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Nov 21, 2017 Spon's price book pdf,
article upload sites Editor#8217;s Note: This article was originally published by Web Marketing Today. Practical Ecommerce acquired Web Marketing Today in pdf 2012. In 2016, we merged the two sites, leaving Practical Ecommerce as the is physical, successor. If you#8217;re trying to spon's pdf, publish a regular email newsletter for Demand for Hybrid Essay your customers, I have good news. There#8217;s a wealth of spon's price book, content out attraction important, there that you can use for pdf free — poor, average, good, and how does opinion, occasionally excellent. Why is book this content offered free of media, charge? Two reasons: Article directories can earn revenue from spon's Google ads placed on their site as part of the Google AdSense program (www.google.com/adsense). An Example? This has stimulated the book pdf, growth of thousands of look-alike article sites that receive very little traffic. Demand Cars In The United? Others are niche sites that carry articles in particular vertical categories; Websites can be promoted effectively through articles . Spon's Price? A link to the author#8217;s website contained in each free article serves to: (a) bring targeted traffic through a well-designed, intriguing #8220;signature#8221; or author bio at the bottom of the roderick usher, article and (b) raise Google PageRank by creating more incoming links to spon's price pdf, a website.
These links point to attraction, the author#8217;s website from the spon's price book, article#8217;s presence both on the article sites and on influence public the websites that use the free articles. Spon's Book Pdf? If you#8217;re a marketer, I can hear your brain beginning to roderick usher, compute wildly: 1000 article sites X 1 link to spon's price book pdf, my site X 15 articles submitted = 15,000 links to how does public opinion, my site. Spon's Pdf? Moreover, article submission tools make article spamming extremely easy. Hold on, it#8217;s not that simple. Submitting your article to roderick usher, hundreds or thousands of price pdf, article sites can actually hurt you, since Google spiders are finely tuned to spot spam in its many flavors. Of Prejudice? You#8217;re much better off to submit your article to five of price book pdf, your favorite article sites and write methods, a couple of price book pdf, niche sites, and resist the High Cars States Essay, temptation to price book, blast your article to every pathetic article site on attraction the planet.
To help you see which sites you might consider submitting to, I#8217;ve listed below the spon's, top 25 article directory sites by what trait, their Google PageRank (10 being high) and spon's price book pdf, Alexa traffic rank (1 being high). Roderick Usher? A disclaimer: The Alexa rankings are flawed and seem volatile, but give a relative measure of traffic to spon's price, a site. Google PageRank (PR) is notoriously inaccurate, but can be seen as an indicator of Google#8217;s relative trust in roderick usher a site #8212; sort of. Price Pdf? The list is media not exhaustive and spon's pdf, includes both general article directories and what is culture trait, some popular niche directories with an book pdf Alexa rank of under 50,000. Sites are listed in ascending Alexa rank order, with the PR 6+ sites boldfaced for your convenience. All New: The Web Marketing Checklist 2013. The Web Marketing Checklist 2013. Effects? Get The Web Marketing Checklist 2013 — all new and revised for 2013 — in an instant PDF download when you subscribe to spon's, our free email newsletter.
I have written for a few of these sites myself. I really like iSnare as they can help blast your selected article to roderick usher, other article directories and sites. Pdf? The owners of the site will be presented with your article, which they can either decide to re-publish on their site, or decline to media effects, do so. Spon's? Agreed with Shawn !! But this post if really great.. Is Physical Attraction Important? Here I found another high domain authority business directory site which will help you to spon's price book, increase website search prefrencess. I agree with both of about, you. the list is comprehensive at price book pdf the same time all sites are good one. Let me add one more to here, which i just discovered and found pretty good frankly: http://www.articlepole.com. I agree with both of amendment about guns, you. the price book, list is comprehensive at roderick usher the same time all sites are good one.
Let me add one more to price book, here, which i just discovered and found pretty good frankly: http://www.articlepole.com. We are a group of is physical attraction important, volunteers and opening a new scheme in pdf our community. How To Write? Your website offered us with valuable information to work on. You#8217;ve done an spon's impressive job and media, our whole community will be grateful to you. Thank for sharing this list. Spon's Price? I own a small article directory: http://www.e-articles.me. Guns? This is book pdf another article, would you please add this on your list? http://www.articlesjingle.com/. Thanks. This is free article directory site with article buzz function http://ibuzzs.com.
Very great post. What Is Culture? I just stumbled upon your weblog and wished to price, mention that. An Example Of Prejudice? I have really enjoyed surfing around your weblog posts. In any case I#8217;ll be subscribing on your feed and I am hoping you write again soon! Great post man#8230; A very good list of spon's book, article directories#8230;. Thanks for all the about, links. Spon's Price Pdf? I went through most of them. Roderick Usher? It sure helped me a lot. Price? Thanks man for the links#8230;..really appreciated#8230;need to roderick usher, optimally post my articles which are on spon's price book pdf my blog on important http://www.propertyleo.com/blog.
I also have not done this. if my article from pdf recycle from other web or not original article and how to write methods, than post in the article directory. it#8217;s oke or not? Great article I have been looking for some quality computer articles to put up on spon's price book my web site. This article has given me a great source of High for Hybrid United, free original articles to publish. If anyone else has original articles they want published with links to price book pdf, their web site feel free to the media, drop me a line. Spon's Price Pdf? Thanks a lot this valuable article sites list this is very use full for Article submissions.One more important site for article submission with PR-2 and Alexa 58,620.Where you can submit your articles. I am very happy find this list of guns, article directories. Price? I want to submit my article to about, that directories. Thank you. Wow#8230;#8230;#8230;#8230;great list, um really happy to got it here#8230;Thank you very much.. Great Article, Can you add this website directory to spon's price pdf, you site? it is effects a new article directory http://www.escribir.co.
Just recently we have introduces one new free article submission directory in spon's pdf which we are publishing only Cars in the States Essay, unique and book pdf, rich content articles for is culture trait reprint on web. Book? All guest user are invited to post their articles to roderick usher, publish it on spon's price our blog. Trait? Hi, thanks for the list. Could you consider adding this free article directory to your list? http://www.your-answers.com. You can also try http://websitebulletin.com its free for all. Here is another article directory with do follow links as well. Book? http://www.usafreelistings.com The free article website for an example of prejudice creating your own articles on book pdf your interests and recommendations. Is Culture? Advertise or self promote for free through articles. Thank you so much for this list!
I#8217;m new at writing articles, and price book, I really needed guidance on effects theory where I should submit my articles. This list will come in handy#8230; Thanks again :) Thanks links really help me submit my articles. Nice informative post! Glad that you share with us so many high quality article submission resources. Book? Great article but still not sure of Alexa rank. Is it the an example, lower the better? Yes it is good to spon's price book, have low Alexa rank. Media? Long before the Penguin update Google has been sleepless at price book cracking down on spamming techniques, writing compelling articles will not only benefit you for write searching ranking but it will assist in building your brand.
People will share great content. Good stuff. I need more alternatives to ezine. Spon's Price Book? click2article.com Instant Approved Article Directory For SEO. About? It is a great way to spon's price book pdf, increase traffic to your site as well as to how does public opinion, improve page rank due to the built up backlinks. Thanks for spon's all great links. It is very helpful. Of Prejudice? Thanks for the links It is price so helpful for me.
Here are 4 article directories with instant approval, blog commenting, do-follow link attribute and is physical attraction important, more. Always looking for price book new authors and is culture trait, informative articles. Out of price book, all the article sites I personally love http://www.ezinearticles.com (recommended but it takes time) http://generalarticles.net (this one is easy and what trait, quick and spon's, is helping me rank well and its dofollow) Wat#8217;s up guys? These directories accept articles try them out!! http://article.abc-directory.com/ Good blog for write methods article submission. Sites are fantastic in book results. I use http://articleterminal.com as one of my favorites, ease of use and is physical attraction important, guaranteed INSTANT submission.
Thanks for sharing this post with us. Price Pdf? Is there a point in posting the original article on roderick usher your own web site first and then submit it, including a link to price, the original article? This should raise the authority of your web site as the is physical attraction, original source, shouldn#8217;t it? thanks for spon's price book the list, this is Cars in the United Essay great and price pdf, a big help for High Demand in the the blogger like me. Price? Thank You for media explanation about free article publishing and promoting own website through the above top rank article sites. Nice post. Price? These are really very nice article sites. Roderick Usher? These sites can raise the authority of your web site as the original source. These are really interesting article sites.As i gone through, i found all of them have more than 50 domain authority,which helps in book pdf boosting site#8217;s ranking further making it popular.Thanks for about guns sharing such sites. Book? writing compelling articles will not only benefit you for attraction searching ranking but it will assist in price book building your brand. Long before the Demand for Hybrid Cars United States Essay, Penguin update Google has been sleepless at cracking down on spamming techniques, Another great website to read and book, write articles on: http://www.poptop.webs.com/ Hi, thank#8217;s for how to methods sharing this articles directory list. Price Book Pdf? i got one free articles directory with high PR and High Demand, dofollow to,it#8217;s ftopdirs.com, i hope you add this to price, your articles directory list ( if you don#8217;t mind), thanks. Is Culture? FastLinkMaker.com is price book free articles site, Submit your article here for getting best ranking in how to write methods search engine, this is spon's book best article directory for how to write methods finding instant approval.
Great examples here, I’m looking at having my comments section re designed, although its clean and price, simple now I think it could be a little more personal. Thanks for sharing this list. Another worthy site is http://www.howitoo.com It#8217;s not exactly an attraction article site, but they let you publish How to price book pdf, articles with 1-2 links in write the the price book, author#8217;s bio. Is Physical? I think that type of blog is price better than article websites, who longer pose great SEO benefits. Is Physical Attraction Important? Check it out. Thanks for sharing. These sites are good and its a great way to generate more traffic. Price Pdf? This directory acept articles. Write? I am the owner.
Promise fast approve in spon's book pdf one day! PR 3 http://www.twist.bg/en/ Thanks for roderick usher really wonderful list. thanks for the wonderful listing. Spon's Price? Thanks! I have submitted in all the media theory, sites,Can you provide more sites to submit on spon's Lowest Airfare to India Thanks.. Is Physical Attraction Important? Thanks for book the list.
Just want to share my experience. I have submitted a unique article to Demand for Hybrid Cars United States Essay, http://largearticle.com 2 weeks before.And i am daily getting 200 visitors to my site from spon's price book pdf 2 weeks.Just i want to say is an example article marketing works. Spon's Price Book Pdf? The key is the media public opinion that your article should be 100% unique and useful. My article gone viral and spon's, visitors are sharing it automatically. now i am daily submitting 5 unique articles to Cars in the United States Essay, largearticle.com. Spon's Price Book? also the roderick usher, article directory in price pdf which you are submitting your article should be dofollow because if it is then only google count it as backlink.largearticle is dofollow. Roderick Usher? A fine list of article submission sites. Thanks. also I like lateststory.net. this is pdf big site for SEO. How To Methods? Thanks neha.i also prefer largearticle.com because it is spon's pdf dofollow. and article gets approved within 2 days. This is another popular directory. Amendment About Guns? http://lifeunix.com/ every web master needs to SEO for his Project and book pdf, Back links are very important for his strategy and roderick usher, traffic get on website.This list very terrific and amazing lots of helping me still directories are working after Google updates thank you,and agreed with your calculation Article are best way to price pdf, get better traffic and increases page rank and High Essay, Alexa. This one http://ezineproarticles.com has a bunch of price pdf, cool features that sets it apart from all other article directories.
It#8217;s more like a writing community, and has a radio player built in so you can chill out while writing your articles :) You can include several affiliate links and they are DoFollow so really a great website to use. Hello Frnds I am share with u another popular directory. Write about roderick usher whatever you like and spon's price pdf, get paid royalties http://www.wikinut.com/in/xicejg/ That is power full website and is physical attraction, post your News and Article Approved with in 2 3 Hr and price, get more traffic your articles#8230;? Thanks for of prejudice really wonderful list. ANOTHER GOOD ARTICLE SITE. Spon's Book? Another good article directory#8230; Another high quality article directory is effects http://www.letsbefamous.com. Letsbefamous is spon's price a website where you can read and media theory, write incredible article in your niche such as business, technology, entertainment, reviews, etc. Only well written researched articles get published on the website. Spon's Pdf? Pagerank: 5. How To Write? Thanks for sharing do follow article site list ! I have event posting website eventgeos.com, I want to improve my alexa ranking which I am not able to do. Pls help what may be the cause and how to fix.
Thanks for spon's pdf sharing this great list of what is culture, Articles and book, check my own latest Article Posting site :- http://www.zapwebdirectory.com/ Nice do follow article site list ! I noticed that this article is pretty old. An Example? With all of the spon's price, changes, is it still worth using article directories? What a fantastic article, thanks for how to write this I#8217;ll be submitting my article to these today! Keep up the good work. Very useful information well organized. The PR data and submit format are helpful. Spon's Book Pdf? Great! Thanks for effects theory sharing this! I too found a new directory like this, i.e. hvaclocal.com.
Submit a complete office address while listing your business; this will help to create a trust for customers. Find one of the price pdf, top most Article Submission Directories at of prejudice SW Article Submission site. Price Pdf? In this article site you can submit unique content articles in your preferable categories. For posting the attraction important, articles click the following link swarticles.com. Spon's Price Pdf? Thanks for sharing do follow directory submission sites list ! Nice Article sites list ! I still use iSnare the an example, most .. user friendly and allows you to submit to over 6000 sites even more email publisher subscribers .. Here are other article directory with instant approval, blog commenting, do-follow link attribute and spon's price, more.
Always looking for amendment new authors and informative articles. Price Book Pdf? I am very happy to media theory, find article sites list ! Many in your list are NOT free. Book Pdf? iSnare and Amazines are not, and I have not checked others that I believe may also charge for article submission credits. About? Top article directory site list.It is very fine high quality social media marketing site. Spon's? This site list so usuful to attraction important, me#8230;thanks all. Hi Dr.
Ralph F. Spon's Price? Wilson, Thanks for share these top article directory site list.It is very fine high quality social media marketing site. Demand In The States? Thanks for sharing high pr article sites list ! Thanks for spon's pdf sharing article sites list ! here is another good article directory http://www.mylivearticle.com/ This is how does public opinion another article, would you please add this on your list? http://www.forumbet.org/ Thanks. Spon's Book? Thanks For Sharing High PR Directory Submission Sites#8230;#8230; PR 5 http://www.fluenzo.com/ Please Add This List Do Follow High PR Site?#8230; Here one more article publish site :- http://zlddm.com/ Free PR4 site http://www.premierdirectoty.org is great for roderick usher local SEO. Try it and spon's price book, it is free. Many of the article directories listed above have all died. If you are looking for an article directory that approve articles instantly, you can visit http://articlemobi.com/ http://www.Whoscoop.com is how to write a great article directory for premium content. Actual real list. Book? Thanks for media sharing. There is spon's price another one articles site, you can visit: Ready Made Spolecnosti http://firmy-pha.cz/ thanks for sharing useful information, sooperarticles.com is also very good for the media influence public opinion article posting.
Thanks for price pdf sharing this information. Google is is physical attraction now not taking the price pdf, page rank and trait, all. So what the use we are posting article in price pdf page rank sites. So, Post the article in is physical important any sites an spon's price book pdf get dofollow backlinks. Please keep in mind that this article was written in 2007. High Cars United States Essay? At that time PageRank was a factor. One of spon's book, my favorite website for is physical Article Submission which gives you an Instant Approval with a Do- follow Link and spon's book, also get your article index on google website in a very short period of time .. How To Write? Submit your articles at http://www.submitmyarticless.com. Price Pdf? Excellent Very Helpful Article on Article Submission. Thank You for the Great Information Sharing. One can get paid links from Demand for Hybrid Cars in the United States http://www.bulletintech.com/ just fill out the book pdf, contact us from and about, they will get back to spon's book pdf, you with in 24 hrs. About? Thanks for the great list, Article Directories are very important for website or blog it gives doffolow and high pr backlink.
In addition to spon's price book, the list, here is another good one. Thank yopu so much for of prejudice the list. Much appreciated :) I would like to spon's book pdf, add one more article directory http://knowledgehow.com/submit-article/ to this list. here is another one for is physical attraction important you guys. Google is spon's price pdf now not taking the page rank and how to write, all. Spon's Pdf? So what the use we are posting article in page rank sites. How To Write Methods? We are a computer repair company and book pdf, was looking for media effects theory a place to spon's price pdf, post our website.
Thank you for sharing this amazing list of sites. What Trait? I have one more site which you would like to spon's price, add in your list. Roderick Usher? Really a great share.. really helpful#8230; I found another free article submission website http://www.inwebarticles.com . have a look i think the SEO features are really good in it . Thanks for sharing this enormous info. Alexa and PR rank are helpful.. Pdf? Nice productive list of websites. Thanks. Amendment? But there are those websites also which do not approve articles soon. Spon's Price? Does anyone know websites with instant approval?
Thank you so much for the list. Much appreciated. Interesting list. However, many of the is culture, “free” directories are now either charging a significant fee for spon's price book pdf listings, or are delaying your listings 3 to 6 months – all while requiring a backlink to about guns, be up during that time. Not so many of spon's price book, them are fair or balanced trades anymore. Thanks for sharing this useful post. You can also add your website to this high PR Instant Approval Directory Sites below: Find one more article website with high domain authority at http://www.articlesreader.com. Great resource do all of how does, them allow links back to the original article? I checked a couple and there did not seem to spon's book, be any links back. There#8217;s an Article directory with Google PR 9. It submits both paid and free articles. High Demand Cars In The? This is really a great job . I think it will be very helpful.
Thanks for book sharing the list of methods, article directory site .I am very happy to see the top most article site with google page ranking and alexa ranking. Price Book? Another good article directory. Hello Sir I would like you to is physical important, add this small but instant approval article submission site ie as follows. Spon's? Thanks for roderick usher all the spon's price book, links and also i went through most of them to helped me a lot. I like using http://naturallivingquest.com/ which is an what trait article directory for pdf the environment/go green niche.
I would recommend to add to this list one more instant approval article directory, which allows do-follow links: http://www.thearticlesbase.com. Very Good List Dude. Here I suggest One More Dofollow Back Link With Article or Content Submissionhttp://www.articleweb55.com/ this is an example of prejudice good website for articles submission please update in the list: http://www.articlesbased.com. Very Good List Dude. Spon's Price Pdf? Here I suggest One More Dofollow Back Link With Article or Content Submission http://www.articleweb55.com/ Our small article marketing web site, good italian article only! Thanks. Write? i was in search of the sites like these. Thanks for share nice articles sites, Mostly content lovers SEO Content marketing persons are used all these sites. Spon's? Here is is physical attraction one more article site : http://www.hubarticles.com/ Very useful site list thank you for spon's book pdf share, here one more pr article submission site http://articletoday.ml. videotapenetwork.com is media effects a platform for to spon's, publish information in the form of article with images and videos. I saw some spammy articles in some of those article directories but in roderick usher terms of book pdf, traffic they are the best ones.
I also use http://www.otherarticles.com becasue it gives me an author grade which can be handy when your promoting your article writing services. Icanpost.net is amendment guns also a good article website. Spon's Book Pdf? Icanpost.net is is physical attraction a free article website. You must mentions here free or paid directory. Spon's Book? You Can add your Blogs, content, Articles and Press release at of prejudice http://www.hubarticles.com/ We are here to spon's price, bring you interesting and an example of prejudice, engaging content from spon's price our community of how does influence opinion, writers, freelance journalists and spon's, content creators. kindly add http://www.HubArticles.com site in your Article directory. An Example? Is #8220;article directory submissions#8221; still effective in price 2017 for amendment about SEO? Can anyone shed some lights on this? I want to book pdf, offer this as a service on what is culture trait our new website http://threesite.com. Thank you for sharing good information with us. Spon's Price Pdf? if you are interested submit your article on webtechintro.com. Great Article website list, Also add http://articleneed.com/ website directory to you site? it is important a free instant approved dofollow backlink article directory.
Other then above http://highlightstory.com is also a very good article website. Scholarhive is a free article directory where authors can submit their articles for free publication. Book? Here is Instant approval article website, instant approval press release website and. I got following article submission site through google. It is free article submission site. I have used this website and received backlinks from is physical this website.
Here is the price pdf, url of that website: Good quality post for those in for Hybrid in the United Essay need of getting good quality backlinks and free traffic back to spon's price pdf, their site. For Hybrid Cars In The United? Make It Personal: The Importance of One-to-One Marketing. Copyright © 2005-2017 Practical Ecommerce. All Rights Reserved.
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richard ii essay This study guide is intended for students taking exams at GCE Advanced (A2) and Advanced Supplementary (AS) level in the UK, but is suitable for university students and the general reader who is interested in Shakespeare's plays. Please use the hyperlinks in the table above to navigate this page. If you have any comments or suggestions to make about this page, please contact me by clicking on this link. This guide is written to price book support your study of Richard II . The guide indicates the terms in which examiners will expect you to understand the play. It should be used in write conjunction with study of Richard II in performance, as far as possible, and of the text in one or more editions designed for study at your level. What other resources should you use? This depends on your own aptitude and readiness for study.
But any serious Advanced level student should expect to use at least some of the spon's book pdf, following: Editions of the amendment about guns, play: The most authoritative version is the Arden edition. Spon's Pdf. Most students will find this challenging, although the introduction is well worth reading. The New Cambridge edition is good (but uses archaic spelling of names) while sound editions are published by Penguin and Macmillan. For critical writing about the play, you should use the how to write, Casebook anthology (Ed. Nicholas Brooke, Macmillan, 1973): read the introduction, and study essays selectively, but those by price book pdf, E. H. Kantorowicz and A. P. Rossiter are strongly recommended. The introductions to the Cambridge and Macmillan texts are recommended, especially Cambridge edn. pp. 16-43 ( Structure, Imagery, Language and Staging ) and Macmillan pp. 4-14 ( When degree is shak'd - the political background ) and pp. 23-37 ( People and pattern in Richard II ). At a more basic level the guides from Brodie's Notes (Pan, 1985) and York Notes (Longman) may help you.
For general background information about Shakespeare, Ms. Marchette Chute's Shakespeare and his Stage (University of London, 1953) is hard to beat. Literature reference: Useful handbooks for the general study of English literature include The Cambridge Guide to English Literature and The Oxford Guide to English Literature , J. A. Media Theory. Cuddon's Dictionary of Literary Terms (Penguin, 1982) and Richard Gill's Mastering English Literature (Macmillan, 1985). Use these books effectively: do not try to spon's pdf read them for extended periods like a story (unless you have unusual intellectual powers!) Study for short periods, then write down simple statements of what you want to amendment about guns remember, or questions to spon's price raise in class discussion. Other people's study guides (like this one) are never as effective as your own. You may wish to use any or all of the following ways of owning your study of this play: Customize books/guides with pencil markings, icons, inserts or highlighting. If you have access to suitable computer software, ask for an example copies of files, and adapt them for your learning. Make audio tapes of parts of the play and your comments on them, as well as recording spoken essays. Put essential information/quotation on Post-It notes, and display these where you will see them frequently. Richard II is the first play in a series of price four (the others are Henry IV, Parts i and ii and Henry V ), the second such series which Shakespeare wrote (the first - perhaps his very first work - was the three parts of how to methods Henry VI, followed by Richard III ). In these Shakespeare examines questions of politics (especially kingship, authority and order) which we meet in others of spon's price pdf his plays.
Here, however, these issues are considered in relation to real events as known to the writer or his public. At this point, it makes sense to consider whether Shakespeare is roderick usher, a truthful or inaccurate historian, and what a history play is. Price Book. If you don't know, find out! As a term to describe a category (kind) of play, tragedy (which means goat song in classical Greek!) originates in Athens in ancient times. Aristotle (a philosopher and scientist, but no playwright) describes rules or principles for the drama which tragedians should follow. Is Culture Trait. These rules have proved helpful as a working description, but should not be seen as absolute: Shakespeare, in practice, ignores them more or less. Comedy is a term applied to the humorous plays of Greek (e.g. Aristophanes) and later Roman (e.g. Terence) dramatists.
For Shakespeare, a comedy is a play with a happy ending - it may or may not be comical in the modern sense of being humorous. In trying to arrange Shakespeare's work into categories (as for publication in book form) editors have produced a third category, of histories . More recently critics have noted that Shakespeare's latest plays do not fit any of these categories easily. Book. Thus we have problem plays (or tragi-comedies) in Measure for Measure and All's Well that Ends Well and pastoral plays or romances in Pericles, Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale and The Tempest . You should know that these labels were not consistently or even commonly applied in Shakespeare's time. Plays classed as tragedies (such as Macbeth ) may have a clearly historical subject. Many of our #147;histories#148; were advertised as tragedies at write the time of their performance. This has led to pointless arguments, as to whether Shakespeare wrote Richard II or Richard III as history or tragedy: the dispute implies a distinction which may not have existed for spon's pdf the writer. For the modern student it does, however, pose a question which is worthy of consideration: how historical subjects may allow the is culture trait, playwright to develop tragic themes. When our play appeared in print the title page read: The Tragedie of King Richard the Second.
The modern student has better access to detailed and accurate accounts of the events depicted in the history plays than Shakespeare did. We do know, however, that he had a good outline knowledge of the spon's price book, history, and that at points he referred to known sources which are extant (that is, still available to us). How To Write. Most school editions of the plays will list these. It is clear that in spon's pdf places, Shakespeare will change details to suit his needs as a dramatist. There is media effects theory, a good example of this in Richard II and the Henry IV plays: as he wishes to present Prince Hal (later Henry V) and Henry Hotspur Percy as rivals for power in the realm, Shakespeare depicts them as of the same age; in fact, Percy was a contemporary of Henry IV, old enough to be Hal's father.
In these same plays, we meet a character called Mortimer (after Richard's death, Henry IV's rival claimant to spon's price pdf the throne): two (related) historical Mortimers have been conflated (made into what, one) to suit the purposes of the drama. Spon's. There is a genuine question for scholars in how far the change was knowingly made, but it seems Shakespeare will not let the facts get in the way of a good story! The dramatic form enables Shakespeare to present characters who voice all kinds of opinions, from which we may, if we wish, attempt to infer the playwright's own view. Such inference is at best tentative: it may lead to a muddled attempt to understand the plays in terms of a modern political outlook. Thus, individualists like Richard II or Hotspur (Harry Percy) are seen as dashing and romantic (in 19th or 20th century terms) while the pragmatic Henry Bolingbroke (Henry IV) is seen as devious and trait, dishonest: almost certainly these are judgements which would not have occurred to Shakespeare or his audience. Shakespeare writes at a time when a period of pdf peace at home has created the very conditions in England which have allowed the professional theatre to emerge and flourish, but where this peace is threatened by the ageing queen Elizabeth's lack of an heir. There is no doubt that his plays (history, comedy and tragedy) all reflect a horror of anarchy and a preoccupation with finding a balance between toleration of harmless pleasure and restraint of harmful lawlessness. In order to is culture explore these themes, Shakespeare locates his stories in other (real or imagined) times and places.
In referring to his own times (as at the end of Richard III and the very late history Henry VIII ) he is careful to praise the Tudors generally and Elizabeth particularly, as he also does by implication in A Midsummer Night's Dream in the figure of the childless Titania. In the second history cycle, beginning with Richard II , Shakespeare considers the king's divine (God-given) right to rule. Though given by God, this right may be forfeited by the king's failure to book exercise it (this is Richard's fault). Technically, Henry is neither usurper nor rebel, because Richard freely abdicates. While he lives, however, Richard will always be a figurehead for new rebellions of the discontented.
Henry, seeing this, reluctantly gives the write, hint which leads to Richard's murder. This is the murder of a man only (he is no longer king) yet the murderer receives not thanks but banishment from the kingdom, on pain of death: Henry's genuine grief at Richard's killing is something most modern audiences find difficult. In the two parts of Henry IV , we see how Henry, though his claim to spon's price book the throne is weaker (on paper) than that of his rival, Mortimer, proves his right to rule by uniting the country, resisting many attempted revolts and providing a model heir, in an example his son, Hal. Feeling guilty for book Richard's death, Henry intends to launch a crusade, but never finds a safe time. Roderick Usher. He wrongly thinks Hal to be a delinquent and, even more wrongly, admires Hotspur, the son of his friend-turned-enemy, Northumberland. When Hal becomes king, he has no blood on his hands, and the intended religious crusade becomes more a national expedition of conquest.
Henry V is a celebration of Hal's almost legendary exploits in France, culminating in the great reversal of the odds at Agincourt. In this play, Shakespeare shows a great interest in dramatic rhetoric and in pdf symmetry or balance . How To. For the audience (then as much as now) it has two potential weaknesses: these are the lack of spon's price comic interludes, and the lack of action. Of the second of these, since there is action of a kind, but much of it ritualized, ceremonial or in formal gesture , more must be said later. The plot of the play in roderick usher outline is that of the contrasting fortunes of the principals: King Richard , at the height of his powers, banishes Henry Bolingbroke (Bullingbrook, in early editions) Earl of Derby and Duke of Hereford, and heir to the estate of John of Gaunt , Duke of Lancaster. Henry is banished as a result of Richard's treachery: his (and Richard's) uncle, the Duke of spon's price Gloucester, has been killed by Thomas Mowbray, Duke of is culture Norfolk, almost certainly on book pdf Richard's orders. Bolingbroke accuses Mowbray of roderick usher treason, a charge he denies, but which is to price book be proved or refuted in a tournament. Richard sets the time (St. Lambert's Day) and media effects theory, place (Coventry) for the tournament. He presides over spon's price pdf, it but halts it at an example of prejudice the last moment: if Bolingbroke wins, Richard's guilt will emerge; if Mowbray wins, he will have the price, king at a disadvantage. So Richard banishes both, but remits the sentence to a shorter time in Henry's case. On the death of Gaunt, Richard seizes his estates to media effects theory fund a military expedition to Ireland.
Powerful lords, notably the spon's price book pdf, Northumberland Percy family and other northern lords, observing Richard's mismanagement of the country and his unjust dealing, encourage Henry to return in Richard's absence (in Ireland). Roderick Usher. The forces Richard has left to guard against such an event either melt away or join Henry, who justifies returning before his sentence is complete by a technicality: he was banished as Hereford; he returns as Lancaster. Richard's actions have been influenced by his favourites, three of spon's book pdf whom Henry executes. On his return, Richard virtually surrenders to Henry. While Henry is reluctant to amendment assume the office of king, Northumberland pushes him to exploit his power and popularity, and Richard is all too ready to abdicate.
Once he has given up his throne, Richard, imprisoned in Pomfret (Pontefract) castle becomes a problem which Henry can only spon's book solve by murder, though he wishes to have no part in it. The play ends with an write anticipation of spon's book Henry's worries about his son, Hal, who has acquired a reputation for is culture foolish and price book pdf, degenerate behaviour. Although he shows us how Henry gains and what, Richard loses power, Shakespeare is careful not to express a single judgement on the (real) events he depicts. Rather, a range of viewpoints can be found, of which more must be said later. Shakespeare wrote plays to be seen in a complete performance which would (for Richard II ) last about two hours. The play would be performed by daylight (between about two and four o'clock) in the purpose-built open air theatres, or with artificial light (lanterns and candles) in spon's book private houses of wealthy patrons. The plays were not written to be read or studied and copies of the theory, text were originally made (hand-written) for the use of the performers. It is important to bear this in mind when you are required to study the play as a text (with extensive editorial comment) on price book which you will be examined. Shakespeare's company was the most successful of its day, and amendment about, his plays filled the theatres.
Many (most?) of the audience in a public performance would lack education and be technically illiterate, but these were people for whom the spoken word was of greater value than is the case today: they would be more attentive, more sensitive to patterns of verse and rhyme, and to imagery (word pictures). Spon's Price Book. Shakespeare's scenes represent changes in time or place, but not of scenery, which would be minimal or non-existent. Basic stage furniture would serve a variety of purposes, but stage properties and costume would be more elaborate and suggestive. A range of gestures and movements with conventional connotations of meaning was used, but we are not sure today how these were performed. In order to understand a play, we have to work harder than did the Elizabethan audience.
To see a play entire (in the theatre or on film), without interruption save for amendment the interval, may be needed for us to appreciate Shakespeare's strong sense of narrative drive, and to spon's pdf see how the amendment guns, text is not the work but a (loose) blueprint for performance . On the other hand, study of text and editors' notes may be necessary for us to appreciate some of the attitudes the price book pdf, contemporary audience brought into the theatre. Such notes may explain images and highlight patterns or structures which otherwise we might not hear, or explain semantic change (changes of meaning) in words or phrases used by the playwright to convey important ideas to an example his audience. The instant pleasure of experiencing a work of art (say a feature film or soap-opera or first-person novel) which uses conventions and a range of cultural references which we at once understand is unlikely ever to be found by us in price book watching Shakespeare in performance. What is how does public, amazing is that so much is still accessible, and that by adapting the price book, delivery of lines, and giving some visual clues, performers can make the plays work today. The division of plays into five acts is how to methods, more apparent to the dramatist (to whom it gives an idea of how the play's narrative structure will appear in performance) than to the audience (though modern audiences often know act and spon's price pdf, scene numbers). Methods. For the student, the numbering of acts and scenes is of enormous importance in identifying a given point in the narrative.
When quoting a passage, always give act and scene number, while line numbers are helpful, too. When you begin revision, make a mental map of the play, so you know what occurs in each scene. List the scenes down the book pdf, page. After the scene number write no more than ten words about what happens. Amendment About. Follow this with a phrase from book a notable speech. e.g. I, iii: The tournament - halted; the disputants banished: . such is the is culture trait, breath of kings (line 214) II, i: Death of Gaunt - Richard seizes his estates: This royal throne of kings. Spon's Price Book. (line 40) IV, i: The deposition scene: Are you contented to resign the crown? (line 199) These are only suggestions.
Choose a speech which is a clue to you. For an outline which you can adapt or customize, click here. The structure of the play in acts. This is methods, not rigid or mechanical, but there is a fairly simple scheme one can see, whereby Richard's fortunes decline as Bolingbroke's go up (he gains ascendancy). But the play ends with hints of trouble to come for the new ruler. You also should be aware of the price book pdf, relationship between public/ceremonial and private/intimate scenes or episodes.
Finally it is is culture, worth making a plan of spon's price each act, identifying episodes/speeches in which the principal themes are presented. None of this is a guarantee of success in an exam. It is essential preparation, to give you the material you need to succeed. General comment on each act of the play. This act establishes a pattern which Shakespeare more or less sustains for the whole play, of alternating scenes of a public or formal character with private, informal or intimate scenes. This is important in amendment guns establishing a sense of the characters we meet as occupying a public rôle or office and of the private person behind the public face.
This will be an book important idea in effects theory this play, as in the subsequent Henry plays. The ceremonial of the opening at Richard's court and the third scene (the aborted tournament at Coventry) alternates with two intimate scenes: in the second scene we see Gloucester's widow unable to spon's price book move the patient Gaunt to vengeance, while the last scene of the act shows the cynicism of Richard in private with his flatterers. This marks another contrast: in private, Gaunt speaks with exemplary honour and complete integrity, but Richard's private conversation reveals his public ostentation to amendment about be showy and spon's book, insincere - he emerges as a cynical opportunist, ready to disregard the is culture, law to offset his financial imprudence and wishing the valiant Gaunt into price pdf, an early grave. Guns. For the contemporary audience this last would be the most offensive of his errors: to the Elizabethans, Gaunt, like his grandson, Henry V, is spon's price book pdf, a national hero, of what trait legendary stature - it is almost as if we have seen Richard planning to deface a public monument. A lot of the book pdf, characters in the play have several names or titles: while this helps speakers avoid repetition it can confuse the modern audience.
Make sure you know who's who. If not, ask a teacher! Bolingbroke's quarrel appears to us to be as much a quarrel with Richard as with Mowbray. Explain, as far as possible, why his challenge is directed exclusively at Mowbray, but not at the king. Can we see more than one reason for Richard to wish to reconcile the two men? Please note that when Richard says we he speaks of amendment guns himself (a man) and of his majesty (a metaphysical expression of his kingly office, derived from God). Can you explain the spon's price book pdf, nature of Gaunt's refusal of the Duchess's plea? Why should Shakespeare show us this private conversation at this point? This is the roderick usher, key scene in pdf the act. Note the extreme formality of the language, determined by rules of roderick usher chivalry, and the number of people on stage, as well as the ceremonial garments and weapons which would appear in such a tournament. All of this is required by the tournament which is to take place: the courtesy of the language conceals the enmity of the disputants.
What is the effect on pdf all this display (of rhetoric, clothing, weapons and action ) of the king's halting of the amendment guns, tournament? Later on, you may wish to consider whether this action, taken to safeguard his position in spon's price pdf the short term, is an error from which Richard cannot recover. Here we see Richard with his supporters, three of whom, Bushy, Bagot (who does not speak) and Green, appear for the first time. Can you think why they do not appear in Act I, scene iii? What do Richard's various remarks about Bolingbroke tell us? In the first scene of this act, Richard spurns the advice of the dying Gaunt, and an example of prejudice, seizes Gaunt's estates to price pdf fund his wars in Ireland. Bolingbroke's supporters speak of a plan for the exile to return in Richard's absence, and the next scene brings news, as Richard's flatterers try to comfort the queen, of Henry's return and the enormous support he has received. In the third scene we see this support as Bolingbroke and his allies come to Berkeley in Gloucestershire, where they are confronted by the Duke of an example of prejudice York, who has been appointed lord governor in Richard's absence: he rebukes Bolingbroke but is placated by his statement of book his limited ambition.
In contrast, the final (brief) scene shows how the forces left by of prejudice, Richard to defend the country have dispersed and gone home. This scene makes clear the power politics of the time. In a country with no standing or professional army, real power lies in the feudal system whereby great lords can rely on lesser local magnates (lords of the book pdf, manor, sheriffs and so on) to raise armies from their estates, and possess the means to pay them for their service. Richard has no extensive estates of an example his own, but Bolingbroke owns the largest of spon's book all (Lancaster) and is backed by the major landowners of the north of how to write England, led by the Northumberland Percy family. These have mustered a large army, against which the returning Richard will be powerless to act. This scene is notable for Gaunt's great patriotic speech (which is often quoted out of its context in the play, and without the last two lines of the long sentence which are required for it to make grammatical sense, as they contain the main verb, and which give the point of the preceding images). What does this scene tell us of the state of England, the character or Richard, and how far these two are connected? This scene starts with the private conversation of York and Gaunt, moves to price the public formal interview with Richard, and ends in the intimacy of the plotting by an example of prejudice, Richard's enemies.
How does Shakespeare use this scene in which nothing really happens (though some important news arrives) as a commentary on events occurring elsewhere? Do the spon's pdf, words of the queen in any way modify our view of Richard, and what trait, if so, how? At this time, the spon's book, queen was only ten: why does Shakespeare present her as an adult? This is Bolingbroke's first appearance in the play since his banishment (we are shown scenes neither of Henry in France nor of Richard in Ireland). Is there any difference in the way he appears to the audience now? What are his plans for Bushy, Bagot and Green, and how does he characterize these three men? Is his quarrel merely personal or more honourable and of prejudice, disinterested? How does this scene serve as an appropriate sequel to scene iii?
The action here moves from Bristol, where Bolingbroke executes Bushy and price pdf, Greene (not Bagot, who has fled) to Harlech, in how to methods Wales. Here Richard, returning from Ireland, meets the remnants of his supporters, and learns of the dispersal or defection of others, and price pdf, passes on to Flint Castle, where he confronts Bolingbroke and submits to his greater force. Roderick Usher. Although Richard speaks of being deposed, Henry has so far only claimed his right to the title and estates of Lancaster. In an interlude in York's garden (near St. Spon's Book. Alban's) the queen learns from the gardener of Bolingbroke's triumph over her husband. How does the audience see the execution of Bushy and Greene in terms both of Bolingbroke's private concerns and public duty? Compare Bolingbroke's long speech here with that in I, i, 87-108: how does the charge against roderick usher, the two caterpillars differ from that against Mowbray? At the heart of this scene is Richard's receipt of bad news and his response to it. The bad news comes in spon's price stages (what are the important details?) from Aumerle, Salisbury and Scroope. Bushy and Greene stay loyal to the king, and meet death with dignity: what do we think of Richard's response to Scroope's ambiguous statement that the two have made peace with Bolingbroke?
Comment also on Richard's two long speeches beginning at lines 36 and 144, respectively. Richard's appearance on the ramparts of the castle (using the balcony of the theatre) allows the dramatist to symbolize the effects theory, king's loss of status as he literally comes down to meet his rival. Spon's Book Pdf. How does Richard make this explicit in his speech throughout the scene? Comment on the attitudes shown to Richard by Bolingbroke (e.g., lines 31-67) and by Northumberland (who omits his title and chooses not to kneel before the roderick usher, king). Comment on Richard's tendency to reflect (in melodramatic or exaggerated fashion) on his loss of power. There is no reason to suppose that the gardener, as a master of his craft, would be unlikely to compare the government of the country to spon's pdf the tending of a garden. He elaborates the theory, metaphor, to show Richard has neglected his gardening but Bolingbroke has begun to pluck up the weeds. root and spon's, all. The reference to caterpillars reminds us of Bolingbroke's earlier description of what Bushy, Bagot and Greene. Comment on the introduction of the gardener, as a kind of detached or chorus * figure. How far do we believe in his objectivity, and what weight do his words carry?
*In the classical drama of ancient Athens, the chorus is a group (of people, animals or spirits) which observes the action on stage, and spon's price pdf, comments about it to the audience. The function of the chorus is to media effects theory suggest or challenge the audience's understanding. Shakespeare rarely uses a chorus as such (he does, for instance, in Romeo and Juliet ), but often transfers its functions to price a character in the play (Iago, Puck, Lennox). Where the previous act moves hundreds of miles in four scenes, this act is a single scene, arguably the most important in the whole play, set in Westminster. Effects Theory. It divides into three clear episodes: First Bagot (who has evidently been spared by Henry in return for his information) accuses Aumerle of price book pdf a part in Gloucester's murder. This leads to a series of accusations and rebuttals, compounded by a series of challenges (Bagot, a commoner, may not answer Aumerle's challenge, so Fitzwater takes it up, only for Surrey to challenge him, while another lord issues a further challenge to influence opinion Aumerle). To help clarify matters, Bolingbroke repeals Norfolk's banishment, only to learn that Mowbray has died. In the second part, York, supported by spon's price, Northumberland but opposed by Carlisle, presides over Richard's abdication and Henry's accession.
In a brief sequel, the Abbot of Westminster, ostensibly holding Carlisle under arrest, invites the an example, bishop and spon's price, Aumerle to supper, to learn of a plot against Bolingbroke. In what way is Bagot's appearance here surprising? How does the of prejudice, scene compare with I, i in terms of the way in which the challenges are issued and taken up? How does Bolingbroke's handling of the challenges compare with Richard's earlier? What is the effect on the audience of Henry's words about Norfolk here? How does Shakespeare express contrasting political attitudes in the conduct of Northumberland and Carlisle in price book pdf this episode? Comment on the importance of York, as an honest man, in the audience's eyes, here.
How much does Bolingbroke say in this scene (as opposed, say, to Northumberland)? What is the reason for this, and what is its effect? At line 222, Richard asks: What more remains? What is our view of Northumberland's insistence on Richard's answering accusations of crime, and Bolingbroke's decision (line 271) to save Richard from this humiliation? Is Northumberland insisting merely that justice be seen to be done, or gloating over a defeated enemy? What is the media, effect of Richard's use of the mirror in this episode? What do you find interesting in Richard's rhetoric here? In what ways does this episode remind us of the end of spon's price book pdf II, i? In what ways is it significantly different from the earlier scene? Do we see this plot as more or less justified than the earlier one? Why (apart from the audience's historical knowledge) does the abbot's scheme seem unlikely to prosper?
It is appropriate that the an example, final act of the play should both conclude the depiction of Richard's struggles, and price pdf, tell of the beginning of Henry's difficulties. How Does The Media Influence. Richard, en route, for the Tower of London, takes his farewell of spon's book pdf Isabel (who is to return to her native France), only to learn that Bolingbroke has decided to write methods send him, instead, to Pomfret (Pontefract). York discovers his son, Aumerle, to be privy to a plot to kill Henry, and rushes to inform the king, who is also troubled by stories of the riotous behaviour of his son, Hal (who does not appear, but is the chief character of the three plays which follow in price book this cycle). The plot is frustrated, Aumerle pardoned and Carlisle banished. How To. On a hint from the king, Sir Piers Exton murders Richard, but is spon's book, banished for his pains. Troubled by feelings of how to write guilt, but, for the moment, safe from his enemies, Henry declares his wish to go on a pilgrimage to the Holy Land, though later (in the next play) he speaks more of a crusade. How, in book describing her husband's plight, do Isabel and Richard provide a résumé of the changing fortunes of the former and current rulers? Comment on Richard's prophecy of Northumberland's rebelling against Henry.
Both Shakespeare and the audience know that the earl did rebel, but, within the amendment guns, world of the play, as in historical fact, Henry did not have prior knowledge of this (though eventually he is able to see it coming). The two parts of this scene express in quite different ways York's belief that it is the will of God that the failed king, Richard, give way to spon's pdf the new ruler, Henry. Noting that York has paused, in his distress for methods Richard, the duchess summarizes the gist of his speech so far, allowing him to describe the popular acclaim of Henry, and price pdf, the contemptuous rejection of Richard. On Aumerle's entry, his nonchalant remarks about the proposed tournament at Oxford conceal his real interest, which is discovered when his father seizes the letter he sees his son to be carrying. How does the audience view the conduct of the two parents and their son in this episode? What is the effect of the king's conversation with Percy about his son? What is the audience's view of Henry's situation on how to write the arrival of his cousin, uncle and aunt, and of how he deals with this? How important is York to the audience as a touchstone or measure of correct political judgement? The short scene iv is by spon's price, way of an the media public explanation of what is to spon's price book follow.
Why does Henry wish Richard dead? Why should Shakespeare take the trouble, in so few lines, to state twice (what Henry supposedly said twice) the king's exact words, and then to give Exton's gloss as to what the words mean? Of what incident in amendment about Richard's reign are we reminded at this point? Richard's long soliloquy at spon's book pdf the start of scene v is arguably more moving than his earlier comments on his situation, both because it is how does opinion, made in private, and because it is more measured and less excessively self-pitying. How far do you support this view, and why?
What is the point of the spon's, groom's words to Richard, and the latter's response to these? Henry's fears about the rebels, which he explains to York, are at once resolved by news brought by Northumberland and Fitzwater, who have executed the ringleaders, save for Westminster (who appears to have died naturally, possibly in media effects prison) and Carlisle, who is banished. This is the spon's price pdf, cue for Exton's arrival with Richard's body. What is the roderick usher, audience's view of Henry's treatment of spon's price book pdf Exton? How far are we persuaded by the king's justification of his words and his wish for Richard's death? His desire to earn forgiveness by means of a pilgrimage seems genuine.
What obstacle lies in the way of the fulfilment of this desire? How effective, and in what is culture trait what ways, do you find the play's ending? General comment on all acts and scenes of the play appears above. This section deals more extensively with the most critical parts of the play. The importance of each scene (and, thus, its likely appeal to examiners) is indicated by the star (#42;) rating: the more stars, the more important! Relationship with the play and its general themes. At the start of the play, these two scenes are dramatically effective in introducing the historical situation and characters, and indicating the relationship between the public duty and spon's price pdf, the private concerns of the king and others. The play's first scene outlines the nature of the quarrel between Bolingbroke and Mowbray, which is really a quarrel between the king and the house of Lancaster. We see how the king, seemingly fully in an example control, attempts to spon's book pdf reconcile the adversaries, then determines to amendment settle their dispute by chivalrous means.
This very public scene is followed by an intimate exchange between Gaunt and Gloucester's widow, in which Gaunt refuses to act against Mowbray, but indicates Richard's responsibility for Gloucester's death: since the king is God's deputy, God's is the quarrel and it is price book, honourable, in spite of the duchess's pleas, to show patience. How To Methods. We see at once a discrepancy between Richard's public persona (the just and price book, powerful monarch) and his dubious actions; this contrasts with Gaunt's dignity and loyalty in public and private. To see Richard's behaviour in private, we should look to scene iv of this act. The stage directions at the start of these scenes make the media effects, most important point. Scene i is full of ceremonial, as the stage is filled with nobles and attendants. The scene has a quasi legal character, which we will see more fully developed in I, iii. The scene is full of spon's price opportunities for display of duty and chivalry - thus both Mowbray and Bolingbroke state their allegiance to Richard, at which point they may be expected to how does public opinion kneel.
It is not clear whether Mowbray's I spit at him (l. Price Book. 60) should be a literal insult. Though Richard eventually appoints the day for the trial by combat, it is Bolingbroke who issues the challenge in throwing down his gage, which Mowbray readily takes up. Having heard the charge and Mowbray's answer, Richard twice orders Mowbray to give up the gage, but is unable to compel him to do so. By contrast, scene ii is very intimate and private, with only two characters on stage; Gaunt says little but listens patiently, while conveying the impression that this private interview takes place in the sight of effects God. In the first scene Shakespeare skilfully exploits the etiquette of the spon's price book, court to convey information. As in scene iii, we hear the names of the principal characters stated repeatedly. As later they may be known by name or one of their titles, it is useful to is culture trait hear all of these. Although Richard's words are at this point sustained by the authority of his office, even here we see very real limits: ultimately his we were not born to sue, but to spon's price book command is hollow, since his suit has failed (Mowbray has not resigned the gage) and what he commands is simply the time and place of the show-down which Bolingbroke has prompted and Mowbray accepted. Given that three of these characters (Richard, Gaunt, Bolingbroke) are closely related, it is also worth noting at every point what form of address is used (intimate: my son, Harry; personal: Thomas Mowbray; familiar: Thomas, Edward or formal: the how to methods, Duke of spon's Norfolk).
Perhaps most interesting is the title John of Gaunt: this name, associated with his personal history and the subject of a series of puns through this act, apparently has a special honorific status, and he is happy to be known by it, rather than the formal Duke of Lancaster. Relationship with the play and its general themes. This is the key scene in the first act. Richard's decision in I, i, to resolve the dispute between Bolingbroke and Mowbray by means of a tournament, seems, when he makes it, to be a grand gesture, demonstrating his power and prestige. An Example Of Prejudice. However, it appears only now that Richard realizes the practical implications of his decision: if Mowbray wins, he knows too much for the king's peace of mind; if Bolingbroke wins, Richard will be threatened by his increased status. Halting the proceedings and banishing the men lets Richard apparently retain control of things, but also appears to be a violation of the laws of chivalry. As king, Richard is at the pinnacle of a hierarchy of laws and price book pdf, privileges; if he disregards these, as he repeatedly does, for reasons of expediency, he undermines his own position. As in I, i, Richard, while acting in an example a superficially authoritative manner, makes a hasty decision. He cannot foresee its consequences, but subsequent events appear to the audience to spon's price result from what happens here.
His banishing Bolingbroke leads him later to seize Henry's inheritance, which prompts the exile's return and effective assumption of power in the realm. This scene can be compared with IV, i, in which Henry presides over events, but in influence public opinion very different manner: where Richard is showy, concerned with the impression he makes, Henry is silent but politically aware. The public, ceremonial character of the spon's, tournament is shown in the theatre by use of how to write costume and properties, and by spon's price book pdf, the arrangement of the actors on stage. The particular garments worn by the king, by his officers, Aumerle and the Marshal, by the heralds, and by the two disputants, indicate at public opinion least the importance of the occasion, though the costume may show more exactly the status of the wearer. Actions are formal and ritualized: the marshal approaches the spon's pdf, defendant (Mowbray) and the appellant (Bolingbroke) to write address them. Weapons are presented to them (at line 100) and trumpets sound flourishes and a charge. The enemies occupy opposite pdf, sides of the stage (front) with Richard raised up on a das behind them.
All is prepared for media the action of the tournament, which never comes: Richard's intervention (which the audience may expect) alters the character of the proceedings, puts himself literally and metaphorically at the centre of the action, but is somewhat of an pdf anti-climax. To halt proceedings, he throws down his warder, which may remind us of the gages thrown down in I, i and IV, i. Any actors not named in the scene will fill the stage as attendant nobles: a helpful sketch of this scene appears in the New Cambridge edition (p. 38). The structure of the scene is, loosely: ceremonial of the tournament, Richard's intervention and sentence, the of prejudice, reaction of the banished men, reduction of Bolingbroke's banishment, his farewell to book Gaunt. The ceremonial quality noted above appears also in the language of this scene, where ritual forms are followed: the defendant and appellant are asked to identify themselves and state their causes. Although ready to amendment about express bitter enmity, they are required to book speak with dignity, and both show the utmost courtesy to their sovereign, though both know him to be implicated in Gloucester's death. Bolingbroke's request, that he kiss the how to, king's hand, is relayed by the Marshal, though Richard has doubtless heard it directly, and, to indicate their lofty status there is constant repetition of the full names and price pdf, titles of both disputants. (Between lines 100 and 112 each occurs three times, with slight variations, Bolingbroke's filling a complete pentameter line of verse!) Also worthy of note are images of discord or imprisonment, references to England and discussion of amendment about time and necessity. Finally, here, as elsewhere, it is always profitable to note the forms of price book pdf address used, whether name, (Bolingbroke) relationship, rank or title (cousin Hereford, Norfolk) or honorific form (my most sovereign liege) - the Elizabethan audience will be alert to the nuances of theory these, as when Gaunt bluntly addresses Richard as king, at line 225. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In the previous scene we observe Richard with his sycophantic favourites: we are troubled by his contempt for Bolingbroke, and his readiness to pay for spon's his Irish expedition through dubious taxation and seizure of Gaunt's estates: that he is concerned for Gaunt's wealth rather than his health is shocking. In this scene we see the contrast between the write methods, noble Gaunt who laments the results of Richard's poor administration, and the king's dismissing this honest man as a lunatic lean-witted fool.
Gaunt is motivated essentially by a love for his country and dismay at price what it has become under Richard's rule; from his conduct in I, ii and I, iii we know that he subordinates his own concerns (as his brother York does later) to those of the kingdom. Yet Richard accuses him of insolence. Once Gaunt is dead, York counsels Richard against the seizure of the Lancaster estates, but his remarks, too, fall on deaf ears: both in roderick usher his rebuke of Gaunt (lines 115 - 19) and his rejection of York's request (lines 209 - 10) Richard gives no reason for his words. He resorts to crude assertion of his authority rather than justify his actions (perhaps because they cannot be justified - he may know this, or may not even have considered it). The brief sequel to this, where Northumberland draws Ross and Willoughby into spon's book pdf, his plotting follows naturally: the men discuss what they have witnessed, articulate other grievances and look for roderick usher comfort, of spon's price book pdf which Northumberland duly speaks. Rebellion is shocking to Shakespeare's audience, but it has been well-established by now that Richard is, as we say, asking for it.
The structure of the scene is clear: first, Gaunt, hoping to correct his nephew's faults, foresees the ruin which will come on England if Richard cannot be dissuaded from his folly; this is followed by Richard's angry and contemptuous reaction to Gaunt, and his more polite, but effectively equally dismissive response to the kindly old duke of an example of prejudice York. Then comes the spon's price book, conspiracy. The first three sections are public, using the full stage, but the final section involves an intimate huddle and hushed voices, speaking treason. There is no obvious use of amendment guns properties, and Gaunt's condition requires him to be static as he delivers his judgement on Richard's rule. Price Pdf. It should be noted that the king does not hear the famous long speech. His actual rebuke to Richard is interrupted before he can complete it: perhaps we are to understand that Richard, had he been present would not have allowed the of prejudice, royal throne of kings speech to be uttered in full. The interest of this scene lies largely in its language. Even so small a thing as the respective greetings of the queen and of Richard are significant: where the price book, queen shows respect (noble uncle Lancaster), the effects, king is disrespectful (What comfort, man?) and uses his uncle's nickname (How is't with aged Gaunt?).
The final part of the price book, scene is notable for the business-like giving of information, and the sense of haste and bustle with which Northumberland speaks, but also for an interesting series of images, whereby we move from a tempest (Northumberland) to (ship)wreck (Ross) to the ships which bring intelligence and will later bring soldiers, and how does the media influence public, the port in Brittany from which these come. Gaunt's long speech is formal and rhetorical: it begins as a series of epithets, most introduced by this (the pronoun occurs seventeen times), to indicate some excellence of England. Gaunt sustains the series but delays the main verb clause, so we wait to hear what it is he has to say about this England. Spon's Pdf. When it comes, the effect is of incongruity: Gaunt asserts that this seat of Mars or other Eden now suffers the shame of is culture trait being bound in rotten bonds of ink-blotted parchment. The implied contrast is between the military achievements of heroic rulers of the past (Edward III, and his sons, the Black Prince, and Gaunt himself, perhaps) and the ignoble tax-farming and spon's price book, blank charters with which Richard has sustained his spendthrift court. The Elizabethan audience would be struck by the juxtaposition of images of chivalry with those of petty land-ownership and doubtful transactions in law.
Relationship with the play and its general themes. When Richard leaves the stage in II, i, he informs us that he will leave for Ireland the next day. An Example. For several scenes now we have observed how others have responded to his absence: Bolingbroke has returned, while Richard's supporters have proved ineffectual to resist him. While Bagot has saved his skin by flight, Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have paid with their lives for misleading the king. On his return, Richard is at first defiant, then, as he receives more and more bad news, introspective and fatalistic. The audience notes a striking distance between the wisdom of Richard's general comments and his inability to rule wisely. While Richard's exploration of the nature of kingship may earn some sympathy, this is lessened by his attack on his friends.
We have just seen them, under sentence of death, exhibit commendable dignity and loyalty to Richard, whose haste to condemn them is undeserved. Just as he has been politically unwise in following the counsel of his supporters, so he shows a poor understanding of their personal merits. This play is notable for its changing locations, as Shakespeare tries to depict events happening throughout the realm. The simplicity of the stage enables places to be indicated in conversation (we know that the tournament in I, iii is at Coventry, because we have been told this in I, i, for spon's price book example). Of Prejudice. Bolingbroke, landing at Ravenspurgh, swiftly crosses the country, and we meet him near Berkeley. In this scene, Richard, returning from Ireland, arrives at spon's price book pdf Harlech in north Wales. The structure of the scene derives from Richard's initial expressions of confidence (before and after Carlisle's comment and Aumerle's elaboration of it) and his responses to the news brought by Salisbury and Scroope. Apart from the entrances of Salisbury and how to methods, Scroope, there are interesting actions at the start of the scene and near its end. First, Richard appears to embrace the ground (salute. with my hand. greet. do. Spon's Price Book Pdf. favours with my royal hands).
Later, as if symbolizing his resignation, he invites his followers to sit with him upon the ground, a course of (in)action from which Carlisle duly dissuades him (wise men ne'er sit and wail their woes. . This is one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of language, and perhaps the first of those in which Richard, deprived of roderick usher political power, discovers a new rhetorical power, to dramatize his own loss. Spon's Price Book. It contains many of the play's best-known and often-quoted speeches. In his first long speech Richard appeals to the earth to sustain the rightful order of things by deploying its more sinister agents (spiders. toads. Write Methods. nettles. adder) against Bolingbroke. The request is fantastic (it would be at home in A Midsummer Night's Dream where such dangers lurk in the Palace wood) and comes ill from one who, as Gaunt has told us earlier, has so neglected his native land's best interest. That the earth is injured by the rebels' horses' hooves is a poetic conceit: it is Richard in fact who is harmed. In the next long speech, Richard compares his return to the rising of the sun (an image to spon's book which Shakespeare returns in the next scene, and in Henry IV, Part i , where Prince Hal likens himself to the sun hidden behind clouds). This leads to amendment about a definitive statement of the inalienable right of the king to rule: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/ Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. The balm (actually a perfumed mixture of balm [balsam resin] and oil) would be difficult (literally) to wash off (no modern soap or detergent being to hand) but its spiritual effect, says Richard, is permanent. Where dangerous creatures are at first invoked by Richard to harm Bolingbroke, they are now likened unjustly to his supporters whom he believes to have betrayed him (lines 129 - 34). He further offends by comparing them to Judas Iscariot, clearly implying that he is like Christ (he is price pdf, God's deputy but not His son).
There is roderick usher, no apology when he learns of his error, but Richard reflects on price book pdf the brevity of life and the certainty of death in a notable speech which also acknowledges the common humanity he shares with his subjects: I live with bread. feel want/ Taste grief, need friends. Relationship with the of prejudice, play and its general themes. Shakespeare has kept Richard and Henry apart since II, i, but we have a sense in the preceding scenes of book pdf their imminent meeting, which occurs here. Trait. While Bolingbroke is eager to submit to Richard's authority, yet he demands that his banishment be revoked, and his estates restored. Richard is advised by Aumerle to be diplomatic in the hope that he may enlist allies against Henry in the future. Although Bolingbroke makes a gesture of submission to him, Richard seems to accept as certain the spon's, loss of his throne to roderick usher his rival. This is spon's book pdf, one of the most interesting scenes in the play in terms of methods its staging (see the sketch in the New Cambridge edition, p. 39). The balcony represents the ramparts of Flint Castle, and the stage below is the spon's, base court, to which Richard must descend. Richard's appearance is likened by media, Bolingbroke to the rising of the sun: he appears most majestic here, yet there is pathos in the audience's awareness that his power is now to be eclipsed. He is invited to come down, and his descent (line 183) vividly shows his loss of authority.
Gestures of submission are important here, too: Bolingbroke says (line 36) that he will kneel, and at line 188 he does so - Richard's response suggests either that he believes Bolingbroke is insincere (he isn't, clearly) or that he (Richard) recognizes the inevitability of Henry's seizing the price book, throne. As with the tournament scene (I, iii) trumpets are sounded (line 61; see note in Macmillan edn., p. 170): the parley is less obviously ritualized than the an example, tournament, but there is an etiquette. Northumberland is rebuked by spon's book pdf, Richard, who has waited in vain for him to kneel (we see a similar disregard for traditional courtesy in IV, i). Northumberland speaks as Henry's envoy, Richard responds and how does the media public opinion, accepts the invitation to parley. Spon's Price Book Pdf. Bolingbroke, exemplary in observing the amendment guns, etiquette of the parley, acknowledges Richard's sovereignty, but Richard knows, as the audience does, that their rôles have effectively been reversed.
Northumberland's brusque manner towards Richard reveals this, where Bolingbroke is more courteous and deferential. Pdf. Finally, we should note (by inference from Richard's comment to his uncle) how York weeps to see Richard's degradation. To emphasise the majesty of the soon-to-be-deposed monarch, Shakespeare repeatedly uses his proper title King Richard (not, as elsewhere, cousin, nephew and about guns, so on) with one notable exception (line 6) which earns Northumberland a rebuke from York. It is price, notable that the title is used most often by Bolingbroke, who later refers twice to his majesty and addresses Richard directly as my gracious lord and most redoubted lord. Richard inverts the usual forms of respect, showing mock deference (Most mighty prince, my Lord Northumberland; line 172) and calling his rival King Bolingbroke and his majesty in the next line, and how to methods, speaking of spon's price pdf himself in the third person as merely the the media, king. Richard's fantasy of exchanging his royal privileges for the simple life of a poor pilgrim is spon's price book, pathetic: he is sorry for himself and articulates his sorrow eloquently enough to stir our sympathy, but this speech is self-indulgent and inappropriate: he could take Aumerle's advice (lines 131 - 2), grant Henry's requests and save face. The symbolism of theory Richard's coming down, in case the audience has missed it, is spelled out by the king in his exploration of the meanings of the words he repeats (down, base court and spon's book, up). In his ironic rebuke of Bolingbroke for debasing himself by kneeling (lines 190 - 1) Richard reminds us of his own similar action (with a different symbolic meaning) in the previous scene. It would appear that his real objection is not that Bolingbroke has no need to kneel, but that his heart is not in it: Up, cousin, up.
Your heart is up, I know/Thus high at least, although your knee be low. As in what trait the last scene the king is likened to the sun, but here it is spon's price book pdf, his generous rival Bolingbroke who states the likeness. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In one sense nothing really happens in this scene, which is valuable chiefly as comment and theory, explanation on events, at the mid-point in the drama. It is a very judicious scene in spon's price book that understanding of the reasons for Richard's failure as a king is mixed with sympathy for his plight. This is one of the series of roderick usher intimate, private interludes which run through the play, culminating in the most private of all, Richard's meditation in Pomfret, in spon's pdf V, v. The scene is set in a garden: one the one hand this contrasts with the media effects, public settings of the play's most important scenes; on the other, the real garden here, reminds us of Gaunt's repeated metaphor (II, iii: This earth of spon's price book pdf majesty. this other Eden, demi-paradise. What Is Culture Trait. this blessd plot, this earth) in which the whole country is likened to a garden, an idea developed in the dialogue in this scene. The queen (in reality a child) is presented as a rather pathetic young woman. She is made aware of the realities of the political situation, but her helplessness may evoke sympathy for herself and, by pdf, association, for Richard. Shakespeare varies a stock device (narrative information being reported by effects, a messenger or well-informed noble to others on book pdf stage) as the roderick usher, Gardener is able to divulge information which came last night/To a dear friend of the good Duke of York's yet which is already no more than everyone doth know: the queen has not been informed of what we would now call the word on spon's price the street.
Shakespeare takes some pains over the dialogue here. It is worth noting a number of is culture trait statements which establish the outdoor setting (about bowls and dancing - which give rise to a series of weak puns on rubs, bias and price pdf, keeping measure - or these trees: presumably the stage posts are used here). An Example Of Prejudice. But mostly, Shakespeare gives the Gardener an opportunity to expand the idea of England as a blessed plot or garden. A close study of all the imagery in the scene should be made, but some ideas can be noted here. When the Gardener instructs the Servant in his task, we may already note the ambiguity of his orders: he likens the ripe fruit to unruly children, while the servant is to be the executioner (we know that Bushy, Green and Wiltshire have just been executed by Bolingbroke's servants). The garden is a commonwealth in the Gardener's government and the weeds are without profit in sucking fertility from the flowers. In case we miss the price pdf, point, the Servant now spells out the analogy: Richard has neglected his sea-walld garden. This gives the Gardener, continuing the Servant's metaphor, the chance to explain that the garden is now being tended by Bolingbroke: Richard is effects, likened to a tree sheltering parasitic weeds which seemed in eating him to hold him up; the image is developed as the Gardener likens Richard's nobles to the boughs of price book pdf a fruit tree: these need regular pruning (cutting back) while in extreme cases, superfluous branches (useless or disloyal nobles) are lopped away.
Hearing this provokes the effects theory, queen to join the spon's price, conversation rebuking the Gardener who in Adam's likeness describes the expulsion from Eden of cursd man in the person of Richard. The extended metaphor of the scales, in which Bolingbroke now outweighs Richard, suggests the image of the two buckets (IV, i, 183-8) but in this case Richard is the heavier (with grief) while Bolingbroke mount(s) up on high. Relationship with the play and its general themes. In this scene what has been implied by Richard in III, iii and discussed by the Gardener in III, iv, is enacted, that is Richard's deposition. There is a ceremony for the coronation of a monarch, but no established form for abdication (hitherto kings have been killed unlawfully by effects theory, usurpers, but Bolingbroke wishes to act lawfully).
Thus, the principals have to make up the ritual as they go along. In an obvious reversal of the positions in the tournament scene, Bolingbroke presides, while others, Northumberland, York and chiefly Richard, enact the spon's book pdf, ritual of abdication. Richard has indicated his willingness to resign the crown, but, given a captive audience, seizes the opportunity to dramatize his loss. This is the last scene in an example which Richard and Bolingbroke appear together. Shakespeare is concerned with the legality of the proceedings: Henry and York wish the abdication to be legal, while Carlisle thinks this impossible and Northumberland is more or less indifferent, but aware of where the power lies.
The scene divides into three unequal parts (the series of price book accusations and an example, counter-accusations relating to Gloucester's death; the abdication, and the plotting of Aumerle, Carlisle and Westminster). Of these, the central section can be divided further into Carlisle's objection to spon's price book pdf the proceedings (107 - 161); Richard's relinquishing the crown (162 - 222); his refusal to read the charges against him (222 - 272); the breaking of the mirror (273 - 304) and of prejudice, Richard's departure (305 - 318). The fourth act of Richard II is an ambitious example of another variety of spon's price book pdf big scene, the write methods, ensemble-scene, in which a massive effect is obtained by the presence on stage of a large number of actors, several of whom have prominent speaking parts. Spon's Price Pdf. Richard is given a carefully delayed entry. The scene opens with a short episode involving angry petty squabbling: the of prejudice, quarrel between Aumerle and Fitzwater; which is followed by the excited throwing down of gauntlets. Price Book. This leads into the next episode, more serious and deeper in tone, in which the Bishop of Carlisle is the what is culture, chief actor. Book Pdf. His impassioned protest against Bolingbroke's proceedings raises the scene to a new level of feeling. Only then does Richard himself appear, when the scene is half-way through. The effect in the scene is that Richard II appears just before the crest of the wave: he inherits the roderick usher, excitement worked up in pdf the preceding episodes, and he dominates his scene by riding the climax.
Emrys Jones, Scenic Form in Shakespeare (p. Theory. 15) The staging of the scene once again requires almost the full resources of the Elizabethan stage. Rival factions can be massed on either side of the stage, while the central area will in turn be taken by the various accusers, starting with Bagot, by book, Carlisle and by Richard. At some point (where is not clear in the text) Bolingbroke will occupy the throne which was Richard's. The three conspirators at the end of the scene remind us of the plotters in II, i. This is a scene in which objects are important: as well as the throne, we must note the media effects theory, use of the gages at price book the start of the scene, the crown which Richard gives to about guns Bolingbroke, the paper (line 269) on price book which Richard's alleged offences are listed, and the mirror. The throwing of the gages becomes almost silly before Bolingbroke halts it. It would appear from of prejudice line 183 (On this side my hand and on spon's price book pdf that side thine) and subsequent remarks, that both men hold the crown for some time before Richard lets it go. In destroying the mirror, Richard enacts his own destruction while making his (shattered) image correspond truly to his kingship. When Bolingbroke (line 113) states his intention of ascending the write methods, throne, he is spon's price pdf, defied by Carlisle: whether Henry takes the throne at roderick usher once or is delayed by Carlisle is not given in the stage directions, any more than is the manner of his ascent. As elsewhere, titles are instructive: York addresses Bolingbroke as Duke of Lancaster before proclaiming him Henry, fourth of that name.
Even Carlisle now refers merely to Richard, while Bolingbroke does likewise. Though Richard ironically cries God save the king, he notes that no-one present feels able to say Amen to his acclamation. Richard now associates Henry with the sun (221, 261) while recognizing that he once dazzled beholders as the sun does (283 - 4). As he looks into the mirror, Richard examines the symbolism of the king's face (the word is re-iterated and placed in a series of rhetorical questions: Was/is this the face. ). The term indicates his sense of the spon's pdf, difference between the literal face of the ordinary man (he still has this) and the kingly authority others see in the face of the ruler (this has passed to what is culture Henry). This is Shakespeare's comment on the doctrine of the King's Two Bodies. For another reading of this scene click here. Relationship with the play and its general themes.
This scene is a bridge between IV, i, where Richard's self-dramatization reaches a climax, and the philosophical acceptance of spon's book pdf his situation which redeems and dignifies Richard in V, v. It is a sequel to III, iv, as the appearance of the queen evokes sympathy for Richard, though he seems now not to need this, and tells her so. And it prepares us for the next play in the sequence (Henry IV, Part i) as Richard correctly forecasts Northumberland's future dissatisfaction with his lot, and fomenting of rebellion. Outside the write methods, political process, Richard has the price book, shrewdness he lacked in what trait office. Spon's Price. The action here precedes what York describes at the start of scene ii, which is Henry's and Richard's coming into of prejudice, London. As with the queen's earlier appearance (III, iv) her opening words indicate the location (a street which Richard must take on his way to the Tower of London). Although this is pdf, a public place, the the media influence, guard, who accompanies Richard but does not speak, evidently defers to the queen, who takes her leave of Richard before the spon's price book, Northumberland's arrival changes the mood. The queen's attendants are also silent. The queen is emotional but Richard is about guns, composed and serene; as Hamlet does to Horatio, and as Othello does in his final speech, Richard invites his queen, in time to come, to tell. the price, lamentable tale of him, which will send the hearers weeping to their beds. The decorum and pathos here contrast with the brusqueness of what follows: throughout the drama, Northumberland acts for Bolingbroke against effects, Richard (rather as Norfolk did for Richard against Gloucester). In doing so, Northumberland has been more zealous than necessary, and pdf, his personal malice is evident: we can see Henry as an honest man in an impossible position; we cannot see Northumberland in this light. The force of Richard's stinging rebuke here is felt by the audience, most of write methods whom will know its historical accuracy.
Whether Richard actually made this prediction is not important: in the series of price book pdf history plays, Northumberland's ambition is apparent already; later it will be recognized (and punished) by Henry. In Henry IV, Part ii the king sees Richard's words here as an accurate prophecy. Northumberland's curt rejoinder shows that he cares nothing for Richard. Guns. My guilt be on my head tells the audience that this is a bad man. Note the contrast between the strained language of the queen, who invites her attendants (really, the audience) to wash her fair rose. with true love tears, and the stoicism of book pdf Richard, who is an example of prejudice, preparing for his death (does he guess how imminent this is?) and bids her take up the religious life.
At the end of this scene (81-86) we find the sequence, common in Shakespeare generally, but not in this play, of short alternating lines (known as stichomythia) which also introduce use of rhyme, to mark with pathos Richard's taking leave of the queen. Price Pdf. Otherwise the scene is notable for Richard's comment on the deposing of a rightful king, his likening of Northumberland to a ladder wherewithal. Bolingbroke ascends (his) throne (55), and Richard's quibble on the double divorce - from his queen and from his crown. Relationship with the what, play and its general themes. Since Richard is alone in his cell in Pomfret (Pontefract), his meditation on his misfortune has more pathos than his self-pity in IV, i. He has discovered poetic and philosophic insights into man's isolation, the nature of imprisonment, of imagination and of time. Spon's Book Pdf. Richard is ready for his death and confront his murderers with dignity and heroic defiance - he is at last the man of action. The audience knows, as Richard does not until the methods, end of the scene, that his murderers are already on the way.
Although Richard has many long speeches, and from Act III onwards these are increasingly perceptive and price book, eloquent, this scene contains his only soliloquy in the whole play. In acquiring wisdom and stripped of privilege, Richard has acquired the full humanity hitherto denied him by his kingly office and an example of prejudice, his melodramatic and spon's book, self-pitying response to of prejudice its loss. The long speech is painful to us because we know what is to be its sequel. In his last appearance Richard stood on a crowded stage, to some extent playing to the gallery. Now he has the whole stage to himself at first, followed by a touching and intimate encounter with an ordinary man whose affection for him is plain. Price Book Pdf. Though the audience may accept that Richard is now only an ordinary man, yet his murder is an ugly act of violence which is hard to justify, though politically expedient. Richard's long speech is almost like a poem and important detail cannot readily be indicated here: it is advisable to study the whole soliloquy, looking out for the sequence of ideas and the principal images and the media influence public opinion, conceits. Richard's love of puns is shown when he addresses the groom as noble peer (why?).
You should also note the book, discussion of what trait roan Barbary, leading to Richard's observation that he was not made a horse but has borne a burthen like an ass, spurred on by jauncing Bolingbroke. Richard and price, Bolingbroke: the nature of kingship. In an exam you may encounter a question about one or both of the principal characters, a question about the nature of kingship, or a statement (such as Richard's Not all the water in the rough rude sea. ) with which you are invited to agree. Make sure you answer the question as set: if it specifies one character, you can only the media influence opinion write (briefly) of the other to clarify your subject. The notes which follow should enable you to work out a structure for any question in this area: be ready to arrange your material to support your argument. Structurally, the spon's pdf, play charts Richard's loss of power and Henry's ascent: this is made explicit in metaphor (up/down, buckets, base court etc.). In the case of Richard the roderick usher, loss of kingly authority leads to spon's book pdf personal growth: Richard acquires humanity and humility, and the play is a tragedie as he acknowledges the universal nature of what is culture suffering.
As characters, the two are readily contrasted - Richard is ostentatious and spon's, fond of rhetorical flourishes; Bolingbroke says little, but means much. Richard is politically inept; Henry is a shrewd political operator. How Does The Media Public. Richard has an pdf early mediaeval belief in the media public opinion absolute monarchy; Bolingbroke understands modern power-politics and how to enlist others' support. Richard's Irish expedition is not well-managed (he leaves York to spon's price pdf guard his interests); Henry's return is managed efficiently. Richard chooses friends who cannot help him in time of the media influence public need; Henry's friends are able to deliver. Their attitudes to kingship differ radically. Richard sees the crown as his by right; because he is king, his decisions are almost by definition correct, approved by God and not to spon's price book pdf be resisted. Henry sees the kingship as a sacred duty which he reluctantly accepts, because he is competent to rule: he does not promote himself or show off, but works to defend the national interest, in the terms laid down by Gaunt in II,i, as he laments Richard's abuse of taxation. The drama gives Shakespeare licence to present a range of views about kingship. Two extreme views (those of Carlisle and Northumberland) meet with little support, but the pragmatic attitudes of of prejudice Bolingbroke, York and Henry's allies (other than the Percy family) would appear to receive endorsement from the course of events, and the way in which they are presented.
Richard expresses the view (in III, ii) that the crown is inalienable: Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king. This belief receives its most consistent support from Carlisle: when Henry is to ascend the spon's book pdf, royal throne in roderick usher God's name, Carlisle cries God forbid. His covert response to Richard's abdication is to plot Henry's assassination: in his eyes murder is less serious than treason, which he believes Richard's supplanting by Henry to be. Since the church is the guarantor of the king's divine right to rule, the price book pdf, church's authority is weakened by what has happened, so we may see self-interest at work. Northumberland is a very modern type; he may pay lip service to the sacred nature of kingship, but sees the king merely as a man who wields supreme power; Bolingbroke is more powerful than Richard, so he can take his throne. Henry repeatedly resists Northumberland's promptings: he does not wish to go so far, nor so quickly.
While Richard is in Ireland, York tries to defend the king's interests but recognizes his inability to counter Henry's military power. He moves slowly, and when Richard effectively yields to guns his enemies in III,iii, York weeps (we know this from Richard's remark). But in spon's price pdf IV,i, York is central to the deposition ceremony and in guns V,ii pledges his loyalty to the new monarch whose state and honour he for aye allows. Book. He shows his loyalty in reporting his son's treachery to Henry; where the duchess is moved by her feelings as a mother, York subordinates his paternal feelings to his high sense of duty. What York and Henry show the audience is a moderate view: the king is divinely appointed to rule, but his kingship is an obligation to the country, not an opportunity for self aggrandisement.
The crown can be forfeited if the roderick usher, king fails to rule well. Since Henry's triumph is in price book pdf a chain of media effects historical events which leads to Elizabeth's accession Shakespeare is safe to depict Richard's overthrow, so long as it is clear that this is justified by the peculiar circumstances of the time, and by the fact that Richard freely abdicates. Exton's murder is the pdf, killing of a good man, but not regicide (murder of a king). Shakespeare's history plays (especially Henry IV, Part i, the sequel to roderick usher Richard II ) are quite explicit in condemning treason. Any discussion of these two characters may lead to consideration of price book pdf recurrent images. The sun and day represent kingly rule; in the first half of the play the sun image is claimed by Richard (III,ii and III,iii) but at Harlech Castle (III,ii), Richard speaks of Bolingbroke's fair day, as the crown is to pass to his rival. In the central part of the play (especially III,iii and IV,i) images of ascent and descent recur. We use these metaphorically in a loose everyday sense to express ideas of status (high and low; going up, coming down) but they are dramatized in III,iii by Richard's action in coming down from the battlements of Flint Castle, to which his words draw our attention (references to media effects theory the base-court, kneeling and so on). Spon's Price Book. Finally, as Henry kneels, Richard questions his fealty: Up, cousin, up, your heart is up, I know. Later (IV,i) he will compare himself and Henry to how to write two buckets: as one goes down (full of tears) the other (Bolingbroke) rises.
In any scene, it is instructive to note the forms of address characters use to one another. Price. Belief in how to write Richard's continuing title to the throne can be discerned in these. Northumberland is the first to refer to Richard merely by his Christian name; York rebukes him, but Bolingbroke suggests that it is a slip of the tongue: this may be charitable to price Northumberland. After Henry accedes to the throne, characters may or may not refer to him as the King; be alert to this. This play is principally about Richard and in the middle and how to write, latter parts of the play, he becomes more prominent in the drama.
In Act III he seems by turns pathetic and defiant; his appeal to nature in III,ii is bizarre, his self-pity in this scene and III,iii may appear unattractive. In IV,i, as he loses the reality of power, Richard seeks to spon's pdf dominate the an example, proceedings. Noting that his throne can be taken away, but not his grief, he performs a series of actions which dramatize his situation. These culminate in the smashing of the mirror, an action which suggests a lack of self-control. But in spon's price Act V, having taken leave of his wife, Richard gains in dignity. Effects. He is reconciled to his fate, sees the universal character of suffering and price, meets his death with courage and fortitude. Richard is never a good king, but he becomes a very good man. The king's two bodies and the royal we This should not confuse you too much. The king is roderick usher, believed to be two people in one: the ordinary man, and the king's majesty (God's deputy on earth). As these two are embodied in one person, the king refers to himself using the first person plural pronouns we/us to refer to spon's price the king and his majesty.
When he is guns, addressed (as king) it is the majesty to whom people speak. This is spon's price, one of Shakespeare's plays in which theatrical language is not merely the narrative medium, but is also a subject of the roderick usher, drama: the play is about language. You should be aware that any essay in which you contrast the characters and fortunes of Richard and Bolingbroke will involve comparison of their language, among other things. Briefly, Henry is capable of eloquence, as in pdf his accusation of Mowbray in I, i, in his speeches before the what, tournament in I, iii, and especially in his praise of Richard's sun-like majesty in spon's book pdf III, iii. What Is Culture Trait. But he can be silent, as in his response to Northumberland's flattery in II, iii. Price Pdf. His speech is business-like where it needs to be, and he has no time for ostentation: as he becomes more powerful, to simplify greatly, so he becomes more sparing of his words.
Richard, by contrast, loves the sound of his own voice. Effects. When he has effective power, as at the start of the play, he has a liking for price book pdf unnecessary display (I, i and I, iii) but is more ready to issue absolute commands than to give reasons (as in effects II, i). Before he gains power, Henry always tries to justify his actions; when he has power, he tries to present his actions as reasonable, which, mostly, they are. As his power wanes, Richard becomes eloquent in his introspection, engaging our sympathy but indulging in spon's price book pdf self-pity and jumping to rash conclusions (as in his condemnation of his friends in III, ii). His abdication is blatantly theatrical, but he achieves a more complete humanity and roderick usher, peace with himself in the play's last act. Richard, as ruler, fails to spon's book grasp that the display of authority needs to be backed up with the reality of power . This may mean cultivating his own popularity, as Bolingbroke is said to do (V, i, 7 - 21) but more importantly establishing a broad power base among the amendment, nobility and spon's book pdf, commons, rather than indulging a clique of sycophants while excluding many of the most powerful in the land. From the how to write methods, start of the play, Shakespeare establishes a sense of utterances forceful in manner, but not backed up by real power. Richard believes in his majesty, a sacred, quasi-magical quality which comes from God and is inalienable (Not all the water in the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from an anointed king; III, ii, 54 - 55) and so do others, Carlisle wholly and Henry to spon's price a point. But the moment powerful people cease to believe in this (as Northumberland has) the game is up.
There is a calculating quality in Bolingbroke's speech by of prejudice, contrast: he never threatens what he cannot deliver. In II, i, Richard rants at the dying Gaunt, speaking of punishment only forestalled by his uncle's age and sickness, then sets in train the seizure of his estates, wrongly supposing that he can do this without risk. But in III, i, Henry actually executes three of Richard's counsellors, one of them (Wiltshire) a noble, knowing that his action is sanctioned by his and Northumberland's soldiers. Discussion of the play's language can also be thought of in terms of the variety of spon's book poetic forms and of imagery , especially related groups of images (images of nature, the four elements, the sun) recurring throughout the drama. Trait. Space does not permit full discussion of these here, and you are directed for a more extensive treatment to Brodie's Notes , pp. 86 - 91 ( Style: Variety, Word-play, Rhyme, Imagery ) and price, the section headed Language (pp. 31 - 34) in roderick usher the introduction to spon's pdf the New Cambridge edition of the how to write, play. You should have a clear sense of the different headings or categories under which you would organize comment on spon's book the play's language, and about, be aware that examiners might invite this comment in book pdf general or specific terms. It is amendment guns, quite likely, for example, that you might be asked about the theatrical effectiveness of the play's language - that is, how it works in conveying narrative, giving insight into character or attitudes, and price pdf, engaging the sympathy or revulsion of the how does influence, audience. The comment below is the outline of a lecture given at spon's pdf a study day for A level students.
notes from a lecture by methods, Dr. Paul Hammond at Leeds University. Language is not just a medium of the spon's, play, but one of an example of prejudice its subjects. Language is used as an instrument of political control and manipulation. We are shown how power operates through language. Political uses of language can be considered under these headings: The rhetoric of command: Richard uses this early in the play, but not much hereafter. We were not born to price sue, but to command. At the end of this statement Richard admits he is already losing power.
The rhetoric of an example of prejudice persuasion: Richard tries to patch up the differences of Bolingbroke and Mowbray. This, too, fails. The rhetoric of authentication: Richard and others appeal to the source of their authority. Richard appeals to God. In doing this he reminds others of the source of his power. Bolingbroke does so: In God's name I'll ascend the regal throne and Carlisle retorts in like manner: Marry, God forbid. The rhetoric of display: The power of the monarchy is displayed through verbal imagery (compare also the visual stage imagery of pageantry, costume and theatrical display - use of throne, crown and so on: Richard is book, aware of both kinds of imagery). All these kinds of rhetoric gradually cease to work for Richard. The implication is politically dangerous: that rulers have no power if their subjects refuse to be manipulated. The play is very concerned with the use of language.
The audience lived in a society dependent on the spoken word. Roderick Usher. Those who were illiterate would be used to hearing long sermons and stories. Those who were literate were trained at school in the arts of using language rhetorically to persuade. Spon's. Having learned to argue effectively they would be well able to media theory judge others' rhetorical skills. Act I, scene i alerts us to the fact that this play is to be about spon's price, language. Richard begins with the rhetoric of control and power.
He has a monopoly of command here: he is to be the arbiter of the dispute. In I, iii, the tournament is a ritual with a set order and forms of expression (the closest modern equivalent would be a law court). The ritual here is ancient and traditional and has little to do with Richard's power as king. He chooses to use his temporal power to how to write methods break the ritual of divine justice on which the tournament is based (God decides in the trial by combat). Spon's Price Book. Richard halts the contest, asserts his own power and media effects theory, dispenses with the divine justice. He replaces the ritual language with his own personal language, and his words are no longer effective, only decorative. The (musical) flourish at price pdf line 122 matches the rhetorical flourish with which his judgement is delivered. The power of Richard's utterances appears as he easily remits four years of Bolingbroke's exile, but its limits are noted by Gaunt (226) who observes that Richard is powerless to extend his life. Though Richard's word is law in this scene, it will not be so for long.
From this point in the play we note the is culture, contrast between Richard's and Bolingbroke's speech. Spon's Book Pdf. On his return from roderick usher exile, Bolingbroke is plain, direct and book, forceful. In II, iii, line 70 he insist that Berkeley address him by the media public, his proper title - Lancaster. When York accuses him of treason in spon's price book returning before his exile has expired, he justifies himself by a quibble, taking refuge in a legal nicety. Bolingbroke's actions appear honest for a while, as he metes out justice to trait Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire, and his simple and price book, effective words and amendment about, actions are very different from Richard's flourishes and self-glorification. Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire have razed out his imprese, the heraldic sign which declares his identity of spon's book Lancaster. However, the audience may be troubled in wondering by what authority Bolingbroke executes these men. On his return from Ireland (III, ii) Richard greets the roderick usher, earth using a familiar image of mother and child, yet reverses the usual rôles, as he tries to own the earth and direct it to spon's pdf act as an effective agent of harm to theory his enemies.
This demonstrates Richard's compulsive tendency to retreat into a fantastic world of excess and spon's, disproportion. As he invokes spiders and toads to be his soldiers, we are aware that he lacks real forces (he is about to find this out). His language is grotesque and bizarre, not the rhetoric of what is culture realistic command or persuasion. In this scene, discussion of language becomes explicit: Salisbury, bringing bad news, says: Discomfort guides my tongue while Scroope refers to spon's his own care-tuned tongue. Is Culture. Richard urges morbid conversation: Of comfort no man speak as he wants to sit upon spon's book the ground and tell sad stories. While Aumerle's brief interruptions are all practical, Richard wants only to talk and write. An Example Of Prejudice. His musings lead him (151) to question his and spon's price pdf, others' identity. His language isolates him from media effects theory his supporters; it is no longer functional but self-consolatory. In III, iii, at line 144, Richard turns the power game into a language game: first he asks a series of questions and proceeds, in self-dramatizing fashion, to answer them (Must he submit?/ The King shall do it. ) Then he changes from he to I, indicating a problem of identity. Spon's Book. He can no longer use language to display power, so uses it to display his spirituality, imagining himself as a humble hermit, but the language disturbs by its extravagance.
From line 161 on, the language becomes even more grotesque: Richard shows no interest in confronting Bolingbroke's army, but rather in using his and Aumerle's tears to cause foul weather and what is culture, dearth or to make a pair of graves. He has retreated into spon's price, image-making, but communication has broken down. In IV, i, Richard, on his entry, tries to invent a new ritual of uncrowning and to invent the language for this. Roderick Usher. While Bolingbroke presides over the ceremony it is price book, largely Richard who enacts it, and uses the roderick usher, objects of ritual: he transfers the crown, refuses Northumberland's paper, but improvises his own confession, and introduces the spon's price book pdf, final ritual object in the mirror, giving a commentary on the destruction of himself which he enacts. In V, v, the public, solitary Richard recognizes how hard it is to conceive of images, as he tries to invent an price book pdf imaginary world to people his cell. Roderick Usher. He can now see the gap between his ideas and language and the real world; his isolation is explicit, and he is aware of it. He now has no audience. At the start of the play everyone is obliged to pdf acquiesce in Richard's language game. He now has no power, only language, which is decorative and consolatory. We have moved from a world in which images authenticate (real) power, through a struggle to sustain this, to language itself, which is all Richard has left.
Act IV, scene i (the deposition scene); summary of a lecture by David Lindley at Leeds University. Two questions to consider are: Why is the main action preceded by the sections in which Aumerle and Carlisle figure prominently? Why does the about, scene continue beyond Richard's renunciation of the crown, which is its natural climax? The scene begins the second half of the play. It recollects the opening of the spon's pdf, whole play and points a parallel between Bolingbroke and Richard. It emphasises the clash of what aristocratic pride with law and kingly power. It looks back to events before the play's opening, showing how present events are determined by the past, and the continuity of history.
It reminds us that the events of the play are historical. Henry IV faces difficulties similar to those of Richard, but he deals with them differently. By way of contrast, Carlisle sets forth a view of the king as above judgement. He foretells future events (in this play, other than prompting Exton's murder of Richard, Henry has avoided bloodshed, but it will come later in his reign). We see the events which cause the spon's book pdf, future. When Richard enters the scene a number of people are under suspicion or arrest: Aumerle and his supporters, Carlisle, Richard himself. Shakespeare added and invented this part of the scene.
There is no historical basis for it. There is no suspense involved in roderick usher this scene, for its outcome is already known (Richard has earlier given up the crown). The focus is not on what is to price book pdf happen, but how it will happen. It is a struggle for theatrical, not political dominance. Richard tries to gain the audience's attention: note how he swamps Northumberland with words.
This is a play which seems deliberately not to indulge in an example action. There is suspension or paralysis of action whenever it threatens. How then is our interest sustained? The focus of the spon's book, scene is on amendment objects rather than actions , to each of which objects Richard has a different attitude. He resigns the crown , the symbol of power. He refuses to read the paper listing his crimes, the symbol of real actions. He smashes the mirror , symbol of vanity and self-knowledge, and shadow of his face. It is a dramatic moment when Richard's wish to turn everything into images collapses. This prepares us for the prison scene (V, v). Coping with tasks in A level exams. In preparing for the exam you should be aware of the price book pdf, different kinds of question you will have to answer.
In studying the text closely you should simply realise that the material studied can be approached in different ways in the exam. Tasks based on a passage from the play. In theory any scene in methods the play could be chosen; in practice the number of price book pdf suitable scenes is more limited, but of course the extract chosen will only be a brief part of a much longer scene. Because of the part of the question (usually) which refers to the themes of the play (not necessarily in so many words) and how does the media opinion, which implies consideration of before and after, scenes from the middle of the text are more likely to be chosen. What the examiners do NOT want is a gloss (prose paraphrase) of the extract given. This might make you feel secure, but you won't be.
What (usually) is required is spon's book, as follows: Consideration of the scene's treatment of the play's general themes - the extract and its place in relation to amendment about guns the rest of the play. Matters of price book pdf staging and theatrical presentation as implied in the text: use of objects; movements; relationships on stage (to whom are speeches addressed?) and the scene's structure (in episodes). Questions about theatrical presentation are NOT questions about character and the content of speeches. How a character (or characters) is (are) revealed in the dialogue.
Again, this is not a question which invites paraphrase, but discussion of rhetoric. Usually, the examiners will give you an outline of how you should answer the question. Write Methods. You must organize your answer in these terms. Once again, remember not merely to paraphrase or give a loose running commentary. Tasks based on themes and characters. The examiners want to see lots of material but without irrelevance or sacrifice of depth and thoroughness. In general, essays produced in trial examinations have shown too much narrowness of approach.
It is essential to plan your essay to ensure that sufficient range of comment appears. This plan need not be beautiful, nor take more than a few minutes, but should be comprehensive. Embody the spon's price, plan in your opening sentence(s), e.g. In Richard II Shakespeare presents the audience with a range of ideas about the nature of kingship: to Carlisle the right to rule is God-given and inalienable, while for Northumberland the throne is available to the candidate who wields most effective power; between these extremes we see how York, Bolingbroke and, above all, Richard, come gradually to how does the media influence public modify their ideas. The example questions below come from past Advanced level papers: #147;It is the cynical and devious who prosper in Richard II .#148; Do you agree? How does Shakespeare present Richard and Bolingbroke as contrasting personalities and price pdf, kings in Richard II ? By what means and with what success does Shakespeare attempt to secure our sympathy for Richard? In what ways do the minor characters serve to heighten the tragic effect of the play Richard II ? You should deal particularly with two or three characters (other than Richard and Bolingbroke). The examiners will play fair and certainly won't set an essay on the Second Herald or the Welsh Captain. Essays explicitly about a single character are comparatively rare at roderick usher 'A' level (as they invite the prepared essay). Essays may well be about relationships and the theatrical presentation of characters.
In this play, questions about Richard and Bolingbroke must be expected. Questions about York, Aumerle and Northumberland are also possible. The queen, the caterpillars, Carlisle and spon's book pdf, Gaunt also contribute to how we see Richard, but are not in enough of the play to sustain essays on their own. Questions on themes look harder but aren't, usually. And they inhibit the retelling-with-comment method you should avoid. The central theme of this play is the how to methods, nature of spon's book kingship. Questions about kingship may appear as questions (or statements to which you respond) about order/disorder, anarchy, rule or government . For example, you may need to discuss the idea of the King's two bodies or whether the play supports the view that not all the water in guns the rough rude sea/Can wash the balm off from th'anointed king.
You may be asked in what sense the play is a history play (how does Shakespeare interpret history to present a debate on ideas of kingship) or how Shakespeare addresses political issues. Any order/disorder question is really a question about the contrasting approaches and fortunes of Richard and Henry, which is book pdf, qualified by the views (on the sources and nature of kingship) of these two, and of others, among them Carlisle, Bagot, Fitzwater, Aumerle, Northumberland, Gaunt and influence public opinion, York, as well as the Gardener. If you are given a statement to respond to, do not suppose you must agree or disagree wholly. Usually, the statement will be more or less fair but will invite some qualification. Wholly wrong comments are never used. Often the accuracy of a statement may depend upon the interpretation given to the text in performance.
Questions about the spon's book, play as theatre. A third kind of question will allow you to examine the play in amendment about guns explicitly theatrical terms (note that discussion of dramatic qualities is perfectly in order in the other types of question). Price. Subjects on which you should be ready to answer would include some of the things discussed in a context-based question, but seen in the perspective of the whole play (structure, actions, properties and language). Other subjects would include the unity (or lack of it) of the play (organic coherence, consistency of tone - see, for example, A. P. Rossiter's essay, Uncomformity in Richard II , in amendment the Casebook guide, pp. Price Book. 214-229) and Shakespeare's use of oppositions or contrasting elements: Richard and Henry; public (formal, ceremonial) and private (informal) scenes; action and inaction; Northumberland's power politics and Carlisle's divine right of kings, and roderick usher, so on: these things are not to be examined simply in their own right, but in terms of spon's price their effect on the play as a work of theatre.
As language is of such importance here, this is discussed more fully in a separate section of this guide. A very basic outline for how to methods revision. Use this very basic outline to learn the structure of the play. Adapt or customize it to spon's book suit your preferred methods of study. Bolingbroke challenges Mowbray (Norfolk) for killing his uncle (Gloucester). Effects Theory. Richard declares a tournament at Coventry. Gaunt rejects Duchess's (Gloucesters's widow's) plea for revenge: God's is the quarrel. Coventry - the lists - no result but Mowbray and Bolingbroke (Henry, Hereford, Lancaster, King) banished. Richard plans to take Gaunt's estates. Gaunt makes mega-patriotic speech and spon's price book pdf, dies. Richard is rude and seizes his goods; Northumberland is unimpressed and tells of a very tasty plot (lots of names) France - heading for Ravenspurgh.
Bushy, Bagot and the queen - surely the least memorable scene in the play; Bagot goes to Ireland; the other two (Greene, Bushy) don't. York is worried. Of Prejudice. Bolingbroke near Berkeley - meets pals and York. Salisbury and spon's book pdf, a Welsh captain tell us Richard has lost his army - rumoured to be dead. Caterpillars - Bushy, Greene and Wiltshire get the chop (why not Bagot? See above). Harlech - king gets lots of how to write methods bad news but makes some ace speeches: Spiders. Spon's Pdf. toads,Not all the effects, water in the rough rude sea. and book pdf, For God's sake let us sit upon the ground. . Flint Castle - Richard like the sun on the ramparts but comes down into the base court and says Up, cousin, up. . The Queen and the Gardener - cue a load of metaphors. Very easy - it's all one scene; note its structure and the use of objects (the gages, the throne, the amendment, crown and the mirror etc. etc.) Richard abdicates and spon's price book pdf, Henry becomes king (How? When?) Plot at the end like in II, i, but this time its Carlisle, Westminster and Aumerle against Henry. (No chance of this one succeeding). First of (too) many scenes: Richard bids dignified farewell to his queen, and is diverted from the trait, Tower of pdf London to Pomfret (sounds like pommes frtes) Castle.
York is sorry for Richard but supports Henry now, and roderick usher, proves it by reporting his son's plotting. Henry is worried about his unthrifty son (Hal, later Henry V) an spon's price pdf advert for the next play in the series. Cue for some slapstick as Aumerle rushes in, asks Henry to lock the door, then York turns up, then the Duchess. Media. Henry graciously spares Aumerle but demotes him to Rutland. Exton thinks he should kill Richard. (v) Richard in prison; he is philosophical and resolute; he learns from the groom of his horse's disloyalty and is duly murdered. Northumberland and Fitzwater have sorted out the price book, would-be rebels. Westminster has died (naturally) but Carlisle is banished. Exton is also banished and the media opinion, Henry decides to go on price book pilgrimage to the Holy Land to make up for media effects theory what he's done. But he never goes (Why not?) Please acknowledge my authorship by giving the URL of any pages you use, and/or include the copyright symbol. Suggestions for improvement are welcome.
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2017 MBA Essay Questions: Columbia Business School. Columbia#8217;s rolling application process, the pdf J-Term, plus Early Decision vs Regular Decision it#8217;s all discussed in our Columbia MBA essay guide. Class of 2020 / J-Term Class of 2019. As has been the amendment about case for a very long time, the 2017 Columbia MBA app has are three essays plus a short-answer question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (50 characters) First up, we have to point out spon's price book pdf that those are characters not words which means you have next to nothing in terms of space to work with. This is intended to be literally what you will be recruiting for when you are ready to the media public opinion graduate. Spon's Price Book Pdf. Then you can expand upon that in Essays 1 and 2. Media Effects Theory. Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to spon's price date. What are your career goals over how does influence opinion the next 3-5 years and what, in price, your imagination, would be your long-term dream job? (500 words) This is nearly identical to the main career goals question that Columbia has asked for several cycles now, with a key improvement of specificity on timeframes for the S/T goal, and a new twist where they#8217;re looking for of prejudice, a #8220;dream job#8221; #8212; which could prove tricky for some! You are going to run into trouble, for spon's book pdf, example, if you say your short-term goal is to become a consultant and your long-term goal is to media open a restaurant.
You can play that card if you like, but thar be dragons. Despite Columbia#8217;s lofty adjectives of #8220;imagination#8221; and #8220;dream#8221; we still advise BSers to be reasonable in what they define as a L/T goal. Our Columbia guide explains. The full time MBA experience includes academics, recruiting, and networking. What are your personal priorities and how do you anticipate allocating your time at Columbia Business School? (250 words) Another simplified version of a Columbia classic! This one is, again, less ambiguous in its phrasing, which is awesome. Book Pdf. Have we mentioned recently how important school research is? Please select and answer one of the following essay questions: (250 words) a. Please tell us what you feel most passionate about in life. b. If you were given a free day and is culture could spend it anywhere, in any way you choose, what would you do? These two are simply alternatives to the previous seasons#8217; versions of Essay 3, where they want to get to know you as a person.
The most important objective with this question? AUTHENTICITY. Spon's Book Pdf. Please don#8217;t come up with something you think #8220;sounds good.#8221; Think about what the REAL answer is effects (yeah, we know, not easy!!) and go with that. The other good news? Columbia is now back to price book pdf being super specific on essay length. Last year they tried an experiment with offering applicants a sliding word count, which we predicted they would ditch this time, and boy, are we glad they did! BSers do much better with clear direction and no ambiguity. How To Methods. The essay lengths this year are reasonable: Not so long you don#8217;t know what to do with yourself, but long enough to answer the pdf question sufficiently.
For the record: A 500-word essay should fit on what trait, one page; 250 words is two decent-sized paragraphs. Spon's. Don#8217;t go over. Or at least, not by much. essay critique: Columbia essay 1 and influence an edtech career (September 2017) You can also check out what we said about past season questions on this page; those discussions may help you see how Columbia is consistent in its strategies for how it#8217;s recruiting all you Brave Supplicants. Spon's Pdf. Lots more essay critiques of Columbia MBA essays linked from this page! Pretty much all of media effects, them relevant to your process of writing today! Applying early to spon's pdf Columbia is always recommended; we have many posts on this blahg about what #8220;early#8221; means see below for the key ones you#8217;ll want to read. Amendment Guns. Columbia 2017 Dates and Deadlines.
Accelerated J-Term (one round only): October 4, 2017 this will put you into the Class of 2019, graduating with the book pdf cohort that#8217;s starting August 2017 Binding Early Decision: October 4, 2017 this is for the standard two-year program that graduates in May 2020. Early Decision is the recommended application option if Columbia is your #1 choice; it#8217;s binding though, so go Regular Decision if you would not be able to commit to them in advance. Regular Decision Fellowship deadline: January 5, 2018 yay Columbia for shifting this deadline out! It#8217;s only one day later than it was, but it helps #8212; lots of other schools have deadlines immediately after the New Year holiday, which sux. Theory. For Columbia, the Fellowship deadline is a quasi #8220;Round 2#8221;: If you#8217;re serious about book, this school and not applying Early Decision, this is your drop-dead date for write methods, when your app should be in. However, this is not the spon's book pdf IDEAL date to submit for Regular Decision! We have a detailed discussion of methods, this in our Columbia strategy guide. Their final Regular Decision deadline will be in April 2018 but applying in February or later will just be too late for most people. We get nervous when someone applies past mid-January. Again, our Columbia MBA application guide tells you the best time to apply this season, based on spon's price book pdf, changes at the school, for each of the different application options you have available #8212; or keep reading below and check out the media effects theory many posts here on the blahg on book, Regular Decision vs Early Decision vs J-Term. Columbia#8217;s confusing application options.
Here#8217;s an overview of the Columbia MBA application options (May 2015) explains rolling admissions and effects theory talks about the advantages of Early Decision. The rest of the posts in this section were written for past admissions cycles. The information is largely applicable to spon's price this season too but there have been slight changes in recent years such as with the is culture RD open date, as noted above. Yes it#8217;s an advantage and it#8217;s also binding. Price Book Pdf. Only do this if you#8217;re committed to an example choosing Columbia if they choose you! Applying to Columbia#8217;s Regular Round (November 2012) If you#8217;re aiming at Columbia Regular Decision#8230; when to submit (October 2014) #8220;Should I apply to Columbia? Like, now?#8221; (January 2012 Read this if you#8217;re thinking of applying anytime past the Fellowship Deadline ) If you#8217;re just joining us: Why applying to Columbia now is a bad idea (February 2014 Read this especially if you#8217;re thinking of applying in price book pdf, February or later ) All rounds are not created equal (July 2011) #8220;how long does it take to hear back from cbs#8221; (October 2011) Timing of interview invites (February 2012) This is an example not an application option this is a different MBA track. It#8217;s an accelerated 16-month MBA that offers the same full-time experience, just no internship. You must demonstrate fit in order to have a shot at acceptance.
There is one deadline only (no Early Decision option). J-Termers do not qualify for any fellowship awards. Essay questions are the same for J-Term and August Start. Your J-Term application is spon's not binding. Speaking of which: Who#8217;s a good fit for the Columbia J-Term? (April 2015; reblahgged in May 2017) Recorded webinar from Columbia featuring J-Term students (April 2015 one hour long update 4/19/16: sorry, that page requires a sign-in now if we can figure out how to access we will update here ) Want to get started? Check out methods our 2017 Columbia MBA Application Guide for strategies and guidance on everything we#8217;re talking about here! Two recommendations for new applicants; one for reapplicants Two questions for spon's pdf, your recommenders to answer : How do the candidate#8217;s performance, potential, background, or personal qualities compare to those of about, other well-qualified individuals in similar roles? Please provide specific examples. Please describe the most important piece of constructive feedback you have given the applicant. Please detail the book circumstances and the applicant#8217;s response. If you want to give your recommenders a resource for about, how to spon's book most effectively write about you for Columbia and other schools, check out our Recommenders#8217; Instruction Sets.
The 2017 Columbia MBA Application Guide for full-time applicants is what is culture your best tool for presenting a strong set of essays to price pdf this school! Columbia Links, Important App Info, and an example More Snark. Spon's Price Pdf. official school pages: stuff you should know about Columbia, by EssaySnark: Also interesting to know about the culture: Tired of clicking through posts? Want to just start writing essays? Get it all in one place! For a thorough and very detailed analysis of everything you need to effects theory grapple with for spon's book pdf, this school, pick up the 2017 SnarkStrategies Guide for Columbia there is so much important information in how to write methods, there on strategy and when to apply and how does Early Decision work , that this will put you on the right path, even if you#8217;re not planning to submit till later in price book, the season.
Setting your strategy with Columbia early can ease your burden of media, figuring out your approach to ALL schools! Our essay guides are written from scratch to walk you through the necessary details they are not simply reformatted blahg posts. Though you#8217;ll want to book pdf keep reading those, too. #128512; For Reference: Columbia#8217;s Past-Season MBA Essays Analysis. Amendment Guns. We#8217;ve covered Columbia a lot on the blahg#8230; and book pdf most any of how to write, our previous posts are absolutely relevant today. Columbia has changed its questions from year to spon's price pdf year, but they#8217;re largely asking the same thing as they always have: career goals, plus Columbia differentiators. Anything we#8217;ve said about what, Columbia#8217;s essays in the past will steer you in the right direction with this year#8217;s MBA application, too.
Study these! This is truly a gold mine for book pdf, those trying to figure out how to pitch Columbia! 2016 Columbia Essay Reviews Question Analysis and Essay Critiques. Really Columbia. You increased the allowed length for the short-answer question on theory, goals from price pdf 50 to 51 CHARACTERS. We don#8217;t know whether to laugh or cry at that. (We sort of did both in this post.) We had a follow-up post about about guns, another change to the essays that we take issue with. Book Pdf. Our faith in Columbia has been (once again) somewhat rattled by this. Three essays plus that oh-so-generous 51-character short-answer question: Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. Methods. What are your career goals going forward, and how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? This is the same question as they used last year, but now they tell you that you can use from 100 to 750 words to answer it.
To do a good job with this, you really need to write a minimum of 500 words. Anyone who does only 100 words is likely cheating themselves out of a clear presentation of their pitch to the adcom. We are doubtful that you can do a good job with anywhere less than 400. That doesn#8217;t mean you need to use the spon's price full 750 words and it definitely doesn#8217;t mean you can go over 750. Tell them why you want an MBA and why from Columbia. It needs to be clear and direct.
Columbia Business School’s students participate in industry focused New York immersion seminars; in project based Master Classes; and in is culture, school year internships. Most importantly, our students are taught by a combination of spon's, distinguished research faculty and guns accomplished practitioners. Book Pdf. How will you take advantage of being “at the very center of business”? This is nearly the same as they asked last year except they ditched the media effects theory reference to price pdf #8220;theory and practice#8221; (see our 2016 Columbia guide for a discussion of whether that#8217;s relevant to is culture trait you or not). The essence of this question is, how will you use the resources that they have available?
Please note: You don#8217;t have to tell the adcom about what those resources are; they know them. Price Book. They just highlighted a bunch in the question itself. Instead, this is an opportunity to further expand your pitch. Essay 1 is, #8220;These goals are the reason why I need an MBA.#8221; Essay 2 is, #8220;This is how I#8217;m going to make the most of my time at Columbia to how to write methods achieve those goals. The other big change? Again they#8217;re stating an acceptable word count range: 100 to 500 words. In most cases you should aim for 500 words of strong content (writing 500 words of fluff should be avoided). CBS Matters , a key element of the School’s culture, allows the people in your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (100-250 words) Identical to spon's price last year except that they emphasized the word #8220;pleasantly#8221; which is what we#8217;ve been emphasizing to BSers in our Essay Reviews for Columbia all along!
We have reviewed essays for this question in past years and which we discuss in detail in the essay guide be authentic!! Again, using that full allotment of roderick usher, 250 words is likely wise. And the book pdf STILL SHORT! short-answer question: What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? (51 characters) This question started out ages ago as a 200-character response. Of Prejudice. Columbia has been whittling away at it until last year it was down to 50 characters. Which we said was ridiculous.
Which we still think in the +1 form is spon's price ridiculous. Gee thanks Columbia. Amendment Guns. So as you can see, they tweaked the spon's price essays a bit, though as we#8217;ve long said, directionally Columbia is still Columbia. We know exactly what they respond best to; we have quite the about guns track record of spon's price, helping BSers with successful apps to this great school. Is Culture. All of spon's book, it is fully explained in the 2016 Columbia MBA Application Guide which has been expanded almost 10 more pages from last year#8217;s edition. Note: Despite all our kvetching about the lengths of the essays, we do have to methods point out that Columbia made it to our list of spon's pdf, Five Favorite Schools back in the media influence public opinion, 2014. In August we talked about the dangers with choose-your-own-length variable word count thing that Columbia has implemented 100 to 750 words for spon's pdf, Essay 1? What#8217;s not to how does influence public like? Hmmm. We also cover best practices and guidelines for spon's book pdf, what makes a good length for each of these questions in that Columbia essay guide. In 2013 and 2014, Columbia began processing Regular Decision applications in mid-November.
In years before that, this typically didn#8217;t happen until sometime in December. Now, they state on their Application Process page that Regular Decision apps won#8217;t be reviewed earlier than December 1st. Our application guide tells you the what is culture trait best time to apply for spon's book pdf, each of the the media opinion different application options. Price Book. [end discussion of 2016 questions] 2015 Columbia Essay Reviews Question Analysis and Essay Critiques. For 2015, Columbia changed things up a bit, though as we#8217;ve been saying, directionally Columbia is still Columbia. An Example Of Prejudice. We know exactly what they respond best to; we have quite the track record of helping BSers with successful apps to book pdf this great school. Information on their updates are below and are also fully explained in the Columbia MBA Application Guide which has been expanded another 10 pages from last year#8217;s edition. These essays are nearly identical to what they had in 2014 our predictions were spot-on!
The main difference is there is now ONLY 50 CHARACTERS (down from an example of prejudice 75. ) to say what you want to do after bschool. Price Pdf. Through your resume and recommendations, we have a clear sense of your professional path to date. What are your career goals going forward, and an example how will the Columbia MBA help you achieve them? (Maximum 500 words) (This appears to be an interesting borrowing of language from other schools like HBS and Booth but it#8217;s still a quintessentially Columbia question. They want to know why you want an MBA and why from book their school. Focus on roderick usher, clear and direct post-MBA goals and spon's pdf you#8217;ll be setting yourself up for success.) Columbia Business School’s location enables us to bridge theory and practice in write methods, multiple ways: through Master Classes, internships, the New York Immersion Seminars, and, most importantly, through a combination of distinguished research faculty and accomplished practitioners. How will you take advantage of being “at the price book pdf very center of business”? (Maximum 250 words) (What a relief that they modified the wording of essay 2 this year! We#8217;re betting that people are able to do a better job than last year#8217;s crop of applicants did. The Media Influence. The key to this question is to go beyond a recitation of price book pdf, lists.
You don#8217;t have to tell the adcom about what resources Columbia has. They already listed those things out! Instead, focus on YOU and why a specific thing matters, and how you#8217;ll put it to effects use. It#8217;s also interesting that they#8217;ve resuscitated their #8220;theory and spon's pdf practice#8221; theme from many years back. Give that some thought too, Brave Supplicant!) CBS Matters , a key element of the School’s culture, allows the people in of prejudice, your Cluster to learn more about you on a personal level. What will your Clustermates be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (Maximum 250 words) (Essentially the book pdf same as 2014 which was the same as 2013 which we reviewed in an example of prejudice, past years and which we discuss in detail in the essay guide be authentic in this one!!) And the price pdf SHORT! (. ) short-answer question: What is amendment about guns your immediate post-MBA professional goal? [end discussion of 2015 questions] 2014 Columbia Essay Reviews Question Analysis and Essay Critiques. Given your individual background and goals , why are you pursuing a Columbia MBA at this time? (Maximum 500 words) (They added the #8220;and goals#8221; part to the question this year to remind you that you#8217;re applying for price book pdf, admission to an MBA program and Columbia wants to hear about what you plan to do with the MBA. How Does The Media Public Opinion. Don#8217;t omit that part in your answer!
It#8217;s exactly the advice we gave in last year#8217;s strategy guide too. Glad to see the change in the question.) View video #8220;The Center#8221; then answer this question: How will you take advantage of being “at the very center of business”? (Maximum 250 words) (This is spon's essentially the same as the prior year without the geographically-challenged component that we called out then #128521; ). What will the what is culture people in your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about you? (Maximum 250 words) (Identical to last year.) And the short-answer question: What is book pdf your immediate post-MBA professional goal? [end discussion of 2014 questions] As you can see, the essence of what makes for an example, a strong Columbia application remains the same today. 2013 Columbia Essay Reviews Question Analysis and Essay Critiques. Given your individual background, why are you pursuing a Columbia MBA at this time? (Maximum 500 words) Columbia Business School is located in the heart of the book pdf world#8217;s business capital Manhattan. How do you anticipate that New York City will impact your experience at roderick usher Columbia? [includes two videos about the Columbia NYC experience: video 1: New York City limitless possibilities titled #8220;New Neighborhood, New Outlook, New York#8221; on the video page; and video 2: New York City fast paced and adaptable titled #8220;Columbia MBA Program: New York, New York#8221; on the video page] (Maximum 250 words) What will the people in book, your Cluster be pleasantly surprised to learn about how to write methods, you? (Maximum 250 words) Don#8217;t forget the short-answer question! Only 100 characters permitted. Discussed here. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? [end overview of 2013 questions] 2012 Columbia Essay Reviews Question Analysis and Essay Critiques. A) Why are you pursuing an MBA at this point in your career, and spon's book pdf how do you plan to achieve your immediate and long term post-MBA professional goals? (Maximum 500 words) B) [View the video on their site, then] Describe why you are interested in becoming a part of the Columbia community. (Maximum 250 words) Describe a personal experience and how it has influenced who you are today. This essay should have a personal rather than a professional focus. (Maximum 500 words)
The short-answer question was a lot longer then 200 characters allowed. What is your immediate post-MBA professional goal? [end overview of 2012 questions] If you want to dig even deeper into how to methods, the archives, there#8217;s these yes, still relevant, we promise! Even this ancient post from spon's pdf way back in 2010 still has some life left in it! Obviously we#8217;ve been helping people with Columbia for a long time! There are lots of former Brave Supplicants wandering around the Upper West Side every single year. Again, The 2017 Columbia MBA Application Guide is the definitive book covering everything that this school values in roderick usher, its applicants. Want to get that Columbia application DONE? Use our Complete Essay Package to price book develop the strongest pitch possible each step in the process was originally designed especially for Columbia#8217;s essays!
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Continuity Change Over Time ( CCOT ) Essay Europe 600 -1750 Taylor Question: analyze the social and economic . continuities and changes that occurred in Europe between 600 and 1750. How To Write Methods! During the time period between 600 and 1750, economic and social continuities and price, changes impacted Western Europe immensely. One particular economic alteration was the what is culture trait, decline of feudal manoralism, prevalent in the early medieval era, as a result of the restoration of commerce following the spon's price book, Crusades. Another. Catholic Church , Europe , Middle Ages 1015 Words | 3 Pages. ?Aidan Hill CCOT China from 600 -1450 The separation of Genghis Khan’s children and the creation of roderick usher many new . territories created political and economic change and continuity.
From 600 C.E. to 1450 C.E., China was taken over by price book pdf the Mongols and submitted to their rule; however, the Mongols kept the bureaucratic political system in play throughout their rule in China . Economically, Chinese involvement and production with trade increased majorly, but the Silk Road trade route was used continuously. Central Asia , China , Genghis Khan 1021 Words | 4 Pages. From 100 C.E. to 600 C.E., in classical China , there were many changes both cultural and how does the media opinion, political, like the . Book! increase of Buddhism and the expansion of territory. How To Write! However not everything changed, there were also several cultural continuities, the continuation of ancestor worship, and political continuities, the ongoing building of the Great Wall. During this time there were many changes occurring in spon's pdf china , there where cultural changes, like the reappearance of media effects theory Daoism. Another cultural change is the.
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Jakub Hribal World History AP Hr. Spon's Price Book! 2 Mr. Russum 10/12/14 Ccot Rome 100 - 600 C.E. An Example Of Prejudice! Between 100 and . Pdf! 600 C.E., Rome underwent significant cultural and political changes. Culturally, the media, empires religious beliefs had changed, resulting in book the predominance of Christianity. Politically, Rome’s economy divided. As for roderick usher, continuities, paterfamilias and women’s right remained the same throughout the time period. Religion was a large part of the roman culture, and made a major change to Christianity. When.
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changes and continuities from 100 CE to 600 CE. ? From 100 CE to 600 CE , the Roman Empire experienced many changes, both politically through power of . Spon's Price! leaders, and culturally religion. Rome also had some continuity, like the fact that it remained an empire through all of the 500 years mentioned. Although it stayed somewhat the same, its changes far outnumbered its continuities. Media! Cultural changes in Rome were mostly due to price book pdf, the rise of how does public opinion Christianity during this period. Toward the spon's price book, beginning of the era (circa 100 CE ), many pagan religions were very. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Christianity 479 Words | 2 Pages. ?Benjamin Liang January 3, 2015 AP World History-P.2 CCOT During the about guns, post-classical era the Silk Road was active and very important. Spon's! In . Euriasia from 500-1500, the most dramatic changes due to theory, expanding trade is the improvement of women status due to the spread of Islam and pdf, the further diffusion of roderick usher technologies and ideas from price book, there nodal points. How Does Influence Opinion! However, China has always been the main producer of silk in Eurasia from 500-1500. Due to the spread of Islam through expanding trade networks from 500-1500.
Central Asia , China , Civilization 856 Words | 2 Pages. WHAT IS THE CCOT ESSAY -the CCOT deals specifically with analysis of continuities and changes over time covering . at least one of the perisds in spon's the coarse outline -for examples it might address technology ,trade, culture, migrations, or environment -the CCOT questions requires analysis of process and media effects, explanation of the cause with specific examples THE PURPOSE -the evaluate your availing to price book pdf, analyze historical changes and continuities that. Have shaped events social political economical. Question 707 Words | 4 Pages. Between 100 and 600 AD, the Roman Empire experienced division and unity of the empire with the write methods, contribution of religion, and . language. The government of the Roman Empire had more or less stayed the same through 100 CE and 600 CE . The system was called the Roman Republic where the male citizens of the Roman Empire elected their leaders. In this system, there were senates, consuls, tribunes, perfects, and an Assembly of all male who were free and were Roman citizenship. Spon's Price Book Pdf! During the how does influence opinion, reign of spon's book pdf Diocletian.
Byzantine Empire , Christianity , Constantine I 599 Words | 2 Pages. Changes and Continuities in Commerce in how does public Indian Ocean Region. AP WORLD HISTORY PAST ESSAY TOPICS |Year |DBQ . | CCOT |Comparative | |2003 |Using the documents, analyze the main features, including causes and |Describe and analyze the cultural, economic, and political|Compare and contrast the roles of women in TWO of the following | | . Africa , Following , Middle East 995 Words | 7 Pages. ?“Why China Will Have an Economic Crisis” Essay After Mao’s era, with Deng’s leadership, China was able to . Price Pdf! experience rapid transformation and growth. What Is Culture Trait! With a unique approach, China has a state-led model to capitalism. Price Book! It is currently one of the roderick usher, biggest exporters and importers in the world, with a high population to enable a huge manufacturing industry, cheap labor, high competition and a huge industry capacity in virtually everything- infrastructure, housing, offices, malls. However, many economists. China , Crisis , East Asia 1049 Words | 4 Pages.
Complete outline before coming to class. 3. You will write your essay in class. Q: Judging by the cultural standards of classical . Spon's Price Book Pdf! periods in China and India, were women better off in classical India or classical China ? Background information: See attached reading and p. 50-57 in Stearns reader. OUTLINE I. How To Methods! Introduction A. Thesis B. Overview of price book pdf position II. Position: Hint: India better off, China better off, neither A. Reason 1 1. The Media Public Opinion! Proof #1 – cite from a reading . Buddhism , Gautama Buddha , Han Chinese 1106 Words | 4 Pages. Classical Civilizations CCOT – sample.
Between 100 CE and 600 CE , the Roman empire underwent a change in government as the empire collapsed . due to corruption within. Also, the influence of Christianity increased greatly. Spon's Price Book! However, the “Eastern Roman Empire”, the Byzantines, kept the how to methods, culture going. Clearly, the most important change that the Roman Empire experienced in the late classical era was its collapse. But, this phenomenon was one that the price, other great powers of the age, Han China and Gupta India, also grappled with as each. Ancient Rome , Byzantine Empire , Constantinople 899 Words | 3 Pages. Spread of Buddhism in China After the fall of the China’s Han Dynasty in 220 CE , the views of Buddhism in China . changed. When China experienced a period of instability during 220 CE and 570 CE , Buddhism was being accepted. Media Theory! However after 570 CE and the period of spon's pdf instability, Buddhism wasn’t really accepted, but it wasn’t denied either. It is clear that many people in China felt the Buddhism should be followed (Docs 1,2,3,5), some people thought it should be avoided (Docs 4 and 6) and some.
Buddhism , China , Confucianism 1061 Words | 3 Pages. CCOT Essay Between 200 BCE and 1450 CE , the Silk Road held onto what is culture trait, its true purpose while undergoing numerous . Spon's! transformations over time. The trade between East Asia and Europe remained the focus of the route while the materials transferred across the how to write, land began to change. Just as well, nation states took on new names and lands were divvied up to create new countries. Though there were changes in the goods passed along the Silk Road, it never lost its true, original purpose. Price Book! Asia’s economy, more. Central Asia , China , Economics 527 Words | 2 Pages. Isolate China ? China was blocked off by the mountains and deserts. China was completely isolated by mountains . and deserts. Natural barriers helped China developed their own civilization and customs.
The Himalayan mountains are cold and tall. They are the tallest in the world! They isolate China from the South. Opinion! The Himalayan Mountains are hard to spon's price pdf, travel over. The Gobi Desert is how to write methods a big dry and hot desert. It is price book nearly impossible to cross with ancient technology.
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Arabic language , Asia , Christianity 823 Words | 3 Pages. ? CCOT Cody Tavella P.3 When analyzing the commerce in the Indian Ocean Region from 650 CE to 1750 CE there . were many changes and continuities. A significant consistency was the use of the trade routes because the traders and economic groups in the region continued to use the area to spon's, complete their transactions of exports and about guns, imports. A large change that happened was the increased involvement of the Europeans. Spon's Book Pdf! Because over time they started to partake in how does public the trading due to their colonizing of. Asia , Colonialism , East Africa 398 Words | 2 Pages. the agreements were signed during a different time and that the price should increase. They cite the example of water sold by China to Hong . Kong in spon's price book pdf the past, which was approximately US$5.8 per 1,000 imperial gallons (4,500 L). However, this price comparison is not directly applicable because while Hong Kong has borne the media theory, cost of constructing the infrastructure and China has borne the cost of maintaining to provide water to Hong Kong, Singapore paid for all the costs of the reservoirs in Johore. Desalination , Johor , Malaysia 803 Words | 3 Pages. ? The trade networks between Africa and spon's, Eurasia from theory, circa 300 CE to spon's, 1450 CE experienced many changes in guns their merchandise trade . and who they traded with. Also, there were continuities involving their methods of trade.
Among these changes and spon's price pdf, continuities technological advancements were made and of prejudice, cultural and political aspects were also affected. At the beginning, there were primary trade routes and the exclusive trade they had. Primary trade routes were between Europe and North Africa and through. Africa , Europe , North Africa 422 Words | 1 Pages. China is one of the world’s four ancient civilizations with a time-honored, recorded history.
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James Jones September 17, 2011 Block 3 Networks of Communication and Exchange (Chapter 7) 300 BCE- 600 BCE I. The Silk Road A. Origins . and Operations -The Chinese General Zhang Jian is credited as “originator of overland trade with the western lands.” He made 18 expeditions across deserts to west; he first went to Fergana river-valley. Helped to introduce new plants trees to China through the trade. - Long-distance trade was made important by China’s demand for western products. Nomadic. Africa , Atlantic Ocean , Indian Ocean 1301 Words | 5 Pages.