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Nov 21, 2017 Rna structure and functions,
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mla writing a paper The Writing Center. Empire State College. Genesee Valley Center. GUIDE TO WRITING RESEARCH PAPERS. IN THE MLA STYLE. This style sheet is intended only as an overview and does not cover all aspects of the MLA style. For more complete information, see the MLA Style Manual or The MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers . The Writing Center has these and other resources on hand. You can also find them at most libraries or purchase them at all major bookstores. The MLA style refers to the method of writing research papers recommended by the Modern Language Association . The MLA style is rna structure, used in some areas of the humanities, e.g., composition and literature. Homo! Other humanities disciplines such as history, philosophy, and religion may require other styles for formatting your papers.
Ask your Primary Mentor which style to rna structure use, then come to modern the Writing Center for further guidance . Basic MLA Facts. Always double space, including the text of your paper, quotations, notes, and the list of rna structure, works cited. Unless otherwise instructed, use one-inch margins top, bottom, left, and right. Use parenthetical citations to acknowledge direct quotations, indirect quotations, and/or any ideas you have borrowed from another person. Use a Works Cited page for reference to parenthetical citations. Underline (or italicize) titles of books, plays, pamphlets, periodicals (newspapers, magazines, journals), films, television programs, and record albums/CDs. Place within quotation marks newspaper/magazine articles, essays in a book, songs, poems (except long poems published as a book), book chapters, episodes of a television show, and lectures. Number pages in the upper right hand corner of the page.
Use present tense to introduce cited or quoted material and to make personal comments on such materials. Of The 2000! Use past tense only when directly quoting a passage that is in past tense or when reporting historical events. As Winkleman states in the novel Diary of rna structure and functions, a Madman , I was never ignorant (293). Winkleman's purpose in Diary of a Madman is to point out the innate imperfection of humans. Moore created Winkleman not only to modern day theatre use as a pen name, but also to use as a semi-fictional forum through which the author could express his own opinions.
Plagiarism is the rna structure, use of the words and/or ideas of another person without disclosing the source. Whether deliberate or unintentional, plagiarism can lead to failure in a course and/or dismissal from college. To avoid plagiarism, acknowledge your sources with in-text citations and a Works Cited page. Always cite direct quotations (see below) . If you use another person's idea or paraphrase another person's words, don't simply rearrange the bad things about school uniforms, words. Instead, make sure to use your own style of writing and rna structure, language, and use an habilis facts, in-text citation to acknowledge the source. Then, list on the Works Cited page the rna structure and functions, publications or sources from which you obtained your citations. The Writing Center here at Most Innovation of the 1920s Essay GVC has a separate handout on this called, Plagiarism and How to Avoid it: Guidelines for Students. I. In-text Citations. Cite the first appearance of or reference to another person's words or ideas by introducing the quotation, paraphrase, or citation with the author's full name exactly as it appears in rna structure, the source, but exclude titles such as Mr., Mrs., Ms., Miss, Dr., Reverend , etc. Be sure to include the day theatre, page number(s) on which the rna structure, cited material can be found. Facts! You may also choose to include the title of the cited text in the first reference.
Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Short Story that, to write good fiction, authors of rna structure, short fiction must master grammar and punctuation (17). The phrase Rebecca Peacey states in The Art of the Essay on Reading Instruction, Short Story that, . is the signal phrase in this example. Peacey also states that today's writers must not use gender-specific language(17). Authors Name Not Used in Text. If you don't use the author's name in the text, place only the last name within the parenthetical citation with the page number. In the parenthetical citation, don't use p. or pp. to rna structure and functions indicate page number(s), and don't include the text's title. Although many consider Lovejoy's collection titled My Art: The Stories the perfect model for writing short stories, most creative writing teachers dismiss it as pretentious, trashy, and inane (Peacey 333).
More Than One Author. If a cited source has more than one author, either include all names in the hound baskervilles, the parenthetical citation according to how they are listed in the source, or list the and functions, first author followed by et. al. Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of irony in his short stories (Newman, Banya, Benis, and Cramer 814). Critics harshly emphasize Lovejoy's chronic use of stale metaphor, cliched symbolism, and predictable twists of modern, irony in his short stories (Newman, et. al. And Functions! 814).
Trent Lovejoy uses a variety of The Importance Education, avian symbolism in his fiction. Doves represent peace. Eagles stand for self-deterministic freedom. Ravens signify the mysterious. Vultures symbolize either death or opportunism. By doing so, he has kept alive a cliched symbolistic literature in America (Crowe 19). In comparison, the following passage clearly delineates words and ideas, and the reader of this passage can see that the student borrowed both a direct quotation and rna structure and functions, ideas from Crowe's book, For the Birds . In For the Birds , James Crowe explains that Trent Lovejoy uses avian symbols to represent peace, freedom, mystery, death, and opportunism.
In doing so, Crowe argues that Lovejoy has managed to keep alive the the hound, tradition of cliched symbolistic literature for America (189). If you are citing an author who has been quoted in another book or article, use the rna structure, original author's name in the text and the author of the Essay on Reading Instruction, source in which you found the quotation in the parenthetical citation. It is far more important for authors to . . .honor the semiotic tradition by using established symbolism than it is for them to rna structure and functions create new symbols as Lovejoy asserts (qtd. in Crowe: 278). Less than four typed lines of any direct quotation are placed within quotation marks. Crowe argues that Lovejoy has single-handedly kept alive a tradition that has certainly earned a long overdue demise (191). More than four typed lines of any direct quotation must be indented. Significant Three Of The Essay! From the left margin, indent one inch on rna structure a computer or ten spaces on a typewriter. Double space the quotation, and Most Significant Three of the 1920s Essay, don't use quotation marks . Insert a parenthetical citation two spaces after the last punctuation mark of the quotation. Peacey states that many authors of rna structure and functions, contemporary short fiction have not mastered the commonly accepted set of prescriptive rules by which standard American English is defined. She argues that such a lack of proficiency is detrimental to homo facts these authors' works and may well be damaging to the language as a whole. Rna Structure And Functions! She makes this observation:
Authors of the hound of the baskervilles 2000, fiction have always manipulated the grammar of their respective eras. And Functions! Whether writing in dialect to validate certain characters or stylistically misusing a language, fictionists have routinely broken grammatical rules. However, the misuse of language by contemporary writers is more often the Instruction, result of ignorance of grammar than it is of creative design. For a variety of reasons, not the least of which is academic political correctness, many contemporary American authors simply do not know a grammar that delineates the language in which they write. Such ignorance is problematic, for any authorial improvisation must be based on firmly ordered and systematically gained knowledge. (198) As can be understood from this passage, Peacey clearly believes that the mastery of the rules precedes creativity. For two or more paragraphs, indent the first line of each additional paragraph another quarter inch (or three typed spaces) beyond the original one inch or ten space indentation.
Two or More Works by the Same Author. If your list of works cited includes two or more works by the same author, include the title of the work either in rna structure and functions, the signal phrase or in abbreviated form in the parenthetical reference. In his article California and Essay, the West, reporter T. Christian Miller asserts that from rna structure, 1990 to 1997, California spent roughly $26 million on conservation lands to of the baskervilles 2000 provide habitat for exactly 2.6 mountain lions (A3). Rna Structure! According to T. Christian Miller. Mountain lions, also called pumas or cougars, range vast territories in search of food, sometimes as large as 100 square miles (Cougars 1).
The mountain lion population has been encroaching on human territory in California since 1972, when voters passed a law that banned hunting of the animal (Miller, Cougars 1). The Author Is Unknown. If the author is not given, either use the complete title in Innovation 1920s, a signal phrase or use a short form of the title in rna structure, the parentheses. In California, fish and homo habilis facts, game officials estimate that since 1972 lion numbers have increased from 2,400 to at least 6,000 (Lion A21). Authors With the Same Last Name.
If your list of works cited includes works by two or more authors with the same last name, include the first name of the author you are citing in the signal phrase or parenthetical reference. At least 66,665 lions were killed between 1907 and 1978 in Canada and the United States (Kevin Hansen 58). A Novel, a Play, or a Poem. In citing literary sources, include information that will enable readers to find the passage in various editions of the and functions, work. For a novel, put the page number first and then, if possible, indicate the part or chapter in modern day theatre, which the passage can be found. Fitzgerald's narrator captures Gatsby in rna structure and functions, a moment of isolation: A sudden emptiness seemed to flow now from the Most Significant Three Innovation of the 1920s, windows and the great doors, endowing with complete isolation the and functions, figure of the host(56: ch. 3). For a verse play, list the act, scene, and bad things about school uniforms, line numbers, separated by periods. And Functions! Use Arabic numerals unless your instructor prefers Roman numerals. In his famous advice to the players, Hamlet defines the day theatre, purpose of theater, . . . whose end, both at and functions the first and now, was and homo facts, is, to hold, as 'twere, the mirror up to and functions nature (3.2.21-23).
For a poem, cite the part (if there are a number of parts) and the line numbers, separated by periods. When Homer's Odysseus comes to the hall of Circe, he finds his men . . . mild / in her soft spell, fed on her drug of modern, evil (10.209-11). If the book of the Bible that you are citing does not appear in the signal phrase, include it in parentheses along with the chapter and verse numbers. Consider the words of Solomon: If your enemy is hungry, give him bread to eat; and if he is thirsty, give him water to drink (Prov. 25.21). Two or More Works. To cite more than one source to document a particular point, separate the citations with a semicolon. The dangers of mountain lions to humans have been well documented (Rychnovsky 40; Seidensticker 114; Williams30).
A Work without Page Numbers. You may omit the page number if a work has no page numbers. Some electronic sources use paragraph numbers instead of page numbers. And Functions! For such sources, use the abbreviation par. Significant Innovation 1920s Essay! or pars. in the parentheses: (Smith, par. 4) . An Electronic Source. To cite an rna structure and functions, electronic source in the text of your paper, follow the same rules as for print sources. If the The Importance of Science Essays, source has an author and there is a page number, provide both. Using historical writings about rna structure, leprosy as an example, Demaitre argues that . . . the difference between curability and treatability is Three Innovation, not a modern invention (29). A clip of the film Demolition d'un mur demonstrates that cinema is all about transformation, not mere movement (Routt, sec. 1).
Volti writes, As with all significant innovations, the rna structure, history of the automobile shows that technological advance is fueled by more than economic calculation. According to a Web page sponsored by the Children's Defense Fund, fourteen American children die from gunfire each day (Child) II. Use of Ellipsis Points. When you omit a word, phrase, sentence, or paragraph from a quoted passage, you must use ellipsis points, or three spaced periods, to habilis facts indicate that your quotation does not completely reproduce the original. If you omit a word or a phrase at the beginning or in the middle of a quoted sentence, use three periods with one space between each period to and functions indicate the omission. Moore states that . Of The Essay! . . a pseudonym provides . . . an invaluable tool to express one's own opinion (214). Use four ellipsis points to indicate the omission of an rna structure, entire sentence within a quotation. Peacey claims that . . . although a living language is constantly changing . . . . It is the author's duty to be aware of the language's grammatical conventions as well as to the hound of the baskervilles 2000 be knowledgeable of its linguistic history (7). Use four spaced periods to indicate an omission at the end of and functions, a direct quotation.
If a parenthetical reference directly follows the quotation, the last period follows the parentheses. Lovejoy argues that . . . authors are duty-bound to Most of the carry on the semiotic tradition as it is inherited from those authors who precede them . . Rna Structure! . (4). If no parenthetical reference follows the omission, end the quotation with four spaced periods enclosed by an ending quotation mark. Lovejoy argues on page four in his introduction of My Art: The Stories that . Modern Day Theatre! . . the rna structure, author is duty-bound to carry on the semiotic tradition as presented to him by those authors who precede him . . . . III. The Works Cited Page.
The Works Cited page immediately follows the text of the paper. Alphabetize by the authors' last names. When there is no author but there is an editor, alphabetize by the editor's last name. If you don't know the name of an author or editor, alphabetize by the first important word in the title of the work cited. Most! Center the title Works Cited one inch from the top of the sheet. Double space between the title and the first entry. Place the first line of each entry flush with the left margin. Indent succeeding lines one-half inch (computer-formatted) or five spaces (typed). Double space each entry, and rna structure, double space between entries. Use two spaces after periods and of Science Education Essays, one space after other punctuation marks.
Remember, you must always have a Works Cited page as well as in-text citations to avoid plagiarism . Begin each reference at the left hand margin. Rna Structure And Functions! List the author's last name first, then the first name followed by a period. Type two spaces, then list the title of the book underlined and with the first letter of all major words capitalized. A period follows (not underlined). Facts! Next list the place (city) of rna structure and functions, publication followed by a colon, one space, the publisher followed by a comma, and the year of publication followed by a period.
Omit the words Publishing Company and day theatre, Inc . from the publisher's name. If the reference is more than one line in and functions, length, indent one-half inch (computer formatted) or five spaces (typed) all lines following the The Importance Essays, first. Double space all lines. Book by one Author. Hyde, Bernard.
Perspectives on Literature: The New Historical Criticism in America . Peoria: Bancroft, 1992. Britt, Ponsiby. Representation of and functions, Indigenous North American Mammalia in Twentieth Century American Humor . Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1963. ---. Character Stereotypes in Cold War American Literature . Three Of The 1920s! Frostbite Falls: Rockland UP, 1967. Books by two or more authors -- list authors as they are listed in the book. Reverse only the first author's name.
Ciccone, Eva, Lorna Smith, and Natasha Fatale. Femininity and Feminism in Literature: Two Views . Boston: Singleton, 1991. If a book has more than three authors, either list all authors as shown above or list only the first author followed by a comma, a space, then et al . Jones, Sarah, Michael Williams, Charles Porter, William Mayer, and Anthony Rofollo. Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. Jones, Sarah, et al. Rna Structure! Scenes in a Coffee Shop . Toronto: Middleman, 1996. List any book beyond the habilis facts, first edition by including the edition two spaces after the period which concludes the title. Do not underline the designation for the edition. Young, Keith. And Functions! Symbols of Morality . 4th ed.
Scranton: Crowell, 1976. For an author's work cited in a textbook, anthology, or other full-length work, list according to homo the author of the cited work within the and functions, anthology. Typically, such a cited work would be an article, an essay, a short story, or a poem, so enclose the title of the cited work within quotation marks. However, underline the title if the about school, work was originally published as a book. Always underline the title of the anthology, which immediately follows the title of the work. Include the page numbers of the anthology in which the rna structure, cited work appears. An entry for an editor is similar to that for an author except that the name is Essays, followed by a comma and the abbreviation ed. for editor.
If there is more than one editor, use the abbreviation eds. for editors. Kitchen, Judith, and Mary Paumier Jones, eds. And Functions! In Short: A Collection of of the baskervilles 2000, Brief Creative Nonfiction . New York: Norton, 1996. Author with an Editor. Begin with the rna structure, author and title, followed by the name of the editor. Day Theatre! In this case the abbreviation Ed. means Edited by, so it is the same for one or multiple editors. Wells, Ida B. The Memphis Diary . Ed. Miriam DeCosta-Willis. Rna Structure And Functions! Boston: Beacon, 1995.
List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the translator. Mahfouz, Naguib. Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Begin with the modern day theatre, title. Alphabetize the entry by the first word of the title other than A, An, or The. Oxford Essential World Atlas . New York: Oxford UP, 1996. Edition Other Than the First.
If you are citing an edition other than the first, include the number of the edition after the title: 2nd ed., 3rd ed., and so on. Boyce, David George. The Irish Question and British Politics, 1868-1996 . 2nd ed. New York: St. Martin's, 1996.
Include the total number of volumes before the city and and functions, publisher, using the abbreviation vols. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . Baskervilles! 2 vols. New York: Random, 1996. Conway, Jill Ker, ed. Written by Herself . And Functions! Vol.
2. New York: Random, 1996. 2 vols. Encyclopedia or Dictionary. Articles in well-known dictionaries and encyclopedias are handled in abbreviated form. Simply list the author of the article (if there is one), the title of the article, the title of the reference work, the edition number, if any, and the date of the edition. Sonata. Encyclopaedia Britannica . 15th ed. 1997. The Bible is not included in the list of homo facts, works cited. If you want to indicate the version of the Bible you are citing, do so in your in-text citation.
Work in an Anthology. Present the information in and functions, this order, with each item followed by day theatre, a period: author of the selection; title of the selection; title of the anthology; editor of the anthology, preceded by Ed. (meaning Edited by); city, publisher, and date; page numbers on which the and functions, selection appears. Malouf, David. On Reading! The Kyogle Line. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Ed. Patricia Craig. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. 390-96. Rodriguez, Richard. Late Victorians. Harper's Oct.
1990: 57-66. Rpt. in The Best American Essays 1991. Ed. Joyce Carol Oates. New York: Ticknor, 1991. Rna Structure And Functions! 119-34. Two or More Works From the Same Anthology.
If you wish, you may cross-reference two or more works from the same anthology. Provide a separate entry for the anthology with complete publication information. Craig, Patricia, ed. The Oxford Book of Travel Stories . Oxford: Oxford UP, 1996. Then list each selection separately, giving the author and title of the selection followed by a cross-reference to the anthology. Essay On Reading Instruction! The cross-reference should include the last name of the and functions, editor of the anthology and the page numbers in Most Significant Three of the Essay, the anthology on which the selection appears. Desai, Anita. Scholar and rna structure, Gypsy. Most Three Of The Essay! Craig 251-73.
Malouf, David. The Kyogle Line. Craig 390-96. Foreword, Introduction, Preface, or Afterword. If in your paper you quote from one of these elements, begin with the rna structure and functions, name of the writer of that element.
Then identify the element being cited, neither underlined nor in day theatre, quotation marks, followed by the title of the complete book, the book's author, and the book's editor, if any. After the publication information, give the page numbers on rna structure and functions which the modern, foreword, introduction, preface, or afterword appears. Kennedy, Edward M. Foreword. Rna Structure! Make a Difference . Henry W. Foster, Jr., and Alice Greenwood. New York: Scribner, 1997.
9-15. Book with a Title within Its Title. If the book title contains a title normally underlined (or italicized), neither underline (nor italicize) the internal title nor place it in quotation marks. Vanderham, Paul. James Joyce and the hound 2000, Censorship: The Trials of Ulysses . New York: New York UP, 1997. Faulkner, Dewey R. Twentieth Century Interpretations of rna structure and functions, The Pardoner's Tale . Englewood Cliffs: Spectrum-Prentice, 1973. Before the publication information, cite the series name as it appears on the title page followed by the series number, if any. Malena, Anne.
The Dynamics of Identity in Francophone Caribbean Narrative . Francophone Cultures and Literatures Ser. Homo Habilis Facts! 24. New York: Lang, 1998. After the title of the rna structure and functions, book, cite the original publication date followed by the current publication information. If the republished book contains new material, such as an introduction or afterword, include that information after the original date. McClintock, Walter. Old Indian Trails . 1926. Foreword William Least Heat Moon. Boston: Houghton, 1992.
If a book was published by an imprint of a publishing company, cite the name of the imprint followed by a hyphen and the publisher's name. The name of the imprint usually precedes the publisher's name on the title page. Coles, Robert. The Moral Intelligence of Children: How to Raise a Moral Child . New York: Plume-Random, 1997. List the entry under the name of the author, not the translator. After the title, write Trans. (for Translated by) and the name of the homo facts, translator.
Mahfouz, Naguib. Rna Structure! Arabian Nights and Days . Trans. Denys Johnson-Davies. New York: Doubleday, 1995. Periodicals are publications such as newspapers, magazines, and journals. Generally, list the author(s), title of article in quotation marks, name of the journal underlined, series number (if relevant), volume number (for journals), issue number (if needed), date of publication, and inclusive page numbers not preceded by p. Instruction! or pp. If the article is rna structure and functions, not published on consecutive pages, include only the day theatre, page number on which the article first appears, followed by a + sign with no space in between. Many scholarly journals are paged continuously throughout the year. The year's first issue begins on page one, and subsequent issues begin on the page where the issue preceding them ends. Therefore, listing the and functions, month of publication is unnecessary.
Instead, list the The Importance of Science Education Essays, volume number followed by the year of rna structure and functions, publication in parentheses. Then include a colon followed by page number(s) on which the modern day theatre, article appears. Gregory, Norman. Australian Aboriginal Dialects. The Journal of Modern Languages 75 (1987): 74-101. However, some journals page each issue separately. In such cases, include in rna structure, the bibliographic citation the homo facts, volume number immediately followed by a period, which is immediately followed by the issue number. Douglas, Oliver.
Gentrification of Rural Lands: Migration Beyond the Suburb. The American Quarterly 18.2 (1969): 12-24. Ziffel, Arnold. Confessions of an Overeater. Pound Watchers Weekly 8 June 1970: 14-17. Douglas, Lisa. To Live on Park Avenue. Urban Life Sept.
1970: 36-44. List the author(s); title of the rna structure, article in The Importance Education, quotation marks, name of newspaper as it appears on the masthead omitting any introductory article such as the, the and functions, complete date of publication -- day, month, and year, a colon, and a page number(s) (including section designation such as A and B or 1 and the hound baskervilles 2000, 2 if included) as listed in the newspaper. If the newspaper does not print the article on consecutive pages, use a plus (+) sign to indicate the article is to be found on more than one page. Omit any volume or issue numbers. Charles, Raymond. Rna Structure! School Administration Closes Middle School Library. The Chronicle of S Learning 12 Sept.
1990: A1-A6. Wilbert, Kenneth. About School Uniforms! Writer Searches America for Lost Hope. Mecklenburg Tribune 24 Aug. 1987, sec. 2: 1+. IV. Computer Sources. Include information as required below. If some of rna structure and functions, this information is not available, e.g. , author's name, include the bad things school uniforms, information which you do have.
Many research sources are now published as databases on CD-ROMS. Generally, the information you need to cite such sources is much the same as you need for print sources; however, there are some differences. Entire CD-ROM Database. Hughes, Keith. Exploring the Internet . 2nd ed. CD-ROM. New York: BDM, 1994. Part of rna structure and functions, a CD-ROM Database. Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work. Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania.
Cramden Anthology of habilis facts, Victorian Poetry . CD-ROM. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's CD Library . Rna Structure! CD-ROM. New York: Mayfield, 1996. Franco, William. Khmer Rouge Documented Their Own Atrocities.
New York Times , 17 April 1994: 1+. New York Times Ondisc . CD-ROM. UMI-Proquest, Jan. 1995. Cite an entire diskette as you would a book, but include the homo habilis facts, source medium as with CD-ROMS. Lovejoy, Trent. On Writing Short Fiction: Notes from the Master . Rna Structure And Functions! Diskette. New York: Narcissus, 1993. If your source is a story, article, poem, or other work published as part of the diskette, indicate diskette as the the hound 2000, source medium. Cited work originally published as an essay, article, short story, poem, or other short work.
Smythe, Leslie. Oh, Burden of Brittania. Cramden Anthology of Victorian Poetry . Diskette. London: Ivory Tower UP, 1993. Cited work originally published as a full-length work. Fox, James. Dalton's Lament . The Modern Reader's Library . Diskette. Rna Structure! New York: Mayfield, 1996. If the source cited from a diskette also has a printed source, cite the printed source first.
Frank, Richard. The Four Pennies. Pacific Monthly , April 1994: 48+. New American Authors: 1994 . Homo Facts! Diskette. New York: Clairmont, 1994. V. Online Sources.
Online information is unlike published information in that it exists only in an electronic environment and rna structure, is often subject to day-to-day change. The following information is adapted from: Harnack, Andrew and Eugene Kleppinger. Online! A Reference Guide to Essay Instruction Using Internet Resources . New York: Bedford/St. Martins, 2000. For writers creating in-text citations and Works Cited lists for online sources, the MLA Handbook provides the following recommendations: Download or print any online material you plan to use, in and functions, case it becomes inaccessible later. Don't introduce a hyphen at the break of modern, a URL between two lines.
If you must divide a URL between two lines, break it only after a slash (/). World Wide Web Site. When you document sources from the World Wide Web, the MLA suggests that your Works Cited entries contain as many items from the following list as are relevant and available: Name of the author, editor, compiler, translator, or site maintainer (if available and relevant), alphabetized by last name and followed by any appropriate abbreviations, such as ed. ; Title of rna structure, a poem, short story, article or other short work within a book, scholarly project, database, or periodical, in school, quotation marks; Title of a book, in italics or underlined; Publication information for any print version; Title of a scholarly project, database, or periodical, or professional or personal site (in italics or underlined), or, for a professional or personal site with no title, a description such as home page; Name of the editor of a scholarly project or database (if known); Version number (if not part of the and functions, title) or, for a journal, the volume, issue, or other identifying number; Name of the Three Innovation 1920s, institution or organization sponsoring or associated with the Web site; Date you accessed the rna structure, source; and Essay, URL (in angle brackets). Although no single entry will contain all these items of and functions, information, most Works Cited entries for the hound baskervilles 2000 Web sources will include the following basic information: Author's name (last name first). Document title. Date of and functions, Internet publication. Date of homo, access URL. Shapiro, Herbert.
Professional Communications. Rna Structure! Spring 1999. 6 Nov. 2001 http://www1.esc.edu/personalfac/hshapiro/professional_communications/default.htm An online book may be the electronic text of part or all of a printed book, or a book-length document available only on the Internet ( e.g. , a work of hyperfiction). Bird, Isabella L. A Lady's Life in the Rocky Mountains . New York, 1881. About! Victorian Women Writers Project . Ed. Perry Willett. 27 May 1999. Indiana U. 4 Oct.
1999 http://www.indiana.edu/letrs/vwwp/bird/rocky.html. Harnack, Andrew, and Eugene Kleppinger. Rna Structure! Online! A Reference Guide to Using Internet Resources . Boston: Bedford/St. Martin's, 2000. 5 Jan.
2000 http://www.bedfordstmartins.com/online. Article in an Electronic Journal (ejournal) Joyce, Michael. On the Birthday of the Stranger (in memory of The Importance of Science Education, John Hawkes). Evergreen Review 5 Mar 1999.
12 May 1999 http://evergreenreview.com/evexcite/joyce/index_ns.html. Article in an Electronic Magazine (ezine) Adler, Jerry. Ghost of Everest. Newsweek 17 May 1999. 19 May 1999. http://newsweek.com/nwsrv/issue/20_99a/printed/us/so/so0120_1.htm. Wren, Christopher. A Body on Mt. Everest, a Mystery Half-Solved.
New York Times on rna structure and functions the Web 5 May 1999. 13 May 1999 http://search.nytimes.com/search/daily/bin/fastweb?getdoc+site+site 33726+0+wAAA+%22George%7Emallory%22. Bush, George. Principles of Ethical Conduct for Government Officers and Employees. Executive Order 12674 of April 12 1989 (as modified by E. O. 12731). Part 1. 26 Aug 1997. 18 May 1999 http://www.usoge.gov/exorders/eo12674.html.
Scholarly Project or Information Database. Center for Reformation and Renaissance Studies . Bad Things About! Ed. Laura E. Hunt and William Barek. May 1998. University of Toronto. 11 May 1999 http://CITD.SCAR.UTORONTO.CA/crrs/index.html. The Internet Movie Database . May 1999.
Internet Movie Database Ltd. 11 May 1999 http://us.imbd.com. Mortimer, Gail. The William Faulkner Society Home Page . 16 Sept. 1999. William Faulkner Soc. 1 Oct. 1999 http://utep.edu/mortimer/faulkner/mainfaulkner.htm.
NAIC Online . 29 Sept. Rna Structure And Functions! 1999. National Association of Investors Corporation. 1 Oct. 1999. http://www.betterinvesting.org. Cite an E-Mail source as you would a memo or a personal letter. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for Education. Modern Day Theatre! E-Mail to rna structure and functions edu.users. 4 Sept.
1997. Include the Significant Three of the Essay, following information if your mentor requires a complete address. Hill, Sharon. New Directions for and functions Education. E-Mail to edu.users. Internet. 4 Sept. 1997.
Available http://[email protected] MLA format for a research paper does not require a table of contents, an Innovation of the Essay, outline, or an abstract. MLA format also does not require a title page. Instead, include the necessary information on the first page of the text as seen below: Your last name and page number a half-inch from the top of the page on and functions the right side (to run continually throughout your paper). Format a one-inch margin for the top, bottom, and sides of the rest of the document. Double-spacing of text is required. Place your name, mentor's name, course name, and date on the left, all in the order shown. Center your title (you may place it in bold print). If your mentor does require a title page, ask which style she or he prefers.
Mentor Tom McElroy. ENL 202 American Literature. American Literature and the Perpetuation of Stereotyping Language. The Europeans erroneously thought North American aboriginals to be Asians and consequently classified them as Indians. Since then, Euro-American society has used unflattering variations of that term, including Injuns and Injiins, to describe these indigenous peoples. However, these are the Education, more innocuous of the sobriquets Euro-Americans have foisted upon Native Americans over the years. Considering their Christian selves to rna structure and functions be of the chosen people, early settlers deprecated native Americans by classifying them as savages, heathens, and barbarians. This style guide was produced with the of the, aid of the MLA Handbook for rna structure Writers of Research papers 5th ed . It is uniforms, intended only as a brief guide to rna structure MLA citation methods.
Complete information can be found in the above mentioned text. Always consult your mentor before you start to write .
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Nov 21, 2017 Rna structure and functions,
10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. note : This is the latest installment in a series of posts on lateral partner moves from Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Rna Structure And Functions! Abby works with attorney candidates on Essays law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and rna structure and functions, Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Most Significant Three of the 1920s Latin American clients in New York and for and functions the last five years for European clients in modern day theatre, Paris.
A native of Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Rna Structure! Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in Madrid, Spain. Baskervilles! She is rna structure, a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in Significant Three 1920s Essay, French and Spanish (and dabbles in Portuguese and Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in an effort to and functions, assist my candidates with the substance and Most Significant Three Essay, presentation of rna structure their one-page life summaries. Here are ten tips based on of the the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and reading only what he can in rna structure, the time it takes to walk back to his office. You need to make the most important stuff jump off the page. Use bold. Use bullet points. Use headings.
Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. 2. Modern! Be concise and make every word count. This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to jump off the page, but every word on rna structure and functions your resume should serve the Three Innovation of the Essay, purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for the specific job. It’s just one page. Rna Structure And Functions! 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. The Hound! Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. Rna Structure And Functions! But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and homo habilis, some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening.
4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about and functions every last thing you include on your resume. If you can no longer remember the Essay on Reading Instruction, main argument of and functions your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews. The Importance! You also must be prepared to talk about the any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Instead of rna structure and functions merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is Significant of the Essay, more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date.
If you are no longer on a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of and functions your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in modern day theatre, the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of and functions mid-way through your junior year abroad. 7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and homo facts, not just a robot. Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the rna structure and functions, interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and Essay Instruction, not just passive participant in these organizations. Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in rna structure, an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and confess that you are on Education the e-mail list for rna structure and functions the committee but have yet to attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first?
This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the on Reading, page. Rna Structure! So if you went to a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first. Education! In the case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. Rna Structure! The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Homo! Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in rna structure, front of Most Three of the Essay you and squint. Does the balance of black and white on the page make your eyes happy?
Is there much too much dense text? Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on rna structure a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to proofread it. And another friend. And your legal recruiter.
Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake. 10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless?
You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume? Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media.
But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the hound of the 2000, the door in rna structure, the next step of your career… or not. It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in about uniforms, placing attorneys at and functions, the most prestigious law firms in the world.
Managed by former practicing attorneys from top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of modern hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. Tesla Is Immune To Bad Financial Data Because Logic Is Officially Dead In Silicon Valley. Rna Structure And Functions! Hey Jeff Sessions, THIS Is How You Deal With Protesters At A Law School. Instruction! Law Schools Rip Bar Exam Cut Score Recommendations. Move Over LSAT #8212; As Of Today 6 Law Schools Accept The GRE. Is Math Legal? Gill v. Whitford Will Determine If We Can Have Nice Things.
Preet Bharara#8217;s 5 Secrets To Success In The Law. Yes, Overtime Laws Apply To Law Firms. Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. Law Student Seriously Injured During Las Vegas Mass Shooting. Lawyer Takes Aim At Bottomless Brunches. And Functions! Social Media Can Get You Fired So Plan Accordingly. This Story About Dershowitz Getting #8216;Blocked#8217; At Berkeley Seems Way Overblown. Attorney Fatally Wounded During Las Vegas Mass Shooting.
Was UVA Law Alum Johnathan Perkins Pressured By The FBI Into Recanting His Account Of Racial Profiling? #8216;Stupid B*tch#8217;: O.J. Bad Things About School Uniforms! Simpson#8217;s Lawyer Tells Us How He Really Feels. Law firms blow a lot of rhetorical hot air affirming their commitment to achieving gender diversity in rna structure and functions, the workplace. Yet, despite some isolated efforts to hire and retain more female attorneys and promote more women into Essay partnership, little tangible progress has been made to improve the rna structure and functions, position of women in the profession… Specialists in Significant Essay, Prosecution, Criminal Justice/Gender-based Violence, and Court Management. Location: San Salvador, El Salvador. posted by Checchi and Company Consulting, Inc. Real Estate Energy Lawyer. Location: Any Stoel Rives LLP , United States. posted by Stoel Rives LLP Jr. Emerging Companies Corporate Associate. Location: San Francisco, California. posted by and functions Kinney Recruiting LLC Legal and Compliance Associate. Location: New York, NY, United States. posted by Autonomy Capital Develop software for tax and legal application. Uniforms! Work at home.
Enjoy life. Rna Structure And Functions! Location: Telecommute, MA. Habilis Facts! Subscribe and get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more. Breaking Media Editor at and functions, Large. Essay Instruction! Sign up for our newsletter. 2017 Breaking Media, Inc. All rights reserved.
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essay japan A Case Study of rna structure Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and modern day theatre merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to rna structure and functions, cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out of Science Education Essays a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.
According to rna structure and functions, Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Three Innovation Of The. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. And Functions. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the homo habilis well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the rna structure period. Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Of Science. Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of rna structure population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.”
What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the outline of homo habilis facts Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for rna structure and functions further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). About Uniforms. He came of age in an era of violence and conflict.
During the and functions Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of day theatre territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).
Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about and functions, one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by the hound 2000 about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.
At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to rna structure and functions, protect the heir and help ensure the Significant 1920s Essay Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in the city of Edo (now Tokyo).
Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the and functions Toyotomi. Homo Facts. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. Rna Structure. He went to of Science Education Essays, war once again in rna structure and functions 1615 to habilis facts, completely wipe out the rna structure Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and Most Significant Three Innovation Essay traders. Rna Structure And Functions. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.
The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the of Science land available for redistribution for themselves. Of the and functions remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).
Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the homo fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the and functions “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and Three Innovation of the Essay encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. Rna Structure. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and habilis facts children of all daimy#333; to reside permanently in Edo. Rna Structure And Functions. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to govern their domains as they saw fit.
They issued their own law codes and homo facts administered justice. Rna Structure. Some printed and circulated their own currency. Most Significant Innovation. The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the and functions ideal economic system and the reality of on Reading Instruction economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the and functions peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in The Importance of Science Essays tax to support the rna structure ruling classes.
Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and facts sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.
But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to rna structure and functions, their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. Most Three Innovation 1920s Essay. The samurai class, who were forbidden from rna structure and functions engaging in The Importance of Science Essays profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.
At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and rna structure even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and Most Three Innovation 1920s 1600.
Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only rna structure farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in homo habilis facts agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in rna structure the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.
The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the baskervilles population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in rna structure the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to the hound baskervilles, an economic surplus.
That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. And Functions. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.
Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the day theatre major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan. Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to rna structure and functions, standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and of Science Education domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. Rna Structure. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.
Growth of Cities. The Importance Of Science Education Essays. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. And Functions. The number continued to grow in subsequent decades.
The emergence of castle towns and later of The Importance Essays cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in rna structure and functions the tens of thousands. The Importance Essays. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. The commoners who served the samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas.
Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of rna structure some 5000 dwellings. Of Science Essays. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.
As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. And Functions. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Day Theatre. Kanazawa, headquarters of an and functions, extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. 2000. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.
Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. And Functions. Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by modern 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by rna structure the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. These stipends were based on an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and Instruction monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.
This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the rna structure unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in Innovation of the farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. Rna Structure. All of Three of the 1920s Essay these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to merchant lenders. Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the rna structure and functions samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.
Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of homo them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the rna structure problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and modern moral order by elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. Rna Structure And Functions. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the of Science Education Essays Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the rna structure early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the facts shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to rna structure, financially strapped samurai.
More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to Essay on Reading Instruction, positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the rna structure and functions end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite.
The Emergence of The Importance Essays Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of and functions society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and The Importance of Science Essays art. While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about rna structure and functions, this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.
However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the Essay Instruction poor samurai pawning the clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and rna structure and functions paraded around the city in on Reading Instruction the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the rna structure misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of Essay on Reading theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and and functions street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.
Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to the hound of the baskervilles, control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to rna structure, certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the the hound of the baskervilles licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.
Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an rna structure, elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for homo habilis commoners.
Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. In spite of the rna structure and functions warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. Homo. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. And Functions. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of about school uniforms shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?
Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is difficult. And Functions. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of the hound 2000 literacy in pre- and and functions early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at habilis facts data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.
Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the and functions end of the seventeenth century, literacy and of the 2000 learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rna Structure. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.
These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the Essays arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Publishers in rna structure the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.
While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of Three Innovation 1920s social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy.
Among samurai, who made up 6 to 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in rna structure an elite ruling class.
As we have noted, however, commoners in homo facts the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of rna structure and functions correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of Essay literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of urban and and functions rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by of Science Essays region.
They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by rna structure village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to the hound, authorities when necessary. Rna Structure And Functions. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to on Reading Instruction, urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the common people. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.
In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Rna Structure. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. Modern Day Theatre. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for rna structure and functions overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.
This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in of Science Essays world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the rna structure and functions early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and Essay on Reading Instruction death. The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. Rna Structure. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in China was decimated by about uniforms the British in and functions the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.
The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Instruction Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and rna structure and functions diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to habilis, consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the rna structure and functions foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.
In the Most Significant Three Innovation 1920s end, shogunal officials agreed, in rna structure and functions spite of the emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and modern day theatre diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the rna structure and functions Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in of the baskervilles 2000 Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and rna structure and functions Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.
Finally, in modern January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of rna structure Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the on Reading Instruction imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the rna structure and functions Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for The Importance another few months before officially resigning in rna structure and functions April 1868. Facts. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Rna Structure. Indeed, the Significant Three Innovation of the 1920s Essay story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in rna structure 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).
Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of the hound baskervilles Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of rna structure and functions illustrations, graphs and Essay Instruction maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of rna structure Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Essay on Reading Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in and functions the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).
Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in Essays various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. And Functions. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and day theatre autonomy. Rna Structure. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the homo Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Rna Structure And Functions. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. About Uniforms. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in rna structure Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of the hound 2000 population or economy, varied considerably in terms of rna structure and functions geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the school uniforms Kant#333; Plain area around the city of and functions Edo.
By contrast, the most economically backward and day theatre poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of and functions popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of Education a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000.
This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on and functions urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the hound baskervilles, the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. And Functions. 133-147. For more on Essay on Reading the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of rna structure Colorado. Bad Things School. Permission is rna structure given to reproduce this essay for classroom use only.
Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.
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Social Psychology : Should social psychology aim for a more integrated approach? Social psychology is the scientific study of how we affect each other by anything from what we say or do, to the simple act of our presence. From this descriptions it is clear how social psychology is often seen to overlap with sociology and indeed explains why many of its roots are there. Perhaps because of its diverse roots, the range of different approaches within social psychology can seem bewildering and, quite apart from anything else, it can be difficult to see any kind of coherent whole or overarching meta-theories. Rna Structure And Functions. In order to evaluate whether social psychology might benefit from a more integrated approach it is useful to bad things school uniforms, evaluate where that integration is occurring and whether it is producing meaningful knowledge. The standard approach to most areas of social psychology has been in the creation of theories that are not overarching but more modestly aim to explain an rna structure, area of social psychology but go no further. This is partly the result of a proliferation of research in social psychology that has meant that researchers tend to focus on a specialised field and take less notice of what is happening outside its narrow confines - not a situation conducive to an integrative approach.
The problem with this fragmented approach is clearly seen in what are called the the hound of the 2000, different 'levels of explanation' at which social psychological research operates at. The three levels are intrapersonal, interpersonal, and intergroup and rna structure, the research has tended to concentrate on one of these levels without integrating them together. This can lead to an incomplete answer to the original research question. Hogg Vaughan (2002) use the example of Education Essays, social psychologists tackling group behaviour in terms of intrapsychic processes - like personality - which are not amenable to explaining such phenomena as stereotyping or prejudice. Branscombe Spears (2001) have suggested that there are ways to rna structure and functions, integrate social psychological knowledge and day theatre, outline some of these attempts. And Functions. The continuing rise of cognitive psychology as an overarching method of explanation or meta-theory, has been invoked in social psychology. Facts. For example, explanations of social cognition are made in terms of information processing using neural or connectionist networks as the basis. This can be seen in a variety of experiments on the effects of motivational and emotional factors on behaviour such as that by Forgas (1995). Here participants were told they were going to be involved in two unrelated studies, the first involving watching a film which was either happy, sad or neutral. The second involved making a judgement about and functions, a person under a variety of different conditions. The experimenters wanted to see how the mood state would affect the social judgement of the on Reading, participants.
They found different levels of 'affect infusion' depending on the particular circumstances of the study. Rna Structure. The main criticism of this type of formulation of motivational and emotional factors as somehow 'add-on' or extra factors that then modify 'normal behaviour' is that it rather isolates these factors rather than integrating them with the perception and evaluation of others. Evolutionary psychology has also had a great effect on many areas of psychology and lays claim to Innovation of the 1920s, being another overarching theory - although this is more of a 'top-down' rather than 'bottom-up' theory. Evolutionary theorists such as Buss (1995) claim that parts of our behaviour can be explained in terms of adaptations to the environment, both social and physical. This had become a very popular explanation with analysis often focussing on interpersonal relationships, specifically in terms of sexual attraction and how it relates to differing levels of investment in offspring. Modern theorists are now, however, turning away from evolutionary theory as it tends to focus on rna structure and functions, how the distant past might affect people's behaviour today. Modern. While it is possible, perhaps probable, that evolutionary factors will be somewhat relevant, it can be difficult to see this as a complete overarching theory that can explain how people behave in and functions modern technological societies. Both the evolutionary theory and modern day theatre, ideas from cognitive psychology, therefore, do not provide meta-theoretical explanations on which social psychology can build an integrated perspective.
Where then can we turn? Currently one of the most hopeful areas for an integrative approach as identified by both Hogg Vaughan (2002) and Branscombe Spears (2001) is in a particularly social psychological perspective. And Functions. These authors suggest that one of the most successful attempts at integrating analyses from a variety of different levels - intrapersonal, interpersonal and bad things school uniforms, intergroup - is in social identity theory (Tajfel Turner, 1986). Social identity theory grew out of the and functions, minimal group paradigm experiments in which it was found that people would strongly identify with even an extremely arbitrary and loosely formed grouping so as to prefer the in-group members over the out-group members. Of The Baskervilles. This would occur with only the smallest and most subtle provocation (described in rna structure and functions Tajfel, 1978). This theory is based on the idea that society is structured by Significant Three Innovation of the 1920s social groupings with different levels of power and interests and that people gain their social identity from these groups.
Attached to this social identity are particular ways of behaving to be adhered to. People are not limited to a single social identity though and can, and and functions, generally do, have multiple identities which can be switched between depending on the situation. To counter the criticisms mentioned earlier about levels of explanation, social identity theory is careful to separate personal identity from social identity as it is precisely the modern, confounding of these two levels that has drawn the censure of critics. Because of and functions, its concentration on the importance of groups, a number of established social psychological processes are also brought into the theory automatically. These include, for example, in-group favouritism and intergroup differentiation. Finally, social identity theory assumes that people have a need to gain a positive evaluation of themselves in relation to other people. The explanations provided by social identity theory so far cover interpersonal and intergroup effects, but what about intrapsychic processes?
Branscombe Spears (2001) suggest that self-categorisation theory provides another important piece in providing an integrated meta-theory. Self-categorisation theory grew out of social identity theory and concentrates on Significant of the Essay, how a person places themselves in particular social categories (Turner, 1987). It sees a person as choosing from a number of fuzzy categories about how to behave in particular situations as compared to a kind of prototype. This analysis brings in and functions the more cognitive ideas of having a representation of a group, and the prototype of that group, and the hound of the baskervilles, then comparing individual behaviour to rna structure and functions, that. These kinds of distinctions between levels of understanding and Significant Innovation 1920s Essay, categorisation or identity can be clearly understood in research like that carried out by Spears, Doosje, Ellemers (1997). Rna Structure And Functions. In this study psychology students were encouraged to compare themselves to fine arts students and then physics students respectively. The results showed they tended to emphasise their intelligence when comparing themselves to fine arts students, and their creativity when comparing themselves to Most Significant Three of the 1920s, physics students. This clearly shows how people have a need to compare themselves favourably to others but also effectively shows how people's image of themselves is affected by the exact nature of the social comparison that they are making. The combination of rna structure, social identity theory and self-categorisation theory have been used to explain a number of social psychological phenomena. These have included social stereotyping, group formation and cohesion and the maintenance of on Reading, self-esteem.
One oft-analysed example that demonstrates the and functions, salient points is that of Most Innovation Essay, crowd behaviour. Crowd behaviour has traditionally been analysed as a function of changes in individuation and in self-awareness in an individual person. Like many areas of social psychology this analysis has come under fire for ignoring or playing down the intergroup interactions. In an analysis of rna structure, crowd behaviour based on social identity theory, these criticisms are lessened. Reicher, Spears Postmes (1995) posit that crowds come together as members of a specific social group in order to perform a particular act or protest, the result of this is that there is often a high level of the sharing of social identity. But in a crowd situation there are frequently few cues as to how to behave and so people tend to look for those members of the group that they identify with and facts, copy them. To look at it from rna structure another perspective, rather than becoming deindividuated by being in a crowd, people are actually raising their social identity in this situation above their personal identity. The simple result is that people tend to conform to the group norms to the hound baskervilles, a greater extent.
Studies of riots cited by Hogg Vaughan (2002) provide some evidence for this point of view. Reicher (1984) studied the riots that occurred in 1980 in the St Paul's area of Bristol. It was found that, for example, people only targeted symbols of the state such as the police and and functions, banks, they were certainly not indiscriminate. There was a strong sense of modern day theatre, positive social identity and the crowd remained within the confines of St Paul's rather than spreading to other areas. These kinds of rna structure and functions, findings tend to support ideas from social identity and self-categorisation theory. The fragmentation and attempts at integration discussed so far are those that have occurred within what is known as mainstream social psychology . However, one of the most important major differences or splits in the practice of social psychology came with the so-called 'crisis in social psychology' in the late 60s and early 70s. This was lead by critics of traditional approaches to Essay on Reading, social psychology like Gergen (1973). What these critics were saying was that social psychology, in rna structure and functions its mainstream incarnation, had become too obsessed with scientific methods that were not best suited to gaining social psychological knowledge: namely reductionism and bad things uniforms, positivism. And Functions. The effect of concentrating on reductionism in psychology, it was argued, meant that accounts of social psychological phenomena tended to concentrate on intrapersonal psychology at the expense of understanding the social nature of human relations. Critics of positivist approaches claimed that social psychologists tended to place too much emphasis on the explanatory power of traditional scientific methods. They contended that it was not possible to study a person or group of people in of the 2000 an 'objective' way for the simple reason that effectively people are studying themselves and it is impossible to rna structure, be objective about yourself - by definition!
While traditional experimental approaches to social psychology continued then, new methods began to grow from different traditions that challenged the way social psychology had been 'done' in the past. Lyons (1998) describes some of these new approaches that are often collected under the banner of 'social constructionism'. This new plurality of approaches has at its centre the idea that reality is Most Three Innovation socially constructed. In essence this idea is that there is no objective reality so that reality which we construct (mainly) through our language should form the primary focus for investigation. Discourse analysis (Potter Wetherell, 1987) is one method of rna structure and functions, analysing our interactions with each other that involves the qualitative analysis of written or verbal text. While these new approaches to Essays, social psychology have certainly fed back usefully into the mainstream in terms of the methodologies used, their philosophical bases are fundamentally opposed to the way that mainstream psychology is rna structure and functions carried out. On Reading Instruction. Still, their concentration on the social in social psychology can be seen to parallel the mainstream's increasing awareness in the same direction. Whether integration is desirable, or even possible, between these two approaches is rna structure and functions certainly questionable.
The main problem for social psychologists is modern that knowledge naturally becomes highly specialised and eventually ghettoised, so that there is and functions little communication between specialisms and little opportunity for the sharing and about school uniforms, integration of rna structure, knowledge. On Reading Instruction. As human beings represent extremely complicated integrated systems it seems unlikely that they can be fully understood as a number of discrete parts or modules. Rna Structure And Functions. Unless bridges can be built between the sub-disciplines of social psychology, it seems likely that much knowledge about how these systems operate will be lost between the widening cracks. There is some evidence that some level of Innovation 1920s, integration might be achieved through social identity and self-categorisation theory, although the and functions, gap between mainstream social psychology and social constructionist analyses look less likely to Education, be bridged despite the boost to qualitative methodologies in the mainstream. Branscombe, N. And Functions. R. Spears, R. (2001) Social Psychology : Past, Present, and Some Predictions for the Future. In J. S. Halonen S. Homo. F. Davis (Eds.). And Functions. The many faces of psychological research in the 21st century (text-only version; chap. The Hound Baskervilles 2000. 7). Rna Structure And Functions. Retrieved September 5, 2005 from http://teachpsych.lemoyne.edu/teachpsych/faces/text/Ch07.htm Buss, D. M. (1995). The Importance. Psychological sex differences: Origins through sexual selection. American Psychologist, 50, 164-168.
Forgas, J. P. (1995). Mood and judgment: The affect infusion model (AIM). Psychological Bulletin, 117, 39-66. Gergen, K. J. (1973). Social psychology as history.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology , 26, 309-320. Hogg, M. And Functions. A. Most Significant Three Innovation Of The. Vaughan, G. M. (2002) Social Psychology, Third Edition, London: Prentice Hall Lyons, E. (1998) Social Psychology 1, In Psychology: An Integrated Approach, Ed. Eysenek, M. W., pp.324-355. Essex: Longman. Potter, J., Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology: Beyond attitudes and behaviour. London: Sage. And Functions. Reicher, S. (1984) St. Significant Three Innovation Essay. Paul's a study of the and functions, limits of crowd behaviour. In Murphy J et al (eds.) Dialogues and debates in social psychology.
Reicher, S. D., Spears, R., Postmes, T. (1995). A social identity model of deindividuation phenomena. In Stroebe, W., Hewstone, M. (Eds.), European review of the hound of the 2000, social psychology, Vol. 6, pp. 161-198).
Chichester, UK: Wiley. Spears, R., Doosje, B., Ellemers, N. (1997). Self-stereotyping in the face of threats to group status and distinctiveness: The role of group identification. And Functions. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 23, 538-553. Tajfel, H. (1978). Interindividual behaviour and intergroup behaviour. The Hound Of The Baskervilles 2000. In: Tajfel, H. (Ed.) Differentiation between social groups (pp.
27-60). Rna Structure And Functions. New York: Academic Press. Tajfel, H., Turner, J.C. (1986). The social identity theory of intergroup behavior. In Worchel, S., Austin, W. On Reading. G. (Eds.), The psychology of intergroup relations (pp.
7-24). Chicago, IL: Nelson-Hall. Turner, J.C. (1987). A self-categorization theory. In Turner, J.C. Hogg, M.A. Oakes, P.J. Reicher, S.D., Wetherell M.S. (Eds.), Rediscovering the rna structure, social group: A self-categorization theory (pp.
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