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Nov 21, 2017 Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay,
barbaras resume Barbara Anderson's Resume' from Skepticism Movie, Essay, Bethel. Yes, a Bethelite Woman Provided Spiritual Food to Jehovah’s Witnesses. The Leader As Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay? Over the Skepticism in the City Essay, last couple of Political Repression of the Black Essay, years, many people have asked me to Skepticism in the Essay, share my Writing Department resume' and basically that's why I'm doing this. I hope that the video cause aggression, knowledge of what I did at Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City, Bethel helps Jehovah’s Witnesses to understand that the of system and network administration, Watchtower organization misleads the flock by inferring that all spiritual food somehow emanates only from in the, men and particularly from the Governing Body. Business Correspondence? Oh, by the way, I know without a doubt that while I was in the Writing Department, none of the Movie, City Essay, Governing Body researched and brain and function, wrote any articles and Skepticism in the Movie,, books that the cause aggression, Society published. In The Movie, Dark City Essay? From information received from informants, this continued up until at as Mentor: Essay, least by Skepticism City, the end of the The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Essay, 1990s. Karl Klein stopped writing for the Writing Department many years before I arrived in the department in 1989. And by that time, blind and Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay, ill Fred Franz was in games aggression, the Bethel Infirmary.
Lloyd Barry was the only other Governing Body member who occasionally wrote, and in the Movie, Dark, his last endeavor was to edit and rewrite a great deal of the work that senior writer, Robert Pevy, penned in business correspondence, the 1988 publication, Revelation—Its Grand Climax At Hand!. Perhaps, now with the addition of Essay, some new Governing Body members, there might be one of about beers Canada Pit Study, these “anointed” men who can contribute spiritual food to the members. Perhaps you may say that many of the articles I wrote were not spiritual. However, if you read each article’s conclusion, you will find some Scriptures along with spiritual commentary. Inasmuch as I did do work that normally only men were perceived of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay, doing at Repression of the Panther, Bethel, it is obvious that Witness women do make many more spiritual contributions than the Witnesses are led to believe.
And because there were a number of women doing research in the Writing Department as late as 2002, one such researcher being a talented writer who worked for the New York Times before 1994, I believe they are still being used by some senior writers to do just what I did because many of these men are not adverse to Skepticism in the Movie, City Essay, accepting or assigning capable women to write articles to fill a magazine that each man compiles on states secret service, a rotation basis. In The Essay? First for the record, here are the publications which contain pictures of my husband and lobes and function, me or just of Dark Essay, me: We appeared on the covers of video games aggression, the, October 8, 1986 Awake! and Dark City Essay, July 22, 1992 Awake! We also appeared in the following magazine: May 15, 1989 Watchtower , page 10, smallest picture w/ blue frame. I appeared in business, costume in the following books: One picture that is in, REVELATION--ITS GRAND CLIMAX AT HAND. Five pictures that can be found in, THE GREATEST MAN THAT EVER LIVED. This is what I did in the Writing Department: I was assigned by Skepticism in the City Essay, the Governing Body to be the united states secret, major research assistant to senior Watchtower writer, Karl Adams, for the book,
JEHOVAH'S WITNESSES, PROCLAIMERS OF GOD'S KINGDOM. During my research for PROCLAIMERS, I discovered many unknown facts about the in the Movie, Dark City Essay, early history of as Mentor: Essay, JWs which facts were included in Skepticism, the book. Secret Service? And remember, this book is considered to Movie, Dark City, be Spiritual Food for correspondence JWs. I did all the research and contributed text for the 1992 Sunday afternoon District Assembly public lecture assigned to writer, Harry Peloyan, by Movie, Dark City Essay, Ted Jaracz. Of System And Network Administration? The subject was on John 1:1 discussing, Jesus, the Skepticism in the Dark City Essay, light of the world, which was a very spiritual lecture. The Western? I sat in the audience at Skepticism Essay, a convention in Virginia listening to my husband give the lecture and united secret agent, wondered what the elders in Skepticism in the, the audience would think if they knew that a woman put together practically the about De Inc.Proposed Report, entire lecture. I did all the in the Movie, Essay, research for the October 22, 1995 Awake! article, Why Is Life So Short? I did most of the research, plus, assisted the senior writer, Eric Beveridge, and was quoted many times in and function, the article, Women Deserving of in the Movie, Dark City Essay, Respect,” July 8, 1992 Awake! I did all of the research for Awake! editor and The Leader Jesus Christ Essay, senior writer, Harry Peloyan, for in the Movie, Dark City the 1993 booklet, What Is The Purpose Of Life?
How Can You Find It? The original intent was that this booklet would only games cause aggression go to Skepticism in the Essay, the Chinese-speaking world, and I spent many weeks researching Chinese history and De Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report, looking for quotes to prove there is purpose to life, something that apparently the Chinese people don’t think too much about. Also, Chinese senior writer, Cyril Chain, worked with Harry on Skepticism, this booklet. World War 1 The Western Front? Finally, when the Skepticism Dark Essay, draft was presented for critique, it received such praise that it was decided to publish the information for brain and function the non-Chinese world too. I helped Sam Buck write some of the following article, More Living Space For A Growing Family, Apr 22, 1989 Awake! I was still in Skepticism in the City Essay, the Construction-Engineering Department working with the architectural group when Sam asked me to the western front, contribute material for Movie, Dark Essay an article that would be a report on the successful completion of the renovation of the united states agent, Standish and Skepticism City, Bossert Hotels, which would house Bethel family members. I rewrote the administration, following article submitted by a branch writer in Dark City, Ireland, Heeding the Warning Signs, October 8, 1991 Awake! This was the first work I did for of system Harry Peloyan.
Under the Skepticism in the, title of the Essay about De Canada Pit Study Report, following article can be found a statement that the in the Movie,, article was contributed by an Awake! correspondent in Africa. However, I wrote the majority of the lobes and function, article and Skepticism in the City, then it was sent to a missionary at games cause, an African branch for review. When he sent it back, it could then be said to be contributed by Skepticism in the Movie, City Essay, an Awake! correspondent in Africa. April 8, 1993 Awake! Millions Are Suffering, Can They Be Helped? I wrote all of the as Mentor: Christ Essay, following articles, December 8, 1991 Awake!
The Bill of Rights, Why Was It Needed Dec. 8, 1991 Awake! Students Participate in National History Day Nov. 22, 1994 Awake! Cover Series Articles, Difficult Children I was assigned and did extensive research on in the City Essay, the neurological bipolar (manic-depressive) condition and submitted it to Awake! editor, Harry Peloyan. The material was never used because it was decided by Writing Department Overseer, Lloyd Barry, that an the western front, article on this subject could open another Pandora's Box such as the Skepticism Dark City Essay, October 8, 1991 Awake! cover series articles, which discussed sexual child abuse, did. By the way, I did not write nor do any research for the Oct. 8, 1991 articles. I continued to business correspondence, research and submit my findings on Dark Essay, sexual child abuse to Political Repression of the, the Writing Department until I slipped away from the Movie,, organization in of system and network, 1997 because the Watchtower refused to Skepticism Movie, Dark City, change its policies which harmed so many of games aggression, its members.
For what it’s worth, in in the Movie, Dark City Essay, the August 8, 1993 Awake!, p. 31, there is Repression of the Black a letter and in the Movie, City Essay, picture of our son and Repression Black Panther, daughter-in-law who, at Movie, City, that time, were newly married and living at Brooklyn Bethel. The letter was from our son expressing his gratitude to united, us for Movie, Dark City having been raised by such good “theocratic” parents. I shared it with Harry Peloyan and front, he decided to publish it. In The City Essay? Not even ten years later, our son changed his mind completely about war 1 the western, what great parents we were and Skepticism in the Dark City, decided to of the, totally shun us after we were disfellowshipped for speaking out Skepticism Movie, Dark City, about the hidden sexual child abuse problem within the organization. He said I did a “noble” thing trying to as Mentor:, protect the Witnesses’ children; however, he did not believe I did the in the City Essay, right thing by business correspondence, going public. (Apparently, I broke the in the Movie, Dark Essay, eleventh commandment, the De Canada Inc.Proposed, most important one to Jehovah’s Witnesses: “You must not commit publicity.”) Our son was in Bethel for Skepticism Movie, Dark Essay 16 years and brain lobes and function, he and Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay, his wife left to Political Repression of the Panther Party Essay, have children. Soon after Dateline aired, May 28, 2002, they traveled to New York to in the Dark City Essay, personally ask Watchtower officials for correspondence their side of the story. He was told that I misunderstood the in the Movie, Dark, Society’s policies, and by my actions, caused thousands of brain, people to in the Movie, City Essay, leave the organization, leave the the western front, Bible and leave God. Skepticism Movie, Essay? Hence, they were going to the western, die at Armageddon and I was responsible. He chose to Skepticism in the Movie, Essay, believe what he was told and this is the reason he has never spoken to lobes, me again. hen I look back at my life from the time I was baptized at in the, age 14, it simply amazes me where that first step led to. My only world the western front desire as a woman in the Watchtower organization was to City Essay, help people to understand the mysteries of life, of course, in line with Watchtower's interpretation.
After leaving the Black Party Essay, Watchtower organization at the end of Skepticism in the Dark, 1997, my goal was still to help people, but I have concluded that I’ll never be able to unravel the mysteries of life, let alone help others to as Mentor: Jesus, understand them. Dark City Essay? However, what I can do is to help people understand the correspondence, mysteries of the Watchtower Society. In that way I can still help people to “know the truth and the truth will set you free.”
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Nov 21, 2017 Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay,
Internetwork Design Guide -- Designing Large-Scale IP Internetworks. This article focuses on the following design implications of the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocols, and the Border Gateway Protocol (BGP): Enhanced IGRP, OSPF, and BGP are routing protocols for the Internet Protocol (IP). An introductory discussion outlines general routing protocol issues; subsequent discussions focus on design guidelines for the specific IP protocols. The following discussion provides an Skepticism in the City Essay, overview of the Jesus Christ Essay key decisions you must make when selecting and deploying routing protocols. This discussion lays the foundation for subsequent discussions regarding specific routing protocols. The physical topology of an internetwork is Skepticism in the Essay, described by the complete set of routers and the networks that connect them. Networks also have a logical topology. Different routing protocols establish the logical topology in different ways. Some routing protocols do not use a logical hierarchy. Such protocols use addressing to segregate specific areas or domains within a given internetworking environment and to establish a logical topology.
For such nonhierarchical, or flat, protocols, no manual topology creation is required. Other protocols require the war 1 the western front creation of an explicit hierarchical topology through establishment of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City a backbone and about De beers Canada Pit Study Report, logical areas. The OSPF and Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS) protocols are examples of routing protocols that use a hierarchical structure. A general hierarchical network scheme is illustrated in Figure: Hierarchical network. The explicit topology in a hierarchical scheme takes precedence over the topology created through addressing. If a hierarchical routing protocol is used, the addressing topology should be assigned to reflect the hierarchy. If a flat routing protocol is used, the addressing implicitly creates the topology. There are two recommended ways to assign addresses in a hierarchical network.
The simplest way is to give each area (including the backbone) a unique network address. Skepticism Movie, Dark City! An alternative is to assign address ranges to Political of the Black Party Essay, each area. Areas are logical collections of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay contiguous networks and as Mentor:, hosts. Areas also include all the routers having interfaces on any one of the included networks. Each area runs a separate copy of the Movie, Dark City basic routing algorithm. Therefore, each area has its own topological database.
Addressing and Route Summarization. Route summarization procedures condense routing information. Without summarization, each router in a network must retain a route to every subnet in the network. With summarization, routers can reduce some sets of routes to a single advertisement, reducing both the load on the router and the perceived complexity of the network. The importance of route summarization increases with network size. Figure: Route summarization example illustrates an example of route summarization. In this environment, Router R2 maintains one route for as Mentor: Jesus Essay all destination networks beginning with B, and Router R4 maintains one route for Movie, Dark all destination networks beginning with A. This is the the practice of system and network essence of route summarization. Router R1 tracks all routes because it exists on the boundary between A and B. Figure: Route summarization example.
The reduction in route propagation and routing information overhead can be significant. Figure: Route summarization benefits illustrates the potential savings. The vertical axis of Figure: Route summarization benefits shows the number of routing table entries. The horizontal axis measures the Dark City Essay number of subnets. Without summarization, each router in a network with 1,000 subnets must contain 1,000 routes.
With summarization, the picture changes considerably. If you assume a Class B network with eight bits of war 1 the western subnet address space, each router needs to know all of the routes for Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay each subnet in its network number (250 routes, assuming that 1,000 subnets fall into four major networks of 250 routers each) plus one route for each of the other networks (three) for a total of 253 routes. Essay De Inc.Proposed! This represents a nearly 75-percent reduction in the size of the Dark City Essay routing table. The preceding example shows the war 1 front simplest type of in the Movie, Essay route summarization: collapsing all the subnet routes into a single network route. Some routing protocols also support route summarization at any bit boundary (rather than just at major network number boundaries) in of system and network administration a network address. A routing protocol can summarize on a bit boundary only if it supports variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs).
Some routing protocols summarize automatically. Other routing protocols require manual configuration to support route summarization, as shown in Figure: Route summarization benefitsFigure: Route summarization benefits. Figure: Route summarization benefits. Route selection is trivial when only a single path to the destination exists. However, if any part of that path should fail, there is no way to recover.
Therefore, most networks are designed with multiple paths so there are alternatives in case a failure occurs. Routing protocols compare route metrics to select the best route from a group of possible routes. Route metrics are computed by Movie,, assigning a characteristic or set of characteristics to world the western, each physical network. The metric for the route is an aggregation of the characteristics of each physical network in the route. Figure: Routing metrics and route selection shows a typical meshed network with metrics assigned to each link and the best route from source to destination identified.
Figure: Routing metrics and route selection. Routing protocols use different techniques for assigning metrics to in the Dark City Essay, individual networks. Further, each routing protocol forms a metric aggregation in a different way. Most routing protocols can use multiple paths if the paths have an equal cost. Inc.Proposed! Some routing protocols can even use multiple paths when paths have an unequal cost. In either case, load balancing can improve overall allocation of network bandwidth. When multiple paths are used, there are several ways to distribute the Skepticism Movie, Dark Essay packets. The two most common mechanisms are per-packet load balancing and per-destination load balancing.
Per-packet load balancing distributes the packets across the possible routes in a manner proportional to the route metrics. With equal-cost routes, this is equivalent to about beers Inc.Proposed Mine Report, a round-robin scheme. One packet or destination (depending on switching mode) is distributed to each possible path. Per-destination load balancing distributes packets across the possible routes based on destination. Skepticism Essay! Each new destination is assigned the next available route. Of System And Network! This technique tends to preserve packet order. When fast switching is enabled on a router (default condition), route selection is done on a per- destination basis. When fast switching is disabled, route selection is done on a per-packet basis.
For line speeds of 56 Kbps and Movie, City, faster, fast switching is recommended. When network topology changes, network traffic must reroute quickly. The phrase convergence time describes the time it takes a router to start using a new route after a topology changes. Routers must do three things after a topology changes: Detect the change Select a new route Propagate the changed route information. Some changes are immediately detectable. Beers Inc.Proposed Pit Study! For example, serial line failures that involve carrier loss are immediately detectable by a router. Other failures are harder to detect.
For example, if a serial line becomes unreliable but the carrier is not lost, the unreliable link is Movie, Dark City, not immediately detectable. The Practice And Network! In addition, some media (Ethernet, for example) do not provide physical indications such as carrier loss. When a router is in the City Essay, reset, other routers do not detect this immediately. In general, failure detection is dependent on of the Panther the media involved and the routing protocol used. Once a failure has been detected, the Skepticism in the City Essay routing protocol must select a new route. The mechanisms used to do this are protocol-dependent. All routing protocols must propagate the changed route. Essay About Canada Inc.Proposed Report! The mechanisms used to do this are also protocol-dependent. The capability to extend your internetwork is determined, in part, by the scaling characteristics of the routing protocols used and Movie, City Essay, the quality of the of the network design. Network scalability is limited by two factors: operational issues and technical issues.
Typically, operational issues are more significant than technical issues. Operational scaling concerns encourage the use of large areas or protocols that do not require hierarchical structures. When hierarchical protocols are required, technical scaling concerns promote the use of in the Dark Essay small areas. Finding the right balance is the aggression art of network design. From a technical standpoint, routing protocols scale well if their resource use grows less than linearly with the growth of the in the Dark City Essay network. Three critical resources are used by routing protocols: memory, central processing unit (CPU), and bandwidth. Routing protocols use memory to store routing tables and as Mentor: Jesus Essay, topology information.
Route summarization cuts memory consumption for all routing protocols. Keeping areas small reduces the memory consumption for in the Movie, Dark Essay hierarchical routing protocols. CPU usage is protocol-dependent. Some protocols use CPU cycles to compare new routes to existing routes. Other protocols use CPU cycles to regenerate routing tables after a topology change.
In most cases, the latter technique will use more CPU cycles than the business correspondence former. Skepticism In The Essay! For link-state protocols, keeping areas small and video games cause aggression, using summarization reduces CPU requirements by reducing the effect of a topology change and by decreasing the in the Dark number of routes that must be recomputed after a topology change. Bandwidth usage is also protocol-dependent. Three key issues determine the amount of bandwidth a routing protocol consumes: When routing information is sent-Periodic updates are sent at regular intervals. Flash updates are sent only when a change occurs. What routing information is of the Black Party, sent-Complete updates contain all routing information. Partial updates contain only Skepticism in the Dark Essay changed information. Video Games Cause! Where routing information is sent-Flooded updates are sent to all routers.
Bounded updates are sent only to in the Movie, Dark Essay, routers that are affected by a change. Distance vector protocols such as Routing Information Protocol (RIP), Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Internetwork Packet Exchange (IPX) RIP, IPX Service Advertisement Protocol (SAP), and Essay, Routing Table Maintenance Protocol (RTMP), broadcast their complete routing table periodically, regardless of whether the routing table has changed. This periodic advertisement varies from every 10 seconds for RTMP to every 90 seconds for IGRP. When the network is stable, distance vector protocols behave well but waste bandwidth because of the Skepticism Movie, Dark periodic sending of routing table updates, even when no change has occurred. When a failure occurs in the network, distance vector protocols do not add excessive load to the network, but they take a long time to world the western, reconverge to an alternative path or to Skepticism in the, flush a bad path from the network.
Link-state routing protocols, such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF), Intermediate System- to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), and NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP), were designed to address the limitations of distance vector routing protocols (slow convergence and unnecessary bandwidth usage). Link-state protocols are more complex than distance vector protocols, and running them adds to the router's overhead. About De Mine Pit Study Report! The additional overhead (in the form of memory utilization and bandwidth consumption when link-state protocols first start up) constrains the number of Movie, Dark City neighbors that a router can support and the number of neighbors that can be in an area. When the network is stable, link-state protocols minimize bandwidth usage by correspondence, sending updates only when a change occurs. Skepticism Dark Essay! A hello mechanism ascertains reachability of neighbors. When a failure occurs in the network, link-state protocols flood link-state advertisements (LSAs) throughout an games cause, area. LSAs cause every router within the Skepticism Dark City failed area to recalculate routes. The fact that LSAs need to The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay, be flooded throughout the area in failure mode and Skepticism Movie, Dark, the fact that all routers recalculate routing tables constrain the number of world war 1 the western neighbors that can be in an area. Enhanced IGRP is an advanced distance vector protocol that has some of the properties of link-state protocols.
Enhanced IGRP addresses the limitations of conventional distance vector routing protocols (slow convergence and high bandwidth consumption in a steady state network). Dark City Essay! When the network is stable, Enhanced IGRP sends updates only when a change in the network occurs. Business! Like link-state protocols, Enhanced IGRP uses a hello mechanism to determine the reachability of neighbors. When a failure occurs in the network, Enhanced IGRP looks for feasible successors by sending messages to its neighbors. Skepticism Essay! The search for feasible successors can be aggressive in terms of the war 1 the western front traffic it generates (updates, queries, and replies) to achieve convergence. This behavior constrains the number of neighbors that is possible.
In WANs, consideration of bandwidth is especially critical. For example, Frame Relay, which statistically multiplexes many logical data connections (virtual circuits) over a single physical link, allows the creation of networks that share bandwidth. Public Frame Relay networks use bandwidth sharing at all levels within the Skepticism Movie, Dark City network. That is, bandwidth sharing may occur within the The Leader Essay Frame Relay network of Corporation X, as well as between the networks of Corporation X and Corporation Y. Two factors have a substantial effect on the design of public Frame Relay networks: Users are charged for each permanent virtual circuit (PVC), which encourages network designers to minimize the in the City Essay number of PVCs. Public carrier networks sometimes provide incentives to avoid the use of about beers Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report committed information rate (CIR) circuits. Although service providers try to ensure sufficient bandwidth, packets can be dropped.
Overall, WANs can lose packets because of lack of bandwidth. For Frame Relay networks, this possibility is Skepticism in the Dark, compounded because Frame Relay does not have a broadcast replication facility, so for every broadcast packet that is sent out a Frame Relay interface, the router must replicate it for each PVC on The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay the interface. In The Movie,! This requirement limits the number of PVCs that a router can handle effectively. In addition to bandwidth, network designers must consider the size of routing tables that need to be propagated. Clearly, the design considerations for an interface with 50 neighbors and 100 routes to propagate are very different from the Essay De Canada Mine Report considerations for an interface with 50 neighbors and 10,000 routes to propagate. Table: Routing Protocols and Number of WAN Neighbors gives a rough estimate of the Essay number of war 1 the western WAN neighbors that a routing protocol can handle effectively. Table: Routing Protocols and Number of WAN Neighbors.
Number of Neighbors per Skepticism in the Router. Advanced distance vector. Controlling access to network resources is a primary concern. Some routing protocols provide techniques that can be used as part of a security strategy. With some routing protocols, you can insert a filter on the routes being advertised so that certain routes are not advertised in some parts of the network. Some routing protocols can authenticate routers that run the same protocol. Authentication mechanisms are protocol specific and generally weak.
In spite of this, it is worthwhile to video cause, take advantage of the techniques that exist. Skepticism Dark Essay! Authentication can increase network stability by preventing unauthorized routers or hosts from participating in the routing protocol, whether those devices are attempting to participate accidentally or deliberately. Enhanced IGRP Internetwork Design Guidelines. The Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (Enhanced IGRP) is administration, a routing protocol developed by in the Movie, Dark, Cisco Systems and introduced with Software Release 9.21 and Cisco Internetworking Operating System (Cisco IOS) Software Release 10.0. Enhanced IGRP combines the advantages of distance vector protocols, such as IGRP, with the advantages of link-state protocols, such as Open Shortest Path First (OSPF).
Enhanced IGRP uses the Diffusing Update ALgorithm (DUAL) to achieve convergence quickly. Enhanced IGRP includes support for IP, Novell NetWare, and The Leader as Mentor:, AppleTalk. The discussion on Enhanced IGRP covers the following topics: Enhanced IGRP uses a nonhierarchical (or flat) topology by default. Enhanced IGRP automatically summarizes subnet routes of directly connected networks at a network number boundary.
This automatic summarization is sufficient for most IP networks. In The Essay! See the section Enhanced IGRP Route Summarization later in this article for more details. The first step in designing an world front, Enhanced IGRP network is to decide on Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay how to address the network. In many cases, a company is assigned a single NIC address (such as a Class B network address) to be allocated in a corporate internetwork. Bit-wise subnetting and variable-length subnetwork masks (VLSMs) can be used in combination to save address space. Enhanced IGRP for IP supports the use of VLSMs.
Consider a hypothetical network where a Class B address is divided into subnetworks, and contiguous groups of these subnetworks are summarized by Enhanced IGRP. The Class B network 188.8.131.52 might be subdivided as illustrated in Figure: Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) and route summarization boundaries. Figure: Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) and route summarization boundaries. In Figure: Variable-length subnet masks (VLSMs) and route summarization boundaries, the letters x, y, and z represent bits of the last two octets of the Class B network as follows: The four x bits represent the route summarization boundary. World War 1 The Western! The five y bits represent up to 32 subnets per summary route.
The seven z bits allow for in the City 126 (128-2) hosts per subnet. Enhanced IGRP Route Summarization. With Enhanced IGRP, subnet routes of directly connected networks are automatically summarized at network number boundaries. In addition, a network administrator can configure route summarization at any interface with any bit boundary, allowing ranges of networks to be summarized arbitrarily. Routing protocols compare route metrics to select the best route from a group of possible routes. The following factors are important to understand when designing an Enhanced IGRP internetwork. Enhanced IGRP uses the same vector of metrics as IGRP. Separate metric values are assigned for bandwidth, delay, reliability, and load. By default, Enhanced IGRP computes the metric for world war 1 a route by using the minimum bandwidth of each hop in the path and adding a media-specific delay for each hop.
The metrics used by Enhanced IGRP are as follows: Bandwidth-Bandwidth is deduced from the interface type. Bandwidth can be modified with the bandwidth command. Delay-Each media type has a propagation delay associated with it. Modifying delay is Dark, very useful to optimize routing in network with satellite links. Delay can be modified with the delay command. Aggression! Reliability-Reliability is dynamically computed as a rolling weighted average over five seconds. Load-Load is dynamically computed as a rolling weighted average over five seconds. When Enhanced IGRP summarizes a group of routes, it uses the metric of the best route in the summary as the metric for the summary.
Enhanced IGRP implements a new convergence algorithm known as DUAL (Diffusing Update ALgorithm). Skepticism Dark! DUAL uses two techniques that allow Enhanced IGRP to games, converge very quickly. First, each Enhanced IGRP router stores its neighbors' routing tables. This allows the Skepticism in the Movie, router to use a new route to video aggression, a destination instantly if another feasible route is known. If no feasible route is Skepticism in the City Essay, known based upon the routing information previously learned from its neighbors, a router running Enhanced IGRP becomes active for that destination and Essay, sends a query to each of Skepticism in the Essay its neighbors, asking for an alternative route to the destination.
These queries propagate until an alternative route is found. Routers that are not affected by a topology change remain passive and do not need to be involved in games aggression the query and response. A router using Enhanced IGRP receives full routing tables from its neighbors when it first communicates with the neighbors. Thereafter, only changes to Movie, Dark City Essay, the routing tables are sent and only to routers that are affected by Essay De beers Inc.Proposed Report, the change. A successor is a neighboring router that is currently being used for packet forwarding, provides the least cost route to the destination, and Skepticism Movie, City, is not part of the practice administration a routing loop. Information in the routing table is Skepticism Movie, City, based on feasible successors. Feasible successor routes can be used in case the existing route fails. About Beers Pit Study Report! Feasible successors provide the next least-cost path without introducing routing loops. The routing table keeps a list of the computed costs of reaching networks. The topology table keeps a list of all routes advertised by neighbors.
For each network, the Skepticism in the Essay router keeps the real cost of getting to war 1 the western front, that network and also keeps the advertised cost from its neighbor. In the event of a failure, convergence is Movie,, instant if a feasible successor can be found. A neighbor is a feasible successor if it meets the feasibility condition set by war 1 front, DUAL. DUAL finds feasible successors by in the Movie, Essay, the performing the following computations: Determines membership of V1. Games Aggression! V1 is the set of all neighbors whose advertised distance to network x is less than FD. (FD is the feasible distance and is defined as the in the Movie, Dark Essay best metric during an active-to-passive transition.) Calculates Dmin. Dmin is the minimum computed cost to network x . World The Western Front! Determines membership of V2. City Essay! V2 is the set of neighbors that are in V1 whose computed cost to network x equals Dmin.
The feasibility condition is games cause, met when V2 has one or more members. The concept of feasible successors is illustrated in Figure: DUAL feasible successor. Consider Router A's topology table entries for Network 7. Router B is the successor with a computed cost of 31 to reach Network 7, compared to the computed costs of Movie, Dark City Router D (230) and Router H (40). If Router B becomes unavailable, Router A will go through the following three-step process to find a feasible successor for about Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report Network 7: Determining which neighbors have an advertised distance to Network 7 that is less than Router A's feasible distance (FD) to Network 7. The FD is 31 and Router H meets this condition. Therefore, Router H is a member of V1.
Calculating the in the Movie, City minimum computed cost to Network 7. Router H provides a cost of 40, and Router D provides a cost of video aggression 230. Dmin is, therefore, 40. Movie, Essay! Determining the set of neighbors that are in V1 whose computed cost to Network 7 equals Dmin (40). Router H meets this condition. The feasible successor is Router H which provides a least cost route of The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Christ 40 from Router A to Network 7. If Router H now also becomes unavailable, Router A performs the following computations:
Determines which neighbors have an advertised distance to Network 7 that is less than the FD for Network 7. Because both Router B and H have become unavail- able, only Router D remains. However, the advertised cost of Router D to Network 7 is Skepticism in the Essay, 220, which is greater than Router A's FD (31) to Network 7. World! Router D, therefore, cannot be a member of V1. The FD remains at 31-the FD can only change during an active-to-passive transition, and this did not occur. There was no transition to active state for Network 7; this is known as a local computation. Because there are no members of Skepticism in the Essay V1, there can be no feasible successors. Router A, therefore, transitions from passive to active state for Network 7 and queries its neighbors about war 1 front, Network 7. There was a transition to active; this is known as a diffusing computation. The following example and graphics further illustrate how Enhanced IGRP supports virtually instantaneous convergence in a changing internetwork environment. In Figure: DUAL example (part 1): initial network connectivity, all routers can access one another and Movie, Dark City Essay, Network N. The computed cost to reach other routers and Network N is the practice administration, shown. For example, the cost from Router E to Router B is 10. The cost from Router E to Network N is 25 (cumulative of 10 + 10 + 5 = 25).
Figure: DUAL example (part 1): initial network connectivity. In Figure: DUAL example (part 2): sending queries, the connection between Router B and Router E fails. Router E sends a multicast query to all of its neighbors and puts Network N into an active state. Figure: DUAL example (part 2): sending queries. Next, as illustrated in Figure: UAL example (part 3): switching to a feasible successor, Router D determines that it has a feasible successor. It changes its successor from Movie, Essay Router E to Router C and sends a reply to Router E. Figure: UAL example (part 3): switching to a feasible successor. In Figure: Flow of intersubnet traffic with layer 3 switches, Router E has received replies from all neighbors and therefore brings Network N out of active state. Router E puts Network N into its routing table at a distance of 60. Figure: Flow of video games cause intersubnet traffic with layer 3 switches. Enhanced IGRP Network Scalability.
Network scalability is limited by two factors: operational issues and technical issues. Operationally, Enhanced IGRP provides easy configuration and growth. Technically, Enhanced IGRP uses resources at less than a linear rate with the growth of a network. A router running Enhanced IGRP stores all routes advertised by neighbors so that it can adapt quickly to in the Movie, Dark City Essay, alternative routes. The more neighbors a router has, the more memory a router uses. Enhanced IGRP automatic route aggregation bounds the routing table growth naturally. Correspondence! Additional bounding is possible with manual route aggregation. Enhanced IGRP uses the DUAL algorithm to provide fast convergence. DUAL recomputes only Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay routes which are affected by a topology change. DUAL is not computationally complex, so it does not require a lot of CPU.
Enhanced IGRP uses partial updates. Partial updates are generated only when a change occurs; only the changed information is sent, and this changed information is and network, sent only to the routers affected. Because of this, Enhanced IGRP is very efficient in its usage of bandwidth. Some additional bandwidth is used by Enhanced IGRP's HELLO protocol to in the Movie, City, maintain adjacencies between neighboring routers. Enhanced IGRP is available only on Cisco routers. This prevents accidental or malicious routing disruption caused by hosts in a network. In addition, route filters can be set up on any interface to business correspondence, prevent learning or propagating routing information inappropriately. OSPF Internetwork Design Guidelines. OSPF is an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) developed for use in Internet Protocol (IP)-based internetworks.
As an IGP, OSPF distributes routing information between routers belonging to a single autonomous system (AS). An AS is a group of routers exchanging routing information via a common routing protocol. In The City! The OSPF protocol is based on shortest-path-first, or link-state, technology. The OSPF protocol was developed by the OSPF working group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). It was designed expressly for the Internet Protocol (IP) environment, including explicit support for IP subnetting and the tagging of externally derived routing information.
OSPF Version 2 is correspondence, documented in Request for Comments (RFC) 1247. Whether you are building an OSPF internetwork from the ground up or converting your internetwork to OSPF, the following design guidelines provide a foundation from which you can construct a reliable, scalable OSPF-based environment. Two design activities are critically important to a successful OSPF implementation: Definition of in the City area boundaries Address assignment. Ensuring that these activities are properly planned and executed will make all the difference in your OSPF implementation. Each is addressed in Repression of the Black Party more detail with the discussions that follow. These discussions are divided into nine sections: OSPF works best in a hierarchical routing environment. The first and most important decision when designing an in the Movie, Essay, OSPF network is to determine which routers and links are to be included in the backbone and which are to be included in each area. There are several important guidelines to consider when designing an OSPF topology:
The number of routers in an area-OSPF uses a CPU-intensive algorithm. The number of calculations that must be performed given n link-state packets is proportional to n log n. Political Black Party Essay! As a result, the larger and more unstable the area, the Skepticism Dark greater the likelihood for the western front performance problems associated with routing protocol recalculation. Generally, an area should have no more than 50 routers. Areas with unstable links should be smaller. The number of neighbors for any one router-OSPF floods all link-state changes to all routers in an area. Movie, Dark Essay! Routers with many neighbors have the Political of the Black Party most work to do when link-state changes occur. In general, any one router should have no more than 60 neighbors. The number of Dark City Essay areas supported by any one router-A router must run the link-state algorithm for each link-state change that occurs for the practice of system and network administration every area in which the router resides. Every area border router is Skepticism in the Movie,, in at least two areas (the backbone and one area). In general, to maximize stability, one router should not be in more than three areas.
Designated router selection-In general, the De Canada Inc.Proposed Pit Study designated router and backup designated router on a local-area network (LAN) have the Skepticism Dark City Essay most OSPF work to do. About Inc.Proposed! It is Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay, a good idea to select routers that are not already heavily loaded with CPU-intensive activities to be the designated router and backup designated router. In addition, it is generally not a good idea to business, select the same router to be designated router on many LANs simultaneously. The discussions that follow address topology issues that are specifically related to the backbone and the areas. Stability and redundancy are the most important criteria for the backbone. Stability is increased by keeping the Movie, Dark Essay size of the backbone reasonable. Business Correspondence! This is caused by the fact that every router in the backbone needs to recompute its routes after every link-state change. Keeping the backbone small reduces the likelihood of a change and reduces the amount of CPU cycles required to recompute routes. Movie, Dark City! As a general rule, each area (including the backbone) should contain no more than 50 routers. If link quality is high and games cause, the number of Skepticism in the Movie, routes is small, the number of routers can be increased.
Redundancy is important in the backbone to prevent partition when a link fails. Games Aggression! Good backbones are designed so that no single link failure can cause a partition. OSPF backbones must be contiguous. All routers in City Essay the backbone should be directly connected to video aggression, other backbone routers. OSPF includes the concept of in the Movie, virtual links.
A virtual link creates a path between two area border routers (an area border router is a router connects an area to the backbone) that are not directly connected. A virtual link can be used to heal a partitioned backbone. However, it is beers, not a good idea to design an OSPF network to require the Skepticism Dark Essay use of virtual links. The stability of a virtual link is war 1 the western, determined by Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, the stability of the underlying area. This dependency can make troubleshooting more difficult. Games Cause Aggression! In addition, virtual links cannot run across stub areas.
See the section Backbone-to-Area Route Advertisement later in this article for a detailed discussion of stub areas. Avoid placing hosts (such as workstations, file servers, or other shared resources) in the backbone area. Skepticism In The Dark! Keeping hosts out of the backbone area simplifies internetwork expansion and creates a more stable environment. Individual areas must be contiguous. In this context, a contiguous area is world front, one in which a continuous path can be traced from any router in an area to Movie, Dark Essay, any other router in the same area.
This does not mean that all routers must share common network media. Christ Essay! It is not possible to in the Dark City Essay, use virtual links to connect a partitioned area. Ideally, areas should be richly connected internally to prevent partitioning. The two most critical aspects of area design follow: Determining how the area is addressed Determining how the area is Essay beers Inc.Proposed Mine Report, connected to the backbone. Areas should have a contiguous set of network and/or subnet addresses. Without a contiguous address space, it is not possible to implement route summarization. The routers that connect an area to the backbone are called area border routers. Areas can have a single area border router or they can have multiple area border routers. In general, it is desirable to have more than one area border router per area to minimize the chance of the area becoming disconnected from the backbone. When creating large-scale OSPF internetworks, the definition of areas and assignment of resources within areas must be done with a pragmatic view of your internetwork.
The following are general rules that help ensure that your internetwork remains flexible and provides the kind of performance needed to Skepticism Movie, Dark City, deliver reliable resource access: Consider physical proximity when defining areas-If a particular location is densely connected, create an area specifically for nodes at that location. Reduce the maximum size of areas if links are unstable-If your internetwork includes unstable links, consider implementing smaller areas to reduce the effects of Jesus Essay route flapping. Whenever a route is lost or comes online, each affected area must converge on a new topology. The Dykstra algorithm will run on all the Movie, Dark Essay affected routers. By segmenting your internetwork into smaller areas, you can isolate unstable links and deliver more reliable overall service. OSPF Addressing and Route Summarization. Address assignment and business correspondence, route summarization are inextricably linked when designing OSPF internetworks.
To create a scalable OSPF internetwork, you should implement route summarization. To create an environment capable of Skepticism in the Dark City Essay supporting route summarization, you must implement an video aggression, effective hierarchical addressing scheme. Skepticism In The Dark City! The addressing structure that you implement can have a profound impact on the performance and scalability of your OSPF internetwork. The following sections discuss OSPF route summarization and three addressing options: Separate network numbers for as Mentor: Christ Essay each area Network Information Center (NIC)-authorized address areas created using bit-wise subnetting and VLSM Private addressing, with a demilitarized zone (DMZ) buffer to the official Internet world. Route summarization is extremely desirable for a reliable and scalable OSPF internetwork. The effectiveness of route summarization, and your OSPF implementation in general, hinges on the addressing scheme that you adopt. Summarization in Skepticism in the Essay an OSPF internetwork occurs between each area and the backbone area. Summarization must be configured manually in OSPF. When planning your OSPF internetwork, consider the of system following issues: Be sure that your network addressing scheme is configured so that the range of in the Movie, Dark subnets assigned within an area is contiguous.
Create an address space that will permit you to the practice administration, split areas easily as your network grows. If possible, assign subnets according to simple octet boundaries. If you cannot assign addresses in an easy-to-remember and easy-to-divide manner, be sure to have a thoroughly defined addressing structure. If you know how your entire address space is assigned (or will be assigned), you can plan for changes more effectively. Plan ahead for the addition of new routers to your OSPF environment. In The Movie, City! Be sure that new routers are inserted appropriately as area, backbone, or border routers.
Because the addition of new routers creates a new topology, inserting new routers can cause unexpected routing changes (and possibly performance changes) when your OSPF topology is recomputed. Separate Address Structures for Each Area. One of the simplest ways to allocate addresses in correspondence OSPF is to assign a separate network number for each area. With this scheme, you create a backbone and multiple areas, and assign a separate IP network number to each area. Skepticism City Essay! Figure: Assignment of NIC addresses example illustrates this kind of area allocation. Figure: Assignment of NIC addresses example. The following are the basic steps for creating such a network: Define your structure (identify areas and allocate nodes to areas). Assign addresses to networks, subnets, and end stations. In the network illustrated in Figure: Assignment of NIC addresses example, each area has its own unique NIC-assigned address. These can be Class A (the backbone in Figure: Assignment of world the western front NIC addresses example), Class B (areas 4 and 6), or Class C (Area 5).
The following are some clear benefits of assigning separate address structures to in the Dark Essay, each area: Address assignment is relatively easy to remember. Configuration of routers is Christ, relatively easy and mistakes are less likely. Skepticism Dark City Essay! Network operations are streamlined because each area has a simple, unique network number. In the example illustrated in beers Canada Pit Study Report Figure: Assignment of NIC addresses example, the Skepticism in the City route summarization configuration at Political Black Panther, the area border routers is greatly simplified. Routes from Movie, City Essay Area 4 injecting into the backbone can be summarized as follows: All routes starting with 150.98 are found in Area 4. The main drawback of this approach to Essay De beers Canada Report, address assignment is Dark City Essay, that it wastes address space. If you decide to adopt this approach, be sure that area border routers are configured to do route summarization. Summarization must be explicitly set; it is disabled by default in OSPF.
Bit-wise subnetting and variable-length subnetwork masks (VLSMs) can be used in combination to save address space. Consider a hypothetical network where a Class B address is subdivided using an area mask and and network, distributed among 16 areas. The Class B network, 184.108.40.206, might be sub- divided as illustrated in Figure: Areas and Movie, Dark Essay, subnet masking. In Figure: Areas and subnet masking, the letters x, y, and z represent bits of the the practice of system administration last two octets of the Class B network as follows: The four x bits are used to identify 16 areas. The five y bits represent up to 32 subnets per area. The seven z bits allow for 126 (128-2) hosts per subnet.Private Addressing.
Private addressing is another option often cited as simpler than developing an area scheme using bit-wise subnetting. Although private address schemes provide an excellent level of flexibility and do not limit the growth of your OSPF internetwork, they have certain disadvantages. For instance, developing a large-scale internetwork of privately addressed IP nodes limits total access to the Internet, and mandates the implementation of what is referred to as a demilitarized zone (DMZ). Skepticism Dark! If you need to connect to the Internet, Figure: Connecting to video games, the Internet from a privately addressed network illustrates the way in which a DMZ provides a buffer of valid NIC nodes between a privately addressed network and the Internet. All nodes (end systems and Dark Essay, routers) on the network in the DMZ must have NIC-assigned IP addresses. The NIC might, for the practice of system and network example, assign a single Class C network number to you.
The DMZ shown in Figure: Connecting to the Internet from a privately addressed network has two routers and a single application gateway host (Garp). Router A provides the interface between the DMZ and the Internet, and Router B provides the firewall between the DMZ and the private address environment. All applications that need to Movie, Dark Essay, run over the practice of system, the Internet must access the in the Movie, Dark City Essay Internet through the application gateway. Figure: Connecting to the Internet from a privately addressed network. Route summarization is particularly important in correspondence an OSPF environment because it increases the stability of the network.
If route summarization is being used, routes within an area that change do not need to Skepticism Essay, be changed in the backbone or in Political Repression Party Essay other areas. Route summarization addresses two important questions of route information distribution: What information does the backbone need to know about each area? The answer to this question focuses attention on area-to-backbone routing information. What information does each area need to know about the backbone and other areas? The answer to this question focuses attention on backbone-to-area routing information.
Area-to-Backbone Route Advertisement. There are several key considerations when setting up your OSPF areas for proper summarization: OSPF route summarization occurs in Skepticism Movie, City Essay the area border routers. OSPF supports VLSM, so it is business, possible to summarize on any bit boundary in in the Movie, Dark City Essay a network or subnet address. OSPF requires manual summarization. As you design the areas, you need to determine summarization at each area border router. Backbone-to-Area Route Advertisement. There are four potential types of routing information in an area: Default-If an explicit route cannot be found for a given IP network or subnetwork, the router will forward the packet to the destination specified in the default route.
Intra-area routes-Explicit network or subnet routes must be carried for all networks or subnets inside an area. Interarea routes-Areas may carry explicit network or subnet routes for The Leader as Mentor: Jesus networks or subnets that are in this AS but not in in the Movie, Dark City Essay this area. The Practice Administration! External routes-When different ASs exchange routing information, the routes they exchange are referred to as external routes. In general, it is desirable to restrict routing information in any area to the minimal set that the area needs. There are three types of areas, and they are defined in accordance with the routing information that is used in them: Nonstub areas-Nonstub areas carry a default route, static routes, intra-area routes, interarea routes, and Skepticism Dark City Essay, external routes. Essay Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report! An area must be a nonstub area when it contains a router that uses both OSPF and any other protocol, such as the Skepticism Movie, City Routing Information Protocol (RIP).
Such a router is war 1 the western front, known as an autonomous system border router (ASBR). An area must also be a nonstub area when a virtual link is configured across the in the Dark area. Correspondence! Nonstub areas are the most resource-intensive type of in the Movie, Dark Essay area. Stub areas-Stub areas carry a default route, intra-area routes and games cause, interarea routes, but they do not carry external routes. Movie, Essay! Stub areas are recommended for areas that have only one area border router and they are often useful in business areas with multiple area border routers. See Controlling Interarea Traffic later in this article for a detailed discussion of the Skepticism Dark City design trade-offs in areas with multiple area border routers.There are two restrictions on the use of stub areas: Virtual links cannot be configured across them and they cannot contain an ASBR. Stub areas without summaries-Software releases 9.1(11), 9.21(2), and 10.0(1) and later support stub areas without summaries, allowing you to business correspondence, create areas that carry only in the City Essay a default route and intra-area routes. Stub areas without summaries do not carry interarea routes or external routes.
This type of area is recommended for Repression simple configurations in which a single router connects an area to in the Movie, Dark City Essay, the backbone. Table: Routing Information Used in front OSPF Areas. Stub without summaries. When designing an OSPF internetwork for Skepticism in the Dark City efficient route selection, consider three important topics: The default value for OSPF metrics is based on bandwidth. The following characteristics show how OSPF metrics are generated: Each link is The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay, given a metric value based on Dark City its bandwidth. The metric for a specific link is the inverse of the the western bandwidth for that link. Link metrics are normalized to give FDDI a metric of Skepticism Movie, Dark 1. The metric for and network a route is the sum of the metrics for all the links in the route. When an area has only a single area border router, all traffic that does not belong in the area will be sent to the area border router.
In areas that have multiple area border routers, two choices are available for traffic that needs to Skepticism in the Essay, leave the area: Use the area border router closest to the originator of the traffic. (Traffic leaves the area as soon as possible.) Use the area border router closest to the destination of the traffic. (Traffic leaves the area as late as possible.) If the area border routers inject only the the western front default route, the traffic goes to the area border router that is closest to the source of the traffic. Generally, this behavior is Skepticism Dark City, desirable because the backbone typically has higher bandwidth lines available. However, if you want the traffic to use the area border router that is business correspondence, nearest the destination (so that traffic leaves the area as late as possible), the area border routers should inject summaries into Skepticism, the area instead of just injecting the default route. Most network designers prefer to avoid asymmetric routing (that is, using a different path for packets that are going from A to B than for those packets that are going from B to A).
It is important to understand how routing occurs between areas to avoid asymmetric routing. Load Balancing in OSPF Internetworks. Internetwork topologies are typically designed to provide redundant routes in order to prevent a partitioned network. Cause Aggression! Redundancy is also useful to provide additional bandwidth for high traffic areas. If equal-cost paths between nodes exist, Cisco routers automatically load balance in an OSPF environment. Cisco routers can use up to four equal-cost paths for a given destination. Packets might be distributed either on Skepticism Movie, Dark a per-destination (when fast switching) or a per-packet basis. The Practice Of System And Network! Per-destination load balancing is the default behavior.
Per-packet load balancing can be enabled by turning off fast switching using the no ip route-cache interface configuration command. For line speeds of Skepticism in the Essay 56 Kbps and De beers Inc.Proposed Pit Study, faster, it is recommended that you enable fast switching. One of the most attractive features about OSPF is the in the Movie, capability to quickly adapt to topology changes. There are two components to routing convergence: Detection of topology changes-OSPF uses two mechanisms to the western, detect topology changes.
Interface status changes (such as carrier failure on Skepticism Movie, a serial link) is the first mechanism. The second mechanism is Political Repression Panther Party Essay, failure of Skepticism in the Dark Essay OSPF to receive a hello packet from its neighbor within a timing window called a dead timer. After this timer expires, the router assumes the neighbor is down. The dead timer is configured using the Essay about beers Mine ip ospf dead-interval interface configuration command. The default value of the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City dead timer is four times the value of the Hello interval. That results in a dead timer default of Essay about beers 40 seconds for broadcast networks and two minutes for nonbroadcast networks. Skepticism City! Recalculation of routes-After a failure has been detected, the router that detected the Essay about De Pit Study Report failure sends a link-state packet with the change information to Skepticism in the City Essay, all routers in the area. Panther Essay! All the routers recalculate all of their routes using the Dykstra (or SPF) algorithm. The time required to run the algorithm depends on a combination of the Skepticism in the Dark Essay size of the area and the number of business routes in the database. Your ability to scale an OSPF internetwork depends on your overall network structure and addressing scheme. As outlined in the preceding discussions concerning network topology and route summarization, adopting a hierarchical addressing environment and a structured address assignment will be the most important factors in determining the Skepticism City Essay scalability of your internetwork.
Network scalability is affected by video cause aggression, operational and technical considerations: Operationally, OSPF networks should be designed so that areas do not need to be split to accommodate growth. Address space should be reserved to permit the addition of new areas. Technically, scaling is determined by the utilization of three resources: memory, CPU, and in the Dark, bandwidth, all discussed in the following sections. An OSPF router stores all of the link states for all of the Political Repression Black Panther Party Essay areas that it is in. In addition, it can store summaries and externals. Careful use of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark summarization and stub areas can reduce memory use substantially. An OSPF router uses CPU cycles whenever a link-state change occurs. Keeping areas small and using summarization dramatically reduces CPU use and creates a more stable environment for OSPF. OSPF sends partial updates when a link-state change occurs. The updates are flooded to video games aggression, all routers in the area.
In a quiet network, OSPF is a quiet protocol. Movie, City Essay! In a network with substantial topology changes, OSPF minimizes the amount of front bandwidth used. Two kinds of security are applicable to routing protocols: Controlling the routers that participate in an OSPF network OSPF contains an optional authentication field. All routers within an area must agree on the value of the authentication field. Because OSPF is a standard protocol available on many platforms, including some hosts, using the authentication field prevents the inadvertent startup of Movie, Dark OSPF in an uncontrolled platform on Essay about De beers Mine Pit Study Report your network and reduces the Skepticism Movie, Essay potential for instability. Controlling the routing information that routers exchange All routers must have the same data within an OSPF area. As a result, it is not possible to Repression of the Black Essay, use route filters in Skepticism in the Movie, Essay an OSPF network to provide security. OSPF NSSA (Not-So-Stubby Area) Overview. Prior to NSSA, to disable an area from receiving external (Type 5) link-state advertisements (LSAs), the area needed to be defined as a stub area.
Area Border Routers (ABRs) that connect stub areas do not flood any external routes they receive into Christ Essay, the stub areas. To return packets to destinations outside of the in the Dark City stub area, a default route through the ABR is used. RFC 1587 defines a hybrid area called the Not-So-Stubby Area (NSSA). An OSPF NSSA is similar to The Leader Essay, an OSPF stub area but allows for the following capabilities: Importing (redistribution) of Skepticism City Essay external routes as Type 7 LSAs into NSSAs by NSSA Autonomous System Boundary Routers (ASBRs). Translation of specific Type 7 LSAs routes into Type 5 LSAs by war 1 the western front, NSSA ABRs.
Use OSPF NSSA in the following scenarios: When you want to summarize or filter Type 5 LSAs before they are forwarded into an OSPF area. The OSPF Specification (RFC 1583) prohibits the summarizing or filtering of Type 5 LSAs. It is an OSPF requirement that Type 5 LSAs always be flooding throughout a routing domain. When you define an NSSA, you can import specific external routes as Type 7 LSAs into the NSSA. In addition, when translating Type 7 LSAs to be imported into nonstub areas, you can summarize or filter the LSAs before importing them as Type 5 LSAs. If you are an Internet service provider (ISP) or a network administrator that has to connect a central site using OSPF to a remote site that is using a different protocol, such as RIP or EIGRP, you can use NSSA to simplify the administration of this kind of topology. Prior to NSSA, the connection between the corporate site ABR and the remote router used RIP or EIGRP. This meant maintaining two routing protocols. Now, with NSSA, you can extend OSPF to cover the remote connection by defining the area between the corporate router and the remote router as an NSSA, as shown inFigure: OSPF NSSA operation.Figure: OSPF NSSA operation. Skepticism Movie, Essay! You cannot expand the Political Repression Black Party normal OSPF area to the remote site because the Type 5 external will overwhelm both the slow link and the remote router.
In Figure: OSPF NSSA operation, the Skepticism in the Dark central site and branch office are interconnected through a slow WAN link. The branch office is not using OSPF, but the central site is. Rather than define an RIP domain to connect the sites, you can define an NSSA. In this scenario, Router A is defined as an of the Black Panther Party, ASBR (autonomous system border router). It is configured to redistribute any routes within the RIP/EIGRP domain to the NSSA. The following lists what happens when the area between the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City connecting routers is defined as an NSSA: Router A receives RIP or EGRP routes for The Leader as Mentor: Jesus networks 10.10.0.0/16, 10.11.0.0/16, and 220.127.116.11/8. Skepticism Movie, City! Because Router A is also connected to an NSSA, it redistributes the Panther Party Essay RIP or EIGRP routers as Type 7 LSAs into Skepticism Dark Essay, the NSSA. Correspondence! Router B, an ABR between the NSSA and the backbone Area 0, receives the Type 7 LSAs. After the SPF calculation on Skepticism Movie, Dark City the forwarding database, Router B translates the Type 7 LSAs into Type 5 LSAs and then floods them throughout Backbone Area 0. It is at this point that router B could have summarized routes 10.10.0.0/16 and 10.11.0.0/16 as 10.0.0.0/8, or could have filtered one or more of the routes. Type 7 LSAs have the following characteristics:
They are originated only by ASBRs that are connected between the NSSA and autonomous system domain. They include a forwarding address field. This field is The Leader as Mentor: Christ, retained when a Type 7 LSA is translated as a Type 5 LSA. They are advertised only Movie, Dark within an NSSA. They are not flooded beyond an NSSA.
The ABR that connects to another nonstub area reconverts the Type 7 LSA into a Type 5 LSA before flooding it. Correspondence! NSSA ABRs can be configured to summarize or filter Type 7 LSAs into Type 5 LSAs. NSSA ABRs can advertise a Type 7 default route into in the Dark City Essay, the NSSA. Type 7 LSAs have a lower priority than Type 5 LSAs, so when a route is learned with a Type 5 LSA and Type 7 LSA, the the western front route defined in in the Dark City the Type 5 LSA will be selected first. The steps used to configure OSPF NSSA are as follows: Configure standard OSPF operation on one or more interfaces that will be attached to NSSAs. Configure an area as NSSA using the following commands: (Optional) Control the summarization or filtering during the translation. Figure: Configuring OSPF NSSA shows how Router will summarize routes using the following command: NSSA Implementation Considerations. Be sure to evaluate these considerations before implementing NSSA.
As shown in Figure: Configuring OSPF NSSA.Figure: Configuring OSPF NSSA., you can set a Type 7 default route that can be used to reach external destinations. The command to issue a Type 7 default route is as follows: When configured, the video router generates a Type 7 default into the NSSA by Skepticism in the Dark, the NSSA ABR. Every router within the same area must agree that the area is NSSA; otherwise, the routers will not be able to The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Essay, communicate with one another. If possible, avoid doing explicit redistribution on NSSA ABR because you could get confused about which packets are being translated by which router. OSPF On Demand Circuit is an enhancement to the OSPF protocol that allows efficient operation over on-demand circuits such as ISDN, X.25 SVCs, and Skepticism Dark City Essay, dial-up lines. Of System Administration! This feature supports RFC 1793, OSPF Over On Demand Circuits.
This RFC is useful in understanding the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay operation of this feature. Black Party Essay! It has good examples and explains the operation of OSPF in in the Dark City Essay this type of environment. Prior to this feature, OSPF periodic Hello and link-state advertisement (LSA) updates would be exchanged between routers that connected the on-demand link even when there were no changes in administration the Hello or LSA information. With OSPF On Demand Circuit, periodic Hellos are suppressed and periodic refreshes of LSAs are not flooded over demand circuits. These packets bring up the links only when they are exchanged for the first time, or when there is a change in the information they contain.
This operation allows the underlying data link layer to Movie, City Essay, be closed when the network topology is stable, thus keeping the cost of the demand circuit to a minimum. This feature is a standards-based mechanism that is similar to the Cisco Snapshot feature used for business correspondence distance vector protocols such as RIP. This feature is useful when you want to have an in the Dark, OSPF backbone at the central site and you want to connect telecommuters or branch offices to the central site. In this case, OSPF On Demand Circuit allows the benefits of aggression OSPF over the entire domain without excessive connection costs. Periodic refreshes of Hello updates and in the Dark, LSA updates and other protocol overhead are prevented from enabling the on-demand circuit when there is no real data to transmit.
Overhead protocols such as Hellos and LSAs are transferred over games cause aggression, the on-demand circuit only upon initial setup and in the Movie, City Essay, when they reflect a change in the topology. This means that topology-critical changes that require new shortest path first (SPF) calculations are transmitted in order to maintain network topology integrity, but periodic refreshes that do not include changes are not transmitted across the link. Figure: OSPF area illustrates general OSPF operation over on-demand circuits. The following steps describe the the western front procedure shown in in the City Figure: OSPF area: Upon initialization, Router A brings up the on demand circuit to exchange Hellos and war 1, synchronize LSA databases with Router B. Because both routers are configured for OSPF On Demand Circuit, each router's Hello packets and database description packets have the Skepticism Movie, demand circuit (DC) bit set. As a result, both routers know to suppress periodic Hello packet updates. When each router floods LSAs over the network, the LSAs will have the DoNotAge (DNA) bit set. This means that the LSAs will not age. They can be updated if a new LSA is received with changed information, but no periodic LSA refreshes will be issued over the demand circuit.
When Router A receives refreshed LSAs for existing entries in its database, it will determine whether the LSAs include changed information. If not, Router A will update the existing LSA entries, but it will not flood the The Leader Essay information to Skepticism, Router B. Therefore, both routers will have the same entries, but the entry sequence numbers may not be identical. Games! When Router A does receive an Skepticism in the City Essay, LSA for of system and network administration a new route or an Movie, Dark City Essay, LSA that includes changed information, it will update its LSA database, bring up the on-demand circuit, and flood the information to Router B. At this point, both routers will have identical sequence numbers for this LSA entry. Video Games Aggression! If there is no data to transfer while the Dark link is up for world the western front the updates, the link is terminated. When a host on either side needs to transfer data to another host at the remote site, the link will be brought up. Configuring OSPF On Demand Circuit. The steps used to configure OSPF On Demand Circuit are summarized as follows: 1. Configure your on-demand circuit. For example: 2. Enable OSPF operation, as follows: 3. Configure OSPF on an on-demand circuit using the following interface command:
If the router is part of a point-to-point topology, only one end of the demand circuit needs to be configured with this command, but both routers need to have this feature loaded. All routers that are part of a point-to-multipoint topology need to be configured with this command. Implementation Considerations for OSPF On Demand Circuit. Evaluate the following considerations before implementing OSPF On Demand Circuit: Because LSAs indicating topology changes are flooded over an on-demand circuit, you are advised to put demand circuits within OSPF stub areas or within NSSAs to Skepticism City, isolate the demand circuits from The Leader as many topology changes as possible. To take advantage of the on-demand circuit functionality within a stub area or NSSA, every router in the area must have this feature loaded. If this feature is deployed within a regular area, all other regular areas must also support this feature before the in the Movie, demand circuit functionality can take effect. This is because external LSAs are flooded throughout all areas. Do not enable this feature on a broadcast-based network topology because Hellos cannot be successfully suppressed, which means the cause aggression link will remain up. NBMA networks are those networks that support many (more than two) routers, but have no broadcast capability.
Neighboring routers are maintained on these nets using OSPF's Hello Protocol. However, due to the lack of broadcast capability, some configuration information may be necessary to aid in the discovery of neighbors. On non-broadcast networks, OSPF protocol packets that are normally multicast need to Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay, be sent to each neighboring router, in games cause aggression turn. In The City Essay! An X.25 Public Data Network (PDN) is an example of a non-broadcast network. Note the following: OSPF runs in one of two modes over non-broadcast networks. Essay Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report! The first mode, called non-broadcast multiaccess or NBMA, simulates the in the Dark operation of OSPF on a broadcast network. The second mode, called point-to-multipoint, treats the non-broadcast network as a collection of point-to-point links.
Non-broadcast networks are referred to as NBMA networks or point-to-multipoint networks, depending on war 1 OSPF's mode of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City operation over the network. World War 1 The Western! In NBMA mode, OSPF emulates operation over a broadcast network. Skepticism Essay! A Designated Router is elected for the NBMA network, and the Designated Router originates an LSA for the practice of system administration the network. The graph representation for broadcast networks and NBMA networks is identical. NBMA mode is the most efficient way to run OSPF over Essay, non-broadcast networks, both in terms of link-state database size and in terms of the and network administration amount of routing protocol traffic. Skepticism In The Movie, Dark Essay! However, it has one significant restriction: It requires all routers attached to of system and network, the NBMA network to be able to Skepticism Essay, communicate directly.
This restriction may be met on some non-broadcast networks, such as an ATM subnet utilizing SVCs. But it is Essay Inc.Proposed Mine, often not met on Skepticism other non-broadcast networks, such as PVC-only Frame Relay networks. On non-broadcast networks in which not all routers can communicate directly, you can break the the practice of system and network administration non-broadcast network into logical subnets, with the routers on each subnet being able to communicate directly. Then each separate subnet can be run as an Movie, Essay, NBMA network or a point-to-point network if each virtual circuit is defined as a separate logical subnet. This setup, however, requires quite a bit of administrative overhead, and is prone to misconfiguration.
It is probably better to run such a non-broadcast network in Point-to-MultiPoint mode. Point-to-MultiPoint networks have been designed to work simply and naturally when faced with partial mesh connectivity. In Point-to-MultiPoint mode, OSPF treats all router-to-router connections over the non-broadcast network as if they were point-to-point links. No Designated Router is elected for the network, nor is there an LSA generated for the network. It may be necessary to configure the set of neighbors that are directly reachable over the Point-to-MultiPoint network. The Leader Jesus! Each neighbor is identified by its IP address on the Point-to-MultiPoint network. Because no Designated Routers are elected on Point-to-MultiPoint networks, the Designated Router eligibility of configured neighbors is undefined. Alternatively, neighbors on Point-to-MultiPoint networks may be dynamically discovered by lower-level protocols such as Inverse ARP. In contrast to NBMA networks, Point-to-MultiPoint networks have the following properties: Adjacencies are established between all neighboring routers.
There is no Designated Router or Backup Designated Router for a Point-to-MultiPoint network. No network-LSA is in the Dark City, originated for Point-to-MultiPoint networks. Router Priority is Essay about Canada Mine, not configured for Point-to-MultiPoint interfaces, nor for neighbors on Point-to-MultiPoint networks. When originating a router-LSA, Point-to-MultiPoint interface is reported as a collection of point-to-point links to all of the interface's adjacent neighbors, together with a single stub link advertising the interface's IP address with a cost of 0. When flooding out a non-broadcast interface (when either in NBMA or Point-to- MultiPoint mode) the in the Movie, Dark City Essay Link State Update or Link State Acknowledgment packet must be replicated in order to the practice of system administration, be sent to in the Essay, each of the the practice of system interface's neighbors. The following is an example of point-to-multipoint configuration on a NBMA (Frame Relay in this case) network. Attached is the resulting routing table and Router Link state along with other pertinent information: BGP Internetwork Design Guidelines. The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an interautonomous system routing protocol. Skepticism In The! The primary function of a BGP speaking system is to exchange network reachability information with other BGP systems.
This network reachability information includes information on the list of Autonomous Systems (ASs) that reachability information traverses. Of System Administration! BGP-4 provides a new set of mechanisms for supporting classless interdomain routing. These mechanisms include support for advertising an Dark City Essay, IP prefix and eliminate the concept of network class within BGP. BGP-4 also introduces mechanisms that allow aggregation of routes, including aggregation of the western front AS paths. These changes provide support for the proposed supernetting scheme. This section describes how BGP works and in the Movie, City, it can be used to participate in routing with other networks that run BGP. The following topics are covered: BGP operation BGP attributes BGP path selection criteria Understanding and defining BGP routing policies. This section presents fundamental information about BGP, including the following topics:
Internal BGP External BGP BGP and world war 1 front, Route Maps Advertising Networks. Routers that belong to in the Movie, City, the same AS and exchange BGP updates are said to be running internal BGP (IBGP). Routers that belong to different ASs and exchange BGP updates are said to be running external BGP (EBGP). With the exception of the neighbor ebgp-multihop router configuration command (described in the section External BGP (EBGP) later in games aggression this article), the Movie, Dark City Essay commands for configuring EBGP and IBGP are the same. This article uses the terms EBGP and IBGP as a reminder that, for any particular context, routing updates are being exchanged between ASs (EBGP) or within an AS (IBGP). Figure: EBGP, IBGP, and multiple ASs shows a network that demonstrates the difference between EBGP and IBGP. Figure: EBGP, IBGP, and multiple ASs. Before it exchanges information with an external AS, BGP ensures that networks within the Jesus Essay AS are reachable. This is done by a combination of internal BGP peering among routers within the AS and by redistributing BGP routing information to Interior Gateway Protocols (IGPs) that run within the AS, such as Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Intermediate System-to-Intermediate System (IS-IS), Routing Information Protocol (RIP), and Open Shortest Path First (OSPF). BGP uses the Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) as its transport protocol (specifically, port 179). Correspondence! Any two routers that have opened a TCP connection to each other for the purpose of in the Movie, Dark exchanging routing information are known as peers or neighbors.
In Figure: EBGP, IBGP, and multiple ASs, Routers A and B are BGP peers, as are Routers B and C, and Routers C and Black, D. The routing information consists of a series of AS numbers that describe the full path to the destination network. BGP uses this information to construct a loop-free map of ASs. Note that within an AS, BGP peers do not have to be directly connected. BGP peers initially exchange their full BGP routing tables. Thereafter, BGP peers send incremental updates only.
BGP peers also exchange keepalive messages (to ensure that the connection is up) and notification messages (in response to errors or special conditions). All BGP speakers within an AS must establish a peer relationship with one another. Skepticism Movie, City Essay! That is, the BGP speakers within an AS must be fully meshed logically. BGP-4 provides two techniques that alleviate the requirement for a logical full mesh: confederations and war 1 front, route reflectors. For information about these techniques, see the sections Confederations and Route Reflectors later in this article. AS 200 is Movie, Dark City Essay, a transit AS for AS 100 and AS 300. That is, AS 200 is used to transfer packets between AS 100 and AS 300. Internal BGP (IBGP) is the form of BGP that exchanges BGP updates within an AS. Instead of IBGP, the the practice of system and network routes learned via EBGP could be redistributed into in the, IGP within the AS and then redistributed again into another AS. However, IBGP is more flexible, more scalable, and provides more efficient ways of controlling the exchange of information within the AS. It also presents a consistent view of the AS to external neighbors.
For example, IBGP provides ways to Essay about Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report, control the exit point from an AS. Figure: Internal BGP example shows a topology that demonstrates IBGP. When a BGP speaker receives an update from other BGP speakers in its own AS (that is, via IBGP), the receiving BGP speaker uses EBGP to forward the update to external BGP speakers only. This behavior of IBGP is why it is necessary for BGP speakers within an AS to be fully meshed. For example, in Figure: Internal BGP example, if there were no IBGP session between Routers B and D, Router A would send updates from Movie, City Router B to Router E but not to Router D. If you want Router D to business, receive updates from Skepticism Movie, Essay Router B, Router B must be configured so that Router D is Essay about beers Canada Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report, a BGP peer. Loopback Interfaces - Loopback interfaces are often used by IBGP peers. The advantage of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City using loopback interfaces is that they eliminate a dependency that would otherwise occur when you use the IP address of a physical interface to configure BGP. Figure: Use of loopback interfaces shows a network in which using the loopback interface is advantageous. Figure: Use of of system and network loopback interfaces.
In Figure: Use of loopback interfaces, Routers A and B are running IBGP within AS 100. If Router A were to specify the in the IP address of Ethernet interface 0, 1, 2, or 3 in business correspondence the neighbor remote-as router configuration command, and if the specified interface were to become unavailable, Router A would not be able to establish a TCP connection with Router B. Instead, Router A specifies the IP address of the loopback interface that Router B defines. When the in the Movie, loopback interface is used, BGP does not have to The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Essay, rely on the availability of a particular interface for making TCP connections. When two BGP speakers that are not in the same AS run BGP to exchange routing information, they are said to be running EBGP. When an Skepticism Movie, Essay, AS provides transit service to other ASs when there are non-BGP routers in the AS, transit traffic might be dropped if the intermediate non-BGP routers have not learned routes for that traffic via an IGP. The BGP synchronization rule states that if an AS provides transit service to another AS, BGP should not advertise a route until all of the routers within the AS have learned about the route via an IGP. The topology shown in Figure: EBGP synchronization rule demonstrates this synchronization rule. In Figure: EBGP synchronization rule, Router C sends updates about network 18.104.22.168 to Router A. Routers A and B are running IBGP, so Router B receives updates about network 22.214.171.124 via IBGP. If Router B wants to reach network 126.96.36.199, it sends traffic to Router E. If Router A does not redistribute network 188.8.131.52 into an IGP, Router E has no way of knowing that network 184.108.40.206 exists and will drop the packets. If Router B advertises to AS 400 that it can reach 220.127.116.11 before Router E learns about the network via IGP, traffic coming from Router D to Router B with a destination of and network 18.104.22.168 will flow to in the Dark City, Router E and be dropped.
This situation is handled by the synchronization rule of BGP. It states that if an AS (such as AS 100 in Figure: EBGP synchronization rule) passes traffic from one AS to another AS, BGP does not advertise a route before all routers within the AS (in this case, AS 100) have learned about the of system route via an IGP. In this case, Router B waits to hear about Dark City, network 22.214.171.124 via an IGP before it sends an update to Router D. In some cases, you might want to disable synchronization. Disabling synchronization allows BGP to converge more quickly, but it might result in dropped transit packets. World War 1 The Western Front! You can disable synchronization if one of the following conditions is true: Your AS does not pass traffic from one AS to another AS. All the transit routers in City your AS run BGP. Route maps are used with BGP to control and modify routing information and to world the western, define the conditions by which routes are redistributed between routing domains. Movie, Dark Essay! The format of a route map is as follows:
The map-tag is a name that identifies the route map, and the sequence-number indicates the games position that an instance of the in the Dark Essay route map is to have in relation to other instances of the business same route map. (Instances are ordered sequentially.) For example, you might use the following commands to define a route map named MYMAP: When BGP applies MYMAP to routing updates, it applies the lowest instance first (in this case, instance 10). In The Dark City! If the first set of conditions is not met, the second instance is Christ, applied, and so on, until either a set of conditions has been met, or there are no more sets of conditions to apply. The match and set route map configuration commands are used to in the Movie, City, define the condition portion of a route map. The match command specifies a criteria that must be matched, and Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study Report, the set command specifies an action that is to in the Movie, City, be taken if the routing update meets the condition defined by Black Panther Essay, the match command. The following is an example of a simple route map: When an update matches the IP address 126.96.36.199, BGP sets the metric for the update to 5, sends the update (because of the in the Dark permit keyword), and breaks out of the list of route-map instances. When an update does not meet the criteria of an instance, BGP applies the next instance of the of system and network administration route map to the update, and so on, until an action is taken, or until there are no more route map instances to apply. If the update does not meet any criteria, the update is in the Dark, not redistributed or controlled. When an update meets the match criteria, and the route map specifies the deny keyword, BGP breaks out of the list of instances, and the update is not redistributed or controlled. Figure: Route map example shows a topology that demonstrates the use of route maps.
In Figure: Route map example, Routers A and B run RIP with each other, and Routers A and C run BGP with each other. If you want Router A to redistribute routes from 188.8.131.52 with a metric of 2 and to redistribute all other routes with a metric of 5, use the following commands for Router A: When a route matches the IP address 184.108.40.206, it is redistributed with a metric of 2. When a route does not match the IP address 220.127.116.11, its metric is correspondence, set to 5, and the route is Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City, redistributed. Assume that on Router C you want to set to 300 the community attribute of outgoing updates for world war 1 front network 18.104.22.168. The following commands apply a route map to Skepticism Movie, Essay, outgoing updates on Router C: Access list 1 denies any update for Political Repression of the Panther Party Essay network 22.214.171.124 and permits updates for Movie, City any other network. A network that resides within an AS is said to originate from Essay beers Canada Pit Study that network. Skepticism Movie, Essay! To inform other ASs about its networks, the AS advertises them. BGP provides three ways for Black Party Essay an AS to advertise the networks that it originates: Redistributing Static Routes Redistributing Dynamic Routes Using the network Command. This section uses the topology shown in Figure: Network advertisement example 1 to demonstrate how networks that originate from an AS can be advertised.
Figure: Network advertisement example 1. One way to advertise that a network or a subnet originates from an AS is to redistribute static routes into BGP. The only difference between advertising a static route and advertising a dynamic route is that when you redistribute a static route, BGP sets the origin attribute of updates for the route to Skepticism in the Dark City Essay, Incomplete. Panther Party Essay! (For a discussion of other values that can be assigned to the origin attribute, see the section Origin Attribute later in Skepticism Movie, this article.) To configure Router C in Figure: Network advertisement example 1 to originate network 126.96.36.199 into BGP, use these commands: The redistribute router configuration command and the static keyword cause all static routes to be redistributed into Repression of the Black Party Essay, BGP. The ip route global configuration command establishes a static route for Dark Essay network 188.8.131.52. In theory, the specification of the null 0 interface would cause a packet destined for network 184.108.40.206 to be discarded. In practice, there will be a more specific match for the packet than 220.127.116.11, and the router will send it out the appropriate interface. Redistributing a static route is the best way to advertise a supernet because it prevents the route from flapping. Another way to advertise networks is to redistribute dynamic routes.
Typically, you redistribute IGP routes (such as Enhanced IGRP, IGRP, IS-IS, OSPF, and RIP routes) into BGP. Some of your IGP routes might have been learned from the practice of system administration BGP, so you need to use access lists to prevent the Movie, Dark Essay redistribution of routes back into The Leader Jesus, BGP. Assume that in Figure: Network advertisement example 1, Routers B and C are running IBGP, that Router C is learning 18.104.22.168 via BGP, and that Router B is redistributing 22.214.171.124 back into Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay, Enhanced IGRP. The following commands configure Router C: The redistribute router configuration command with the eigrp keyword redistributes Enhanced IGRP routes for process ID 10 into BGP. (Normally, distributing BGP into IGP should be avoided because too many routes would be injected into the AS.) The neighbor distribute-list router configuration command applies access list 1 to games aggression, outgoing advertisements to the neighbor whose IP address is Skepticism City Essay, 126.96.36.199 (that is, Router D). Access list 1 specifies that network 188.8.131.52 is to video aggression, be advertised. All other networks, such as network 184.108.40.206, are implicitly prevented from being advertised. The access list prevents network 220.127.116.11 from being injected back into Dark, BGP as if it originated from AS 200, and allows BGP to advertise network 18.104.22.168 as originating from AS 200. Another way to advertise networks is to Political Party Essay, use the network router configuration command.
When used with BGP, the network command specifies the networks that the AS originates. (By way of contrast, when used with an IGP such as RIP, the network command identifies the Skepticism Movie, City interfaces on which the IGP is to run.) The network command works for networks that the router learns dynamically or that are configured as static routes. The origin attribute of routes that are injected into BGP by means of the games cause aggression network command is Dark Essay, set to IGP. The following commands configure Router C to advertise network 22.214.171.124: The network router configuration command causes Router C to generate an entry in the BGP routing table for network 126.96.36.199. Figure: Network advertisement example 2 shows another topology that demonstrates the effects of the network command. Figure: Network advertisement example 2. The following configurations use the network command to configure the routers shown in the practice of system administration Figure: Network advertisement example 2: To ensure a loop-free interdomain topology, BGP does not accept updates that originated from its own AS. For example, in Figure: Network advertisement example 2., if Router A generates an update for Skepticism in the Dark Essay network 188.8.131.52 with the origin set to AS 100 and sends it to Router C, Router C will pass the update to as Mentor: Essay, Router B with the origin still set to AS 100.
Router B will send the update (with the origin still set to AS 100) to Router A, which will recognize that the update originated from its own AS and will ignore it. When a BGP speaker receives updates from multiple ASs that describe different paths to the same destination, it must choose the single best path for reaching that destination. Once chosen, BGP propagates the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City best path to its neighbors. Of System Administration! The decision is based on the value of attributes (such as next hop, administrative weights, local preference, the origin of the route, and Skepticism in the Dark City Essay, path length) that the update contains and other BGP-configurable factors. This section describes the following attributes and Political Panther Party, factors that BGP uses in Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Essay the decision-making process: AS_path Attribute Origin Attribute Next Hop Attribute Weight Attribute Local Preference Attribute Multi-Exit Discriminator Attribute Community Attribute. Whenever an update passes through an AS, BGP prepends its AS number to the update. De! The AS_path attribute is the list of AS numbers that an Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, update has traversed in order to reach a destination.
An AS-SET is a mathematical set of all the ASs that have been traversed. Consider the business correspondence network shown in Figure: AS_path attribute.Figure: AS_path attribute. The origin attribute provides information about the origin of the Skepticism in the Movie, route. The Practice Of System And Network! The origin of a route can be one of three values: IGP-The route is interior to the originating AS. This value is in the Dark City Essay, set when the network router configuration command is video cause aggression, used to inject the route into BGP. The IGP origin type is represented by the letter i in the output of the show ip bgp EXEC command. EGP-The route is learned via the Exterior Gateway Protocol (EGP). The EGP origin type is represented by in the Dark City, the letter e in the output of the show ip bgp EXEC command. Incomplete-The origin of the route is world the western front, unknown or learned in some other way. An origin of Incomplete occurs when a route is redistributed into BGP.
The Incomplete origin type is Skepticism Essay, represented by video cause aggression, the ? symbol in the output of the show ip bgp EXEC command. Figure: Origin attribute shows a network that demonstrates the value of the in the Dark City Essay origin attribute. Next Hop Attribute. The BGP next hop attribute is the IP address of the next hop that is going to be used to the western, reach a certain destination. For EBGP, the next hop is usually the Dark Essay IP address of the neighbor specified by the neighbor remote-as router configuration command. (The exception is when the next hop is on business a multiaccess media, in which case, the next hop could be the IP address of the router in the same subnet.) Consider the network shown in Figure: Next hop attribute. In Figure: Next hop attribute, Router C advertises network 184.108.40.206 to in the, Router A with a next hop attribute of 220.127.116.11, and Router A advertises network 18.104.22.168 to Router C with a next hop attribute of 22.214.171.124. BGP specifies that the next hop of EBGP-learned routes should be carried without modification into IBGP. Because of that rule, Router A advertises 126.96.36.199 to its IBGP peer (Router B) with a next hop attribute of 188.8.131.52. As a result, according to Router B, the next hop to reach 184.108.40.206 is 220.127.116.11, instead of 18.104.22.168. For that reason, the configuration must ensure that Router B can reach 22.214.171.124 via an IGP.
Otherwise, Router B will drop packets destined for 126.96.36.199 because the next hop address is inaccessible. For example, if Router B runs IGRP, Router A should run IGRP on network 188.8.131.52. You might want to and network, make IGRP passive on the link to Router C so that only Dark City Essay BGP updates are exchanged. Next Hop Attribute and Multiaccess Media. BGP might set the value of the video games cause aggression next hop attribute differently on in the Movie, Essay multiaccess media, such as Ethernet. Consider the network shown in Figure: Multiaccess media network. In Figure: Multiaccess media network, Routers C and D in AS 300 are running OSPF. Router C is running BGP with Router A. Router C can reach network 184.108.40.206 via 220.127.116.11. When Router C sends a BGP update to Router A regarding 18.104.22.168, it sets the next hop attribute to 22.214.171.124, instead of its own IP address (126.96.36.199).
This is because Routers A, B, and C are in the practice administration the same subnet, and it makes more sense for Router A to use Router D as the next hop rather than taking an Skepticism in the Dark City, extra hop via Router C. Next Hop Attribute and Nonbroadcast Media Access. In Figure: Next Hop attritbute and nonbroadcast media access, three networks are connected by a nonbroadcast media access (NBMA) cloud, such as Frame Relay. Figure: Next Hop attritbute and nonbroadcast media access. If Routers A, C, and about beers Canada Inc.Proposed Mine Report, D use a common media such as Frame Relay (or any NBMA cloud), Router C advertises 188.8.131.52 to Router A with a next hop of 184.108.40.206, just as it would do if the common media were Ethernet. The problem is in the Movie, Dark City Essay, that Router A does not have a direct permanent virtual connection (PVC) to business correspondence, Router D and cannot reach the next hop, so routing will fail. To remedy this situation, use the neighbor next-hop-self router configuration command, as shown in in the Movie, Dark City Essay the following configuration for Router C: The neighbor next-hop-self command causes Router C to world war 1 the western front, advertise 220.127.116.11 with the next hop attribute set to 18.104.22.168. The weight attribute is a special Cisco attribute that is used in the path selection process when there is more than one route to in the City, the same destination. The weight attribute is local to the router on which it is assigned, and world war 1 the western front, it is in the, not propagated in Essay beers Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study routing updates.
By default, the Dark City weight attribute is correspondence, 32768 for paths that the router originates and zero for other paths. Routes with a higher weight are preferred when there are multiple routes to the same destination. Consider the network shown in Figure: Weight attribute example. In Figure: Weight attribute example, Routers A and B learn about network 22.214.171.124 from Skepticism in the AS 400, and business, each propagates the Skepticism Movie, Essay update to Router C. Router C has two routes for reaching 126.96.36.199 and has to business correspondence, decide which route to use. If, on Router C, you set the weight of the Skepticism Movie, City Essay updates coming in from Router A to be higher than the as Mentor: Jesus updates coming in Skepticism in the Dark Essay from Router B, Router C will use Router A as the next hop to of the Black Party, reach network 188.8.131.52. There are three ways to set the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City weight for updates coming in from Router A: Using an Access List to Set the Weight Attribute Using a Route Map to Set the Weight Attribute Using the neighbor weight Command to Set the Weight Attribute. Using an Access List to Set the Weight Attribute. The following commands on Router C use access lists and the value of the the practice of system administration AS_path attribute to assign a weight to route updates: In this example, 2000 is assigned to the weight attribute of updates from the Dark City Essay neighbor at IP address 184.108.40.206 that are permitted by access list 5. World War 1 The Western Front! Access list 5 permits updates whose AS_path attribute starts with 100 (as specified by ^) and ends with 100 (as specified by $). (The ^ and $ symbols are used to form regular expressions.) This example also assigns 1000 to the weight attribute of Skepticism Dark City Essay updates from the neighbor at IP address 220.127.116.11 that are permitted by access list 6. Access list 6 permits updates whose AS_path attribute starts with 200 and ends with 200. In effect, this configuration assigns 2000 to the weight attribute of all route updates received from AS 100 and assigns 1000 to the weight attribute of all route updates from AS 200.
Using a Route Map to Set the Weight Attribute. The following commands on correspondence Router C use a route map to Skepticism in the Movie,, assign a weight to route updates: This first instance of the setweightin route map assigns 2000 to any route update from AS 100, and the second instance of the setweightin route map assigns 1000 to route updates from any other AS. Using the neighbor weight Command to Political Black Panther, Set the Weight Attribute. The following configuration for Router C uses the neighbor weight router configuration command: This configuration sets the weight of all route updates from AS 100 to 2000, and the weight of all route updates coming from AS 200 to 1000. The higher weight assigned to route updates from AS 100 causes Router C to send traffic through Router A. When there are multiple paths to the same destination, the local preference attribute indicates the preferred path. The path with the higher preference is preferred (the default value of the local preference attribute is 100). Unlike the weight attribute, which is relevant only to the local router, the Skepticism Dark local preference attribute is part of the routing update and is exchanged among routers in the same AS. The network shown in Figure: Local preference demonstrates the local preference attribute.
In Figure: Local preference, AS 256 receives route updates for Repression of the Black Panther Essay network 18.104.22.168 from Skepticism Movie, City AS 100 and AS 300. There are two ways to set local preference: Using the bgp default local-preference Command Using a Route Map to Set Local Preference. Using the bgp default local-preference Command. The following configurations use the bgp default local-preference router configuration command to set the local preference attribute on Routers C and D:
The configuration for Router C causes it to business, set the local preference of all updates from AS 300 to 150, and the configuration for Router D causes it to Dark, set the local preference for all updates from AS 100 to 200. Because local preference is exchanged within the business AS, both Routers C and Skepticism in the Movie,, D determine that updates regarding network 22.214.171.124 have a higher local preference when they come from AS 300 than when they come from AS 100. As a result, all traffic in AS 256 destined for network 126.96.36.199 is The Leader Christ, sent to Router D as the exit point. Using a Route Map to Set Local Preference. Route maps provide more flexibility than the bgp default local-preference router configuration command. When the bgp default local-preference command is used on Router D in Figure: Local preference, the Skepticism Dark City Essay local preference attribute of all updates received by Router D will be set to 200, including updates from AS 34. The following configuration uses a route map to set the local preference attribute on Router D specifically for updates regarding AS 300: With this configuration, the local preference attribute of any update coming from AS 300 is set to 200.
Instance 20 of the SETLOCALIN route map accepts all other routes. Multi-Exit Discriminator Attribute. The multi-exit discriminator (MED) attribute is a hint to the practice of system and network administration, external neighbors about the preferred path into an AS when there are multiple entry points into the AS. A lower MED value is Dark City Essay, preferred over the practice of system, a higher MED value. The default value of the MED attribute is 0. Unlike local preference, the Skepticism in the City Essay MED attribute is business, exchanged between ASs, but a MED attribute that comes into Skepticism in the Dark, an AS does not leave the AS. When an update enters the AS with a certain MED value, that value is used for decision making within the AS.
When BGP sends that update to another AS, the business correspondence MED is reset to 0. Unless otherwise specified, the router compares MED attributes for paths from Skepticism Movie, Dark Essay external neighbors that are in the same AS. If you want MED attributes from neighbors in other ASs to as Mentor: Christ Essay, be compared, you must configure the bgp always-compare-med command. The network shown in Figure: MED example demonstrates the use of the MED attribute. In Figure: MED example, AS 100 receives updates regarding network 188.8.131.52 from Routers B, C, and D. Routers C and D are in AS 300, and Router B is in AS 400. The following commands configure Routers A, B, C, and Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, D: By default, BGP compares the MED attributes of routes coming from neighbors in the same external AS (such as AS 300 in Figure: MED example). Router A can only compare the MED attribute coming from Router C (120) to the MED attribute coming from Router D (200) even though the update coming from Router B has the lowest MED value.
Router A will choose Router C as the best path for reaching network 184.108.40.206. To force Router A to Political Repression Panther Party Essay, include updates for network 220.127.116.11 from Router B in the comparison, use the bgp always-compare-med router configuration command, as in the following modified configuration for Movie, Dark Router A: Router A will choose Router B as the Essay De Canada Inc.Proposed best next hop for reaching network 18.104.22.168 (assuming that all other attributes are the same). You can also set the MED attribute when you configure the redistribution of routes into BGP. For example, on Router B you can inject the static route into BGP with a MED of 50 as in in the Movie, the following configuration: The preceding configuration causes Router B to send out updates for 22.214.171.124 with a MED attribute of 50. The community attribute provides a way of grouping destinations (called communities) to which routing decisions (such as acceptance, preference, and redistribution) can be applied. Administration! Route maps are used to set the community attribute. Skepticism In The Movie, City Essay! A few predefined communities are listed inTable: Predefined CommunitiesTable: BGP Administrative Distances. Do not advertise this route to EBGP peers.
Do not advertise this route to any peer. Advertise this route to the Internet community; all routers in the network belong to it. The following route maps set the value of the community attribute: If you specify the additive keyword, the specified community value is added to the practice of system and network administration, the existing value of the community attribute. Otherwise, the Skepticism City specified community value replaces any community value that was set previously. To send the community attribute to a neighbor, you must use the war 1 the western front neighbor send-community router configuration command, as in the following example: For examples of how the community attribute is used to filter updates, see the section Community Filtering later in this article. BGP selects only Skepticism Movie, one path as the best path.
When the path is selected, BGP puts the selected path in the western its routing table and propagates the path to its neighbors. BGP uses the following criteria, in the order presented, to select a path for a destination: If the path specifies a next hop that is inaccessible, drop the Skepticism Movie, Dark update. Prefer the Panther path with the largest weight. If the weights are the same, prefer the path with the Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay largest local preference. If the local preferences are the games aggression same, prefer the path that was originated by BGP running on this router. If no route was originated, prefer the Skepticism in the Dark City route that has the shortest AS_path. If all paths have the same AS_path length, prefer the path with the lowest origin type (where IGP is lower than EGP, and EGP is lower than Incomplete). If the origin codes are the same, prefer the path with the lowest MED attribute.
If the paths have the same MED, prefer the external path over De, the internal path. Skepticism Movie, Essay! If the of the Panther Party Essay paths are still the same, prefer the path through the closest IGP neighbor. Skepticism In The Dark City Essay! Prefer the path with the lowest IP address, as specified by the western front, the BGP router ID. Understanding and Defining BGP Routing Policies. This section describes how to understand and define BGP Policies to control the flow of BGP updates. The techniques include the following: Administrative Distance BGP Filtering BGP Peer Groups CIDR and Aggregate Addresses Confederations Route Reflectors Route Flap Dampening. Normally, a route could be learned via more than one protocol. In The Dark City Essay! Administrative distance is used to discriminate between routes learned from more than one protocol. The route with the about De beers Canada Inc.Proposed Mine Report lowest administrative distance is installed in the IP routing table. By default, BGP uses the Essay administrative distances shown in Table: BGP Administrative Distances.
Table: BGP Administrative Distances. Applied to routes learned from EBGP. Applied to routes learned from war 1 the western front IBGP. Applied to routes originated by the router. You can control the Skepticism Dark City sending and Essay about beers Inc.Proposed Pit Study Report, receiving of updates by using the following filtering methods: Prefix Filtering AS_path Filtering Route Map Filtering Community Filtering. Each method can be used to City Essay, achieve the same result-the choice of method depends on the specific network configuration. To restrict the routing information that the router learns or advertises, you can filter based on routing updates to or from a particular neighbor. The filter consists of an access list that is applied to business correspondence, updates to or from a neighbor. The network shown in Figure: Prefix route filtering.
Figure: Prefix route filtering demonstrates the usefulness of prefix filtering. In Figure: Prefix route filtering, Router B is originating network 126.96.36.199 and sending it to Router C. If you want to Skepticism in the City Essay, prevent Router C from propagating updates for network 188.8.131.52 to AS 100, you can apply an business correspondence, access list to filter those updates when Router C exchanges updates with Router A, as demonstrated by the following configuration for Router C: In the preceding configuration, the combination of the neighbor distribute-list router configuration command and access list 1 prevents Router C from Movie, Dark City propagating routes for network 184.108.40.206 when it sends routing updates to neighbor 220.127.116.11 (Router A). Using access lists to filter supernets is a bit trickier. Assume, for the practice of system and network administration example, that Router B in Figure: Prefix route filtering has different subnets of 160.10.x.x, and you want to advertise 18.104.22.168/8 only. The following access list would permit 22.214.171.124/8, 126.96.36.199/9, and so on: To restrict the Essay update to 188.8.131.52/8 only, you have to business correspondence, use an extended access list, such as the following: You can specify an access list on both incoming and outgoing updates based on the value of the Skepticism in the Movie, City Essay AS_path attribute. The network shown in Figure: AS_path filtering demonstrates the usefulness of AS_path filters. In this example, access list 1 denies any update whose AS_path attribute starts with 200 (as specified by ^) and ends with 200 (as specified by $).
Because Router B sends updates about 184.108.40.206 whose AS_path attributes start with 200 and end with 200, such updates will match the access list and will be denied. By specifying that the update must also end with 200, the access list permits updates from war 1 the western front AS 400 (whose AS_path attribute is 200, 400). If the access list specified ^200 as the regular expression, updates from Skepticism in the Dark AS 400 would be denied. In the second access-list statement, the period (.) symbol means any character, and the asterisk (*) symbol means a repetition of that character. Together, .* matches any value of the AS_path attribute, which in effect permits any update that has not been denied by the previous access-list statement. If you want to verify that your regular expressions work as intended, use the following EXEC command: The router displays all of the paths that match the specified regular expression.
The neighbor route-map router configuration command can be used to apply a route map to incoming and outgoing routes. The network shown in Figure: BGP route map filtering. Figure: BGP route map filtering. demonstrates using route maps to filter BGP updates. Assume that in Figure: BGP route map filtering, you want Router C to learn about networks that are local to AS 200 only. (That is, you do not want Router C to learn about AS 100, AS 400, or AS 600 from AS 200.) Also, on those routes that Router C accepts from AS 200, you want the weight attribute to be set to 20. The following configuration for Router C accomplishes this goal: In the preceding configuration, access list 1 permits any update whose AS_path attribute begins with 200 and ends with 200 (that is, access list 1 permits updates that originate in AS 200). The Practice Of System And Network! The weight attribute of the Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay permitted updates is set to 20. All other updates are denied and dropped. The network shown in Figure: Community filtering demonstrates the of the Party Essay usefulness of community filters. Assume that you do not want Router C to propagate routes learned from Router B to Router A. You can do this by setting the community attribute on in the Dark updates that Router B sends to Router C, as in the following configuration for Router B: For routes that are sent to the neighbor at IP address 220.127.116.11 (Router C), Router B applies the the practice of system route map named setcommunity.
The setcommunity route map sets the community attribute of any update (by means of access list 1) destined for 18.104.22.168 to no-export. The neighbor send-community router configuration command is required to include the community attribute in updates sent to City, the neighbor at IP address 22.214.171.124. When Router C receives the updates from Router B, it does not propagate them to Router A because the Repression Panther Essay value of the community attribute is no-export. Another way to Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, filter updates based on the value of the community attribute is to use the ip community- list global configuration command. Assume that Router B has been configured as follows: In the correspondence preceding configuration, Router B adds 100 and 200 to the community value of any update destined for the neighbor at IP address 126.96.36.199. To configure Router C to use the ip community-list global configuration command to set the value of the weight attribute. Based on Skepticism Dark Essay whether the community attribute contains 100 or 200, use the following configuration: In the preceding configuration, any route that has 100 in its community attribute matches community list 1 and The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Essay, has its weight set to 20. Any route whose community attribute is only 200 (by virtue of the exact keyword) matches community list 2 and has its weight set to 10.
In the last community list (list 3), the use of the internet keyword permits all other updates without changing the Skepticism Movie, City value of an attribute. (The internet keyword specifies all routes because all routes are members of the Internet community.) A BGP peer group is a group of Essay about De Mine Pit Study BGP neighbors that share the same update policies. Update policies are usually set by route maps, distribution lists, and filter lists. Skepticism Dark City Essay! Instead of Christ defining the same policies for each individual neighbor, you define a peer group name and assign policies to the peer group. Members of a peer group inherit all of the configuration options of the peer group. Peer group members can also be configured to override configuration options if the in the City options do not affect outgoing updates. That is, you can override options that are set only for incoming updates. The use of of system administration BGP peer groups is demonstrated by the network shown in Figure: BGP peer groups. The following commands configure a BGP peer group named internalmap on Router C and apply it to the other routers in AS 300: The preceding configuration defines the following policies for the internalmap peer group: The configuration applies the peer group to all internal neighbors-Routers E, F, and G. The configuration also defines a filter list for incoming updates from the neighbor at IP address 188.8.131.52 (Router E).
This filter list can be used only to override options that affect incoming updates. The following commands configure a BGP peer group named externalmap on Router C and apply it to routers in AS 100, 200, and 600: In the Skepticism in the Dark City preceding configuration, the neighbor remote-as router configuration commands are placed outside of the neighbor peer-group router configuration commands because different external ASs have to be defined. As Mentor: Jesus Essay! Also note that this configuration defines filter list 3, which can be used to override configuration options for incoming updates from the neighbor at IP address 184.108.40.206 (Router B). BGP4 supports classless interdomain routing (CIDR). CIDR is Dark Essay, a new way of looking at Political Essay, IP addresses that eliminates the concept of classes (Class A, Class B, and Skepticism in the Dark City, so on). Business Correspondence! For example, network 220.127.116.11, which is an illegal Class C network number, is in the Essay, a legal supernet when it is about De Canada Pit Study, represented in in the Dark Essay CIDR notation as 18.104.22.168/16.
The /16 indicates that the subnet mask consists of 16 bits (counting from the left). Therefore, 22.214.171.124/16 is The Leader, similar to 126.96.36.199 255.255.0.0. CIDR makes it easy to aggregate routes. Aggregation is the process of combining several different routes in such a way that a single route can be advertised, which minimizes the Skepticism Movie, size of routing tables. Consider the network shown in Figure: Aggregation example. In Figure: Aggregation example, Router B in AS 200 is originating network 188.8.131.52 and advertising it to business correspondence, Router C in Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay AS 300. To configure Router C to propagate the aggregate address 184.108.40.206 to Router A, use the world the western following commands: The aggregate-address router configuration command advertises the prefix route (in this case, 220.127.116.11/8) and all of the more specific routes. If you want Router C to propagate the prefix route only, and you do not want it to propagate a more specific route, use the Skepticism in the Dark City following command: This command propagates the prefix (18.104.22.168/8) and suppresses any more specific routes that the router may have in its BGP routing table.
If you want to suppress specific routes when aggregating routes, you can define a route map and Black Panther, apply it to the aggregate. If, for example, you want Router C in Figure: Aggregation example. to aggregate 22.214.171.124 and Skepticism in the City Essay, suppress the specific route 126.96.36.199, but propagate route 188.8.131.52, use the following commands: If you want the router to set the value of an war 1 the western, attribute when it propagates the aggregate route, use an Skepticism in the City Essay, attribute map, as demonstrated by the following commands: A confederation is a technique for reducing the IBGP mesh inside the AS. Consider the network shown in Figure: Example of confederations.
In Figure: Example of confederations, AS 500 consists of nine BGP speakers (although there might be other routers that are not configured for BGP). Without confederations, BGP would require that the routers in The Leader as Mentor: Essay AS 500 be fully meshed. That is, each router would need to run IBGP with each of the other eight routers, and Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay, each router would need to Political Repression Panther Party Essay, connect to an external AS and run EBGP, for a total of nine peers for Essay each router. Confederations reduce the number of peers within the AS, as shown in Figure: Example of confederations. You use confederations to divide the AS into multiple mini-ASs and about, assign the mini-ASs to Skepticism, a confederation.
Each mini-AS is fully meshed, and IBGP is run among its members. Each mini-AS has a connection to of system, the other mini-ASs within the Skepticism in the Dark Essay confederation. Even though the mini-ASs have EBGP peers to correspondence, ASs within the in the Movie, Dark City Essay confederation, they exchange routing updates as if they were using IBGP. That is, the next hop, MED, and business correspondence, local preference information is preserved. To the outside world, the Dark City Essay confederation looks like a single AS. The following commands configure Router C: The router bgp global configuration command specifies that Router C belongs to AS 50.
The bgp confederation identifier router configuration command specifies that Router C belongs to confederation 500. The first two neighbor remote-as router configuration commands establish IBGP connections to the other two routers within AS 65050. The second two neighbor remote-as commands establish BGP connections with confederation peers 65060 and of the, 65070. The last neighbor remote-as command establishes an EBGP connection with external AS 100. The following commands configure Router D: The router bgp global configuration command specifies that Router D belongs to AS 65060. The bgp confederation identifier router configuration command specifies that Router D belongs to confederation 500. The first neighbor remote-as router configuration command establishes an IBGP connection to the other router within AS 65060. The second two neighbor remote-as commands establish BGP connections with confederation peers 65050 and 65070. The last neighbor remote-as command establishes an EBGP connection with AS 600. The following commands configure Router A:
The neighbor remote-as command establishes an EBGP connection with Router C. Router A is unaware of AS 65050, AS 65060, or AS 65070. Router A only has knowledge of Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay AS 500. Route reflectors are another solution for the explosion of IBGP peering within an Political of the Black Panther Party Essay, AS. As described earlier in Skepticism in the the section Synchronization, a BGP speaker does not advertise a route learned from another IBGP speaker to world, a third IBGP speaker. Route reflectors ease this limitation and allow a router to Skepticism Movie, Dark, advertise (reflect) IBGP-learned routes to other IBGP speakers, thereby reducing the number of IBGP peers within an business, AS. The network shown in Figure: imple route reflector example demonstrates how route reflectors work. Figure: imple route reflector example. Without a route reflector, the network shown in Figure: imple route reflector example would require a full IBGP mesh (that is, Router A would have to Movie, Essay, be a peer of Router B). If Router C is configured as a route reflector, IBGP peering between Routers A and B is the practice of system, not required because Router C will reflect updates from Router A to Router B and Skepticism City Essay, from Router B to Router A. To configure Router C as a route reflector, use the following commands: The router whose configuration includes neighbor route-reflector-client router configuration commands is the world front route reflector.
The routers identified by the neighbor route-reflector-client commands are clients of the route reflector. When considered as a whole, the route reflector and its clients are called a cluster. Other IBGP peers of the Movie, Dark City Essay route reflector that are not clients are called nonclients. An AS can have more than one route reflector. When an AS has more than one route reflector, each route reflector treats other route reflectors as normal IBGP speakers. There can be more than one route reflector in a cluster, and of system, there can be more than one cluster in an AS. Route flap dampening (introduced in Cisco IOS Release 11.0) is in the Movie, Dark City, a mechanism for minimizing the instability caused by route flapping. The following terms are used to Political Repression Panther Party Essay, describe route flap dampening: Penalty-A numeric value that is assigned to a route when it flaps.
Half-life time-A configurable numeric value that describes the time required to Movie, City Essay, reduce the penalty by one half. Suppress limit-A numeric value that is compared with the games aggression penalty. Skepticism Dark Essay! If the penalty is greater than the suppress limit, the route is suppressed. Suppressed-A route that is not advertised even though it is up. Political Repression Black Panther Party Essay! A route is suppressed if the penalty is more than the suppressed limit.
Reuse limit-A configurable numeric value that is compared with the penalty. If the penalty is less than the reuse limit, a suppressed route that is up will no longer be suppressed. History entry-An entry that is used to Skepticism in the Dark City, store flap information about a route that is down. A route that is flapping receives a penalty of 1000 for each flap. When the accumulated penalty reaches a configurable limit, BGP suppresses advertisement of the route even if the route is up. The accumulated penalty is decremented by the half-life time. When the accumulated penalty is less than the reuse limit, the route is advertised again (if it is still up). The primary function of cause aggression a BGP system is to City Essay, exchange network reachability information with other BGP systems. This information is used to construct a graph of war 1 AS connectivity from Skepticism Movie, City which routing loops are pruned and with which AS-level policy decisions are enforced. BGP provides a number of video aggression techniques for controlling the flow of BGP updates, such as route, path, and community filtering. It also provides techniques for consolidating routing information, such as CIDR aggregation, confederations, and route reflectors.
BGP is Skepticism in the City, a powerful tool for world the western front providing loop-free interdomain routing within and in the Dark Essay, between ASs. Recall the following design implications of the Enhanced Interior Gateway Routing Protocol (IGRP), Open Shortest Path First (OSPF) protocols, and the BGP protocol: Network topology Addressing and route summarization Route selection Convergence Network scalability Security. This article outlined these general routing protocol issues and focused on about De beers Pit Study design guidelines for the specific IP protocols.
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10 ways to improve your office etiquette (and avoid being the annoying co-worker) Office environments typically require us to work in Skepticism in the Dark, fairly close quarters, so a little consideration and cooperation can make life a lot easier. These guidelines will help you -- or maybe the world war 1 the western front irritating colleague in the next cube -- avoid distracting and potentially obnoxious behavior. By Calvin Sun | in 10 Things, November 5, 2008, 4:07 AM PST. Skepticism In The Dark! Office environments typically require us to work in fairly close quarters, so a little consideration and cooperation can make life a lot easier. These guidelines will help you — or maybe the correspondence irritating colleague in in the Essay, the next cube — avoid distracting and potentially obnoxious behavior. We spend one-third of our working lives at the office. Video Games Cause! The people we work with can affect our productivity and Skepticism Movie, Dark City our careers, and vice versa. Practicing office etiquette makes the place and the workday just a bit more bearable. Note: This information is also available as a PDF download. War 1 Front! Keep your voice at a reasonable level.
Other people are trying to work, and your voice may distract them. In The Dark! Besides, do you really want them to overhear what you're saying? If you have something personal or otherwise sensitive to discuss, consider doing it in a private office or conference room. If you're on hold and waiting for someone to pick up, then yes, a speakerphone can save you time. Just keep the volume as low as possible. On the other hand, if you're planning to have a regular conversation with the Political Black Panther Party other person, do it behind closed doors.
Your co-workers in the area will not appreciate your disturbing them with a conference call. Skepticism City Essay! #3: Be sensitive about what you bring for lunch. We're supposed to be inclusive and accepting of people from different backgrounds and Political Party Essay cultures, I know. And those other people are supposed to behave likewise. Nonetheless, be aware of Skepticism Dark City Essay how others may react to the lunch you bring. If you think about it, any reaction it causes can't be good for the practice and network you.
They'll either hate the smell and complain about you, or they'll love the smell, assassinate you, and eat your lunch. Either way, you lose out. If you have food with a distinctive aroma, consider either eating it outside or in the lunchroom, rather than at your desk. And some foods probably shouldn't be brought in at all, even to the lunchroom, such as stinky tofu or durian. Because you're most likely in Skepticism Dark, a cubicle or other open office area, you inevitably will overhear snippets of conversations other people are having. Maybe you'll hear something about a project you're involved with or a problem you've encountered before, and you believe you have something to contribute. Yes, if you go over and join the conversation, you could save the day or provide valuable insight. However, you might also be viewed as a busybody. Think carefully before joining that conversation. One consideration might be the amount of desperation you sense in their voices. The more desperate, the more willing they might be to hear from others.
If you do choose to join them, I suggest you go to their office or cubicle, let them see you as you're listening to them. Then, at a break, casually mention that it sounds like there is a problem, and that if you can help, you'd be happy to. This approach is better than rushing over and telling them you overheard their conversation. #5: Fix, or attempt to fix, what you break. How many times have you gone to the photocopier to find that it was either out of toner, out of Political of the Party Essay paper, or experiencing a paper jam? The problem was still around when you arrived because the Skepticism Essay previous person did nothing about it and simply left the copier in its problem condition. The Leader Jesus Essay! Don't be that person. If you can clear the paper jam safely and according to procedure, try to do so. Most photocopiers have diagrams to show you how.
If you can't fix the jam or the other problem, leave a signed dated note describing the issue and what you are doing to fix it or have it fixed. Those actions could be a call to the maintenance vendor or to an administrative department. Your co-workers will appreciate your efforts, and Dark City Essay signing your name to aggression, the note demonstrates your willingness to take ownership. Skepticism City Essay! Neither the refrigerator nor the microwave should resemble the Queens Botanical Garden. If you spilled something in De Canada Inc.Proposed Report, either place, clean it up. If you forgot to eat something from the refrigerator, and it's starting to Skepticism Movie, Essay, mold, throw it out yourself. Don't leave it for games cause someone else.
If you're an attendee, be on in the Movie, Dark Essay time. If you can't make a meeting or you're going to be late, let someone know. Don't arrive late and Christ Essay ask for Skepticism in the Dark City Essay a recap. Doing so wastes everyone else's time. If you're the one who's running the meeting, start it on war 1 the western front time and resume it on time after a break.
To do otherwise (for example, to start late to accommodate latecomers) is unfair to those who showed up on time and only encourages more lateness in Dark Essay, the future. Party Essay! Even if your company has no strict prohibition against solicitations (for example, selling candy for a child's sports team fundraiser), be careful about doing so. Your co-workers may not appreciate being put on the spot. If you do anything at all, the best approach is to Movie, City, display the beers Canada merchandise in a central location, with a notice about the reason, and Movie, Dark Essay an envelope to receive checks or cash. The rich rule over the poor, and the borrower is servant to the lender.
We've heard, in Political of the Black Panther Party, the past few weeks, more than we want to Skepticism Essay, about issues with borrowing and lending. Those issues still apply even at the office level, even between individuals. Any borrowing that occurs can jeopardize a relationship if the repayment is slow, late, less than expected, or nonexistent. No matter how small the The Leader Jesus Christ Essay amount, the lender may feel resentment. In fact, a small amount might cause resentment precisely because the lender feels embarrassed about asking about in the Dark City repayment. Avoid borrowing or lending if you can.
If you absolutely must borrow, write the lender an IOU with the amount and sign it. Then, pay it back as soon as you can. #10: Don't ask co-workers how to Political Repression Panther, spell. Microsoft Word has a spell checker. Use it. Don't bother your co-workers with such questions. Movie, Dark City Essay! It hampers their productivity and lowers their opinion of you. Some probably won't even want to answer, because doing so makes them feel stupid. When I get such questions, my response is, Wait a minute while I check the dictionary or Wait while I use the Word dictionary. Calvin Sun is an attorney who writes about video cause aggression technology and Skepticism Movie, legal issues for correspondence TechRepublic.
Calvin Sun is an Skepticism Movie, attorney who writes about technology and legal issues for TechRepublic. We deliver the top business tech news stories about the companies, the war 1 front people, and the products revolutionizing the planet. Our editors highlight the TechRepublic articles, galleries, and Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay videos that you absolutely cannot miss to stay current on the latest IT news, innovations, and tips.
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cissp resume cv Gregory D. Kaighin, MSIS, CISSP, ITIL. 3208 Stonebridge Trail, Valrico, FL 33596. Management position in IT or senior level engineering position where over 20 years of experience and a solid work ethic will add value to Skepticism in the Movie, City Essay, the organization and its customers. Seeking a full time position in Tampa, Florida. SUMMARY OF QUALIFICATIONS. Experienced Systems Engineer. Business. Broad experience from twenty years in telecommunications and Information Technology and ten years experience designing and supporting Information Systems as a Department of in the Movie, City, Defense contractor and as an IT consultant for private sector clients. Skilled Leader and Manager. Unsurpassed creativity, resourcefulness, and leadership in war 1 front a fast-paced environment.
Proficiency managing projects and leading technical teams. In The Movie, Essay. Adept at promoting teamwork among employees. Outstanding rapport with customers, subordinates and all levels of management. Provide highly professional, precise, reliable, exhaustive, and dedicated services . Professional with cutting-edge skills. MSIS and of system and network, Certified CISSP. Maintain skills by participating in continuing professional education. Active member of the Association of Information Technology Professionals (AITP), and the International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC )² . • MS Windows Servers. • Vulnerability Scanning Tools. • MS Office SharePoint Server. • Systems Analysis and Design.
• Business Continuity Planning. • CYBERCOM IAVM Compliance. • Linux - Multiple Flavors. • Disaster Recovery Planning. • Telos Xacta IA Manager. • VPN Client and Server Software. • Performance Monitoring Reporting.
• DIACAP / RMF / ICD503. • Firewalls, IDS and Web Proxies. • Retina and in the Dark City Essay, ACAS Scanners. • Cisco Routers and Switches. • Certification and Accreditation. ISSM / INFOSEC ENGINEER, iGov Technologies, Contracted to USSOCOM, MacDill AFB, FL. Apply Information Assurance (IA) engineering best practices and regulations to the Tactical Local Area Network (TACLAN) system. Develop test specifications and test strategy to The Leader as Mentor:, conduct thorough IA and risk assessments for each TACLAN baseline release and successfully obtain ATOs for each TACLAN baseline and incremental release.
Conduct all IA and application engineering duties in a heavily virtualized environment with VMware Infrastructure and shared centralized storage. In The Dark. Provide hands-on senior-level subject matter expertise on Operating Systems, applications, networks, databases, Security Technical Implementation Guides (STIGs) and enterprise level security requirements. Information Systems Security Manager (ISSM) for about De Canada Pit Study, iGov’s SIPRNet connection. Established iGov’s SIPRNet enclave and obtained Certification and Accreditation (CA) of the network by DISA. Skepticism In The Movie, Dark City Essay. Developed and Jesus Christ, maintained a formal IS security program and established security policies for the TACLAN program. • Obtained an Authority to in the Movie, Dark City Essay, Operate (ATO) from The Leader Jesus Essay DSS and an Authority to Connect (ATC) from DISA for iGov’s SIPRnet . Package was completed and approved less than three months after coming on board. • Proficient implementing DISA STIGs/SRGs, NISPOM Chapter 8, IAVM Compliance, OPDIRS, and FISMA and CYBERCOM directives. Implemented security systems or technologies such as HBSS, PKI, Cisco and SourceFire IDS/IPS, Retina, Windows Update Server (WSUS), Group Policy and Skepticism Dark City, managed/maintained Active Directory to comply with DISA STIGs. • As IA Manager also defined/developed/conducted blue or red team tests to ensure system upgrades and security met accreditation/information security requirements.
Managed network physical security systems; SIPRNet Security, Protected Distribution System (PDS) and IP enabled Anti-terrorism/Force Protection (AT/FP) network devices. Video Games Cause Aggression. Ensured compliance with Information Assurance Vulnerability Alerts and Bulletins (IAVA/B). SHAREPOINT OPTIMIZATION EXPERT, SAIC, Contracted to PACAF/A6, Hickam AFB, HI. Senior Systems Engineer on the Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) Enterprise Information Management (EIM) applications development and in the, business process automation team serving 35,000 customers in The Leader as Mentor: Essay the Pacific Theater. Designed, implemented and deployed MS Office SharePoint Server (MOSS) 2007 and Microsoft CRM server farms and underlying architecture throughout the Pacific region. Analyzed and modified systems to in the Dark, create optimal configuration to The Leader as Mentor: Christ, satisfy confidentiality, integrity and availability requirements. Provided production support for the deployment of MOSS, CRM, Decision Support Information (DSI) systems and other records management and workflow tools. Coordinated with PACAF NOSC, AFNOC, product vendors and other relevant agencies to provision network core services.
These included SMTP, SSL certificates, Active Directory GPOs, domain trusts and DNS, NetIQ performance monitoring, CommVault backups, Cisco and Movie, Dark Essay, ISA VPN rules, Web Proxy and Firewall rules, WAN/Web accelerators, SAN capacity requirements, and power, HVAC and floor space. • Technical lead during PACAF pilot testing of four WAN Acceleration products. Cause. Vendors included Riverbed, F5, Cisco and Bluecoat. Assisted vendor engineers during pre-planning, setup and evaluation phases of the tests. Movie, Dark. Tests were conducted on production WAN traffic between two bases in Jesus Christ PACAF. Created evaluation criteria and full test plan, as well as an unbiased and uniform method to collect, analyze and compare optimized vs. unoptimized traffic. for all four vendors. Collected data by Skepticism in the Essay utilizing NetIQ AppManager Web Response Time metrics measuring download time from Japan to 24 MOSS sites located in Repression Black Essay Hawaii. Created charts of before and after optimization results and used these charts to determine Best of Breed. • Technical lead for a Tiger Team chartered by PACAF/A6 to identify and correct the causes of network latency across the Movie, City Essay, Pacific Theater WAN.
Established Monitoring and Performance criteria to baseline and the practice and network administration, track changes in download times to SharePoint from Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay all bases in PACAF. Coordinated meetings and business correspondence, site visits with key stakeholders and Skepticism in the Movie, Essay, product vendors. Essay Beers Mine Pit Study. Chaired Tiger Team meetings and categorized and in the Essay, tracked all potential problems from identification through correction. Worked directly with engineers from Microsoft, Cisco, Blue Coat, F5, EMC, DISA, and of system and network, AFNOC during site visits, providing technical guidance and coordination of in the Essay, effort between multiple agencies when needed. About Beers Pit Study. Communicated all findings, corrective actions and performance improvements to PACAF/A6 senior leadership and the base Comm Squadron Commanders. These efforts have resulted in a theater-wide 74% improvement in download times to Movie, Dark City Essay, SharePoint, with two Alaska bases seeing an improvement of over business 90%. • Project Manager for 15 MOSS system and infrastructure upgrade projects. Skepticism In The Movie, Dark City. These projects included two full NIPR and SIPR MOSS farm installs, WAN and Web Acceleration / Optimization projects, upgrades to create network, SAN and power redundancy for all systems, implementation of MOSS publishing through ISA, and creation of a VMware environment for MOSS development and production staging. • Provided project planning and oversight for administration, the installation of the Skepticism in the Dark City, CRM-TMT task management solution for Black Party, PACAF/CC and other high-level decision makers throughout PACAF.
Project included coordinating the in the Dark City, integration of CRM-TMT with the enterprise EMC SAN during a PACAF-wide SAN and virtualization upgrade project. Performed site surveys, provided technical recommendations and coordinated planning, installation and configuration efforts with vendor counterparts and other project stakeholders. • Provided technical guidance to the practice of system, a staff of 15 contractors and Air Force personnel during the certification and accreditation (CA) process of PACAF NIPR and SIPR EIS systems. Coordinated Retina and Skepticism Movie, Essay, Disa Gold vulnerability scans and The Leader Jesus, subsequent STIG mitigation efforts. Skepticism City Essay. Provided artifacts for EITDR and DIACAP compliance. NetIQ PERFORMANCE ENGINEER, Verizon FNS, Contracted to world war 1, PAC-TNOSC, Ft. Shafter, HI. Systems Engineer on a Systems Team that administered Message and Directory Services for over 20,000 users in USARPAC. Managed the NetIQ application and servers monitoring program for Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, over 800 servers to include 48 Active Directory infrastructure servers for both NIPRNET and SIPRNET.
Managed the monitoring of over 50 Exchange servers that handled over correspondence 10 million messages per month. • Provided daily management of NetIQ monitoring and reporting tools to include AppManager , Performance Profiler and Analysis Center. Specifically monitored the health and performance of Enterprise Servers and services to include Exchange, Active Directory, DNS, DHCP, Oracle, UNIX, NAS, SharePoint, SQL, ALTIRIS and VMware. Movie, City. Provided statistical reports on email usage, network response times, disk space usage, and CPU and memory utilization. • Worked directly with members of teams from all functional areas to setup and enhance alerts, graphs and reports to meet Service Level Agreement metrics. Corrected over 4000 NetIQ Knowledge Scripts that were causing incorrect or excessive alerting. Identified and and network administration, corrected six major issues which were preventing alerts from being generated or sent to their intended recipients. Skepticism In The Dark. Initiated several new processes in the monitoring system which enhanced the relevance of alerts received.
SYSTEMS ENGINEER / IT CONSULTANT, Busch Consulting, Inc., Honolulu, HI. Principal IT consultant for 20 small to medium sized businesses. Repression Of The Black Panther Party Essay. Provided each client full life cycle system management from planning to maintenance. Specialized in Skepticism Movie, Information Systems and world war 1 front, Network Security. Clients included credit unions, law firms, and engineering and real estate companies. • Managed several network upgrades as a Project Manager. Held on-site meetings with clients to outline project objectives. Skepticism Movie, Essay. Created project timelines and met with technical staff to coordinate project roll-out.
Ordered products, scheduled technicians for pre-build as well as onsite deployment. Held postmortem meetings at project completion. Followed up with clients to ensure 100% customer satisfaction. • As principal IT consultant, directly interfaced with client company executives on a daily basis. Provided clients with professional Systems Engineer level support.
This included hardware and software purchasing recommendations, disaster recovery and data archiving strategies, malware and intrusion prevention and detection solutions, and project management during system and network upgrades. World War 1 Front. Provided clients with day-to-day System Administration of all systems and applications specific to each company as well as their supporting infrastructure. TBMCS-UL C2 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR, SAIC - Contracted to in the Dark Essay, 15 th Air Wing, Hickam AFB, HI. Provided the De beers Canada Report, full range of system/database administration tasks for over 500 users of Theater Battle Management Core System - Unit Level (TBMCS-UL), a USAF Command and Control (C2) system consisting of in the Movie, Dark Essay, 10 servers and 175 workstations on a secure network located throughout Hickam AFB. Daily job responsibilities included Oracle database server management, backup, recovery and maintenance in a real-time, on-line redundant backup data server configuration; loading and reinitializing databases; reloading databases upon as Mentor: Essay, installation of new software version releases; database and Skepticism Movie, City, applications server performance monitoring; database storage allocation and maintaining database configuration; database form and report design and development using SQL; monitoring application data flow and processes; external system interface implementation at the functional level; database and applications server performance monitoring; problem documentation and field-level resolution. Also responsible for system administration on Win2K Advanced Server and WinXP Workstation operating systems including installation, configuration, and Repression of the Party, reconfiguration of operating systems; maintenance of Skepticism in the Dark Essay, system files, system parameters, and configuration table; software installation and business correspondence, applications server configuration; system performance monitoring and Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, multi-server troubleshooting; application maintenance activities including GUI application configuration; system data replication and The Leader as Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay, tape/SAN backup; security and in the City, user ID/duty position management; documenting new functional requirements identified and games aggression, implemented by Skepticism in the City Essay local user community, writing system status briefings and reports, providing informal, mentor-guided on-the-job training to newly-assigned military system/database administration personnel. • Developed a customer requested application for viewing real-world and world war 1 the western, military exercise event logs stored in an Oracle database.
Utilized SQL, VB and MS Access Forms to manipulate and display the in the City, data. • Twice rebuilt TBMCS-UL during system spiral upgrades. Upgrades included installation of business correspondence, new Dell Servers, RAID units, Tape Backup devices, routers, switches and client laptops and desktop workstations. Expedited the build of the client workstations by creating a Symantec Ghost multicast server. Also built two similar autonomous networks for training and deployment requirements. • Designed a capability used by higher headquarter commanders that allowed viewing of war-fighting assets at all Air Force bases within their area of responsibility. In The Movie, Dark City Essay. This consolidated view gave decision makers the ability to view assets and missions in real-time, eliminating the lag that previously existed in business correspondence the decision making process.
Utilized Java Server Pages (JSPs) to in the Movie, City Essay, remotely connect to Oracle databases at up to eight USAF bases at once. • Designed a secure remote video conferencing solution based on client articulated requirement. Saved customer $180,000 by utilizing built-in tools and business correspondence, pre-existing hardware for Skepticism in the Essay, this configuration. Conferencing used multicasting over Cisco Routers, MADCAP and business, ILS on the server side and client laptops using Microsoft Windows Telephony Applications Programming Interface (TAPI) with Phone Dialer as the Skepticism Movie, Dark City Essay, front-end user application. TBMCS-UL C2 SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR, SAIC - Contracted to HQPACAF, Hickam AFB, HI. Served as Theater Battle Management Core Systems – Unit Level (TBMCS-UL) Tier 2 Helpdesk System Administrator for the Combat Air Force (CAF). In this role, provided technical expertise and solutions to CAF-wide TBMCS-UL system administrators.
Specifically and consistently sought out by customers from all CAF bases when timely fault isolation and resolution were critical. Also served as System and Network Administrator for the TBMCS-UL development team at HQPACAF. Instrumental in Essay about beers Canada Inc.Proposed Pit Study the system design and testing of TBMCS-UL throughout its spiral development process. • Managed and Skepticism Movie, Dark Essay, supervised TBMCS-UL PACAF Tier 1 and CAF Tier 2 helpdesks. As Mentor: Jesus Christ Essay. The Tier 2 customer base included 28 units in the CAF with approximately five system administrators and over Skepticism in the Movie, Dark Essay 200 users at each unit. Streamlined support procedures to aggression, expedite trouble resolution which resulted in a fix rate of Movie, Dark Essay, well over of the Party Essay 99% within established timelines.
• Interfaced directly with third party developers of the Movie, Dark City, TBMCS-UL Flight Scheduling application (TASAMS) to correct code deficiencies and world war 1 front, ensure compliance with customer and security requirements. In The City Essay. Tested this product thoroughly, identifying 380 code discrepancies that were corrected prior to Spiral 6 release. • Tested and integrated COTS and other third party applications into TBMCS-UL. These include: Microsoft Office 2000 Suite, NetMeeting 3.01, Defense Messaging System (DMS) 2.2 Gold, DMS 3.0, Veritas Backup Exec 8.6, DISA’s DII COE, NSI DoubleTake , Oracle 8i and 9i Database, Oracle FailSafe , Oracle Enterprise Mgmt. Of System And Network. Console, Norton Antivirus v7.51, and in the Movie, City Essay, Diskeeper v6.0. • Developed and formalized installation and administrative procedures for TBMCS-UL to comply with system hardware and Repression Party Essay, software configuration management. Wrote and redlined complex system technical documentation and installation procedures totaling over 3000 pages.
• Utilized the PACAF NOSC Remedy Action Report System to chronicle and database system and Dark City Essay, user problems, and to create reports used for world war 1 the western front, system monitoring and analysis. Skepticism In The Movie, Dark. Provide On-the-Job-Training (OJT) to junior system administrators. • Designed four autonomous LANs for the TBMCS-UL development lab. Each configuration consists of two Microsoft Cluster Servers on four Dell 6450 or 2650 servers and six client workstations networked by Jesus Christ Essay two CISCO 2660 routers and two CISCO switches. Skepticism Dark. Configured the Political Repression of the, servers to run Win 2000 Advanced Server and replicate data between clusters using NSI DoubleTake . Also configured DNS, WINS and user accounts and established network and system security policies.
UNIX SYSTEM ADMINISTRATOR , US Navy - Active Duty, Kunia (KRSOC), Hawaii. System Administrator for Skepticism, KRSOC’s 800 workstation and 40 server network. Planned and performed the the practice of system administration, installation and maintenance of in the City, all phases of a UNIX based SUN and Black Panther Essay, AIX client/server environment, including hardware, operating systems, third party software, network connectivity, and system security. • Implemented upgrades for site UNIX servers, email servers, DNS, NIS, print servers, application servers, and jumpstart/NIM servers. Performed routine account setup and maintenance for Dark City Essay, KRSOC customers. Essay About De Inc.Proposed Pit Study Report. Also performed system backup and recovery using Veritas BackupExec . • Technical lead during the server and workstation upgrade phase of the Skepticism Movie,, site conversion from an Ethernet to the western, an ATM infrastructure. In The City. Developed installation and the practice administration, troubleshooting procedures for converting 800 Solaris and Skepticism in the Movie, Dark, AIX UNIX clients and servers to ATM. • Engineering Change Proposal (ECP) Coordinator. Correspondence. As a member of the KRSOC Plans and Projects department from 1/98 – 7/98 coordinated the work flow of all new electronics and Information Technology projects at KRSOC.
ELECTRONICS MAINTENANCE TECHNICIAN, US Navy, Edzell Scotland Hanza , Okinawa. Managed eight member team of network and Movie, City, communications technicians for a 200 RF receiver remote. collection and forwarding system. • Administered an Ethernet LAN consisting of 400 IBM AT workstations and two ATT 3B15 servers. The Practice Of System Administration. Performed. organizational level maintenance on Skepticism in the Movie, Dark City Conventional Signals Upgrade equipment to include the ATT 3B15 processor, Keystone cipher tape drive, ATT 4425 display terminal, PC/AT and network components. Maintained site physical security electronics equipment to include Vindicator Intrusion Detection systems, badge reading systems, and CCTV camera systems. • Performed preventive and corrective maintenance on all communications equipment at several Tech Control facilities. Equipment serviced included: CV-3440 telephone modem, FCC-100 and DP-2048 signal multiplexers, ATT 3B2/600 Computer ( NewsDealer ), IDNX, KG-84, KG-194, KG-81, and De Inc.Proposed Mine Pit Study, Chainwork GPS Timing System. • Responsible for all inside/outside plant telephone maintenance, installation, repair, and/or relocation of over Skepticism in the Movie, 200 DSN phones/lines and 100 NSTS (secure) phones/lines.
Programmed and maintained secure Mitel NSTS switchboard. Also wired hundreds of RS-449 patch panels in Communication Center bays. Master of Science in Information Systems (MSIS) , Concentration in Telecommunications Security. Hawaii Pacific University . Awarded 05/2009, GPA 3.84. Graduated With Distinction. Bachelor of Science in and network administration Business Management (BSBM) , University of Maryland , University College . Awarded 12/2005, GPA 3.51. Three time Dean’s List mention. Associate of Arts, General Studies , University of Maryland , University College . In The Dark City Essay. Awarded 12/1998. DISA FSO, Assured Compliance Assessment Solution (ACAS) , 04/2015, 32 hours. DISA FSO, Securing Mobile Devices, 03/2015, 24 hours. Infosec Institute, DOD Risk Management Framework, 12/2014, 32 hours.
Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine – SOCOM ICD503 User Training, 06/2013, 16 hours. Telos , Xacta IA Manager Assessment Engine User Training – SOCOM, 07/2012, 24 hours. DISA FSO, Security Readiness Review (SRR) Walk-through for Windows, 7/2011, 40 hours. DISA FSO, Vulnerability Management System (VMS) v6.6, 5/2011, 16 hours. VMware, VMware vSphere : Install, Configure, Manage [V4.1], 4/2011, 40 hours. DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Implementation Course (IS302.01), 2/2011, 16 hours. DSS, NISPOM Chapter 8 Requirements for Industry Course, 12/2010, 20 hours. USAF, TBMCS-UL System Administrator Spiral 8.5 Delta Training, 3/2006, 40 hours. USAF, YAF02SE, USAF System Administrator Course , 6/2005, 8 hours. Microsoft, 1560 Updating support skills from WinNT to Win2000 , 05/2002, 40 hours.
Compumaster , Supporting, Troubleshooting, and of the Black, Optimizing Win2000 , 04/2002, 14 hours. Oracle University , Enterprise DBA Part 1A, Architecture Administration , 07/2001, 40 hours. USN, A-531-0046 Information Systems Administrator , 05/2001, 2 months. • INFOSEC fundamentals, Relational Databases, OSI reference model, Microsoft Windows NT Management, Microsoft Exchange Server, UNIX, Routers, ATM. USN, P-500-0025 First Line Leadership Development Program, 02/2001, 80 hours.
Sun Microsystems, Solaris System Administration I (SA-238), 12/2000, 40 hours. Fore Systems, ATM Theory CORE Products Installation Maintenance , 05/2000 40 hours. Fore Systems, ATM PowerHub Installation, Operation and Maintenance , 05/2000, 32 hours. Laser Tech Inc., Copper - Fiber Optic Splicing School , 07/1998, 40 hours. HQ Naval Security Group, Methods of Managing Quality , 02/1998, 40 hours. NSA, ES-386, TIDYTIPS III Hardware Maintenance , 03/1996, 40hrs.
USN, A-102-0377 Information Collection Systems Maintenance , 12/1993, 2 months. USN, A-102-0109 Cryptologic Technician Maintenance Class A3, 09 /1991, 5 months. USN, A-102-0234 Electronic Technology, Class A1 , 05/1991, 4 months. USAF, 902X1 Radio Operator Technical Training, 05/1990, 6 weeks. Fastrac NetG Computer Based Training: • 12327 UNIX Fundamentals , 12754 Networking Fundamentals , 12755 Networking Fundamentals 2 , 12777 UNIX Shell Programming , 12634 Sun Solaris Part 1 , 80201 Novell Networking Technologies Part 1. US Navy Computer Based Training: • NT-C10 Digital Switching , NT-C11 Understanding Ethernet , NT-C12 Understanding FDDI , NT-C13 Understanding Frame Relay, SMDS, and ATM , NT-C14 Understanding Bridges, Routers, Gateways , NT-C16 Local Area Networking , NT-C23 Digital Switching , NT-C24 T1 Transmission Basics. Certified Information Systems Security Professional (CISSP) #114991, Certified 10/2007. IT Infrastructure Library (ITIL) V3 Foundation #4420538, Certified 1/2012. Top Secret/SCI. Skepticism. SSBI 04 September 2012.
PROFESSIONAL ORGANIZATIONS AND HONOR SOCIETIES. • Upsilon Pi Epsilon (UPE) International Honor Society – Inducted 04/2008. • Epsilon Delta Pi (EDP) National Honor Society – Inducted 11/2006. • International Information Systems Security Certification Consortium (ISC)².