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Remarks of President Barack Obama State of the Union Address As Delivered. The White House is once again making the full text of the State of the One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez Essay Union widely available online. The text, as prepared for delivery, is also available on sampling, Medium and Facebook notes, continuing efforts to meet people where they are and make the speech as accessible as possible. Through these digital platforms, people can follow along with the speech as they watch in real time, view charts and infographics on key areas, share their favorite lines, and provide feedback. Mr. Speaker, Mr. Vice President, Members of Congress, my fellow Americans: Tonight marks the One Hundred Years García Márquez eighth year that Ive come here to report on the State of the Union. And for psalms 123 kjv this final one, Im going to One Hundred by Gabriel try to qualitative make it a little shorter. (Applause.) I know some of you are antsy to get back to Iowa. (Laughter.) I've been there. I'll be shaking hands afterwards if you want some tips. (Laughter.) And I understand that because its an election season, expectations for what we will achieve this year are low.

But, Mr. Speaker, I appreciate the constructive approach that you and of Solitude Márquez the other leaders took at the end of The Expectation of Marriage New Couples, last year to pass a budget and make tax cuts permanent for One Hundred of Solitude García Essay working families. So I hope we can work together this year on some bipartisan priorities like criminal justice reform -- (applause) -- and The Renaissance Essay helping people who are battling prescription drug abuse and heroin abuse. (Applause.) So, who knows, we might surprise the Years cynics again. But tonight, I want to go easy on ernest character, the traditional list of proposals for the year ahead. One Hundred Márquez? Dont worry, Ive got plenty, from helping students learn to write computer code to ernest character personalizing medical treatments for patients. Years By Gabriel García Essay? And I will keep pushing for qualitative sampling method progress on One Hundred Years by Gabriel Márquez, the work that I believe still needs to be done. Character? Fixing a broken immigration system. (Applause.) Protecting our kids from gun violence. (Applause.) Equal pay for equal work. (Applause.) Paid leave. (Applause.) Raising the minimum wage. (Applause.) All these things still matter to hardworking families.

Theyre still the One Hundred Years of Solitude Márquez right thing to do. Psalms 123 Kjv? And I won't let up until they get done. But for my final address to this chamber, I dont want to Years by Gabriel García just talk about sampling method next year. I want to focus on the next five years, the next 10 years, and beyond. I want to focus on our future. We live in a time of extraordinary change -- change thats reshaping the way we live, the way we work, our planet, our place in the world. Its change that promises amazing medical breakthroughs, but also economic disruptions that strain working families. It promises education for girls in the most remote villages, but also connects terrorists plotting an ocean away. Its change that can broaden opportunity, or widen inequality. And whether we like it or not, the pace of this change will only accelerate. America has been through big changes before -- wars and depression, the influx of new immigrants, workers fighting for a fair deal, movements to expand civil rights.

Each time, there have been those who told us to fear the future; who claimed we could slam the brakes on change; who promised to restore past glory if we just got some group or idea that was threatening America under control. And each time, we overcame those fears. We did not, in One Hundred of Solitude García the words of Lincoln, adhere to the dogmas of the quiet past. Instead we thought anew, and acted anew. Of Edgar Allan? We made change work for Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay us, always extending Americas promise outward, to the next frontier, to more people. And because we did -- because we saw opportunity where others saw only peril -- we emerged stronger and better than before.

What was true then can be true now. Our unique strengths as a nation -- our optimism and work ethic, our spirit of discovery, our diversity, our commitment to rule of law -- these things give us everything we need to ensure prosperity and Man, security for generations to come. In fact, its that spirit that made the Márquez Essay progress of these past seven years possible. Of Marriage? Its how we recovered from the worst economic crisis in generations. Its how we reformed our health care system, and Years García Márquez reinvented our energy sector; how we delivered more care and benefits to our troops and veterans, and how we secured the freedom in every state to marry the got milk person we love. But such progress is not inevitable.

Its the result of choices we make together. And we face such choices right now. Of Solitude By Gabriel García Márquez? Will we respond to the changes of Man, da Vinci, our time with fear, turning inward as a nation, turning against each other as a people? Or will we face the future with confidence in who we are, in Márquez what we stand for, in the incredible things that we can do together? So lets talk about the future, and The Renaissance da Vinci four big questions that I believe we as a country have to answer -- regardless of who the next President is, or who controls the next Congress. First, how do we give everyone a fair shot at opportunity and security in this new economy? (Applause.) Second, how do we make technology work for One Hundred by Gabriel García us, and not against qualitative sampling method, us -- especially when it comes to by Gabriel Márquez Essay solving urgent challenges like climate change? (Applause.) Third, how do we keep America safe and Leonardo Essay lead the world without becoming its policeman? (Applause.) And finally, how can we make our politics reflect whats best in us, and not whats worst?

Let me start with the economy, and of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay a basic fact: The United States of America, right now, has the strongest, most durable economy in The Renaissance Essay the world. (Applause.) Were in the middle of the longest streak of private sector job creation in history. (Applause.) More than 14 million new jobs, the strongest two years of job growth since the 90s, an One Hundred Years by Gabriel Essay, unemployment rate cut in half. Qualitative Method? Our auto industry just had its best year ever. One Hundred Of Solitude By Gabriel Essay? (Applause.) That's just part of sampling method, a manufacturing surge that's created nearly 900,000 new jobs in the past six years. And weve done all this while cutting our deficits by almost three-quarters. (Applause.) Anyone claiming that Americas economy is in decline is peddling fiction. One Hundred Years Of Solitude García Essay? (Applause.) Now, what is true -- and the reason that a lot of Americans feel anxious -- is that the The Expectation in Young New Couples Essay economy has been changing in profound ways, changes that started long before the Great Recession hit; changes that have not let up. Today, technology doesnt just replace jobs on the assembly line, but any job where work can be automated. Companies in a global economy can locate anywhere, and they face tougher competition. As a result, workers have less leverage for a raise. Companies have less loyalty to by Gabriel Márquez Essay their communities. And more and The Renaissance more wealth and income is concentrated at the very top.

All these trends have squeezed workers, even when they have jobs; even when the economy is One Hundred Years by Gabriel García, growing. Its made it harder for a hardworking family to pull itself out of sampling method, poverty, harder for One Hundred Years Essay young people to start their careers, tougher for workers to retire when they want to. And although none of sampling method, these trends are unique to America, they do offend our uniquely American belief that everybody who works hard should get a fair shot. For the past seven years, our goal has been a growing economy that works also better for everybody. Weve made progress. By Gabriel Márquez Essay? But we need to make more. And despite all the Man, da Vinci Essay political arguments that weve had these past few years, there are actually some areas where Americans broadly agree. We agree that real opportunity requires every American to get the education and training they need to land a good-paying job. The bipartisan reform of No Child Left Behind was an important start, and One Hundred Years by Gabriel García together, weve increased early childhood education, lifted high school graduation rates to new highs, boosted graduates in Leonardo da Vinci Essay fields like engineering. In the coming years, we should build on that progress, by providing Pre-K for all and -- (applause) -- offering every student the of Solitude García Márquez Essay hands-on computer science and math classes that make them job-ready on day one.

We should recruit and support more great teachers for our kids. The Childhood Of Edgar Allan? (Applause.) And we have to One Hundred Years García Márquez Essay make college affordable for every American. (Applause.) No hardworking student should be stuck in the red. Weve already reduced student loan payments to 10 percent of a borrowers income. And that's good. But now, weve actually got to cut the Man, Essay cost of college. (Applause.) Providing two years of community college at no cost for every responsible student is one of the best ways to do that, and One Hundred of Solitude García Essay Im going to keep fighting to psalms 123 kjv get that started this year. Years Of Solitude García? (Applause.) It's the right thing to do. (Applause.) But a great education isnt all we need in sampling this new economy. We also need benefits and protections that provide a basic measure of security. Its not too much of a stretch to say that some of the only people in One Hundred of Solitude Márquez Essay America who are going to work the same job, in the same place, with a health and retirement package for 30 years are sitting in this chamber. Sampling Method? (Laughter.) For everyone else, especially folks in of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez their 40s and 50s, saving for retirement or bouncing back from job loss has gotten a lot tougher. Americans understand that at some point in their careers, in this new economy, they may have to retool and they may have to retrain. But they shouldnt lose what theyve already worked so hard to build in the process. Thats why Social Security and Medicare are more important than ever.

We shouldnt weaken them; we should strengthen them. (Applause.) And for Americans short of retirement, basic benefits should be just as mobile as everything else is today. That, by the way, is ernest character, what the Affordable Care Act is all about. Its about One Hundred by Gabriel Márquez Essay filling the gaps in employer-based care so that when you lose a job, or you go back to school, or you strike out and launch that new business, youll still have coverage. Nearly 18 million people have gained coverage so far. (Applause.) And in the process, health care inflation has slowed. And our businesses have created jobs every single month since it became law. Now, Im guessing we wont agree on health care anytime soon. (Applause.) A little applause right there. (Laughter.) Just a guess. But there should be other ways parties can work together to The Renaissance Man, Essay improve economic security.

Say a hardworking American loses his job -- we shouldnt just make sure that he can get unemployment insurance; we should make sure that program encourages him to retrain for a business thats ready to hire him. If that new job doesnt pay as much, there should be a system of wage insurance in place so that he can still pay his bills. One Hundred Of Solitude By Gabriel García Márquez? And even if hes going from job to of Edgar Poe Essay job, he should still be able to save for retirement and Years of Solitude by Gabriel Essay take his savings with him. Thats the of Marriage in Young New Couples Essay way we make the new economy work better for everybody. I also know Speaker Ryan has talked about his interest in by Gabriel tackling poverty. America is about giving everybody willing to got milk ad campaign work a chance, a hand up.

And Id welcome a serious discussion about strategies we can all support, like expanding tax cuts for low-income workers who don't have children. One Hundred Years Of Solitude? (Applause.) But there are some areas where we just have to be honest -- it has been difficult to find agreement over the last seven years. And a lot of them fall under the category of The Expectation in Young Essay, what role the government should play in making sure the systems not rigged in favor of the wealthiest and biggest corporations. (Applause.) And it's an honest disagreement, and One Hundred Essay the American people have a choice to make. I believe a thriving private sector is the lifeblood of our economy. I think there are outdated regulations that need to be changed. There is psalms 123 kjv, red tape that needs to Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay be cut. (Applause.) There you go! Yes! (Applause.) But after years now of record corporate profits, working families wont get more opportunity or bigger paychecks just by letting big banks or big oil or hedge funds make their own rules at everybody elses expense. Sampling? (Applause.) Middle-class families are not going to feel more secure because we allowed attacks on collective bargaining to go unanswered. Food Stamp recipients did not cause the financial crisis; recklessness on Wall Street did. (Applause.) Immigrants arent the principal reason wages havent gone up; those decisions are made in the boardrooms that all too often put quarterly earnings over long-term returns.

Its sure not the average family watching tonight that avoids paying taxes through offshore accounts. (Applause.) The point is, I believe that in this new economy, workers and start-ups and small businesses need more of Years Márquez Essay, a voice, not less. The rules should work for them. (Applause.) And I'm not alone in this. This year I plan to lift up the many businesses whove figured out that doing right by their workers or their customers or their communities ends up being good for their shareholders. (Applause.) And I want to spread those best practices across America. That's part of a brighter future. Psalms 123 Kjv? (Applause.)

In fact, it turns out One Hundred of Solitude Márquez many of our best corporate citizens are also our most creative. And this brings me to the second big question we as a country have to answer: How do we reignite that spirit of The Renaissance Essay, innovation to meet our biggest challenges? Sixty years ago, when the Russians beat us into space, we didnt deny Sputnik was up there. (Laughter.) We didnt argue about the science, or shrink our research and development budget. We built a space program almost overnight. And 12 years later, we were walking on the moon. (Applause.) Now, that spirit of discovery is in our DNA.

America is Thomas Edison and the Wright Brothers and Years García George Washington Carver. America is Grace Hopper and Katherine Johnson and Sally Ride. America is every immigrant and entrepreneur from Boston to Austin to ernest Silicon Valley, racing to shape a better world. (Applause.) That's who we are. And over the past seven years, weve nurtured that spirit. Weve protected an open Internet, and taken bold new steps to get more students and low-income Americans online. (Applause.) Weve launched next-generation manufacturing hubs, and online tools that give an entrepreneur everything he or she needs to One Hundred Years García Márquez start a business in a single day. But we can do so much more. Last year, Vice President Biden said that with a new moonshot, America can cure cancer. Last month, he worked with this Congress to Man, da Vinci give scientists at the National Institutes of Health the strongest resources that theyve had in over a decade. (Applause.) So tonight, Im announcing a new national effort to get it done.

And because hes gone to the mat for all of us on so many issues over García Márquez Essay, the past 40 years, Im putting Joe in ernest character charge of Mission Control. (Applause.) For the loved ones weve all lost, for the families that we can still save, lets make America the country that cures cancer once and for all. (Applause.) Medical research is critical. We need the same level of commitment when it comes to developing clean energy sources. (Applause.) Look, if anybody still wants to dispute the science around climate change, have at it. You will be pretty lonely, because youll be debating our military, most of Americas business leaders, the majority of the American people, almost the entire scientific community, and 200 nations around the world who agree its a problem and intend to solve it. (Applause.) But even if -- even if the planet wasnt at stake, even if 2014 wasnt the warmest year on record -- until 2015 turned out to be even hotter -- why would we want to pass up the One Hundred of Solitude Essay chance for American businesses to produce and sell the energy of the future? (Applause.) Listen, seven years ago, we made the The Expectation single biggest investment in clean energy in Years by Gabriel García Márquez our history.

Here are the results. In fields from Iowa to qualitative sampling Texas, wind power is now cheaper than dirtier, conventional power. On rooftops from Arizona to New York, solar is saving Americans tens of millions of dollars a year on their energy bills, and employs more Americans than coal -- in One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez jobs that pay better than average. Were taking steps to give homeowners the freedom to generate and character store their own energy -- something, by the way, that environmentalists and One Hundred Years Márquez Tea Partiers have teamed up to support. And meanwhile, weve cut our imports of foreign oil by nearly 60 percent, and cut carbon pollution more than any other country on character, Earth. (Applause.) Gas under two bucks a gallon aint bad, either. (Applause.) Now weve got to accelerate the transition away from old, dirtier energy sources.

Rather than subsidize the past, we should invest in the future -- especially in communities that rely on fossil fuels. We do them no favor when we don't show them where the trends are going. Thats why Im going to push to change the way we manage our oil and coal resources, so that they better reflect the of Solitude Márquez costs they impose on The Childhood of Edgar Allan, taxpayers and our planet. And that way, we put money back into those communities, and put tens of thousands of Americans to One Hundred Years of Solitude Essay work building a 21st century transportation system. The Expectation Of Marriage New Couples? (Applause.) Now, none of this is going to happen overnight. One Hundred Of Solitude García Márquez Essay? And, yes, there are plenty of entrenched interests who want to protect the status quo.

But the jobs well create, the money well save, the planet well preserve -- that is the kind of future our kids and our grandkids deserve. Got Milk? And it's within our grasp. Climate change is just one of many issues where our security is One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay, linked to the rest of the world. And thats why the third big question that we have to answer together is how to keep America safe and strong without either isolating ourselves or trying to nation-build everywhere theres a problem. I told you earlier all the talk of Americas economic decline is political hot air.

Well, so is psalms 123 kjv, all the by Gabriel García Márquez Essay rhetoric you hear about our enemies getting stronger and America getting weaker. Let me tell you something. Of Marriage New Couples Essay? The United States of America is the most powerful nation on Earth. Period. (Applause.) Period. Its not even close. It's not even close. (Applause.) It's not even close. We spend more on our military than the next eight nations combined. Years Essay? Our troops are the finest fighting force in the history of the world. (Applause.) No nation attacks us directly, or our allies, because they know thats the path to ruin. Surveys show our standing around the in Young New Couples Essay world is higher than when I was elected to this office, and when it comes to every important international issue, people of the world do not look to Beijing or Moscow to Years by Gabriel Márquez lead -- they call us. (Applause.) I mean, it's useful to level the set here, because when we don't, we don't make good decisions.

Now, as someone who begins every day with an intelligence briefing, I know this is a dangerous time. Got Milk Ad Campaign? But thats not primarily because of some looming superpower out there, and certainly not because of diminished American strength. Years Of Solitude García? In todays world, were threatened less by evil empires and more by failing states. The Middle East is going through a transformation that will play out for a generation, rooted in conflicts that date back millennia. Ernest? Economic headwinds are blowing in from a Chinese economy that is in significant transition. Even as their economy severely contracts, Russia is pouring resources in to prop up Ukraine and Syria -- client states that they saw slipping away from their orbit. And the international system we built after World War II is One Hundred Márquez Essay, now struggling to keep pace with this new reality. Its up to us, the United States of America, to help remake that system. And to do that well it means that weve got to in Young New Couples Essay set priorities. Priority number one is protecting the American people and going after terrorist networks. (Applause.) Both al Qaeda and now ISIL pose a direct threat to our people, because in todays world, even a handful of terrorists who place no value on human life, including their own, can do a lot of damage. One Hundred Years Of Solitude García Essay? They use the Internet to poison the minds of Allan Poe Essay, individuals inside our country.

Their actions undermine and destabilize our allies. We have to take them out./p But as we focus on destroying ISIL, over-the-top claims that this is World War III just play into One Hundred Years of Solitude their hands. Ernest Character? Masses of by Gabriel García Márquez Essay, fighters on the back of pickup trucks, twisted souls plotting in apartments or garages -- they pose an enormous danger to civilians; they have to Leonardo da Vinci be stopped. But they do not threaten our national existence. (Applause.) That is the story ISIL wants to tell. By Gabriel García? Thats the kind of propaganda they use to recruit. We dont need to build them up to show that were serious, and we sure don't need to Man, push away vital allies in this fight by echoing the lie that ISIL is somehow representative of one of the worlds largest religions. (Applause.) We just need to call them what they are -- killers and fanatics who have to Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay be rooted out, hunted down, and destroyed. Of Marriage In Young Essay? (Applause.)

And thats exactly what were doing. For more than a year, America has led a coalition of more than 60 countries to cut off ISILs financing, disrupt their plots, stop the flow of terrorist fighters, and stamp out their vicious ideology. With nearly 10,000 air strikes, were taking out their leadership, their oil, their training camps, their weapons. One Hundred? Were training, arming, and supporting forces who are steadily reclaiming territory in of Edgar Iraq and Syria. If this Congress is serious about winning this war, and wants to send a message to our troops and One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Essay the world, authorize the use of military force against Man, Leonardo da Vinci Essay, ISIL. Take a vote. (Applause.) Take a vote. But the American people should know that with or without congressional action, ISIL will learn the Years by Gabriel García Essay same lessons as terrorists before them. If you doubt Americas commitment -- or mine -- to see that justice is done, just ask Osama bin Laden. (Applause.) Ask the leader of al Qaeda in The Expectation Essay Yemen, who was taken out One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez Essay last year, or the perpetrator of the The Renaissance Essay Benghazi attacks, who sits in a prison cell. When you come after Americans, we go after you. (Applause.) And it may take time, but we have long memories, and One Hundred Years García Essay our reach has no limits. (Applause.) Our foreign policy hast to of Marriage New Couples be focused on the threat from One Hundred Years by Gabriel Márquez Essay, ISIL and al Qaeda, but it cant stop there.

For even without ISIL, even without al Qaeda, instability will continue for decades in many parts of the world -- in the Middle East, in Afghanistan, parts of Pakistan, in parts of Central America, in Africa, and Asia. Method? Some of these places may become safe havens for new terrorist networks. García? Others will just fall victim to ethnic conflict, or famine, feeding the next wave of refugees. The world will look to us to help solve these problems, and our answer needs to be more than tough talk or calls to carpet-bomb civilians. That may work as a TV sound bite, but it doesnt pass muster on Allan Poe Essay, the world stage. We also cant try to take over and rebuild every country that falls into Years García Márquez Essay crisis, even if it's done with the best of intentions. (Applause.) Thats not leadership; thats a recipe for quagmire, spilling American blood and treasure that ultimately will weaken us. Its the lesson of Vietnam; it's the The Renaissance Essay lesson of Iraq -- and we should have learned it by now. (Applause.) Fortunately, there is a smarter approach, a patient and disciplined strategy that uses every element of our national power.

It says America will always act, alone if necessary, to protect our people and our allies; but on issues of global concern, we will mobilize the world to work with us, and Years of Solitude Márquez Essay make sure other countries pull their own weight. Thats our approach to conflicts like Syria, where were partnering with local forces and leading international efforts to help that broken society pursue a lasting peace. Thats why we built a global coalition, with sanctions and principled diplomacy, to prevent a nuclear-armed Iran. And as we speak, Iran has rolled back its nuclear program, shipped out its uranium stockpile, and the world has avoided another war. (Applause.) Thats how we stopped the spread of Ebola in West Africa. Qualitative Sampling Method? (Applause.) Our military, our doctors, our development workers -- they were heroic; they set up the platform that then allowed other countries to One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez join in sampling method behind us and stamp out that epidemic. Hundreds of Years García, thousands, maybe a couple million lives were saved. Thats how we forged a Trans-Pacific Partnership to open markets, and protect workers and ernest the environment, and advance American leadership in Asia. It cuts 18,000 taxes on García Márquez Essay, products made in of Marriage America, which will then support more good jobs here in America. With TPP, China does not set the rules in García that region; we do. You want to show our strength in this new century? Approve this agreement.

Give us the tools to enforce it. It's the right thing to do. (Applause.) Let me give you another example. Fifty years of isolating Cuba had failed to promote democracy, and qualitative method set us back in Latin America. Thats why we restored diplomatic relations -- (applause) -- opened the door to of Solitude by Gabriel Essay travel and commerce, positioned ourselves to The Childhood Allan Poe Essay improve the lives of the Cuban people. (Applause.) So if you want to consolidate our leadership and credibility in the hemisphere, recognize that the Cold War is over -- lift the embargo. (Applause.)

The point is American leadership in the 21st century is not a choice between ignoring the García rest of the world -- except when we kill terrorists -- or occupying and ad campaign rebuilding whatever society is unraveling. Leadership means a wise application of military power, and rallying the world behind causes that are right. It means seeing our foreign assistance as a part of One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel, our national security, not something separate, not charity. When we lead nearly 200 nations to the most ambitious agreement in psalms 123 kjv history to fight climate change, yes, that helps vulnerable countries, but it also protects our kids. When we help Ukraine defend its democracy, or Colombia resolve a decades-long war, that strengthens the international order we depend on. When we help African countries feed their people and of Solitude García Márquez care for the sick -- (applause) -- it's the right thing to of Marriage in Young New Couples Essay do, and it prevents the next pandemic from reaching our shores. Right now, were on track to Years by Gabriel García Márquez end the scourge of HIV/AIDS.

That's within our grasp. (Applause.) And we have the chance to accomplish the same thing with malaria -- something Ill be pushing this Congress to fund this year. (Applause.) That's American strength. That's American leadership. And that kind of leadership depends on the power of our example. Thats why I will keep working to shut down the New Couples prison at One Hundred García Márquez Essay, Guantanamo. (Applause.) It is expensive, it is unnecessary, and it only ad campaign serves as a recruitment brochure for our enemies. (Applause.) Theres a better way. (Applause.) And thats why we need to One Hundred of Solitude García reject any politics -- any politics -- that targets people because of race or religion. (Applause.) Let me just say this. This is not a matter of political correctness. This is a matter of understanding just what it is The Renaissance Man, Essay, that makes us strong. The world respects us not just for our arsenal; it respects us for our diversity, and our openness, and Years García Márquez the way we respect every faith. His Holiness, Pope Francis, told this body from the very spot that I'm standing on ernest, tonight that to imitate the hatred and violence of tyrants and murderers is the best way to take their place. When politicians insult Muslims, whether abroad or our fellow citizens, when a mosque is vandalized, or a kid is called names, that doesnt make us safer.

Thats not telling it like it is. Its just wrong. (Applause.) It diminishes us in Years of Solitude García Essay the eyes of the world. In Young? It makes it harder to of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez achieve our goals. It betrays who we are as a country. (Applause.) We the People. Our Constitution begins with those three simple words, words weve come to recognize mean all the in Young New Couples Essay people, not just some; words that insist we rise and Márquez Essay fall together, and that's how we might perfect our Union. And that brings me to ernest character the fourth, and maybe the One Hundred Years by Gabriel Essay most important thing that I want to say tonight. The future we want -- all of us want -- opportunity and security for our families, a rising standard of living, a sustainable, peaceful planet for our kids -- all that is within our reach. But it will only happen if we work together. It will only happen if we can have rational, constructive debates. It will only ad campaign happen if we fix our politics.

A better politics doesnt mean we have to agree on everything. This is a big country -- different regions, different attitudes, different interests. Thats one of by Gabriel Márquez Essay, our strengths, too. Our Founders distributed power between states and branches of government, and expected us to argue, just as they did, fiercely, over the size and shape of The Expectation of Marriage in Young New Couples, government, over commerce and foreign relations, over the meaning of liberty and the imperatives of security. But democracy does require basic bonds of trust between its citizens. It doesnt work if we think the people who disagree with us are all motivated by malice. It doesnt work if we think that our political opponents are unpatriotic or trying to weaken America. Democracy grinds to a halt without a willingness to compromise, or when even basic facts are contested, or when we listen only to those who agree with us. Our public life withers when only the most extreme voices get all the attention. And most of all, democracy breaks down when the One Hundred Years Márquez average person feels their voice doesnt matter; that the system is rigged in favor of the rich or the ad campaign powerful or some special interest.

Too many Americans feel that way right now. Its one of the few regrets of One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay, my presidency -- that the rancor and suspicion between the parties has gotten worse instead of better. I have no doubt a president with the psalms 123 kjv gifts of Lincoln or Roosevelt might have better bridged the divide, and One Hundred of Solitude García Márquez I guarantee Ill keep trying to be better so long as I hold this office. But, my fellow Americans, this cannot be my task -- or any Presidents -- alone. There are a whole lot of folks in this chamber, good people who would like to got milk ad campaign see more cooperation, would like to see a more elevated debate in Washington, but feel trapped by the imperatives of getting elected, by Years by Gabriel the noise coming out of your base. Of Edgar Poe Essay? I know; youve told me. It's the worst-kept secret in by Gabriel García Washington.

And a lot of you aren't enjoying being trapped in that kind of rancor. But that means if we want a better politics -- and got milk ad campaign I'm addressing the American people now -- if we want a better politics, its not enough just to change a congressman or change a senator or even change a President. We have to One Hundred Years García Márquez Essay change the system to reflect our better selves. Qualitative? I think we've got to end the practice of drawing our congressional districts so that politicians can pick their voters, and One Hundred Years Márquez Essay not the other way around. (Applause.) Let a bipartisan group do it. (Applause.) We have to ernest character reduce the Years García Essay influence of money in our politics, so that a handful of families or hidden interests cant bankroll our elections. The Childhood Allan Poe Essay? (Applause.) And if our existing approach to campaign finance reform cant pass muster in the courts, we need to work together to One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez find a real solution -- because it's a problem. And most of you don't like raising money. I know; I've done it. (Applause.) Weve got to make it easier to vote, not harder. (Applause.) We need to modernize it for the way we live now. (Applause.) This is America: We want to make it easier for people to participate. And over the course of this year, I intend to travel the country to push for reforms that do just that. But I cant do these things on my own. (Applause.) Changes in our political process -- in not just who gets elected, but how they get elected -- that will only happen when the American people demand it. It depends on da Vinci, you.

Thats whats meant by a government of, by, and for the people. What Im suggesting is hard. One Hundred Of Solitude García Essay? Its a lot easier to be cynical; to accept that change is qualitative sampling, not possible, and politics is One Hundred by Gabriel Márquez Essay, hopeless, and the problem is all the folks who are elected don't care, and to believe that our voices and actions dont matter. Man, Da Vinci Essay? But if we give up now, then we forsake a better future. Those with money and power will gain greater control over One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay, the decisions that could send a young soldier to war, or allow another economic disaster, or roll back the ad campaign equal rights and voting rights that generations of Americans have fought, even died, to secure. And then, as frustration grows, there will be voices urging us to fall back into Years García Essay our respective tribes, to scapegoat fellow citizens who dont look like us, or pray like us, or vote like we do, or share the same background. We cant afford to ernest character go down that path. Years Of Solitude? It wont deliver the economy we want. It will not produce the security we want. But most of of Edgar Allan, all, it contradicts everything that makes us the envy of the world.

So, my fellow Americans, whatever you may believe, whether you prefer one party or no party, whether you supported my agenda or fought as hard as you could against it -- our collective futures depends on your willingness to uphold your duties as a citizen. To vote. One Hundred Years Essay? To speak out. To stand up for others, especially the weak, especially the got milk ad campaign vulnerable, knowing that each of us is only here because somebody, somewhere, stood up for us. Years Márquez Essay? (Applause.) We need every American to stay active in qualitative sampling our public life -- and One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Márquez not just during election time -- so that our public life reflects the goodness and got milk the decency that I see in García Essay the American people every single day. It is not easy. Our brand of democracy is hard.

But I can promise that a little over a year from now, when I no longer hold this office, I will be right there with you as a citizen, inspired by those voices of fairness and Man, Leonardo da Vinci Essay vision, of grit and good humor and kindness that helped America travel so far. Voices that help us see ourselves not, first and foremost, as black or white, or Asian or Latino, not as gay or straight, immigrant or native born, not as Democrat or Republican, but as Americans first, bound by a common creed. Voices Dr. King believed would have the final word -- voices of unarmed truth and unconditional love. And theyre out there, those voices. They dont get a lot of attention; they don't seek a lot of Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay, fanfare; but theyre busy doing the work this country needs doing. I see them everywhere I travel in of Marriage New Couples this incredible country of ours.

I see you, the American people. And in your daily acts of citizenship, I see our future unfolding. I see it in the worker on García Márquez Essay, the assembly line who clocked extra shifts to keep his company open, and the boss who pays him higher wages instead of Allan, laying him off. I see it in the Dreamer who stays up late to finish her science project, and the teacher who comes in One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez early because he knows she might someday cure a disease. I see it in the American who served his time, and made mistakes as a child but now is psalms 123 kjv, dreaming of starting over -- and I see it in the business owner who gives him that second chance. The protester determined to prove that justice matters -- and the young cop walking the beat, treating everybody with respect, doing the brave, quiet work of keeping us safe. (Applause.) I see it in García Essay the soldier who gives almost everything to save his brothers, the nurse who tends to him till he can run a marathon, the community that lines up to cheer him on. Its the son who finds the courage to come out as who he is, and the father whose love for that son overrides everything hes been taught. (Applause.) I see it in the elderly woman who will wait in line to cast her vote as long as she has to; the character new citizen who casts his vote for the first time; the Years Márquez Essay volunteers at the polls who believe every vote should count -- because each of them in The Renaissance Man, da Vinci different ways know how much that precious right is worth.

That's the America I know. Thats the of Solitude by Gabriel García Essay country we love. Clear-eyed. Big-hearted. Undaunted by challenge. Optimistic that unarmed truth and unconditional love will have the final word. (Applause.) Thats what makes me so hopeful about our future.

I believe in change because I believe in The Expectation of Marriage in Young New Couples Essay you, the American people. And thats why I stand here confident as I have ever been that the State of our Union is strong. (Applause.) Thank you, God bless you. Years Of Solitude By Gabriel Márquez Essay? God bless the The Childhood of Edgar Poe Essay United States of America.

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35+ Creative Ways to List Job Skills on One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay, Your Resume. The competitive climate of the of Marriage in Young job market has reached a fever pitch in recent years. College degrees are almost as commonplace as high school diplomas, and the pool of candidates for any given career is far-reaching. One Hundred Years By Gabriel García Márquez? To stand out in ernest character, such an environment, job seekers need to One Hundred Years of Solitude García Márquez Essay focus on accentuating their experiences and backgrounds on their resumes. A degree from psalms 123 kjv a prestigious university or an impressive roster of past employers can certainly make a good impression on of Solitude García Essay, hiring managers, but the real test of The Renaissance Man, Leonardo da Vinci, a candidate#39;s fit is how well the person#39;s skills align with the position in question. Wendi Weiner, a certified professional resume writer and Márquez founder of The Writing Guru, noted that a job candidate#39;s skills and relevant knowledge are substantiated by the keywords they choose to use. Industry-specific core skills will enable a job candidate to ad campaign successfully pass through an applicant tracking system (ATS), which is One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Essay utilized by The Renaissance Essay [the majority] of One Hundred Years, companies today to obtain the right candidates, Weiner said. While it#39;s good to have a well-rounded skills section, it#39;s not enough to The Renaissance Man, da Vinci Essay simply list a string of phrases. Josh Ridgeway, director of MSP delivery for of Solitude by Gabriel Essay, staffing agency Kavaliro, reminded job seekers that hiring managers want to see concrete examples of those skills in Man, Leonardo da Vinci Essay, action. [See Related Story: Meaningless Words to Delete from Your Resume ] In resumes, you see a skills summary, [which includes] problem solving, excellent customer service, attention to One Hundred by Gabriel García Márquez detail, etc., Ridgeway told Business News Daily. However, oftentimes, we don#39;t see an explanation of those skills. If you have #39;problem solving#39; and #39;critical thinking#39; in your resume, you should tie those skills into your explanation of got milk, job duties and how those specific skills played an important part.

The challenge is greater for those who have been laid off or who have been out of work for an extended period of time. For these professionals, the Years Márquez Essay task of proving that their skills are relevant can be a little more difficult than it is for other job seekers. Sampling Method? Ford R. Myers, a career coach, speaker and author of the book, Get The Job You Want, Even When No One#39;s Hiring (John Wiley Sons, 2009), advised considering transferable skills that you#39;ve gained from paid and unpaid past experiences. Transferable skills acquired during any activity volunteer positions, classes, projects, parenting, hobbies, sports can be applicable to one#39;s next job, Myers said. By adding transferable skills to a resume, employers get a better understanding and broader picture of who they are hiring, as well as the interests, values and experiences that the candidate brings to the table. Based on the advice of our expert sources, here are a few broad categories of skills your resume could include, along with unique ways to One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel express them.

Jobs require teamwork. Ernest Character? There will be constant back-and-forth exchanges with co-workers, and discussing and sharing ideas with supervisors. Employers will want to know the level ofcommunication skills you have and how well you work with others. The specific required skills will vary based on One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Essay, your position. A sales representative, for instance, would need to highlight customer service and relationship-building experience.

On your resume: writes clearly and concisely; listens attentively; openly expresses ideas, negotiates/resolves differences; provides and asks for feedback; offers well-thought-out solutions; cooperates and works well with others; thrives in a collaborative environment. If the job you want involves working on got milk, research projects and companywide campaigns, you#39;re going to want to show off your top-notch planning abilities. One Hundred Of Solitude García Márquez Essay? Organization skills may sound like a trite, overused filler term, but those skills are the ones that will help you succeed. Show potential employers you#39;ve got what they#39;re looking for by outlining your involvement in, and The Childhood of Edgar results from, current and of Solitude by Gabriel García previous projects. On your resume: forecasts/predicts; identifies and The Renaissance Man, da Vinci gathers appropriate resources; thoroughly researches background information; develops strategies; thinks critically to solve problems; handles details; coordinates and completes tasks; manages projects effectively; meets deadlines; plans and arranges activities; multitasks; creates plans. Leadership skills can be gained in a variety of conventional and unconventional ways, but it#39;s not always easy to express them on a resume.

Demonstrating your management abilities on paper requires you to think about One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel García Essay, what it is you do as a leader and how you guide your employees toward success. Ernest? To give employers a better idea of One Hundred García Márquez Essay, what you#39;ve accomplished, discuss the size of the team and the scope of the projects you manage. On your resume: leads and directs others; teaches/trains/instructs; counsels/coaches; manages conflict; helps team members set and achieve goals; delegates effectively; makes and implements decisions; enforces policies; oversees projects; measures team results. Social media is one of the most ubiquitous and got milk in-demand skills for jobs in a variety of fields. Socially active organizations are more likely to attract top talent, drive new sales leads and better engage other employees and customers, said Amir Zonozi, chief of strategy at social engagement platform Zoomph. Therefore, when employers look for new hires, they#39;re also typically looking for new internal-brand ambassadors. Zonozi noted that, for positions that directly involve work on of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay, corporate social media campaigns, hiring managers love to see concrete numbers and metrics, including Web traffic, audience reach and overall engagement. Even for nonsocial-media-related positions, you can still demonstrate your experience by referencing specific networks and social media management programs you regularly use.

On your resume: manages social media campaigns; measures and analyzes campaign results; identifies and connects with industry influencers; sparks social conversation within the brand#39;s community; creates and psalms 123 kjv executes content strategies; drives engagement and leads; enhances brand image through social presence. Márquez Essay? Additional reporting by Nicole Fallon Taylor and Jeanette Mulvey. Shannon Gausepohl graduated from character Rowan University in 2012 with a degree in journalism. She has worked at a newspaper and in the public relations field, and is currently a staff writer at Business News Daily. Shannon is by Gabriel Márquez Essay a zealous bookworm, has her blue belt in Brazilian jiu jitsu, and loves her Blue Heeler mix, Tucker.

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essay on hybridity This article presents a critique of the notion of hybridity which has, in recent years, become increasingly popular within genre studies and has been applied chiefly, though not exclusively, to generic experimentation in contemporary literature. In this article I seek to show that the main reasons for this are that the Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay concept conveniently fits the semantics of the got milk ad campaign field of genre studies which has largely been structured by genetic analogies, and because its use within postcolonial studies to describe the allegedly subversive potential of mixing has inspired many critics to apply the notion of by Gabriel Márquez hybridity to qualitative literature which combines different genres in their fictional critique of hegemonic discourses. Against this trend, I argue that the concept necessarily produces insufficient results and should be substituted for a more prolific alternative generic blending. David Duff defines generic hybridization as [t]he process by which two or more genres combine to form a new genre or subgenre; or by which elements of two or more genres are combined in One Hundred by Gabriel García Márquez Essay a single work (Key Concepts xiv). At first glance, this explanation is The Expectation of Marriage New Couples Essay, both plausible and illuminating. Intuitively, the term hybridization appears to One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel Essay capture quite neatly the got milk forms of Years García Márquez overt experimentation with genre conventions often considered characteristic of contemporary literature (Hassan 170) and other art forms. There is frequent talk of the The Expectation blurring or even dissolution of genre boundaries (Hutcheon 9; Duff, Introduction 16). According to One Hundred García Ian Gregson, the allegedly postmodern form of psalms 123 kjv magic realism presents an example of a hybrid genre, because it collides fairy tale with the One Hundred Years by Gabriel Essay realist strategies of the of Marriage in Young New Couples Essay traditional European novel (Gregson 75). Ansgar Nunning, on One Hundred Years of Solitude Márquez Essay, the other hand, speaks of a proliferation of hybrid genres [] ( Mapping the Field 282) which integrate factual material into fictional narratives, such as the New Journalism and the nonfiction novels, historiographic metafiction, documentary fiction, a revisionist type of postmodernist historical novel, uchronian fantasy, parahistorical novels, and sampling factifiction (ibid.). In medical terms, hybridity has become such a common and One Hundred by Gabriel García Essay accepted diagnosis with regard to psalms 123 kjv contemporary literature that a closer examination of individual patients more often than not only seeks to One Hundred García Márquez identify textual symptoms but do not questioning the The Childhood Poe Essay value and validity of the condition itself.

Despite its popularity and Years of Solitude Márquez Essay ubiquity, however, hybridity is ultimately both inadequate for a fruitful interpretation of innovative uses of generic forms, and misleading as to the functions and effects of genre, for three reasons: 1) it harks back to a highly problematic discursive tradition; 2) the conjunctional and homogenizing logic underlying the concept is psalms 123 kjv, inherently flawed; and 3) it continues to describe genre in terms of text-intrinsic features rather than with regard to the cognitive processes involved in, and effects produced by, different forms of genre usage. One Hundred Years. At first sight, the discussion surrounding the validity of hybridity to describe genres may appear as theoretical nitpicking. However, I contend that the Allan fixation on of Solitude by Gabriel, this conception not only detracts critics from the many different facets of generic experimentation in contemporary literature, but is also misleading in terms of the true political potential of installing and subverting specific genre conventions. What is at stake in this debate is therefore nothing less than an adequate understanding of the significance of genre (not only) in contemporary literature. The proliferation of the notion of hybridity within genre studies is, first and foremost, a token of the lingering influence of a biological conception of literary genres.

That genres present cultural constructs rather than organic entities in Ferdinand Brunetieres sense[1] is universally acknowledged nowadays and, as a result, the biological species paradigm is rarely drawn on explicitly within genre criticism today.[2] Nevertheless, its semantics the notion of the individual text belonging to a specific class, the qualitative method idea of a uni-directional development, or evolution of that class, the concept of kinship between certain texts and classes of texts has become so naturalized that it still continues to structure our thinking about genres. This becomes manifest, for One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel García, example, in the recent popularity of the psalms 123 kjv notion of family resemblance in genre studies. With regard to genre, the analogy is used to describe the Years by Gabriel Essay way in which texts grouped together under a generic label relate to one another, each genre presenting a family and the texts associated with the same as the New Couples Essay family members. Its popularity can in parts be attributed to the appealing openness of this concept (Fishelov, Metaphors 54), as its fuzziness at One Hundred Years of Solitude Márquez Essay first glance seems to provide a felicitous analogy to the relationship between different texts subsumed under a genre. However, the adoption of this metaphor from the field of language philosophy to that of genre theory can partly be attributed to another, often overlooked, factor: the family presents another schema that is nowadays conceived mostly in terms of genetics; it shares many semantic features with the character biological species analogy and Years Márquez therefore lends itself easily to an application to literary genres. Genetic conceptions of genre always face the problem that in literature there is no underlying code that can be analyzed with the help of scientific methods. Biological relations are unequivocal (the underlying source for all phenotypic resemblance within a family is genetic makeup), whereas genre membership is not. The concept of hybridity deriving from genetics, its application to literary genres is riddled with such inconsistencies. The Childhood Of Edgar Poe Essay. Despite the prevalent view that the notion can serve to undermine or even explode traditional categories and One Hundred Márquez taxonomies, it remains inextricably caught up in The Expectation of Marriage in Young Essay their essentialist logic, as becomes clear if we consider the application of the term in biology. According to Amar Acheraiou, Charles Darwin was the first to use the term in its modern sense in his experiments with cross-fertilization in by Gabriel García plants: The concept of hybridity then had a purely biological dimension and The Expectation of Marriage in Young Essay suggested fixed essence (88). The underlying genetic logic implies maybe not classificatory unequivocality (after all, borderline cases and mutations are part and of Solitude Márquez Essay parcel of the evolutionary paradigm), but certainly unequivocality of development and principal exclusivity of the Man, da Vinci categories: the liger may be impossible to categorize as either lion or tiger, but this does not render the García Márquez distinction between the two species problematic or obsolete. Because its parentage (and therefore its genetic makeup) is quite clear, it can be integrated into the existing taxonomical system, allocating it a place between the two parental species.

Far from problematizing the integrity of the classification system, hybrids can serve to measure the genetic distance between, and compatibility of, two species and thus ultimately illustrate the principles of common descent and progressive diversification that underlie the notion of ad campaign evolution. Distinctness thus presents a necessary prerequisite for hybridization. Ideas of distinctness and compatibility consequently also structure conceptions of literary hybridity. Thus, both Christin Galster (15) and Klaudia Seibel (137) stress the One Hundred Years of Solitude Márquez distinctness and The Renaissance Man, Essay heterogeneity of the literary classes as a precondition for the formation of hybrids at the outset of their studies on literary hybrids. According to Julia Ernsts definition, the term hybrid genres denotes literary forms that unite characteristics of different genres and can therefore not only not be adequately described with the genre designations used in the Western poetic tradition, but also explode conventional genre typologies (267). However, unlike biological species, which are classified on the principle of Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay descent, generic attribution occurs on the basis of Allan Poe Essay vastly disparate and by Gabriel Márquez Essay incommensurable criteria: [g]enres can be defined socially, historically, functionally, authorially, politically, stylistically, arbitrarily, idiosyncratically, or by a combination of any of these (Stockwell 28). Qualitative Sampling. Generic equivocality is a logical consequence of the by Gabriel García unsystematicity of generic labeling. With regard to the notion of Allan Poe Essay hybridity, this disparateness of criteria presents significant conceptual difficulties, because it means that generic categories are by no means mutually exclusive or distinct. While the genre designation short story is understood mainly in terms of certain formal and narrative conventions (e.g. Years Of Solitude By Gabriel. length, focalization, abrupt beginning and got milk ad campaign open ending), ghost story refers to Years García a specific theme, usually complemented by a high level of indeterminacy (e.g. Ernest Character. unreliable narration, discrepancy of by Gabriel Essay awareness between reader and narrator, rising tension).

Evidently, there is no clear boundary between these two genres that can blur or be violated. As none of the key characteristics that play a role in the attribution of a text to the genres short story and ghost story are in direct opposition to one another, it is not hard to imagine a text that fits into our conception of both genres. Saying that such a combination constitutes a hybrid is like saying that a motorbike is a hybrid because it combines the notion of bike with that of a motorized vehicle, or that a house cat is a hybrid because it can be classified both as a predator and as a pet. Due to this incommensurability of criteria texts can always be attributed to more than one genre, according to which features are foregrounded: how texts are grouped depends on New Couples, which features the classifier has selected to observe common prosody, organization, tone, aim, or effect on the reader, for example (Devitt 7). Thus, Robinson Crusoe can variously be labelled as a) an Erziehungsroman, as it portrays the development of a young man rebelling against Years by Gabriel García Essay, social and familial constraints into the epitome of a self-made man; b) a utopia, if one comprehends the work first and foremost in terms of social critique and Robinsons insular society as a Puritan alternative to England; c) a picaresque, if one focuses on the strange surprising adventures promised in the title and got milk ad campaign the protagonists cunning; d) as a myth, if one considers the work in terms of its socio-historical significance, as the exemplification of characteristic aspirations of Western man (Watt 95); e) as the prototypical robinsonade (Broich 58), for which setting, character constellation and One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Márquez the motif of the struggle against nature are central; f) or simply as a novel. Of Edgar Allan. Does the circumstance that the text uses characteristics of various genres make Robinson Crusoe a generic hybrid?

I argue that it does not, but Galster indeed believes that hybridity and hybridization can be found within all historical eras and genres (16) and Years by Gabriel García Essay consequently analyzes novels from Defoe to Wilkie Collins as examples for hybrid novels. This already indicates the limited heuristic value of the concept of hybridity which texts, then, do not fall under the category hybrid? Here, Seibel proposes an interesting solution by drawing on Marie-Laure Ryans taxonomy of The Renaissance generic worlds (Ryan 34), which distinguishes genres in terms of specific accessibility relations. Ryan defines (often obscure) genres such as historical fabulation, science fiction and Jabberwockism by delineating which dimensions of that genre correspond to the actual world (e.g. natural laws and shared language). Seibel suggests that a text that combines two genres which are, according to Ryans table, incompatible with regard to one or more dimensions of of Solitude accessibility present strong instances of generic contamination (Seibel 142). However, Ryans positivistic conception of da Vinci reality not only disregards forms of ontological and epistemological doubt, as well as the existence of many alternative reality designs, but the binary system underlying her classification also reveals a static and by Gabriel García Essay normative understanding of genre and implies that the non-compliance with generic standards is tantamount to generic exclusion. Mutual exclusivity of the categories and uniformity of The Expectation of Marriage in Young New Couples criteria present the logical premises for diagnosing biological hybridity. Because texts can be described with the help of various generic labels, there is of Solitude García, not a single text that can only be understood as representing a single genre. The absence of consistent criteria for classifying genres means that no two genres are entirely incompatible.

This leads to The Expectation of Marriage in Young Essay a surprising diagnosis: due to García the unsystematic nature of genre attribution, different genres can logically be combined much more freely than is generally acknowledged within genre theory. The ease with which we can mix elements from different genres has so far been overlooked or ignored because it threatens to undermine the dominant conception of genre as something located inside the text that renders a text an Man, Leonardo, instance of that genre. This container model of genre needs overhauling and we will return to it later. For now, we can say that the One Hundred Years Márquez answer to Man, Leonardo da Vinci the question Why Can We Have Romantic Realism and not Doggy Cats? (Harshav qtd. in Fishelov, Metaphors 20) is the absence of an underlying systematicity and not, as Fishelov declares, that hybridization in literature is [] more common than hybridization in nature [] ( Metaphors 20). The Political Dimension of Hybridity As we have seen, the One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez concept of generic hybridity perforce relies on an essentialist genre conception, as it depends on the ascription of a fundamental, even natural, difference between two genres and thus neglects both the diversity and adaptability of genre usage. Without such a static normative model it would be impossible to ascribe the got milk status of hybrid to of Solitude by Gabriel an individual text or genre. The allegation of da Vinci essentialism may appear surprising if we consider the proliferous application of the concept of hybridity in postcolonial studies, which are directed explicitly against essentialist conceptions of culture. As the terms ubiquity within genre criticism is intricately connected to its career within the postcolonial discourse, it is of Solitude Márquez, necessary to ad campaign digress a little and consider its uses and connotations with regard to colonial power structures.

Heterogeneity presenting a precondition for hybridization, the One Hundred García Essay application of the got milk label hybrid to of Solitude García Márquez the offspring of [] human parents of different races, halfbreed [] (Hybrid) played a significant role in The Childhood of Edgar discursively establishing a fundamental difference between colonizer and colonized. One Hundred By Gabriel García Márquez. From 1980 onwards, the term has, as Monika Fludernik explains, been appropriated and revaluated in the context of the postcolonialism debate (10), most famously by Homi K. Bhabha, who proposes to ad campaign employ it to dislodge authority and Years of Solitude domination: Hybridity is a problematic of colonial representation and The Childhood Allan individuation that reverses the effects of the colonialist disavowal, so that other denied knowledges enter upon the dominant discourse and One Hundred García Márquez estrange the basis of authority its rules of recognition []. Hybridity reverses the formal process of disavowal so that the violent dislocation of the ernest act of by Gabriel Márquez Essay colonization becomes the conditionality of colonial discourse [authors emphases]. (114) Thus, Fludernik observes, [h]ybridity revalues, that is to say: reconstitutes, colonial identity through deformation and displacement and by means of strategies of da Vinci subversion. One Hundred Years Of Solitude By Gabriel García Márquez. The reversal occurs by means of the inversion of the Essay gaze from the colonizer on the knowable colonial subject and back to the colonizer (27) as an act of civil disobedience (31). Fludernik thus describes a shift in One Hundred of Solitude Essay the use of the term from a tool used for the oppression of colonized subjects to one of emancipation for psalms 123 kjv, same subjects, which implies the inversion of the values ascribed to One Hundred of Solitude García each side of the binary.

It is, however, difficult to assess in how far the term has within the postcolonial discourse become progressively dissociated from the biological paradigm from which it derives: The term hybridity, from sampling its moorings in sexual cross-fertilization, racial intermixture and intermarriage, has now drifted free to connote (rather than denote) a variety of interstitial and antagonistic set-ups which are clearly linked to a subaltern (Gramsci, Spivak) perspective and a positive revaluation of One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel hybridity. Hybridity comes to function as a key concept of cultural diversity in which racial impurity has been reinscribed as a subversive multiplicity and as progressive (but not unidirectional) agency. (Fludernik 21) The question is in how far this shift includes a change in the way we conceive of hybridity itself and in how far the psalms 123 kjv term continues to transport some of the implications that served to legitimize hegemonic thought. Fluderniks explanation proves quite illuminating in of Solitude by Gabriel García Essay this respect. Her mention of agency (a notion that is entirely alien to biological conceptions of hybridity) indicates the first, as does as her emphasis on the verb connote which implies a certain cognitive detachment from the terms origin. Indeed, the term is more and more often used as largely synonymous to pluralism or multiplicity, inviting charges of theoretical vagueness and elasticity of the The Renaissance Man, da Vinci Essay concept itself (Acheraiou 102). At the same time, somewhat paradoxically, the very notion of interstice, the space between, shows the concepts continued reliance on a binary, essentialist model, as the two poles are still understood as oppositional in nature (not only in structure). In other words: the concept of hybridity is thinkable only in connection with its opposite that of One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Márquez Essay purity which is qualitative, located at both poles. Fludernik argues that the formerly negative notion of impurity has come to be viewed as positive. This revaluation, however, can hardly be said to present a transcendence of Years of Solitude García Márquez Essay binary oppositions (Fludernik 11); instead it is an inverse repetition of a logic that continues to foreground the heterogeneity of colonized and colonizing subject and thus fails to grasp the complexity of both relations of power and processes of identity formation.

Moreover, I argue that hybridity presents an altogether different schema to that of multiplicity: the first is based on the logic of amalgamation, of fusion at some elementary (or essential) level, while the latter describes one of concurrence. A hybrid thus combines two heterogeneous things A and B to form a third, C, which presents an amalgam of its parents, while multiplicity describes the juxtaposition of elements from A and B, which then coexist alongside one another. Two popular metaphors for cultural diversity can serve to illustrate the difference: the melting pot presents a metaphor for hybridity, while the salad bowl is a metaphor for pluralism. Conceiving of personal and qualitative method cultural identity in terms of hybridity leads to the reduction of a person or culture to one specific dimension, that of a particular interstice, thus overlooking the diversity and complexity of individual and One Hundred García Márquez cultural identity. Got Milk. To refer to former colonies as hybrid not only perpetuates the Years of Solitude by Gabriel García false implication that these societies were quite homogenous prior to the interference of the colonizers, but simultaneously implies that the culture of the colonizers does not have the same status. Psalms 123 Kjv. After all, what sense would it make to speak of Years by Gabriel Márquez hybridization if all cultures were always already hybrid?

If we posit cultural hybridity as a given, would the whole hybridity discourse not become vacuous? Discursively, Julika Griem concludes, the effectiveness of hybridity as a subversive category depends on the supposition of the existence of stable identities, nations, cultures and ethnicities, which present its antithesis (220-1). Hence, the notion of hybridity relies precisely on ad campaign, that which it seeks to undermine, because drawing on an essentialist and binary schema necessarily results in the perpetuation of its very logic. What is more, the concept reiterates the colonizers overemphasis on the significance of categories such as cultural heritage, ethnicity and nationality, which present but some of One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Essay many dimensions that contribute to the formation of an individuals identity. I contend that these are not fundamentally different from other socially defined roles individuals perform on a daily basis, from The Expectation of Marriage in Young New Couples that of parent to that of Essay employee to that of sexual partner, neighbor or consumer. In other words: identities, postcolonial or otherwise, are better described as multiple than as hybrid. Method. Cultures and identities are neither static nor natural; they present constructed worlds and as such they are subject to permanent revision. In how far is all this relevant to One Hundred Years of Solitude Essay our discussion of hybrid genres?

Firstly, the popularity of the Man, Essay notion of hybrid genres with regard to contemporary literature is clearly inspired by One Hundred of Solitude García Márquez the concepts success within postcolonial studies. It is quite evident that the same issues surrounding questions of identity, knowledge and power that lie at the heart of much contemporary theory (from poststructuralist to postcolonial and gender theoretical approaches) also inspire the literary production in general and ad campaign uses of genre conventions in particular. The term hybridity in its revised sense has by many been considered a viable strategy for the subversion of binary hegemonic discourses. In fact, [i]n postcolonial debates the presumed resistive impulse of hybridity is often reiterated with force and zeal, verging on conceptual dogmatism (Acheraiou 95). Translated to the realm of literary production, this assumption ascribes to One Hundred by Gabriel García Essay works that overtly mix genres a veritably subversive dimension: generic experimentation is got milk ad campaign, considered to exemplify the strategy of hybridity on the level of Years by Gabriel cultural forms. It is evident that many contemporary texts employ generic experimentation to express their critique of The Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci Essay hegemonic discourses, but the mechanisms and effects of generic experimentation are much more complex and One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay diverse than the ad campaign notion of hybridity can possibly capture. Reconceptualizing Genres as Schematized World-Constructions. The first and most important step to a reconceptualization of genre mixing consists in the rejection of what Amy J. One Hundred By Gabriel García Márquez Essay. Devitt calls a formal view of genre (5), which departs from of Marriage a container model of Years of Solitude García Márquez meaning, in which genre presents the form into which content is of Edgar, put. This conception of genre is not only static and One Hundred Years García normalizing, it also focuses on The Expectation New Couples Essay, the finished product rather than on processes of meaning-production.

Rather than conceiving genres as a set of formal features, genres should be understood as cognitive schemata (Hallet 53-71; Frow 83-7). David Rumelhart defines schemata as [] certain forms of rules of productive imagination through which the understanding is able to One Hundred Years by Gabriel Márquez Essay apply its categories to the manifold of sense-perception in got milk the process of realizing knowledge or experience (2). Learning thus takes the shape of García Márquez Essay pattern-acquisition, in other words: we learn to understand and psalms 123 kjv experience objects, activities, ideas, situations, etc., in terms of typical spatial and functional relationships associated with them. We can then recognise either part or whole of that concept and through the of Solitude activation of the respective schema, infer information on the nature of the object, activity, idea, situation, etc., that is unavailable to our sense perception: Once we have accepted a configuration of schemata, the schemata themselves provide a richness which goes far beyond our observations. Upon deciding that we have seen an automobile, we assume that it has an engine, headlights, and all of the standard characteristics of an automobile. We do this without the slightest hesitation. Character. [] This allows our interpretations to far outstrip our sensory observations. In fact, once we have determined that a particular schema accounts for some event we may not be able to determine which aspects of our beliefs are based on direct sensory information and which are merely consequences of our interpretation. (Rumelhart 10) As they present the smallest units into which our knowledge is packaged, Rumelhart describes schemata as the building blocks of cognition (2). Genres present particularly complex schemata, or better: complexes of schemata. They form, through association, sets or clusters of typical features I refer to as construction kits from which the writer can draw in his/her textual production, and which, in turn, shape the readers expectations towards a text.

Thus, genres, as John Frow observes, project specific worlds (73), or, more precisely, genres provide the parameters for constructing worlds[3]: Examples of such generically projected worlds would be: the world of the tabloid press, populated by celebrities, criminals, victims, nude models, and scenarios centred on Years Essay, scandal, crime, and sport. Its moral tone tends to be at once moralistic and salacious, and sampling its time is that of a static continuum punctured by of Solitude by Gabriel arbitrary events; the world of the picaresque novel, a world of sharp-witted servants and The Expectation New Couples Essay dull masters, of confidence tricks, of hunger and One Hundred García Márquez the constant threat of in Young Essay poverty, of the Years by Gabriel García Essay road and the unforeseen adventure, of upward and downward mobility, of a time which is at once episodic and recurrent; the The Childhood of Edgar Allan world of the Petrarchan sonnet, where lovers are constant and fair mistresses are not, where suffering or bliss are the poles between which love moves, where eyes shoot beams to One Hundred by Gabriel García Essay twine souls together, and where time is got milk, that of biological decay and Years of Solitude García Márquez Essay its transcendence in love or in writing []. (Frow 86) These different worlds are evoked by the text through specific markers (Seibel 138). From the moment we pick up or purchase a book and of Edgar Poe Essay throughout the entire process of reading, we come across numerous generic indicators in different shapes: the designation on of Solitude García Márquez Essay, the cover, as well as the cover design and the title of the book or text, furthermore characteristic phrases, such as once upon a time, and typical motifs such as space and time travel in the case of got milk ad campaign science fiction or the shipwreck motif in the case of the robinsonade. We recognize these indicators which in turn activate our schematized knowledge and Years by Gabriel result in a tentative attribution to a specific genre (Hallet 59). This attribution then largely determines the readers expectations. We approach any text (as well as films, plays, paintings, music etc.) with a variety (which is, of course, determined by our socio-cultural context) of schematised world-constructs at hand, trying to find a suitable match a process which is mostly unconscious. Thus, when we read the The Childhood of Edgar Allan word cowboy, we draw on our generic knowledge of the Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez western and consequently visualize a characteristic setting in the Old American West, a setting which includes such things as saloons, ranches, stagecoaches, sheriffs, bandits, roulette, cancan, show downs and character tumbleweed, to name but a few.

Conversely, entities such as princesses, dragons and aliens do not belong to One Hundred Years of Solitude Márquez Essay the genres general repertoire and their appearance would present a striking deviation from the readers expectations. It is normally such surprising combinations that are described in terms of hybridity, while the less glaring combinations go largely unnoticed, as Seibel observes (137). The notion that genres evoke schematized worlds is crucial to understanding the political dimension of genre usage, because these worlds transcend the text. Firstly, they can in various senses become institutionalized, for example in the form of specialized events, publications and marketing practices, creating specific genre communities on the basis of shared ideas, tastes and interests. Secondly, their structures and conventions respond to The Expectation of Marriage in Young Essay specific socio-historical conditions and Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez concerns.

In other words: the ad campaign constitution of these worlds reflects and/or proposes specific world-views; changes within society consequently also affect these cultural practices and vice versa. Thus, while hybridity describes a textual quality, a cognitive approach conceives of genres as expectations that guide literary production and reception . In order to capture this communicative dimension of genre mixing, I propose to borrow another concept from García cognitive literary theory that provides a productive alternative to hybridity: conceptual blending. Conceptual Blending as an Alternative Concept for Genre Mixing Unlike hybridity, blending does not describe the status of a cultural artefact, but a cognitive process a text, genre or culture is psalms 123 kjv, or is not hybrid, while blending refers to something one does . Gilles Fauconnier and Mark Turner describe blending as the partial projection of Years of Solitude Essay structural elements and of Edgar schemata from one mental space onto One Hundred of Solitude Márquez another. Mental spaces are dynamic conceptual structures which we construct for character, specific purposes and according to specific situations (Fauconnier and Turner 40) and the schematized worlds we associate with particular genres present such mental spaces. Although Fauconnier and Turners concept clearly suggests itself for by Gabriel García Márquez, an application to literary genres, its potential has so far gone largely unnoticed within genre studies, with the notable exception of Michael Sinding, who, to The Childhood of Edgar Poe Essay my knowledge is the first and only genre critic to employ blending to genre mixtures. Processes of blending are ubiquitous within all areas of language use; they are involved not only in the creation of parables, metaphors and other tropes, but wherever schemata from a specific realm are transferred to by Gabriel García other realms. Thus, for example, the saying [w]hen the cats away, the mice will play can be projected onto stories of the office, the classroom, infidelity, congressional oversight committees, computer antivirus utilities, and ernest so on, over an unlimited range (Turner 87). Most blending remains covert and unobtrusive; we only become aware of the blended character of a construction when we come across surprising twists, logical inconsistencies or structural clashes, thus prompting the hybridity diagnosis. Although the concepts application to genres is, as I have shown, inherently flawed, when and how it is used is nevertheless significant because this provides an important clue as to the ways in which the quality of genre mixing in contemporary literature may differ from combinations of genre schemata in other periods: processes of One Hundred Márquez blending are increasingly foregrounded through the deliberate disappointment of, or confrontation between, generic expectations. Blending involves the following dimensions (Fauconnier and Turner 41-2): Input Spaces : with regard to genre mixing, the mental input spaces are the world-constructs evoked by genre labels.

These include plot structures, typical settings and entities, stock characters and character constellations, expectable actions and outcomes, but also such aspects as linguistic particularities, specific social hierarchies, atmospheres and moral attitudes. Cross-Space Mapping : A partial cross-space mapping connects counterparts in the input spaces (Fauconnier and Turner 41). Everything the input spaces have in common is contained in ernest a so-called generic[4] space . Thus, reading a text as the instance of a genre involves identifying counterparts between our construction kit of that genre and the text at hand. Cross-space mapping also enables us to blend different genres because their worlds (that is, the mental spaces we construct in relation to these genre labels) either share, or are compatible with regard to, certain elements and structures. The relevant aspects from the input spaces are then projected onto a fourth space, the blended space , or blend. Through the Years of Solitude by Gabriel García composition of particular elements and processes of completion , the blend can develop emergent structure that is not part of the inputs (Fauconnier and The Childhood Allan Poe Essay Turner 42-3) but results from the One Hundred of Solitude Márquez interaction of the newly combined elements. This new structure can then partly be projected back onto the input spaces, as will be illustrated with the help of The Childhood some examples. Unlike hybridity, the concept of blending does not rely on García, an essentialist model, but describes cognitive constructions, and therefore does not conceive of the input spaces as stable or pure.

Consequently, any blend can provide an input space for new blends. Indeed, the application of the notion of hybridity from The Expectation biology to colonial and postcolonial discourses to literary genres quite neatly illustrates the multiple stages involved in many processes of blending. Because genres evoke worlds with the by Gabriel García help of complexes of schemata, genre worlds are themselves already blended spaces and can in turn serve as input spaces for worlds that combine schemata from different genres. This repeatability of blending, presents the prerequisite for combining elements associated with different genres. Psalms 123 Kjv. Incidentally, this observation also provides a new perspective on generic labels such as gothic thriller or romantic comedy, which are often understood in terms of subgenres or modes in the adjectival sense.

Contrary to these ideas, I argue that the often ad hoc coinage of such labels can be better and more simply explained as illustrating a blended space, or world, which combines elements or structures associated with two different genres. Generic Blending in Scorseses Taxi Driver. An example will serve illustrate how the described multistage process can help us understand different forms and effects of generic mixing Martin Scorseses cult film Taxi Driver , which mixes elements associated with the psychological thriller and such associated with the western genre. 26-year old ex-soldier Travis Bickle, who suffers from insomnia, witnesses on his nightly cab tours through New York scenes of violence, prostitution and drug abuse. One Hundred García. All the animals, Travis contemplates, come out at night whores, skunk-pussies, buggers, queens, fairies, dopers, junkies sick, venal. Someday a rainll come and wash all this scum off the street (qtd. in Ray 352). Disgusted by what he sees and frustrated with his failed courtship of the The Renaissance Man, da Vinci classy Betsy, he finally decides to take matters into his own hands. He meets the 12-year old prostitute Iris whom he decides to save and One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel García kills her pimp and The Renaissance Man, Leonardo da Vinci Essay his henchmen in a dramatic shootout. The film thus exhibits the dark mood and vivid depiction of violence, as well as the narrative perspective and pre-occupation with mental processes characteristic of many films labelled psychological thriller and a plot structure and character constellation considered typical of the western. Before analyzing how the viewer integrates these two different genres, however, I would like to consider how another blend, namely that between the world of the western and late-70s urban America, is One Hundred Years Essay, established. The primary input spaces here are New York and the world of the western. The cross-spatial mapping of these spaces connects the lawlessness, vice and got milk ad campaign corruption associated with the Wild West with the One Hundred García Márquez Essay lawlessness, vice and ernest character corruption Travis sees in the streets of New York.

Once this connection is established, one can identify many more counterparts in the generic space: the armed robbery of a convenience store resembles the bank robberies we frequently find in westerns, New Yorks prostitutes present counterparts to the easy girls in frontier towns (Iriss nickname, incidentally, is of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez, Easy), Sports long hair and headband recall the stereotypical Indian, and, most importantly, the loner Travis in da Vinci Essay his taxi recalls the lonesome cowboy, who aimlessly roams the wilderness on his horse. Essay. These parallels or mappings become so suggestive to Travis that he adapts his behaviour to that of the cowboy: having decided to take matters into his own hands, he buys several revolvers, begins to practise his quick draw and tapes a knife to his cowboy boots. It is at this point that Traviss blend becomes overt. This illustrates how blends develop emergent structure: once Travis has recognized key similarities between the input spaces, he begins to complete the structure and identifies an adequate solution to the perceived problem vigilantism. Scorseses film is particularly interesting, because while the protagonist is The Renaissance Man, Leonardo, quite obviously psychopathic, it is never entirely clear whether his blend is merely the delusion of an One Hundred by Gabriel Márquez Essay, individual who is losing his grip on reality, or if it indeed corresponds to a widely accepted world-view, as the implausible ending shows Travis being congratulated for his murderous actions. Conversely, some of the insights gained within the blend can be projected back onto got milk ad campaign the input spaces: the impressions of Márquez brutality and insanity the viewer gains from Scorseses film can be projected back onto the western to reveal the violent logic underlying dominant conceptions of this genre, while the ernest character surprising ending can (depending on the viewers interpretation) lead one to assume the lingering influence of the world-view associated with the One Hundred Years of Solitude western within parts of the US.

The concept of got milk blending thus also captures different dimensions of ideological critique involved in genre mixing. Although Taxi Driver effectively evokes the western genre, this does not mean that the viewer identifies the film as a western. Instead, viewers are more likely to of Solitude Márquez understand Scorseses film as a psychological thriller. The reason for this is not so much that elements associated with the The Childhood of Edgar Allan Poe Essay psychological thriller outweigh those associated with the western, although the García Márquez contemporary urban setting may, for psalms 123 kjv, some, disqualify the films classification as a western. The main reason for such a view, however, is the discrepancy between the Years of Solitude Márquez protagonists world-view and The Renaissance Man, that of the audience.

Travis interprets his surroundings as analogous to the world of the western, whereas the viewer, confronted with various signs of the taxi drivers mental decline which somewhat forestalls the identification with the protagonist, tends to understand Traviss interpretation as a delusion, a result of his pathological state of mind. This shows that genre evocation does not necessarily lead to genre attribution. One Hundred Years Of Solitude By Gabriel Essay. That the The Renaissance Man, Leonardo Essay majority of references to García a specific genre do not lead to The Renaissance Leonardo genre attribution is a circumstance that is One Hundred Years García, routinely neglected by proponents of generic hybridity, because although Taxi Driver evokes two very different genres the film can hardly be termed a hybrid of western and thriller. By the same token, the fact that a newspaper article refers to an event as a tragedy does not mean that we classify it as pertaining to that literary tradition. Instead, the selective projection of schemata we associate with a particular genre enables us to interpret new information with the psalms 123 kjv help of familiar patterns which then also govern our (re)actions, as Taxi Driver dramatically illustrates. As readily available world-constructs genres provide effective models for the structuring of extra-literary realities (Hallet 60). This presents the true political dimension of generic experimentation, because a texts failure to adhere to our generic expectations leads to of Solitude Márquez the foregrounding of these expectations, which renders them accessible to rational critique. Moreover, the discrepancy between generic expectations and ernest character textual actualizations may result in the adjustment of One Hundred Years of Solitude García our genre schemata and therefore ultimately also to a revision of our understanding of extra-literary realities. This shall be illustrated with some cursory reflections on blends drawing on the fairy tale, one of the few genres where criticism often explicitly focuses on questions of character ideology and pedagogy, or on what I call the politics of genre. The tales subsumed under the label classical fairy tale gradually found their way into the households of the literate classes, particularly of the bourgeoisie, in One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez the 18 th and 19 th century.

Counter to common knowledge, the familiar versions read in psalms 123 kjv families and schools, such as those collected by the Brothers Grimm and Charles Perrault, exhibit significant alterations compared to the oral folk versions most of them are based on Years by Gabriel Essay, (Zipes Magic Spell 2). Far from faithfully reproducing tales that were orally transmitted for generations and generations, the classical versions were adapted for a bourgeois audiences with the purpose of promoting the in Young New Couples morals and codes of behavior of the patriarchal bourgeois society in order to One Hundred Years by Gabriel Márquez prepare men and women for their respective roles therein: [T]he male hero learns to be active, competitive, handsome, industrious, cunning, acquisitive. Ernest. His goal is money, power, and a woman (also associated with chattel). His jurisdiction is the open world. One Hundred García Márquez Essay. His happiness depends on the just use of power. The female hero learns to be passive, obedient, self-sacrificing, hard-working, patient, and straight-laced. Her goal is wealth, jewels and a man to protect her property rights. Her jurisdiction is the home or castle.

Her happiness depends on conformity to patriarchal rule. (Zipes Fairy Tales 57) I would argue that up until today most peoples conceptions of the fairy tale are shaped mainly by the literary versions by Perrault, the Brothers Grimm and ernest Hans-Christian Andersen, which are still widely read in families, but also circulated as childrens entertainment by the mass media. This means that there is a relatively limited stock of culturally shared generic schemata, which renders the projection of fairy tale motifs and of Solitude by Gabriel Essay structures to other genres and world-constructs both appealing and qualitative sampling method effective. At the same time, because many of these structures are intimately tied to an ideology that is increasingly seen as problematic, they are often evoked against themselves, that is, to One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel reveal and The Renaissance Man, Leonardo critique their ideological bias. Thus, in the last thirty years or so, there have been a growing number of rewritings of fairy tales that renegotiate the fixed gender conceptions promoted by the classical versions, often by portraying the fairy tale heroine as active and ingenious rather than passive and One Hundred Years García simple-minded.

To name one of many examples, the Snow White in Tarsem Singhs 2012 adaptation Mirror Mirror grows into a proactive heroine who fights the vain and cruel queen alongside the seven dwarves. When the queen enters the forest to Leonardo kill Snow White, the latter locks up her male helpers, including the prince, in the dwarves dwelling, resolved to Years of Solitude by Gabriel Márquez Essay confront the queen on her own. She tells the prince: You know, all that time locked up in the castle, I did a lot of reading. You read so many stories where the prince saves the princess. I think its time we changed that ending!, at sampling method which the prince protests: But its been focused grouped and it works!. This meta-generic quip foregrounds the cognitive process and implications of the completion of the Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez genre schema by linking the gender roles promoted by fairy tale conventions to audience expectations and marketability. Snow Whites fight for a different ending consequently presents an explicit critique of these preconceptions. In order to The Renaissance Man, da Vinci grasp the real political potential of genre it is One Hundred by Gabriel García Márquez, paramount to understand that it is only through the familiarity with the generic schemata that the emancipatory message of subversive versions becomes effective in the readers mind, leading him/her to revise received genre conceptions, and thus renders the alterations socially relevant. Jack Zipes provides another intriguing example of a subversive blend: a television advert for a cleaning agent blends the generic input spaces of the fairy tale and of advertising by employing the Cinderella story to psalms 123 kjv illustrate the key sales argument for of Solitude by Gabriel, the product. One older sister: Cinderella, wash the psalms 123 kjv floor.

Other older sister: Yeah, wash it, and then re-wax it. [Sisters leave for the ball.] Cinderella: Wash, wax, pfui. [Fairy Godmother appears.] Fairy Godmother: Phew, ammonia. That strips wax. But use Mr Clean with no ammonia. One Hundred By Gabriel García Márquez. Mr Clean gets the dirt but leaves the wax shining and you get a shine. Fairy Godmother: And now off to the ball? Cinderella: Ball-schmall. Tonights my bowling league. Ad Campaign. Bye. [authors emphases] (Proctor and Gamble TV ad, qtd. in Zipes Magic Spell xxi)

This blend overtly deconstructs the expectations associated with both genres: firstly, instead of One Hundred of Solitude by Gabriel Essay envying and emulating the The Childhood Poe Essay haughty sisters and subscribing to the upper and upper middle-class ideal of sophistication by attending a formal ball, where she could show off her beauty and find her prince, this self-determined Cinderella chooses a more working-class activity where she can roll up her sleeves and show her skills as part of a team. The ad thus exposes the One Hundred Years by Gabriel Márquez gender and class bias of the familiar fairy tale version. Secondly, the emancipatory twist also presents a critique of the conservative image of the happy housewife often evoked in the promotion of household products by the marketing industry, because by using Cinderella as a model, this advert portrays housework not as the womans vocation or a familial duty, but as a chore forced upon her by others, thus subtly hinting at of Marriage in Young the coercive dimension of role allocation. Despite the increase in critical engagement with the political dimension of folk and fairy tales, it remains largely unexplored how their structures shape particular extra-literary conceptions and discourses. This seems surprising considering the socializing function so often ascribed to them. While the One Hundred Years by Gabriel García Márquez scope of this question certainly exceeds this article, I would like to suggest that they not only continue to affect gender conceptions and received notions of beauty and romantic love, but are also blended with other popular genres. Thus, many romantic films evoke, sometimes more, sometimes less explicitly, fairy tale motifs and metaphors, not to got milk ad campaign mention the happy ever after formula. By the same token, the hierarchical structure of the fairy tale world tangibly inspires celebrity coverage in the popular press and on TV, because in the present age of communication and globalized markets, the celebrity occupies an elevated position analogous to that of the aristocracy in One Hundred by Gabriel García the feudal world of the fairy tale. Beauty, wealth and prestige structure both world-constructs, rendering the blend as effective as it is unobtrusive. This recourse to fairy tale schemata in parts of the mass media arguably partly accounts for the persistence of the seemingly anachronistic institution of The Renaissance Leonardo da Vinci monarchy in so many Western democracies.

As in the time of Perrault and the Grimm Brothers, the One Hundred Years Márquez Essay fairy tale semantics still imbues the royal sphere with glamour and fuels peoples hopes and aspirations of social advancement. In this light, the recent crisis of the British monarchy could, to some extent, be attributed to the failure of the projection due to an overt discrepancy between fairy tale conventions and the events surrounding the marriage between Prince Charles and Diana Spencer portrayed in the popular media. This discrepancy becomes starkly apparent precisely because the projection at Leonardo da Vinci Essay first seemed to fit very well indeed: although Diana is One Hundred of Solitude García, of noble descent, this is consistently downplayed or altogether neglected in the medias portrayal of her as a Cinderella-figure (Gephart 157), which allows Prince Charles to become Prince Charming and The Expectation in Young New Couples Essay select the beautiful young woman as his princess. More important than their fairy tale wedding is the circumstance that the Princess of of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Essay Wales came to be seen as the embodiment of the very virtues of the heroine of the classical fairy tale tradition: young and beautiful, her initial shyness made her seem both passive and obedient, while the concern she displayed for the sick and poor, and her commitment to ernest character the battle against landmines, showed kindness, caring and selflessness. In other words: according to the gender conception associated with the classical fairy tale tradition, Diana Spencer rightfully deserved a happy ending with her Prince Charming. That she was denied this happy ending because the Prince had an affair with a married woman arguably undermines the belief in One Hundred by Gabriel García Márquez Essay the validity of the projection of the fairy tale court, where the adherence to the bourgeois moral code is rewarded, onto the British monarchy. The fairy tale happy ending can arguably be considered to got milk represent something of a symbolical contract between nobility and One Hundred Years García Márquez Essay bourgeoisie, according to The Expectation of Marriage which the bourgeoisies acceptance of the nobilitys supreme status is premised on the latters acceptance of bourgeois values. In the aftermath of Dianas death, the One Hundred Years of Solitude by Gabriel institution of monarchy in Britain came increasingly under scrutiny, and was openly criticized as outdated. Got Milk. Today, this crisis seems to have been entirely overcome. Again, the reinvigoration of the fairy tale projection can be considered to be of symbolical significance to the revitalization of monarchism: although the initial blend failed, the García Márquez Essay corrected cross-space mapping which substitutes Charles for his son in the role of Prince Charming seems to provide a suitable match including the The Expectation of Marriage desired happy ending in the shape of a fairy tale wedding. As I have sought to show, genres are not only relevant in One Hundred by Gabriel García Essay terms of classification, but as complexes of schemata they also present meaningful patterns that govern our interpretation of psalms 123 kjv cultural artifacts, as well as of extra-textual worlds.

In this sense, for the sake of monarchism, William and Kate would do well to live up to the generic expectations of the fairy tale, in other words, happily ever after. [1]Brunetiere conceives of genres as possessing a life-span that can be divided into three stages: birth, maturity, death (13). He then applies this tripartite conception of generic development to literary history, allocating to major works a specific place in the life-cycle of the genre he considers them to represent. [2]David Fishelov, who calls for a revivification of certain aspects of the evolutionary paradigm ( Life , 616) presents a notable exception. [3] I depart from a constructivist world-concept that defines worlds as structures which are conceived as having defined boundaries, their own specific rules and laws, and exclude certain individuals or entities. [4] Fauconnier and Turner use generic here in a broad sense, not in relation to artistic genres. Acheraiou, Amar. One Hundred Years Of Solitude Essay. Questioning Hybridity, Postcolonialism and Globalization. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. Print. Bhabha, Homi K. The Location of Culture.

London: Routledge, 1994. Print. Broich, Ulrich. Gattungen des modernen englischen Romans. Wiesbaden: Athenaion, 1975. Print. Brunetiere, Ferdinand. Psalms 123 Kjv. L'evolution des genres dans l'histoire de la litterature.

Paris: Librairie Hachette, 1892. Print. Defoe, Daniel. Robinson Crusoe. NY [a.o.]: Norton, 1994. Print. Devitt, Amy J. Writing Genres. Carbondale, IL: Southern Illinois UP, 2008. Print. Duff, David. Key Concepts. Modern Genre Theory. One Hundred Years Essay. Ed.

David Duff. Harlow: Longman, 2000. xxvi. Print. ---. Introduction. Modern Genre Theory. Ed. David Duff. Harlow: Longman, 2000. 1-24. Print.

Ernst, Jutta. Hybride Genres. Metzler Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie: Ansatze - Personen - Grundbegriffe. 3rd ed. Ed. Ansgar Nunning. Stuttgart: Metzler, 2004. 26768. Print. Fauconnier, Charles, and psalms 123 kjv Mark Turner. The Way We Think: Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities.

NY: Basic Books, 2003. Print. Fishelov, David. Metaphors of Genre: The Role of Analogies in Genre Theory. University Park, Pa.: Pennsylvania State UP, 1993. Print. ---. The Strange Life and Adventures of Biological Concepts in Genre. Periodization. Canadian Review of Comparative Literature 21.4 (1994): 61326.

Web. 4 Jun. 2011. Fludernik, Monika. The Constitution of Hybridity: Postcolonial Interventions. Hybridity and Postcolonialism. Ed. Monika Fludernik. Tubingen: Stauffenberg, 1998. 1954.

Print Frow, John. Genre. One Hundred Of Solitude García Essay. NY: Routledge, 2005. Print. Galster, Christin. Hybrides Erzahlen und hybride Identitat im britischen Roman der Gegenwart. Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang, 2001. Method. Print. Gephart, Werner. Die Marchenprinzessin Diana: Eine Heiligenfigur der Mediengesellschaft? Medien-Mythos? Die Inszenierung von Prominenz und Schicksal am Beispiel von Diana Spencer.

Eds. Miriam Meckel, et al. Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag, 1999. 15798. Print. Gregson, Ian. Postmodern Literature. London: Arnold, 2004. Of Solitude García Essay. Print. Griem, Julika. Hybriditat. Metzler-Lexikon Literatur- und Kulturtheorie: Ansatze - Personen - Grundbegriffe.

3rd ed. Psalms 123 Kjv. Ed. Ansgar Nunning. Stuttgart: Metzler, 1998. One Hundred Years Of Solitude. 22021. Print. Gymnich, Marion, Birgit Neumann, and Ansgar Nunning, eds. Gattungstheorie und Gattungsgeschichte. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2007. Print.

Hallet, Wolfgang. Gattungen als kognitive Schemata: Die multigenerische Interpretation literarischer Texte. Gattungstheorie und Gattungsgeschichte. Eds. Marion Gymnich, Birgit Neumann, Ansgar Nunning. The Childhood Allan Poe Essay. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2007. 5372. Print.

Hassan, Ihab. The Postmodern Turn: Essays in Postmodern Theory and Years of Solitude by Gabriel García Márquez Culture. Ohio: Ohio State UP, 1987. Print. Hutcheon, Linda. A Poetics of Postmodernism: History, Theory, Fiction.

NY [a.o.]: Routledge, 1988. Print. Hybrid. The Oxford English Dictionary. Got Milk. Ed. One Hundred García Márquez. J. A. and E. S. C. Weiner Simpson. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989. Psalms 123 Kjv. 523. Print. Mirror Mirror. Dir. Tarsem Singh.

Relativity Media. 2012. One Hundred Years Of Solitude By Gabriel García. Film. Nunning, Ansgar. Man, Da Vinci Essay. Mapping the Field of Hybrid New Genres in the Contemporary Novel: A Critique of Lars Ole Sauerberg, Fact into Fiction and a Survey of Other Recent Approaches to the Relationship beween 'Fact' and 'Fiction'. Orbis Litterarum 48.3 (1993): 281305. Print.

Ray, Robert B. A Certain Tendency of the Hollywood Cinema, 1930-1980. Princeton, NJ: Princeton UP, 1985. Years By Gabriel Márquez. Print. Rumelhart, David E. Ernest Character. Schemata: The Building Blocks of Cognition. La Jolla, Calif., 1978.

Print. Ryan, Marie-Laure. Possible worlds, artificial intelligence, and narrative theory. Bloomington [u.a.]: Indiana Univ. Press, 1992. Print.. Seibel, Klaudia. Mixing Genres: Levels of Contamination and the Formation of Years Márquez Generic Hybrids. Gattungstheorie und Gattungsgeschichte.

Eds. Ernest. Marion Gymnich, Birgit Neumann, Ansgar Nunning. Trier: WVT Wissenschaftlicher Verlag Trier, 2007. 13752. Print. Sinding, Michael. Genera Mixta: Conceptual Blending and Mixed Genres in Ulysses. New Literary History 36.4 (1995). Print.

Stockwell, Peter. Cognitive Poetics. London, NY: Routledge, 2002. One Hundred Years. Print. Taxi Driver . Dir. Got Milk Ad Campaign. Martin Scorsese. Columbia Pictures, 1976. Film. Turner, Mark. The Literary Mind. NY, Oxford: OUP, 1996.

Print. Watt, Ian. Robinson Crusoe as a Myth. Essays in Criticism 2.I (1951): 95119. One Hundred Of Solitude. Print. Zipes, Jack. Breaking the Magic Spell: Radical Theories of Folk and Fairy Tales. NY: Methuen, 1979.

Print. ---. Fairy Tales and the Art of Subversion: The Classical Genre for Children and the Process of character Civilization. NY: Routledge, 1991. Print. Allen, Martina. Against Hybridity in Genre Studies: Blending as an One Hundred García, Alternative Approach to of Edgar Poe Essay Generic Experimentation. Trespassing Journal: an online journal of trespassing art, science, and philosophy 2 (Winter 2013). Web. Years By Gabriel García Essay. ISSN: 2147-2134.

Martina Allen was born in 1981 in Frankfurt/Germany. She studied English as well as Theatre, Film and Media Studies at the Goethe-University in Frankfurt and received her Master of Arts with Honours in both subjects in 2008. Since 2010, she has had several lectureships at the TU Darmstadt and currently holds a Dissertation Fellowship at method the University of Konstanz/Germany. The subject of her dissertation thesis is the significance and discursive functions of genre in contemporary Anglophone literature.

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? River Pollution Every time it is brought up in a meeting, it is darted away from. People change the topic rapidly hoping to skate past the truth and to the bigger problem. Although government officials are focusing on larger problems, river pollution has a negative affect on the community because. are deforestation and pollution . In Argentina, there are many environmental issues that include air pollution , inaccessibility, dissatisfaction with garbage disposal, dirtiness, water pollution etc. One of the biggest factors of pollution in Argentina would be air pollution , which to a certain extend. Changing consumption pattern has led to rising demand for energy. The final outcomes of this are air pollution , global warming, climate change, water scarcity and in Young New Couples Essay, water pollution . Pollution Water pollution Out of India's 3,119 towns and cities, just 209 have partial treatment facilities, and only 8 have.

supply, transportation, recreation. However, nowadays, humans are continuously deteriorating rivers , lakes, and oceans through different agricultural, industrial activities. Abel (1996) states that water pollution defines as the addition of undesirable materials into Years, aquatic bodies (p.1). This may cause. THE LITHOSPHERE AND LAND POLLUTION # THE EARTH Often air pollution causes people difficulty breathing. Some groups of people such as infants, the sampling method elderly, and people with asthma or other respiratory diseases are more heavily affected by air pollution . Pollutants in the air, caught in air currents. Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies (e.g. lakes, rivers , oceans, aquifers and groundwater).

Water pollution occurs when pollutants are directly or indirectly discharged into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds. In the past, before the industrial revolution. my mother would hum the familiar tunes of an old Hindi lullaby, calming and soothing our minds as we slipped smoothly and soundly into One Hundred Years of Solitude García, the depths of our dreams; And it was in Hindi that with booming commands my father would summon us. Ever since, Hindi has been the language of expression for me even though. cities of Eastern and Pacific Asia: Hong Kong and Singapore. This will show how the GHG emissions from these cities contribute to local and global pollution . Qualitative Sampling Method? This paper will also discuss how the invasion of Years Márquez, zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) has been carried across oceans by ships (MacPhee, 2006). Leonardo Essay? This.

AUTOBIOGRAPHY OF A RIVER . I am river . One Hundred Of Solitude By Gabriel Márquez? I was born a long time ago in an ambiguous region in a mountain. I am combination of several streams. From the day I was born I was restless to The Childhood move on and travel to unknown regions. One Hundred By Gabriel García? Thus, I was bubbling with life and vigour, ready to qualitative sampling method overcome any obstacle that. Ruskin Bond (Hindi: ?????? ????, Born 19 May 1934) Ruskin Bond Ruskin Bond ( Hindi : ?????? ????, born 19 May 1934) is an Indian author of British descent.[1] He was born in Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh).

His father was Aubrey Alexander Bond who served in the RAF during World War II. He had one real sister and brother - Ellen and One Hundred Years García Essay, William. Poe Essay? When the writer.