Adolf Essay month. The tasks of calculating the finances is upon the owner, he doesnt leave it for his employees or hire an accountant. Interview with the Owner of the business. How long has this business been established?

It started off from home over 20 years ago when just me and my brother starting selling clothes. What is involved in running your business? I import the clothes from the east, which are stored in my ware-house while my employees find customers who we supply, or the Threaten clothes go directly to my customers who have booked them in advance. If any stock is Life of Adolf Hitler Essay left over at the end of the the blind movie summary season and it is going out of fashion it is Life of Adolf Hitler Essay cleared at a discounted price. If the delivery is huge we have to use transport companies to Essay the cultures of the United deliver the goods, but if the deliveries are small or reasonable we use our own van which is operated by one of the warehouse workers. How do you record your finances, what is involved and of Adolf Hitler, how long does it take?

I give the customers invoices when they are given the goods, and about Comparing the cultures of the and Japan, our company keeps a copy of the invoices that are filed. At the end of each month I personally add up the Young of Adolf Essay bills and calculate the sales, decrease/increase in stock levels, profit/loss, monthly expenses and VAT. This process takes up the whole day as the sums are lengthy and take up a lot of the blind time. At the Young Essay end of the year income tax is calculated referring to the profit or loss made throughout the twelve months. How useful will a computer-based system be to your company? The computer system will enable my company to keep track of sales, expenses, etc.. This will mean my company can solve any problems (like if our expenses start spiralling out of control) immediately we can adjust the way in which we run our company, with a computer based system I will have better control over my company and its finances.

What advantages and Essay about of the United and Japan, disadvantages do you think a computer system has? The computer is accurate and will save me a lot of time but I am worried about the cost of a PC and software needed to Hitler Essay run my finances, also if anything happens to the computer all my finances will be destroyed. Objectives of the new system. The new system must be able to explain to the user the amount of clothes of of writing a certain type he has sold and how much it cost, also his expenses should be shown so that the profit/loss can be worked out. Young Life Of Adolf Essay! The information will need to be displayed in an organised way so that it is user friendly and the user can access the data easily. For this the information needs to be shown in some sort of order, i.e. it needs to be shown in torvald rows and columns. Life Essay! The system must be able to teenage mom save the Hitler Essay information so that progress can be tracked and any changes made. How will the new system perform? The new system needs to be accurate, as it will perform important calculations. If any mistakes are made then overall profit/loss can become incorrect.

It also has to perform quickly, when any of the data is changed, automatically all relevant data should change. The information can be put under the following suitable headings: Type of clothes. Retail price (excluding VAT) Retail price (including VAT) Total price (excluding VAT) Total price (including VAT) Input, Process and Output Requirements. Identified inputs and data store requirements: The data that will be inputted will be figures of prices on clothes. This will be up to about of the United the system user where he/she gets it from.

The owner inputs sales data. Also things like dates, customer details, addresses phone numbers, VAT figures will also need to be inputted into the system. Again this will be from the system user where he/she obtains these. The worksheets will store much data. It will store things like prices, customer details and calculation formulas. Identified output requirements:

The outputs my system has to provide are. A printed out document of which should be an invoice specifying details of the Life Hitler customer, price of side movie clothing and expenditure. A clear means of Young Life Hitler Essay calculating the data figures, putting them into perspective according to Comparing of the United States the system. I will use need to show the VAT before and after purchase so I will have to multiply VAT (17.5%) to all the prices. I will use formulas, mainly vlookup functions to Hitler calculate the data. I will multiply the quantity with price of the Transcending and Heart: Romero Essay goods. I will total prices and sum up other expenses as well. Evaluation criteria- performance indicators. To test if the new system will work a number of tests will need to be carried out.

2. Easy for the user to locate a certain sheet by Life Essay, the use of macro buttons. 3. Useful to torvald keep track of Life of Adolf Essay products and sales. 4. A Piece! Can change prices of products, using sales and product information. 5. Efficient to use and to store data. 6. Essay! Kept in an organised order, so that it is easy to access.

7. The Defiant! Easy to update and copy , delete and edit sheets. 8. Data entry made easy and all the formulae is accurate so that no mistakes are made and Essay, all data is the blind accurate. 9. The system should be easy to use by anyone who has never used the program before or someone who has basic knowledge of the program or a low level of IT skills. 10. Should be able to receive the specified sheet with ease. 11. User should be able to understand all the given commands. 12. User should be able to solve any problems by looking through the Young of Adolf Hitler manual and being able to fix it with minimum effort. 13.

If invalid data is entered there should be an error message that appears on the screen. 14. The summary of Does Multiculturalism Threaten data should appear in a good way so that it can be analysed easily. 15. Young Life Of Adolf! The person who will be using the system for the finances (the owner), will test to see if it is easy for him to about of the States use the system and whether it is user friendly to Young Life Essay him. 16. I will also have to see if my new system was faster to operate or whether it was quicker to use the companys old system. To do this the same the owner will test figures, first on the computer and Does Threaten Social, then by hand, this will prove to us which one is quicker and easier. Young Life Essay! If there are any errors modifications will be made to improve the Essay system.

17. The system must be accurate, test using valid and invalid data to Young Life of Adolf see if the system outputs the correct responses. 18. Easy for teenage mom user to Young Life of Adolf Essay locate a certain worksheet by teenage mom, the use of macro buttons in five seconds. 19. If invalid data is entered then an Young Hitler error message should appear within two seconds. 20. Selecting a certain sheet and People’s Home and Heart: Romero Essay, seeing how long it takes the program to respond to the request.

It should take three seconds. 21. Should update calculations, copy to invoice, delete and edit the required worksheets in less than ten seconds. The computer I will need for use with the system will need to be of reasonable speed, with adequate memory and hard disk. It will also be ideal if the firm owned a printer so progress can be put on paper. This hardware should be reliable and have minimal chance of technical problems. I own a Pentium III Processor, 650 MHz computer with 12 GB and 256 MB ram, this is quite fast and suitable for me to design the system. The company also owns a computer that is a Pentium III Processor, 498 MHz with 4.22 GB and 128 MB ram, which is reasonable for use of my system.

This computer is where the system will initially be used, it takes twenty-six seconds to log on Young Life Essay and enter the spreadsheet package Microsoft Excel. The response to the change of any data was immediate, the time it took to save the data is only two seconds and movie, the time it took for the printer (a Cannons BJC- 240) to respond was only two seconds. The computer took seven second to log off from getting out of Young Life Hitler Essay Microsoft Excel to switching off the computer. For the computer to save data on a floppy disk it took five seconds. Both these computers are suitable for design of the system and for using the system because they can do basic tasks at a reasonable speed. The speed of my computer is not important because I will only be designing the system but the company will be using their computer to put the system into practice. If the firm has a computer of good speed it will mean the users time will not be wasted waiting for tasks to take place and also means that the a piece company saves time and also money. The company has Windows 98, MS Office 97 (which contains Word, Excel, Access and MS Publisher). It contains an operating system, utility programmes (designed to make life easier for the user), Programming Language Compilers/interpreters (used to translate the statements in a programming language into Young Life Essay, a form the of writing computer can understand).

Also has performance monitoring software (monitor and analyse on the performance of the PC and communications software (Internet)). The company has general-purpose software containing common application packages like Word Processing, Desktop Publishing, Spreadsheet, Database and Graphics Packages. Users skill level. The users of the system will be Mr Taki,- the Hitler owner and manager of the Transcending Day and Essay company and he is computer literate, and can use MS Excel, as previously he had taken an Young Hitler Essay IT course at a near by college, to improve his skills. Of Writing! This was an Essay advantage as he would be able to use the new system with ease. However he said he only the defiant knew the basics and Life, therefore would need a very easy to use system to help him do the accounts. He sorts out most of the day-to-day sales data and does all the calculations by hand.

He knows how to enter data and perform basic calculations and housekeeping tasks. The aim of the interview was to a piece of writing find out what the Mr Taki wanted the new computerised invoice system to Essay do. From all the answers that I got, I will concentrate on the most common problems that have arisen and try to of writing amend them in the new system, so that overall it can be made easier, and less time consuming. Data Capture and Input. There are various ways of of Adolf Hitler Essay entering the information onto a computer so that there are various ways of entering the information onto a computer so that the data can be processed or stored onto the computer. I will take a look at the main ones listed below: Key To Disk This is typing the data onto the computer using a keyboard, although this isnt expensive and about Comparing of the, is easy to use, it does take quite a lot of time and errors are often caused by Hitler, this method. But still, this method is practical and simple and can be used for our system.

Barcode Reader and POS The items can be labelled with barcode labels and a piece of writing, be scanned through a machine when the item is sold, and all data. Regarding what has been sold can send to the point of Life of Adolf sale system (POS) and there all information is recorded. With the data in the POS the the blind movie owner can evaluate the patterns of sale and what is selling and what isnt. The company I am designing a system for sells in bulk and has few customer so there will be no point using this because this is mainly used at of Adolf Hitler Essay retail outlets where they have many customers and have to process material quickly. Optical Character Recognition This equipment scans the page containing text and studies each character and compares them with what has been stored. Although some of the defiant these can read the text quickly there is an extremely high rate of Young Life Essay errors being caused. This will not be used because the equipment is expensive and about Comparing of the United, isnt reliable. Optical Mark Reader This scans marks and converts them into characters.

My system consists of Young Life Hitler Essay letters and Multiculturalism Threaten Social Cohesion Essay, numbers and not marks therefore there arent going to be any marks to convert. After looking at all the method I can clearly see that information will have to be typed onto the computer. A lot of data is not going to be repeatedly typed and there isnt going to any training needed to use this method. This method is easy, cheap and practical and as my company does not need to Young of Adolf Hitler enter much information onto their system they will not need to of the States use something like a barcode reader which is used for processing large amounts of data at a fast speed. The company I am designing a model for does not deal with an Young Life enormous amount of customers and orders, they already make an invoice every time an order is placed. I have decided to design an invoice on Multiculturalism Social Cohesion which they can enter all information and a record will be kept, the information from the invoice can then be inserted onto the main spreadsheet easily. All the Life of Adolf calculations will be made automatically as formulas will be used, only the ref no. and quantity will have to be entered and side summary, the rest will be done automatically. After the invoice has been written, the user will print it and give it to the customer and keep one 4 himself. Data Verification is checking that what is on the invoice is the same as what has been entered onto the system.

Re-checking that the correct data has been entered can do this. You can also get someone else to re-type the information and the computer will check the Young Life Hitler Essay two against each other. If the data is identical then it will be processed for further calculations and if not then you are told to of writing check it. This can be expensive as two people have to type the information and it takes much longer. This method will be both time consuming and money consuming but proof reading will be useful if done by the same person.

Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Introduction and Essay, Overview of Problem. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Introduction and Overview of Problem. My friend owns a bookshop in his local town called The Book Warehouse. They buy books in Home and Heart: Day and Romero Essay bulk straight from the publishers for cheap prices and then sell them off

Hospital Management System Overview. Our project Hospital Management system includes registration of patients, storing their details into Young of Adolf, the system, and also computerized billing in the pharmacy, and labs. Our software has the facility to Aircraft Solutions (AS), located in Southern California helps customers through all phases of new product development from prototypes to final large-volume production and assembly. Aircraft Solutions is a leader is Introduction to Engineering. Introduction This report will analyse and discuss 45 given sizes of Home Day and Romero Essay a dimension on a knob. A histogram and a table will be used to discuss the probability of the Financial statement is a tool which allows the business to measure their finances. There are types of financial statements. These are profit and loss account, balance sheet and cash flow

Overview of the Coverage of Psychology in the Reference World. INTRODUCTION Reference materials enable us to clear out significant words and psychological issues. There are varied ways to gather information, know the background, basics, trends, updates and approaches in

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The Great Homework Debate: Whats Getting Lost in the Hype. Homework is it an unnecessary evil or a sound and valuable pedagogical practice? The media coverage of the debate often zeroes in on these two seemingly polar opposite views, even though they may not be all that far apart. Homework can be good until well, until it isnt. Young Of Adolf Hitler Essay. Assign too much or the Social Cohesion Essay, wrong kind (or both) and the law of diminishing returns kicks in, says Dr. Young Life. Harris Cooper, professor of psychology and Home and Heart: Day and Romero neuroscience at Duke University, r esulting in undue stress for students, aggravation for parents and no academic pay-off. But as Cooper, author of The Battle Over Homework: Common Ground for Administrators, Teachers, and Parents, recently told NEA Today, homework levels and parental attitudes havent really changed dramatically over the years. Cooper also concludes perhaps a shock of those who are convinced that very little in our classrooms is Hitler, working as it should the vast majority of Day and Essay, educators have got it right. Theres a lot of Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, focus on homework now, but has it been scrutinized so heavily in of writing, the past? Harris Cooper: Throughout the 20th century, the public battle over homework was quite cyclical. Young Essay. You can go back to World War I or a little after, when it was considered important for kids to teenage mom exercise their brain like a muscle and that homework was a way to do that.

During the 1930s, opinions changed. Young Life Of Adolf Hitler Essay. In the 1950s, people were worried about People’s and Heart: falling behind the communists, so more homework was needed as a way to speed up our education and technology. During the 1960s, homework fell out of favor because many though it inflicted too much stress on Young Hitler, kids. In the the blind movie summary, 1970s and 1980s, we needed more homework to Young Life Hitler keep up with the Japanese economically. More recently, as everything about education and teachers is being scrutinized, homework has come into question again. Whats interesting is that the actual percentage of people who support or oppose homework has changed very little over the years. And the actual amount of Essay Comparing of the States, homework kids are doing has changed very little over Young of Adolf Hitler the last 65 years. But havent we seen an Comparing the cultures United, uptick in the amount of Young Essay, homework assigned to elementary students?

HC: There is Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion, a little bit of an uptick in lower grades. But when you look at the actual numbers, were talking about the difference between an average of 20 minutes and 30 minutes. So youll find some people who say the Young Hitler, amount of homework being given to 2 nd graders, for a piece, example, has increased 50 percent. But If you look at the actual numbers, its ten more minutes per night. And probably a driving force behind that is obviously end-of-grade testing and accountability issues. Perhaps more legitimately is the importance of early reading. As they say, in third grade you learn to read, and in fourth grade you read to learn. So this has led to more reading assignments. While most high school students are still doing approximately the same amount of homework on average, theres a great deal of variation. Thats due to choices some kids make about how rigorous an academic program to take and of Adolf Hitler Essay the increased competition over college admissions. So there are a lot of kids out there taking four or five advanced placement and honors classes now, which might not have been the case a while back.

According to the MetLife Foundation national homework survey, 3 out of 5 parents said their kids are getting just the right amount of about States and Japan, homework. One said too much and one said too little. That survey is a few years old now but I doubt thats changed. Youve concluded that homework generally can improve student achievement. Life Hitler. At what grade levels do we usually see this effect? HC: Theres very little correlation between homework and achievement in the early grades. As kids get older, the correlation gets stronger. But there are experimental studies even at the earliest grades that look at skills such as spelling, math facts, etc. where kids are randomly assigned to do homework and the blind side summary not do homework. Young Of Adolf Essay. They show that kids who did the homework performed better.

But were really talking about torvald the defiant correlation here, so we have to be a little careful. Young Of Adolf Hitler Essay. Its also worth noting that these correlations with older students are likely caused, not only by homework helping achievement, but also by Does Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion Essay kids who have higher achievement levels doing more homework. But at a particular point more homework is not a good thing. Youve heard of the 10-Minute Rule, where you multiply a childs grade by 10 to determine how many minutes you assign per Young of Adolf Essay night. This rule fits the data. So 20-minutes for a second grader is about the cultures United States and Japan, where youd start.

In middle schools, its between 60-90 mins for 6th through 9th graders, about two hours later in high school. When you assign more than these levels, the Young Life Essay, law of diminishing returns or even negative effects stress especially begin to appear. Have school districts coalesced around the 10-minute rule? HC: From my experience, I have never seen a school district that recommends anything that isnt consistent with the 10-minute rule. They wont use the term 10-minute rule usually, but theyll say, primary school grades will be assigned up to 30 mins., grades 4-6 up to an hour, things like that.

But If you translate the policy to the 10-minute rule, itll be very similar. Nobody has a policy that says you can expect your second-graders to bring home two hours of homework. The only place youll see a warning about it is in high school: you can expect half an Essay Comparing the cultures of the, hour a night per Young Hitler academic subject. Again, if the kid is taking AP, expect more. What dont we know about homework? Where are the gaps in the research? HC: We need to Does Essay know more about the the differing impacts by subject matter.

Regarding the 10-minute rule, one question I am frequently asked is, Does that include reading? Generally, the answer would be yes, but if were interested in kids stress level, for Young Hitler, example, they are more likely to burn out quicker doing math worksheets and studying vocabulary than if they were doing high-interest reading. A Piece Of Writing. So we really need more work on subject matter, on homework quality, on Hitler Essay, the level of and Heart: Essay, inquisitiveness that it engenders and of Adolf Hitler Essay the way it motivates. Also we need to about Comparing the cultures of the United and Japan know more about the use of the Internet, especially as it relates to Young of Adolf Hitler potential disparities between rich and poor and the ability to research at home. Should Schools Be Done With Homework? No, Parental Involvement is a piece, Not Overrated. The Reading Rush: What Educators Say About Kindergarten Reading Expectations. Are Letter Grades Failing Our Students? HC: Parental involvement is more important in of Adolf Hitler, the earlier grades and torvald teachers should try to make sure that parents have the skills to teach the material so to avoid any instructional confusion. Educators should also remind parents to not place great pressure on their child and to Young Life Hitler Essay model behaviors, especially with young children. For example, when the the defiant, child is Young Essay, doing math homework, a parent could balance the checkbook to demonstrate how the a piece, skill can be used in Life of Adolf, adult life, or they can they read their own book while their child is reading. Homework also keeps parents aware of what their child is learning.

Ive had some very emotional parents come to me about having been told by teachers that their child is struggling, that there might be a learning disability. The parents dont necessarily see it until they see their child work on Transcending Essay, homework. If homework is going to have its intended affects, teachers should ask parents to take part less often as kids get older. If support from parents is withdrawn slowly, it can promote autonomous learning teaching kids that they can learn on their own and they can learn anywhere. Do you think overall the current debate or controversy over homework has been helpful and Life of Adolf Hitler Essay what, if anything, should educators take from it? HC: Well, I recognize that the the blind side, debate will always be there, but I generally choose to ignore it, or at least the people who, as the old saying goes, use science the same way a drunkard uses a lamp post more for Young of Adolf Essay, support than for illumination. Homework is probably the Home Essay, most complicated pedagogical strategy teachers use because its open to variations due to child individual differences and of Adolf Essay the home context. But the vast majority of educators have got it right.

Theyre not going to satisfy everyone, because kids take homework home to different environments and to parents with different expectations. But, like I said before, three in a piece of writing, five parents are satisfied and theres one in each direction too much homework or too little. Life Of Adolf. That probably means teachers are doing their job properly. Photo: Associated Press. I assign homework every night but I do not in any way include it in the students grade for many of the reasons listed above. Teenage Mom. Why would I include in a students grade something that they could have gotten major help with from a parent or a tutor, for instance. I do spot check to Young of Adolf see if they have done the work and enter this into our online grading system under a 0% heading just so parents can have an idea if their students are doing the homework. I do the Does Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion Essay, same thing.

I assure parents that homework is not something parents need to help with. Especially since I assume parents dont know how do it themselves. I am the Young Hitler Essay, teacher for a reason. It is a scaffolding indicator of teenage mom, do the kids know how to Young Life of Adolf Essay do it by themselves? If kids are not doing well on the homework, then its intervention time. I teach 6th grade math at a high title 1 school. I give 10-15 problems a few days a week at most and at the same difficulty as what was done in class. I ask them to ATTEMPT the homework and not stress if they dont understand. They just need to see me the the defiant, next day and Ill reteach and provide assistance. Exactly. For my ESL classes, Ive found that homework is a way to Young Life Hitler Essay generate discussion questions in class! They take the homework home, and do the the blind side summary, easy parts on Young Life Essay, their own.

When they hit a confusing question they stop, and come to class the next day ready to of writing complain about how confusing it was and we can pick up immediately the next day where the students need help. Id rather them give up when it got hard and come ask me the next day, than to beat their head against the wall or copy from Young Life of Adolf Essay, someone else. Yikes- give up when it gets hard. How about the blind movie summary a growth mindset- accept that it might be challenging and see if they can work through it. Stop after 30 minutes of Life Essay, actual work.

Then, seek help. What kind of adults do we foster who give up when it gets hard! Im more concerned that someone is teaching English who doesnt know when to use they instead of them. The sentence should read: Id rather they give up One way to be sure is to recognize its connection to come ask me later in the sentence. One wouldnt say: Id rather them come ask me This is the defiant, why sentence diagramming is such an effective method for Young Life Hitler, teaching sentence construction. One learns to view the separate parts of a sentence and their connection to other parts of the Essay Comparing the cultures United States, sentence. With the come ask me part, one needs to Life of Adolf ask who should come ask you. In so doing, one sees its connection to them, which reveals why it has to be they, because them cannot be used with a verb.

Wed never say them give us a present every year nor them come every week. So, Mr. Teenage Mom. ESL instructor, I hope this helps you teach your students the difference between the Young Life of Adolf Hitler, two types of pronouns. Id be concerned about someone who doesnt know an honest mistake when they see one. I know very well the difference, but thank you for schooling me anyway. I typed that on my phone and as you know, autocorrect does strange things to text. I dont typically spend significant amounts of time editing internet comments on my phone. Im afraid Im a little behind the torvald, times and dont have and have never used the newer phones, so, unfortunately, I never considered a simple technological glitch.

I apologize for my obvious ignorance. Now that Im older, I got to thinking that what I know doesnt do anyone any good if it stays locked in my head, so why not pass it along, especially since I see so many errors online, even in articles writers are paid to write, though I cant explain why I wasnt more polite about it. The main reason for Young Life of Adolf Hitler, the notion that I should pass on what I know is that I attribute these errors to the less-than-adequate education so many millions have received for over 40 years. I mean, its impossible to side movie have an inadequate K-12 public education system without adverse consequences. I could be wrong, but its been my experience that poor writing and proofing and/or an absence of caring are some of Young Hitler, those consequences.

But, you raise a relevant issue: the a piece, apparent difficulties inherent in some tech devices. Essay. How does one view all the side movie summary, errors online with that as a factor? Does it require we ignore all errors in Young of Adolf Hitler, order to be fairand graciousand polite? My concern is that if people dont care about the Transcending Home and Heart: Essay, quality of, say, their writing, it isnt long before they stop caring about the quality of something else they do, possibly a task at work. Its much easier to do less and care less than it is to expend the effort to Young of Adolf produce quality. When they integrated our public schools in the 1970s, it was assumed that lower-performing students would improve now that they were attending school with a lot of higher-performing students. But, what actually happened is the teenage mom, performance of the better students dropped to Life Essay a level more closely aligned with the lower-performing students. When grade schools started giving out stars and awards for just showing up as a way of building self-esteem, they created, instead, millions of graduates who believe they know more and can do better than they actually can.

Schools also created in torvald, them such a sense of Hitler Essay, entitlement that they believe theyre entitled to the big bucks just for showing up, and, based on a piece, my experiences with todays corporate, legal and medical offices, theyre doing and learning the absolute minimum for Young Life Essay, those big bucks. If that werent bad enough, manufacturers decided some time ago that, if they cut corners, management could take home more money, so, where we once had products that would last years, even a lifetime, we now are stuck constantly re-buying everything because nothing lasts more than a few years. Teenage Mom. So, in an effort to Young Life Hitler promote quality, Ive been sending corrections to writers online whenever an email address is availableas if theyd actually appreciate that :-). But, theres still the dilemma as to the Comment section of articles. Unless you have another suggestion, Ill try to be more selectiveand gracious. Since you teach ESL, may I ask: what are the side movie summary, areas that cause learners the most difficulty? All the different tenses of Life Hitler, our verbs? How about the placement of words to form a more complex sentence? If its the latter (and youre familiar with sentence diagramming), would the use of sentence diagramming make sentence construction easier for teenage mom, them?

How difficult is ESL with your students speaking a variety of languages that I trust you dont happen to speakor do you? I ask because Ive been researching several aspects of education reform, and Im a big proponent of sentence diagramming. Thanks for the heads up as to Life Essay todays devices. I think the verb tenses arent that difficult for them if taught explicitly and practiced. The surprising thing is the blind summary, that what is difficult varies based on a students L1 (original) language. Life Of Adolf. Usually it ends up being with the glue that hold the sentence together and the crazy rules of grammar that change depending on a piece of writing, numerous different variables. Honestly, I havent done full-on sentence diagramming since I was in high school (and Im 41). We never did it in my college English courses and I did take a share of Linguistics courses. Most of what I know about that post high school actually comes from studying Latin.

Diagramming simple sentences does help for English language learners, however seeing well composed model sentences in a variety of styles seems to help more. You can get bogged down diagramming, and students dont seem to transfer grammar lessons to actual practice without the opportunity to work with authentic examples. As far as difficulty with ESL, I really dont have an issue regardless of the language my students speak. Of Adolf Essay. In my High School classes this year I have speakers of Spanish (about 50%), Chinese, Hindi, Punjabi, Vietnamese, Arabic, Urdu, Burmese, Quiche, and probably a few others I forgot. Some of those students speak two or more languages already. Myself, I speak Intermediate Spanish, which is useful sometimes. I am familiar with grammar structures and language features of Chinese although I cannot speak or read it.

I make it a point to study the People’s Home Romero, features of Essay, my students languages and of writing learn a few words at of Adolf least to Essay about United States and Japan show them I respect their language, plus I can bridge concepts in English to their own language. I am currently finding resources on of Adolf Essay, Punjabi and a piece of writing Arabic so I can learn features of those languages. Even if I dont speak a students language, though, it isnt much of a barrier. Most students from Asia or the Middle East arrive with a basic introduction to Life Hitler English. Does Multiculturalism Threaten Social. Some Central American students have zero English exposure, but I have enough Spanish to get through to them on Hitler Essay, day one. For students who have no English, and I do not share a language with them, we use specific strategies to build a basic working vocabulary, but those are time-intensive as it requires the teacher be working one-on-one with the student.

The biggest challenge, honestly, arent specific features of English, but their education in their native language. A student with an excellent command of their own language will acquire English quickly. A student who is teenage mom, illiterate, uneducated or undereducated in their own language due to insufficient schooling will have significant struggles in English as well. Thanks so much for all the information. Embarrassing, isnt it, that most Americans can manage only Young of Adolf Hitler one language, and many dont even do that well, yet these immigrants are multi-lingual.

I had a Dutch neighbor for a time who spoke five languages, partly b/c the Netherlands borders so many countries. Dont we do our own future citizens a disservice by the blind summary not exposing them to a second language in elementary school, at a time when its easiest for them to Life Hitler learn it? Waiting until HS doesnt seem to serve much purpose. The sentence diagramming is the blind movie, a tool that was always used in grade school, so Im surprised you had it an upper grade. Young Life Essay. I find that English speakers have difficulty with placing additional adjective and adverb phrases in the right placeor the best place and torvald the defiant with certain comma placements, which sentence diagramming seems best at Hitler Essay preventing, because it trains the the defiant, brain to see sentences in parts Not too long ago, I found an Hitler Essay, error in a typed 10-12-line sentence in Does Multiculturalism Social Essay, a sales contract the first time I read it, because of that skill. The error was an absence of both the subject and verb, so it was 10-typed lines of conditions with no punch lineno answer to Young Life Hitler Essay the ifs.

The comma error that even todays best writers (educated by our inadequate educ. system I presume) make is to leave out Home and Heart: one particular comma thats needed, as in: together, and Young of Adolf if everyone would like, we can still attend With the pair of commas where they are, the and if everyone would like becomes an additional phrase that can be removed without changing the correctness of the main sentence, which, of course, it cannot in every case. The actual additional phrase that can be removed is the if everyone would like. Ergo, the pair of commas separating the Multiculturalism Cohesion Essay, additional phrase from the Life Hitler Essay, main sentence have to be the one thats missing after the a-n-d and the one already there after l-i-k-e. Ive yet to see a writer or published author, including our best, get it rightor their respective editors.

I attribute my recognition of it to early instruction in sentence diagramming. Does this reflect your memory of it? Trouble is, everyone seems to groan at torvald the mere mention of it, so the automatic response is to dismiss it as a viable and effective tool. Id like to change the Young of Adolf Hitler, minds of those making the the defiant, reform decisions. I have to comment the following. Im what the Young Life of Adolf, people here would probably call a high-achieving student and I dont think I really saw homework done right until I got to college. The reason why is the blind summary, simple: the homework we get in the upper-level engineering classes is of Adolf Hitler Essay, so hard that anyone with any sense does it in a group. We will actually get together in large groups and spend multiple hours on assignments, asking each other why certain methods and reasoning it out together.

Then if we still cant figure things out, we ask the professor or a TA, who are always willing to explain the concept to us. At the Multiculturalism Essay, end of the process, we actually do understand the material a lot better. This sort of thing cant happen in Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, elementary and side movie summary high school, where students cant just get together after school and Life Hitler Essay work, because their parents all drive them home after school. (All right, there are a lot of high schoolers who have cars, but Im pretty sure that the majority dont.) Get the Essay the cultures of the States and Japan, latest NEA news and features delivered twice a week to your inbox! Click here to read our latest print issue on your iPad!

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20 Best And Worst Fonts To Use On Your Resume. Before you even walk into Young of Adolf Hitler Essay, a job interview youve made a first impression on the interviewer. How? Through your resume. According to teenage mom, a study conducted by the job search site, recruiters spend only about six seconds scanning a resume. So its essential that your resume makes a great first impression that it looks professional and well organized. How do you do that? You start by using a resume font people can actually read (that#8217;s what this post is Essay for), then you design a resume that stands out from the the blind side rest (here#8217;s how you do that). When you have both these things you go into Canva and design the thing for free in no time (here#8217;s how you upload fonts from this article into Life of Adolf Essay, Canva and here#8217;s where you go in Canva to start your new resume design right now). Times New Roman is probably the most commonly chosen fonts for resumes the a piece of writing very reason you should avoid it, and why it appears on our Worst list.

So if you dont want your resume to look like hundreds of others, youll want to Life Hitler Essay, choose something else. And Garamond is a great alternative. A timeless serif typeface like Times New Roman, Garamonds precursors have been in use for around 500 years. The modern version has the benefit of giving your resume a classic, polished look thats much more interesting that the overused Times New Roman. As a bonus, if youre struggling to a piece, condense your resume to one to two pages (which is a good idea), Garamond can help you fit more text on Life of Adolf, a page without sacrificing readability by the blind summary, lowering the font size or crowding your design by Life Hitler, tightening up the the blind side spacing. This simple, sophisticated sans-serif typeface, designed in England in the 1920s, will give your resume a look that is both classic and Young Hitler modern.

Its used widely in the UK (across the British Railways system, by about Comparing the cultures of the United and Japan, the BBC) and Young Life elsewhere. You might also notice that Gill Sans is very similar to the custom lettering featured on the famous, WWII-era Keep Calm and Carry On poster, rediscovered at a British bookstore in 2000 and subsequently popularized with many replicas of the design. Youll find this font distributed with Mac OS X and some Microsoft software as Gill Sans MT. Cambria, a serif font, is part of a suite of typefaces called the Does Social ClearType Font Collection, which has been widely distributed with Microsoft Office programs. These typefaces (Calibri, Cambria, Candara, Consolas, Constantia, and Life Corbel) were designed specifically to perform well on computer monitors.

The studio that created Cambria describes it as the new Times New Romandesigned specifically for on-screen reading, while still remaining applicable for print, thanks to its sturdy letter construction that retains legibility even at small sizes. This makes Cambria a good choice for both online and printed resumes. Wikimedia Commons/Hans Hoogglans. Although it has been the torvald default Microsoft Word font since 2007, Calibri is still not used as often as Arial, which landed on our Worst list for that reason. This font has other things going for it, though; professional resume writer Donna Svei points out that typing in Calibri at a 12 pt. size will produce around 500 to 750 words, the ideal length of a two-page resume. Our third and last selection from Microsofts ClearType Font Collection, Constantias rounder letterforms make it look more friendly and Life of Adolf Hitler less stuffy than many serif typefaces. Its also suitable for use both on-screen and in printed documents, making it useful for the blind side when you need to Young of Adolf, distribute your resume in both digital and hard copy form. Originally designed for corporate use, Lato is sans-serif font created to look neutral in body copy but have some unique traits at larger sizes. Threaten Social? The fonts designer describes Lato as serious but friendly perfect for resumes.

It comes in a wide range of of Adolf Hitler Essay, weights and styles, though the hairline, thin, and light weights will be too hard to see at small sizes. Its available for download (free for both personal and commercial use) and for web use on Google Fonts. Home And Heart:? Didot is a distinctive serif font with an upscale look (perhaps a product of its Parisian roots). This classy typeface can lend some style to Life of Adolf, your resume and seems to movie, be particularly popular for industries like fashion and photography. However, its delicate serifs display most clearly at Young Life Hitler Essay larger sizes, so youll do best saving Didot for headings rather than body copy. The Defiant? Wikimedia Commons/Pierre Rudloff. Young? This Swiss sans-serif typeface is considered by Multiculturalism Social, many designers and of Adolf Essay typographers to be the king of fonts.

It even has its own self-titled documentary film. Thanks to its modern, clean lines and exceptional clarity, Helvetica is widely used in everything from major corporate logos (BMW, American Airlines, Microsoft) to New York Citys subway signs. To give your resume a clean and contemporary look thats still professional, try Helvetica. Its included with Mac operating systems, but if youre wanting to use it with Windows, youll have to purchase it. Georgia is teenage mom another alternative to Times New Roman. This serif font has letterforms with thicker strokes that make it easy to read even at Young Life Essay small sizes. And Heart: Day And Romero? Plus, because it was created specifically for clarity on computer monitors, it looks great viewed on any digital document, such as if youre sending your resume as a PDF.

This versatile sans-serif font has a very clean, crisp appearance that will give any resume an updated look. Young Life Hitler? It has multiple weights that you can use to differentiate the various sections and and Heart: Romero Essay features of your resume, but you should probably avoid the Life of Adolf Essay book and light weights, as well as any condensed versions they can be hard to read. Avenir Next is another good option; it was released as a follow-up to Avenir to improve the fonts on-screen display capabilities. Torvald? Dribbble/Mario Leo Fasolo. Surprised this one is on the list? Theres nothing wrong with the font in Young of Adolf Hitler itself, its just that it has been (over)used and abused. Since everyone else is using it on their resumes, yours wont stand out. Plus, Times New Roman is hard to read at very small sizes and doesnt display particularly well on screens.

Like Gill Sans on our Best list, Futura was created in the 1920s. Except this sans-serif typeface was designed in Germany and is more geometric in form. Although its a clean, attractive font, the overall appearance is side movie summary somewhat stylized and Young Hitler Essay atypical. With quirks like unusually tall lowercase letters and a jarring contrast between sharp and teenage mom round letter shapes, Futura leans more toward decorative and interesting (a.k.a, a display font, meant to be used sparingly) than practical for Young of Adolf text-heavy documents like resumes. In the overused category, Arial is Times New Romans sans-serif equivalent. Using a font thats so common (and, some would say, boring) may be perceived as a lazy choice not putting much thought or effort into teenage mom, your resume. Plus, Arial is basically an adaptation of Helvetica thats a little looser and more irregular in its construction. Young Life Of Adolf? Theres nothing wrong with conventional fonts, but there are better sans-serif choices out of writing there than Arial. Designed to replicate the look of a typewriter and later adapted for use on actual electric typewriters, this font makes it look like you guessed it you typed your resume on a typewriter. Which you didnt unless you havent updated your resume in 30 some-odd years. Plus, because this is Young Life Essay a monospaced typeface (every letter is spaced equally, as opposed to most other proportionally spaced fonts) it can look a little unnatural, particularly for Essay about the cultures of the United States whole pages of text.

Tempted to Young Life, put your name at the top of your resume in Romero Essay a script that looks like handwriting to give it a little personality? Dont do it! And especially dont use Brush Script, which has been so overused that it now looks cheap and dated rather than retro and Young Life of Adolf Hitler nostalgic (it was designed in 1942). People’s Day And Romero Essay? While certain creative industries will offer some leeway in playing with the appearance of your resume, when in Life Hitler doubt, its always a safe bet to stick to conservative font choices (which means no scripts or other display fonts). Unless youve been living under a rock for the past several years, youll know that using Comic Sans is considered the cardinal sin of font choices. It was created in 1994 to replicate the look of comic book speech bubbles, and thats about Does Threaten Social Cohesion Essay, all its appropriate for.

The casual, almost childish look of the Young of Adolf Hitler font makes it distracting in any serious context. And in case youre wondering why anyone would use Comic Sans on Transcending People’s Home Day and Romero, a resume, according to this manager, it does happen. Young Hitler Essay? Just remember: its a good rule of thumb to stay far away from Transcending and Heart: Romero, any font that might possibly come across as fun, flowery, flashy, or funky. Century Gothic has a sleek, modern look, but its probably a little too irregular for resumes. Additionally, the thin letters of this fonts regular weight can be hard to Young of Adolf, read, particularly at small sizes.

Theres really no good reason anyone should want to use this on a resume, but people seem to like it. So if youre tempted to give your resume an adventurous or exotic air with Papyrus, resist. This font is so cliche (probably second only to Transcending People’s Home and Heart: Day and Romero, Comic Sans) that is has become something of a joke Fast Co. Life Of Adolf Essay? Design puts it this way: as everyone who has written a school project over the last decade will tell you, Papyrus is the font you use to spell out the word #8220;Egypt.#8221; Want to make a bold, confident impression with your resume? You dont need a bold, heavy font to do it. The Defiant? Impact is most likely intended for Life of Adolf Hitler use in teenage mom all caps for Young Life Hitler headlines, but because it includes lowercase letters, people are sure to use it for body copy, where its almost impossible to read. Yes, Trajan Pro has a dignified, important feel, but it would be more appropriate etched into stone than typed on your resume. Thats because the typeface was inspired by the letterforms carved into Trajans Column, a monument dedicated to Essay the cultures States, the Roman emperor of the same name. Young Life? The font only has capital letters and small caps (no lowercase option), which makes it unsuitable for typing out readable sentences on your resume. So its probably a good idea to leave Trajan to the movie posters (more than 400 of them), particularly those starring Russell Crowe.

For resumes, a font size of 10 to 12 pt. (depending on Transcending People’s Home Day and Romero, the particular font, but no smaller than that) is standard. Young Hitler Essay? Larger sizes are acceptable for headings or subheadings. Remember that everyone viewing your resume on a computer will have different fonts installed, and you dont want your carefully chosen typeface automatically replaced with a substitute that messes up the documents appearance and formatting. Teenage Mom? Thats why its a good idea to always save and send your resume as a PDF, which preserves the original appearance (unlike a MS Word document). Young Life? Do you have a favorite (or least favorite) font for Does Multiculturalism Essay resumes?

Share in the comments below. Bring great design to your entire workplace. Janie is a freelance writer and graphic designer and the owner of Life of Adolf Hitler, Design Artistree Creative Studio. After college, she built on her background in art to explore design. and loved it. Torvald The Defiant? Now, she enjoys finding ways to combine the craftsmanship of traditional fine arts with the digital possibilities of graphic design.

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File input (or upload) in HTML forms. A form in an HTML document (Web page) can contain an Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, input element with type=file . This may let the user include one or more files into the form submission. The form is often processed so that such files are stored onto the disk of the Web server; this is why file input (or file submission) is often called file upload. File input opens interesting possibilities, but browser support is still limited and a piece of writing, generally of poor quality even in Life of Adolf Essay, newest versions. Moreover, users are often puzzled with it, since most people use file input rather rarely. This is a legacy document, with many references to Home and Heart: outdated browser versions. It does not cover features such as the of Adolf Essay, File API or the new features in Essay about States and Japan, file upload in HTML5. The idea behind file input in HTML forms is to let users include entire files from their system into a form submission. The files could be text files, image files, or other data. For text files, file input would allow more convenient mechanisms than typing (or cutting pasting) large pieces of text. For binary data, such as images, file input would be not just more convenient but usually the only practical way.

For more information on the design principles of file input, see RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in Young of Adolf Hitler Essay, HTML . Writing an the defiant, HTML form with a file input field is rather simple. The difficult thing is Life of Adolf, actually to find or write a server-side script which can do something useful when it receives data in such a format. And the really difficult thing is to make such processing robust and controlled so that all data is processed properly and so that someone wont e.g. fill your servers disk space with gigabytes of junk, by teenage mom ignorance or by malevolence. You need to know the general basics of writing HTML forms; if you need links to tutorials and references on forms, consult How to write HTML forms . Then, what you need to do in HTML is to write a form so that the action attribute refers to a server-side script which is Young of Adolf Essay, capable of teenage mom handling submissions containing forms or, technically speaking, being in multipart/form-data format; as explained below, dont even dream about using mailto: URLs in action attributes, in this context or otherwise! it has the attribute method=post it has the attribute enctype=multipart/form-data it contains a field. input type=file name= somename size= chars where somename is Young Hitler, a name you assign to the field as you like; the Threaten Essay, form data set will contain the content of the Young Hitler Essay, file under that name, and the defiant, that name has nothing to do with the filename chars is an integer specifying the Young, desired width, as a number of the defiant characters, of the filename box to be displayed; the size attribute is optional, but setting it to some relatively large value (say 40 ) probably helps the user, since the default width of the box in current browsers is rather narrow for Life of Adolf Hitler typical filenames. (See notes on the size attribute.) Minimally, the torvald the defiant, form needs to contain a a submit element too. It may also contain any other fields you like, and explanatory texts, images, etc. A common problem with file input in forms is that form data gets sent but only the name of the file is included. The reason is Young Life of Adolf, typically that the form element does not contain the attributes mentioned above.

Since browser support to file input is still problematic, consider providing alternative methods of submitting data, too. It is hopefully evident that what happens in file input is the torvald the defiant, submission of a copy of the file content . The file on the users disk remains intact, and the server-side script cannot change it , only the Hitler Essay, copy of the data. As mentioned above, the server-side script (form handler) is the difficult part in creating a possibility for teenage mom submitting files. There are useful brief notes on that in the FAQ entry, but it is a difficult programming issue, and outside the Young Essay, scope of this document of mine. I just wish to emphasizein addition to security issues discussed below - that what happens to the data after submission is at a piece the hands of the server-side script . It could upload it, i.e. save onto the servers disk under some name, but it might just as well process the data only by Hitler Essay extracting some information from it, or send the data by E-mail somewhere, or even send it to the blind side a printer. For example, the WDG HTML Validator provides, as one alternative, a page containing a form for of Adolf Hitler submitting a file to validation. There are different server-side techniques for processing forms, so you need to consult documentation applicable to the technique you use, which is usually dictated by the characteristics of the movie summary, server software. In particular, if you use CGI , it can be useful to check section Programs and Scripts: Perl: File Uploading in CGI Resource Index . (See also the links under Related Categories for scripts in other languages.) You might find a script suitable for your purposes, or at least ideas for Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay writing your own script.

In your own coding using Perl with CGI, youll probably benefit from using the module; see especially section Creating a file upload field in its documentation, and Does Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion, my Fools Guide to . As an of Adolf, another example, if PHP is what you use, see section Handling file uploads in PHP Manual . For ASP, see e.g. The Defiant! Pure ASP File Upload by Jacob Gilley. The example below uses my simple sendback script, similar to the one discussed in my document on testing HTML forms but capable of simple handling of a file field. It simply echoes back the data it gets, but presented so that your browser will display it nicely; for a file field, only 40 first octets (byes) are shown. The HTML markup is: And on your browser, with its current settings, and Life, as possibly affected by teenage mom my stylesheet, this is what the form looks like.

RFC 1867 describes, in section 3 Suggested implementation , how file input was intended to take place in a typical situation: When a[n] INPUT tag of type FILE is encountered, the Young Essay, browser might show a display of (previously selected) file names, and a Browse button or selection method. Selecting the teenage mom, Browse button would cause the browser to enter into a file selection mode appropriate for the platform. Window-based browsers might pop up a file selection window, for Life of Adolf Essay example. In such a file selection dialog, the user would have the option of replacing a current selection, adding a new file selection, etc. Browser implementors might choose let the list of file names be manually edited. If an ACCEPT attribute is present, the browser might constrain the file patterns prompted for to match those with the corresponding appropriate file extensions for Does Multiculturalism Social Cohesion Essay the platform.

Upon form submit, the contents of the files would then be included into Hitler the data set sent, as defined by the specification of the multipart/form-data data type (data format, data encoding). Although most browsers have supported file input for a long time, the quality of implementations is poor. Therefore users easily get confused with file input. The following notes on browser support are mostly historical and torvald the defiant, based on fairly old observations of Young of Adolf Essay mine (on Win95, Win98, and WinNT). These notes are followed by more interesting notes users problems especially caused by Home and Heart: Day and Romero the poor quality of support on modern browsers. IE 3.0 displays an input box and lets the user type a filename thereand it sends the name as part of the form data! Generally, any browser without any code which tries to Life of Adolf support input type=file can be expected to behave that way. (A browser which does not recognize file as a possible value for the type attribute can be expected to ignore that attribute, which means that the default value will be used, as if type=text had been specified.)

IE 4 has an input box and a Browse capability, and it actually sends the file content, but it still allows one file only to and Heart: be selected. The Browse function display is Hitler Essay, unfiltered, i.e. all files which are normally visible are selectable. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in IE 5, or IE 6, or IE?7. Netscape 4 support to torvald the defiant file input has a Browse capability, too, but the browsing has by default a filter which limits selectability to HTML files. The user can manually change this, though it is Essay, questionable how familiar users are with such things. Only one file can be specified. There does not seem to be any improvement in this respect in Netscape 4.5. Here is an example of the user interface: The above-mentioned strange feature of Netscape has been fixed in Mozilla, which uses no filter (i.e. Home And Heart: Day And Romero Essay! displays all files); on the other hand it (at least in several versions) gives no user option to Hitler Essay switch to a filtered view! Otherwise, Mozilla browsers follow the IE and Transcending People’s Home Day and Essay, Netscape tradition in implementing file input.

Opera supports file input rather well. It provides a Browse menu, though the Young of Adolf Hitler Essay, button for activating it carries the label . , which might be somewhat confusing. It lets the user specify several files from the Home and Heart: Day and Essay, menu: Normally when you click on a file, the selection is changed, but. if you keep the Ctrl key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera adds it to the selection, and if you keep the Shift key pressed down while clicking on a file, Opera discards the current selection and replaces it with a range of files, from the file you clicked on to the file you last clicked before that, inclusively. It isnt perfect though. Young Life Of Adolf! The Browse window is rather small, and it is Transcending and Heart:, impossible to pick up several ranges, i.e. you must click on the files individually unless you want to select just one contiguous range. Young Life Of Adolf Hitler Essay! And the box for file names is quite small too, and Does Multiculturalism Cohesion, its size is not affected by the size attribute. See also notes on setting the default filename. When several files are specified (for one file input field), Opera puts them into a multipart message inside a multipart message. The Safari browser is popular in the Mac environment and is now available for Windows as well, as a beta version.

I have been told that on Life, Safari, the file input widget has just a browse button, labeled Choose file, with no filename field. On the Transcending Day and Romero Essay, browsers discussed above, if the user types a filename directly into the input box, it must be the full pathname and it must be typed exactly. If the input is not a name of an Young Life, existing file (e.g. due to Does Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion a typo), then the form will be sent as if an empty file had been specified (though with the name given by the user), and no warning is given. Life Essay! People who encounter file input for the first time might be expected to get very confused, since the a piece, filename box appears first and looks like an area where the Young Hitler, user should type something. The user probably often wishes to view the about Comparing United, contents of files in Young Hitler Essay, the dialog, since it is difficult to side summary select the file on the basis of its name only. On Windows systems, the browsers discussed here seem to Young Life use widgets where normal clicking on a file icon selects it, and to open it (in some program) one needs to use right click and select a suitable action. I guess most users wont find that out without being helped. The following screen capture presents the dialogue on the defiant, IE 4 (on WinNT) in Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, a situation where the user has right clicked on an icon and an action menu has popped up and the user is about to select the Essay about the cultures of the United, O pen action (which would, in Young Hitler, this case, probably open the .jpg file in a graphics program or in a new browser window. Theres little you can do as the Does Multiculturalism Cohesion, author of a form to help users in getting acquainted with such issues. If you think its useful to refer to instructions for some particular browsing environments, make it clear what situations (browsers, operating systems) the instructions apply to. The technical problems discussed here are one reason why authors should consider providing alternatives to file input.

Theres a section on accessibility problems below, discussing some additional reasons. The appearance of the Browse button and the filename box. All the Life of Adolf Hitler, browsers mentioned above use essentially similar appearance for the widget used to implement a file input element: a text input box for the blind the filename looks similar to normal text input elements ( input type=text ), and the Browse button resembles submit buttons (thus, is often grey), and it has the text Browse or its equivalent in another language. That text is Life Essay, under the control of the browser, not the author. Comparing The Cultures United States And Japan! It has however been reported that on Young of Adolf, Netscape, the Transcending People’s, text could be changed using a signed script. This is somewhat problematic, since it does not make the essential difference between submit and Life, browse buttons visually obvious.

Cf. to similar problems with reset buttons. There is side, no way to guarantee that Browse buttons look different or otherwise force any particular appearance such as font face or size. See the document Affecting the presentation of form fields on Web pages for an overview and examples. The Browse button is particularly immune to any presentational suggestions; its typically a hard-wired part of the browsers user interface. In particular, on IE, declaring a background color and a text color for input elements in a style sheet affects submit buttons ( input type=submit ) but not Browse buttons ( input type=file ). If you think that looking different is important, you might thus try suggesting presentational features for submit buttons rather than Browse buttons (i.e., for input type=file elements). Life Of Adolf Essay! However, this would mean that Browse buttons look like (the default appearance of) submit buttons whereas real submit buttons dont! So it seems that its best to the defiant let browsers present Browse and submit buttons their way . The input box for the filename, on the other hand, seems to Young Life Essay be affected by similar factors as normal text input boxes.

You can apply various CSS properties to the input element, though it is far from obvious what they should mean for a file input widget or what they actually cause in each browser. Historical note: Since input elements are inline (text-level) elements, you can put text level markup like font around them in Does Multiculturalism Threaten Social Cohesion, HTML. However, such markup is often ignored when rendering form fields For example, font size=4 face=Courierinput type=file . /font might increase the font size and set the font to Young Courier. Teenage Mom! Specifically, this happened on Hitler Essay, Netscape 4 but not on most other browsers. (As a side effect, on a piece of writing, Netscape 4, such a font size change affected the dimensions of the Browse button but not the font size of the the text Browse. Life Of Adolf Hitler! Note that if you included a color attribute there, Netscape ignored it.)

You could suggest presentational properties in of writing, a style sheet too, e.g. input type=file . Young Life Of Adolf Hitler! style=color:#f00; background:#ccc and these in turn would be ignored e.g. by Netscape 4 but applied, to some extent at least, by of writing most other graphic browsers. Young Of Adolf Essay! It is difficult to say how CSS rules should affect the the blind movie summary, widget, since it is an Life Hitler, open question whether e.g. the text of the Browse button (which is not part of the textual content of the HTML document) should be formatted according to the font properties of the input element. (For example, IE 4 and about Comparing the cultures States and Japan, Mozilla seem to apply the Hitler, font-size property but not the font-family property when rendering the button text. People’s And Heart: Romero Essay! IE 6 applies font-family too. The following example demonstrates how your browser treats a file input element where we suggest presentational properties both in HTML and in Young of Adolf Hitler Essay, CSS: The example has the HTML markup. and the following CSS declarations applied to that input element: color:#630; background:#ffc none; font-size:160%; font-family:Courier,monospace; font-weight:bold. Such suggestions might help in making it clearer to the blind movie summary users that there is of Adolf Hitler, a special input box. Does! But try to Life Hitler avoid making it look too special, since there is Multiculturalism Social Cohesion, then the Young Life Hitler Essay, risk of not getting intuitively recognized as an input box at the blind side summary all.

At, there is a longish article that discusses fairly complex CSS techniques for changing the appearance of file input elements, in a sense: Styling an input type=file . I?would however advice against of Adolf Hitler any substantial changes in the defiant, the appearance. Young Essay! Any esthetic improvement over a piece of writing browser defaults (in addition to being a matter of taste) has a price: it makes even the experienced user uncertain of what the widget is. File input is a challenge to many users. This section discusses some specific accessibility problems in Young Life, file input. A Piece Of Writing! For an overview of what accessibility is and why it is important, please refer to the Guide to Web Accessibility and Design for All . It has been reported that some special-purpose browsing software, such as some versions of the Young, JAWS screen reader, have serious difficulties in file input. This is understandable, since the common implementation in Essay about Comparing the cultures of the States and Japan, browsers is oriented towards visual interaction. Even the normal browsers have serious difficulties in file input without using a mouse. (There are different reasons, including physiological and neurological problems, why the user may need to work without a mouse or other pointing devide.) In Internet Explorer 6, you can select the Young Life of Adolf, Browse button by tabbing, but if you try to a piece use the keyboard to activate it, hitting the Enter key, the browser submits the form instead! You would need to know that hitting the space bar (when focused on Young Hitler Essay, the Browse button) activates the torvald, file selection dialogue. Netscape 7 skips over the browse button entirely when tabbingit cannot be selected without a mouse.

Not surprisingly, on Opera things work reasonably. The user can select the Browse button using the tab key and activate it by pressing the enter key, then select a file for upload from the file system; you would use the arrow keys move around in the file selection. On the Lynx text browser, at least on Lynx 2.8.4 on Unix, there is no Browse button, and there is no dialogue for accessing the computers file system. Thus, the user needs to know the exact path name and syntax to type in the file name for upload, as is Young Life, apparently also the case for Comparing of the United and Japan IE and Netscape. There is Young Life of Adolf Essay, also the Transcending and Heart: Romero, usability problem that the browsing may start from of Adolf Hitler, a part of the the blind movie summary, file system in a manner which is not so natural to Young Life of Adolf Essay the user. The initial selection might be e.g. that of the directory where the Web browser itself resides!

So users need some acquaintance with such issues before they can fluently submit files. More generally, since file input is relatively rare, users are often not familiar with it. They might not recognize the the defiant, Browse button, and might have difficulties in understanding whats going on when they click on it (or fail to click on it). Thus, authors should normally include some short explanation about the presence of a file input field before the field itself. This can usually me done in a natural way, explaining simultaneously what kind and type of file should be submitted. For example, the explanation could say: Please specify, if possible, an image file containing your photo in JPEG format. Such a note may not help much when a user encounters such a field for Young Life of Adolf Essay the first time in his life, but it helps him to associate the teenage mom, eventual problems with a concept of file input and to explain his problems when seeking for help. And if he has tried to of Adolf Hitler use file input before, it tells him to stay tuned to something special, and perhaps at this point, before entering the file input field, to access the a piece, file system outside the Young Hitler Essay, browser and movie, find the Young Life, exact path name of the torvald, file he wants to submit. The file is submitted as such, without code conversions. A plain text file is submitted without information about character encoding, so the recipient needs to guess the encoding or infer it somehow.

For example, suppose that you have a UTF-8 encoded form and that it is Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, used to submit a plain text file. If the user wrote the file using Notepad, it will (by default) be in windows-1252 encoding, and its content is torvald, sent as such, declared just as text/plain (no charset attribute), even though contents of normal fields are UTF-8 encoded. The server-side form handler has no direct way of knowing what the Young of Adolf, encoding is, so how can it meaningfully process the data? In general, the about of the United, browser cannot tell the encoding, so it can neither declare it nor code-convert the data. Life Hitler! The reason is that commonly used file systems lack indication of the character encoding of a plain text file; it just needs to teenage mom be known. Thus, if your form is meant for submitting plain text files, your best option is probably to ask users to save their text files in UTF-8 encoding with BOM (Byte Order Mark). You can then test server-side that the data, when interpreted as UTF-8, starts with BOM. There are several possible ways to Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay let people submit their files even when their browsers do not support file fields in forms (or the support is of so poor quality that they dont want to use it).

You could include a TEXTAREA element into the form. This would work especially for text files in Essay Comparing of the United, the sense that a user could open his file in an editor and cut paste the data into the textarea. Young Life Of Adolf Hitler! Naturally, this becomes awkward for large files, but it might still be a good idea to have a textarea along with a file input field. A Piece! Your server side script would need some more code to Life handle both. You could simply include an E-mail address and encourage people to send their files to Essay about Comparing the cultures United that address as attachments.

You would need to have some processing for such submissions, but it could be automated using some software like Procmail. Young Life Hitler! On the other hand, you might decide that such submissions will be rare, and process them by hand. Make sure the address is teenage mom, visible on the page itself. You could make it a mailto: link too, but dont risk the Life Essay, functionality by some misguided attempt to include a fixed Subject header! Just tell people what they should write into that header (and into the message body). Sometimes you might consider setting up an FTP server , or using one, so that it has a free upload area. Torvald! You would then just specify the Young Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, server and the area, and torvald, people could use their favorite FTP clients. Life Hitler Essay! Note that for the submission of a large number of files, FTP would be more comfortable than using a form with a file input field.

Especially for local users, you could just give a physical address to the blind side summary which people can bring or send their files e.g. on diskettes or CD roms. Make it clear to them in advance which media and formats you can handle that way. The part which describes input type=file in the description of the input element in Young Life of Adolf Hitler, HTML 4.0 Reference by WDG. Teenage Mom! That document is Life Hitler Essay, also available e.g. as a mirror copy in Denmark. Note that the document contains, under More information , references to the definition of the input element in HTML specifications. Answer to the question How can I allow file uploads to Transcending and Heart: Day and Essay my web site? in WDGs Web Authoring FAQ . That document too has a mirror copy in Denmark. Notes on client-side scripting issues. In client-side scripting, there are some special problems when handling file input fields. The JavaScript Form FAQ contains answers to such questions: FAQ 1154 How can I set the value of Young Life of Adolf Hitler a fileupload form field? FAQ 561 How can I extract just the teenage mom, file name from a forms file upload field? FAQ 780 Can you simulate a click on an input type=file button?

See also notes on filtering above as regards to support to event attributes for file input. The HTML 4.01 specification discusses, in section Forms , issues related to file input fields along with other types of fields. The notes below hopefully help in locating and interpreting the relevant portions. The HTML 4.01 specification defines an enctype attribute for the form element. Its value is generically defined as being a media type, referring to RFC 2045. (That RFC is actually just one part of a large set of documents which what media types are. Life Of Adolf Hitler Essay! In particular, the general description of the media type concept is in RFC 2046.) A media type , also known as content type , Internet media type , or MIME type , defines a data format such as plain text ( text/plain ), GIF image ( image/gif ) or binary data with unspecified internal structure ( application/octet-stream ). But in the context of form submission, the use of a media type as the value of the enctype attribute is meaningful only if there is a definition of the conversion to be done. This means the exact way of encoding the form data, which is essentially a set of name / value pairs, into a particular data format. The definition must be rigorous, since otherwise it is impossible to process the data in a useful, robust way by computer programs. The HTML specification defines two possible values for enctype : enctype=application/x-www-form-urlencoded (the default) This implies a simple encoding which presents the fields as name = value strings separated by ampersands ( ) and uses some special escape mechanisms for Multiculturalism Threaten Cohesion characters, such as %28 for the ( character.

Its confusing if people try to Young Hitler Essay read itit was meant to be processed by programs, not directly read by humans! enctype=multipart/form-data This implies that the form data set is encoded so that each form field (more exactly, each control) is presented in a format suitable for that field, and the data set as a whole is a multipart message containing those presentations as its components. This is wasteful for normal forms but appropriate, even the only feasible way, for teenage mom forms containing file fields. The multipart structure means that each file comes in a nice package inside a larger package, with a suitable label (content type information) on Hitler, the inner package. This type was originally defined in RFC 1867 but it is also discussed in RFC 2388 (see notes on the RFCs later). Browsers may support other values too, but are not required to, and it is generally unsafe to use them. Sometimes people use enctype=text/plain , and text/plain is per se a well-defined media type; but there is no specification of the Multiculturalism Essay, exact method of encoding a form data set into such a format, and browsers are not required to Young Hitler support such an Home and Heart: Day and Essay, attributeso anything may happen if you use it. Normally you should not try to re-invent the wheel by writing code which interprets (decodes) the encoded form data. Instead, call a suitable routine in a subroutine library for the programming language you use. It typically decodes the Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, data into a convenient format for a piece of writing you to process in your own code. It seems that the HTML 4.01 specification contains no explicit requirement that enctype=multipart/form-data be used if the form contains a file input field (although it explicitly recommends that). But e.g. IE 4 and Netscape 4 handle form submissions incorrectly if the enctype is Life of Adolf Essay, defaulted in such a case: they send the name of the file instead of its content!

The HTML 4.01 specification uses the term file select for a piece the control (i.e. form field) created by an input type=file element. It specifies file select so that this control type allows the user to Hitler select files so that their contents may be submitted with a form. Note the plural filesthe idea is clearly that one such field should allow the inclusion of several files. Note that there is nothing an author needs to do, and nothing he can do, to Social Essay make a browser allow the selection of several files per input field. It depends on of Adolf Essay, the browser whether that is possible. However, as described above, the current browser support is poor: only some versions of Opera support multi-selection, and these do not include the newest versions. And in a piece, fact, even if a browser allows users to Life of Adolf Hitler pick up several files for one input type=file field, users might not know how they can do that, or how they can do that!

Thus, an author might, as a workaround , include several input type=file fields if it is desirable that users can include several files into teenage mom one form submission. Andrew Clover has suggested some interesting techniques for making the appearance of the fields dynamic (in JavaScript or in a server-based way) so that the user isnt immediately confronted with two dozen empty file upload boxes. Alternatively, or additionally, an author might encourage users to use suitable software like WinZip or WiZ to zip several files together. Naturally the server-side script must then be somehow prepared to handle zipped files. The HTML 4.01 specification describes the value attribute for a file input field by Young saying that browsers (user agents) may use the Threaten Cohesion, value of the value attribute as the initial file name. This however is usually not supported by browsers . Of Adolf! The usual explanation is security reasons. And indeed it would be a security risk if files from the users disk were submitted without the torvald, users content.

It might be all too easy to lure some users into submitting some password files! But in of Adolf, fact RFC 1867 duly notifies this problem; in section 8 Security Considerations it says: It is a piece, important that a user agent not send any file that the Life, user has not explicitly asked to be sent. Torvald The Defiant! Thus, HTML interpreting agents are expected to Young Life Hitler confirm any default file names that might be suggested with INPUT TYPE=file VALUE=yyyy . It also mentions (in section 3.4) that the use of value is probably platform dependent but then goes on: It might be useful, however, in sequences of more than one transaction, e.g., to Transcending Essay avoid having the user prompted for the same file name over and over again. This isnt particularly logical, since how would the name be passed from one submission to another? (The mechanism for getting the original file name would be quite unreliable for such purposes.) A more useful application could be this: Assume that your form is for reporting a problem with a particular program, say Emacs, and that program uses a configuration file with some specific name, say .emacs , so that you would very much like to Hitler Essay get the users config file for problem analysis. Setting the Multiculturalism Threaten Social, default name, if supported by the browser, might be an extra convenience to the user. Thus, they just failed to implement it , for no good reason. Of Adolf Hitler! This isnt a very important flaw, however.

The situations where it would make sense to suggest a default file name are rare. Netscapes old HTML Tag Reference says, in the description of input type=file , that VALUE= filename specifies the initial value of the input element, but no actual support to teenage mom this in Netscape browsers has been reported. Similar considerations apply to the corresponding item in Microsofts HTML Elements reference. It additionally messes things up by describing the intended meaning wrong: Sets or retrieves the value of the INPUT type=file . The description links to a description of the value attribute which says: The value, a file name, typed by the user into the control. Unlike other controls, this value is read-only. This probably relates to using the value property in client-side scripting. Young Of Adolf Essay! And in torvald, fact, one can read the value in JavaScript (and get the filename entered by the user) but setting it is unsuccessful (without an error message); the same applies to Life of Adolf Essay Netscape (but on Opera, even an attempt to read the value seems to confuse the browser).

Note that the examples in the above-mentioned documentation do not contain an Transcending Home Romero, input type=file element with a value attribute. However, support to file input in several versions of Young of Adolf Hitler Essay Opera handles the value attribute in the following way: the value is displayed in the box for file name input that value can be edited by the user (as an alternative to using the Browse menu, which changes the content of that box) however if the Essay United States and Japan, user submits the form so that the Young Hitler Essay, initial value has not been changed by the user, there will be a security alert and the user is Threaten Cohesion, requested to confirm the submission. there does not seem to Young be any working way to specify a set of files in the value attribute. Such support, however, is absent in teenage mom, Opera 7.54, for some reason. The following form contains a file input field with value=C:.emacs . Your browser probably just ignores that attribute, but some browsers may use it to set the initial file name: An example of Operas security alert in the situation discussed above: There was a short-time bug in Opera 6 that created a security hole, which would have let authors grab users files without their knowing, i.e. Essay! bypassing the dialogue described above. The original local file name may be supplied as well, either as a filename parameter either of the content-disposition: form-data header or in the case of multiple files in a content-disposition: file header of the of writing, subpart. The client application should make best effort to of Adolf Essay supply the file name; if the file name of the a piece of writing, clients operating system is not in US-ASCII, the file name might be approximated or encoded using the Life of Adolf Essay, method of RFC 1522. This is a convenience for those cases where, for example, the uploaded files might contain references to each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description. But note that this appears in subsection 3.3 of section 3. Suggested Implementatation . Thus, it is only a recommendation related to one possible implementation. You shouldnt count on having a filename included.

It seems that Netscape, IE, and Opera actually include the filename parameter. Teenage Mom! However, only of Adolf Hitler Essay, Opera uses the format which seems to be the intended one, as deduced from the the blind side movie summary, examples in RFC 1867 (section 6), namely a relative name like foo.txt , not a full pathname like C:mydocsfoo.txt . Internet Explorer?7 beta preview behaves similarly, and this has been explained as a security improvement. Is the Young Life Essay, Netscape and IE behavior really incorrect? Well, since most computers have some sort of path name system for file names, one would expect to see path names in the blind side movie summary, examples if the Young of Adolf Hitler Essay, intent had been that path names are sent. This is consistent with the fact that in order to and Heart: Day and Romero Essay actually use the file names for some meaningful purpose (like the Life of Adolf Hitler, one mentioned in RFC 1867: the uploaded file might contain references to Essay about the cultures of the United States and Japan each other, e.g., a TeX file and its .sty auxiliary style description, which clearly calls for relative file names). When path names are sent, things get much more complicated, since their specific syntax (and interpretation) is strongly system-specific, and there is even no provision for Life of Adolf telling the server what the browsers file system is. Sending relative names only is also consistent with elementary security considerations: avoid sending information about the users file system structure. Note that the security section of RFC 1867 does not mention any problems that might arise from that; this more or less proves that browsers were not expected to send path names. The idea of including a filename attribute makes sense of the blind summary course, and would apply e.g. to a file submission containing a set of Life HTML documents referring to each other with relative URLs. However, its clear that the processing script would need to strip off the path part of the names (which is in principle risky since C:mydocsfoo.txt could be a relative filename on Multiculturalism Threaten Essay, many systems!). Moreover, since the submission of several files is Young Life of Adolf, currently clumsy at best, the idea would be of limited usefulness even when it works. (Collections of files that refer to each other by names would be best handled as packaged into formats such as application/zip , leaving the file name issue to be handled by zipping and unzipping programs, which can preserve relative names as well as relative directory structures.)

Although the user is not expected to type the filename(s) into a filename box but use the Browse function, the size of the box matters. People’s Home And Heart: Romero Essay! When the user selects a file by clicking on it, the browser puts the filename into the filename box, and Young, the name is a full pathname which can be quite long. It may confuse users if they see the name badly truncated. And most browsers seem to treat the size attribute that way. But the HTML 4.01 specification defines the size attribute for an input element as follows: This attribute tells the user agent the initial width of the control. The width is given in pixels except when type attribute has the value text or password . In that case, its value refers to the (integer) number of characters. This logically implies that for People’s Home Romero Essay input type=file , the Hitler Essay, size attribute specifies the width in teenage mom, pixels, not characters. This is probably an oversight, and the risk of a browser acting literally according it is ignorable. On the Young Life of Adolf Hitler, other hand, you could use style sheets in addition to the size attribute.

Using e.g. the attribute style=width:25em could override the size attribute; this currently seems to happen on IE 4 and Essay about Comparing the cultures of the United States, newer only, but it should do no harm on of Adolf, browsers which dont support it. However note that although it might seem attractive to use style=width:100% , asking the browser use as wide a box as possible, theres the problem that at least IE 4 puts the Browse button on the same line as the box. Side Movie! Thus you would in effect force horizontal scrolling! Something like style=width:80% would be better, though it is just a guess that the box and Life, the button will then usually fit. Setting restrictions on the file size. Especially if file upload means storing the file on the servers disk, it is necessary to of writing consider imposing various restrictions. It would be nasty if some user filled the disk with gigabytes of Hitler Essay junk, by ignorance, or by torvald misclicking, or by malevolence. See section Avoiding Denial of Service Attacks in the documentation of Life; even if it isnt directly applicable to you since you use other techniques than CGI and Perl, it gives some food for thought in general.

The server-side form handler can be coded to do whatever the programmer wants, and imposing some upper limit is clearly a must. Essay The Cultures Of The United States! (That is, the Hitler Essay, code should check for the input size, and discard, or otherwise process in a special way, submissions exceeding a reasonable limit.) Any client-side restrictions, i.e. checks done by a browser prior to form submission, are unreliable and should be considered as extra comfort to users onlyso that they get a rejection message earlier. RFC 1867 says: If the INPUT tag includes the attribute MAXLENGTH , the user agent should consider its value to represent the maximum Content-Length (in bytes) which the server will accept for transferred files. It appears that no browser has even tried to implement that, and theres no statement about such a feature in HTML specifications. On the contrary, the HTML 3.2 specification says something quite different: You can set an upper limit to the length of file names using the maxlength attribute. Thus, it is better not to use the maxlength attribute, because it currently does nothing and, worse still, in the future it might be interpreted in two incompatible ways. The HTML 4 specification takes no position on this: it describes maxlength as defined for input type=text and input type=password only. Filtering (through a file type filter) Thus you could specify, for Multiculturalism Social Essay example, accept=image/gif,image/jpeg , if you are willing to Life of Adolf Essay get image files in movie summary, GIF or JPEG format only. Browsers might use this information to set up the Browse menu so that only such files are selectable, at least initially.

And the HTML 3.2 specification even claims: Some user agents support the ability to Life Essay restrict the kinds of files to those matching a comma separated list of MIME content types given with the ACCEPT attribute[;] e.g. accept=image/* restricts files to images. (Note that image/* is not a MIME content type. Obviously the intent is that some wildcarding could be applied, but there doesnt seem to be any definition about that.) But it seems that browser support is currently nonexistent. No filtering is applied, except on Netscape 4 which initially sets a filter which restricts selectability to HTML documents, no matter what there is in an accept attribute! And even if there were support, you of course couldnt rely on Transcending Romero Essay, such filtering, for Young Life of Adolf Essay many reasons. If it worked, it would be basically for user comfort, not for setting effective restrictions (which must be imposed by the form handler). Using client-side scripting, you might help some users so that they wont submit data of wrong type. For example, assume that we wish to have a file input field where a JPEG file must be specified. And we might take the simplistic view that this means a file name which ends with jpg , and check, in a client-side script, that the value of the field matches that. Home And Heart: Day And Romero Essay! Note that the value is the filename, not the file content.

However one must be extra careful here. Of Adolf Essay! Although the a piece, event attributes onfocus , onchange and onblur for Young Hitler Essay input type=file are supported even in earliest JavaScript implementations (from version 1.0), there are limitations and torvald the defiant, problems. Of Adolf! In particular, onblur seems to be treated strangely, and the obvious ideaassociate checking code with onblur seems to the defiant make Netscape run in an eternal loop. Thus, it is probably best to associate the checks with file submission only Life of Adolf Hitler Essay, . This means using the onsubmit attribute in of writing, the form tag. Example: The status of the original description of Hitler input type=file , namely RFC 1867, Form-based File Upload in HTML , is vague. Movie Summary! The HTML 4.01 specification makes only an Young Life Hitler, informative reference to it, and mentions a work in progress in this area:

This is however outdated information; the movie summary, URL does not work, and Hitler Essay, the draft has expired. There does not seem to Comparing of the States and Japan be anything else even at the level of Internet-Drafts to replace RFC 1867. There is however RFC 2388, Returning Values from Forms: multipart/form-data which might be related to the process. However it is not specified to Life of Adolf Essay obsolete RFC 1867. In the of writing, HTML 4.01 Specification , the informative references have been updated so that a reference is made to RFC 2388, with a note Refer also to RFC 1867. In June 2000, RFC 2854, The 'text/html' Media Type , was issued. Its basic purpose was to to remove HTML from Life of Adolf, IETF Standards Track officially, i.e. to make it explicit that work on HTML specifications has been moved from IETF to W3C.

It explicitly obsoletes RFC 1867, together with some other HTML related RFCs. But note that there is very little in HTML specifications by the W3C that defines what file input really is; they refer to side movie RFC 1867 instead. RFC 1867 contains much more detailed information about of Adolf Hitler file upload than HTML specifications. It explains the the blind side summary, original idea and Hitler, how it might be implemented. However, its normative status is vague, and the implementations are still wanting, so you should generally not expect browsers to support the idea very well.