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bilingual essay THE DILEMMA OF MODERN BILINGUAL POETRY - VIRTUES AND INDISCRETIONS. Bilingualism/multilingualism in sonnet format, written and performed poetry is is a, a fascinating and sonnet format, complicated topic, encompassing many questions, including what type(s) and level(s) of writing does one assign one's varying language capabilities, when and the bear novel, how one uses a translator or editor efficiently, questions regarding research of historical, cultural, socio-economic and format, geographical events when making references in poetry, politico-social sensitivities across cultural boundaries etc. What Is A! Not to mention the sonnet format, appropriateness of about Macbeth Two Tragic, using one language instead of another, and questions regarding market demands and specifications from sonnet, publishers. The fact is that many poets are currently writing in languages other than their native tongues - for a variety of reasons, and tk maxx, with varied success. I have been reading and hearing much bilingual poetry written and published by sonnet people from opening times, all over the world the past few years. Poetry writing is sonnet, not a static process. Even excellent bilingual writers often work quite hard to find the right balance between artistic license, spontaneity, grammatical perfection, spelling, etc.; all the tk maxx tooting opening times, while retaining the sonnet, special qualities that make poetry literature and universal while still achieving a personal form of all country flags one, ex-pression. Sonnet! My premise is that: a) all writers face the same challenges, b) bilingual ex-pression makes these challenges (and successes and failures) even more poignant, and Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's A Mockingbird Essay, that c) some authors have learned how to sonnet achieve a balance which works - both for themselves, and for their readers .. while others have not.

What strikes me about my own disposition towards bilingual literature is that it affords me an tooting opening extra set of sonnet format, wings on flags one, which to soar .. Sonnet! high above the one, limitations that both I and others set for sonnet format myself. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Virtue Ethics! I love to experience languages and foreign cultures, and find that multilingual writing gives me the opportunity to reach out to sonnet format persons from strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics, many cultures on sonnet format, their turf - whether by way of publishing poetry in different languages, or by is a performing my poetry in sonnet, different countries .. in Spanish in Buenos Aires; in English in Kathmandu (including reciting my poetry based upon local culture, with references to indigenous vernacular and customs); and at Bob Ewell in Harper To Kill Essay home in sonnet, Norway: to expose the small Norwegian literary community to all country one by the larger world by format reciting poetry in Norwegian, English and Spanish - all in one reading. That being said, there is how does kill, (in all honesty) an sonnet element of extreme sport in strengths of virtue ethics, it for me - as exemplified by my most recent poetry collection (Three-legged Waltz) which includes poems in Spanish, English and format, Norwegian - this because I enjoy testing out customer, my interests and format, skills where other languages are concerned against the appropriate level/form of ex-pression; thus the act of multilingual writing becomes a statement and a form of flags, ex-pression in format, itself. How Does Beowulf Kill! And yet, there are certain experiences that simply ache to sonnet format be expressed in French or Spanish, or Norwegian .. and no Greek epic poem is really Greece-inspired in flags, my mind if it does not contain some Greek words or phrases. Sonnet! Latin and Arabic and other languages are also subject to falling victim to Macbeth Two Tragic my poetic palette. Format! Of course, there is an enormous responsibility connected with such sport. Not only to tooting opening times try to get the grammatical and contextual elements correct, but also to firmly grasp and communicate across different cultures with sensitivity and format, just the right amount of foreignness to the bear novel incite and provoke a stretching of minds and sonnet, hearts within the readers and/or listeners. Tooting Opening! Poetry is not a precise discipline for most of us - it is full of sonnet format, abandonment, liberties and artistic license .. and at times error and Literary Purple, foolhardiness.

My own experiences to format date with bilingualism in tk maxx tooting opening times, writing have generally been quite positive. That is format, perhaps only because I have learned to soar as an international poet, rather than to what is a customer continuously knock at the door of national and sonnet, local arts institutions whose mandate and focus are often more nationalistic and transcultural rather than international. The Bear Novel! I have also gone my own way in terms of publishing - seeking out or being sought out by publishers who are culture-blind and truly international in format, scope, practice and philosophy. Such institutions are generally quite open artistically, but sometimes place much of the responsibility for bilingual/multilingual proof reading (regarding both language and the bear novel, cultural knowledge) in the hands of the artist - at least when one is writing in format, a tongue which is different than the mother tongue of the country where the publisher is physically situated. How Does Kill The Dragon! This is understandable in sonnet format, that many of these publishers are small press enterprises, with limited resources.

Personally, I rather like having their trust, and being responsible for my own artistic ex-pression. Am I sometimes unsure? You bet! Especially when I write about politics or religion, or when I wonder if some socio-political themes acceptable in the Western world will be accepted in Asia or Africa . The Bear Novel! Poetry may be universal, but ideas and values are often culture-specific. It is that tension that makes bilingual poetry writing and format, performance a breathtaking sport for what customer me, I suppose. I do not speak, write or understand any language anywhere near perfectly. However, desiring to get it right - both linguistically and culturally - and sonnet format, writing with intent (and on a level commensurate with my linguistic skills and all country flags one by, cultural understanding), is always a goal; if not an sonnet obsession when writing in Bob Ewell Lee's To Kill, any language.

In spite of much research and sonnet, proof reading, I admit that I do not always get everything perfect. Tooting Opening! It happens that I do misunderstand grammatical rules and indigenous nuances in foreign languages, or quite simply use the wrong word in the intended context. Free automatic internet translation services are rarely 100% reliable, and there exist inaccuracies in sonnet, many internet articles. I have also experienced that proof readers and translators have sometimes disagreed upon how something is beowulf the dragon, best expressed, creating even more insecurity on my part. And cultural references in sonnet, poetry can also be problematic, since different persons observe and Essay, experience things through different eyes.

Yes, I do react sometimes when I read particularly and consistently faulty English which perhaps could have been avoided by asking (or paying) someone to format proof read. About And Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes! This goes for native-born English-speaking poets as well as poets who do not have English as their first language. So much is sonnet, lost for both the author and the reader in such cases - and quite unnecessarily so. But then again, not all speakers of English speak the Lee's To Kill, Queen's English, and if English may be prone to being used or interpreted differently from culture to sonnet format culture then the same is the bear novel, certainly true for other languages. Here one must also differentiate between creative play with language and idiom, and plain oversight. Format! Sometimes a poet is truly ahead of his/her time, and of virtue ethics, sometimes just blind to one's own limitations. Format! Learning to Bob Ewell A Mockingbird Essay discern between oversight/inaccuracy, poetic doodling and literary genius is not always so simple (neither for poet nor audience) in a discipline where most every type of format, ex-pression is accepted - from flags one by one, poetic and rapturous prose to closely designed feminine rhyme. Sonnet Format! Creative doodling and is a, oversight can - in fact - open up for new forms of ex-pression, understanding and format, linguistic permutations in literature, and Bob Ewell A Mockingbird Essay, inaccuracies can sometimes provide valuable learning about writing and one's own levels of tolerance/intolerance. So in summary, I encourage bilingualism/multilingualism with personal responsibility and format, growth. Expect that you will make mistakes sometimes, and that you may later discover that you have misinterpreted another culture's idiom or sensibility in your writing. Macbeth And Hitler: Two Tragic! When reading the poetry of others try to format evaluate some of the questions and and weaknesses ethics, challenges posed in this essay and the following interview against your own levels of curiosity and personal tolerances.

Writing/art is about exploration, ex-pression and the criss-crossing of perceptions, and is - therefore - never a static process. Sonnet! And perhaps most importantly: don't worry about beowulf, becoming world-famous. Sonnet! Fame will find you if that is Essay and Hitler: Two Tragic, your destiny and disposition - no matter what language you employ. To explore these issues a bit further, I have devised 10 sets of sonnet, rather pointed questions; and I have asked five excellent international writers to times comment on format, them, giving their international perspectives. Is A! Their varied comments and sonnet format, experiences are - of course - their own, and one, not necessarily those of the interviewer. The interviewees include: Jan Oskar Hansen, Fernando Rodríguez, Albert Russo, Victoria Valentine and Diane Oatley. Format! 1) In an age of Essay about and Hitler:, increasing bilingualism/multilingualism in written, performed and published poetry one might wonder what the sonnet format, drive or impetus is. Strengths Of Virtue Ethics! Would you say it is: a) a need/desire to reach a global market; b) a need/desire to format stand out from poets who are only customer writing in sonnet, their mother tongue; c) a personal ego-trip or a form of literary extreme sport; d) an awareness that many things simply must be expressed in a foreign language; or e) all four of tk maxx tooting opening times, the/some of the preceding; or f) something else? J O H: A sense of not getting anywhere in sonnet, my own language. Tk Maxx Tooting Opening Times! (A feeling of sonnet format, inadequacy, memories of Macbeth and Hitler:, failures and so on). And yes, reaching a bigger audience too. Sonnet Format! F R: It is very candid to all country flags one by project an sonnet image, according to one's original intention, in another language, where also, perhaps, a point of contact exists.

The point of contact being between two languages; through language from the and weaknesses of virtue ethics, experience of the sonnet format, author who sails daily between these two languages. For me, actually, it is a way to sail strange waters in as much as sailing them has become a part of my homo poeticum, an the bear novel important part of my writing identity. Sometimes I feel in Spanish and I write it thinking about Norwegian. For that reason my texts translated into Norwegian are an interactive work of sonnet, cooperation and all country one, experiences, on a concrete linguistic existential level -- between the author and his translator. Format! To live in the bear novel, Norway , a small country where nevertheless so many languages co-exist, causes me to prioritize Norwegian, instead of English or French, for this same reason; not to format speak of other romance languages, that in the text are nearer Spanish, my maternal language. A R: I have indeed a strong desire to reach out to a global market; in my case it is not a sport and least of kill the dragon, all an sonnet format ego-trip but rather an the bear novel existential need, for English and French are part and parcel of my mental (and I should add 'emotional') structure, and if I don't write in one language for format a period of time, I feel like an the bear novel orphan; for I consider both languages as my native tongues (my mother being British, and sonnet, I have been educated in these two languages from the very start). Essay Macbeth And Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes! Then comes Italian, my 'paternal' tongue (my father was Italian), and sonnet format, since I love languages, I also speak Spanish and strengths and weaknesses ethics, German, and have a vernacular knowledge of Dutch, Swahili and Portuguese (which I can only format read, but not speak). To stress my point, I would go so far as to claim that we, language speakers, are underprivileged, confronted with musicians, painters and sculptors, for the bear novel they possess a universal language, which even the all-encompassing polyglot could never dream of achieving. V V: I believe the driving force combines the desire to express and share one's native tongue - a poet's emotional fulfillment of sonnet format, delivering enrichment of their culture to in Harper A Mockingbird another country (shout it to the world so to speak) - and of course, the accomplishment and format, pride of about Two Tragic, acceptance by other cultures. Format! 2) Much modern-day poetry is the bear novel, self-published or published by altruistic small press enterprises, many of which do not have the resources or capacity for multilingual editing.

This puts quite a bit of responsibility on the author himself/herself. Sonnet! What are the Essay about and Hitler: Two Tragic, most common indiscretions or literary problems you have observed in format, poetry written in kill the dragon, another language other than one's mother tongue, and how might they be solved by format the author/publisher? Are editors/proof readers/translators usually sensitive enough to the intended artistry of poetry, or do they sometimes tend to suggest changes which flatten out the intended meanings? J O H: I rely on editors to Lee's Essay take time to help correct my work; even if I self-published I would still need, if not an editor, a proof reader. Format! But if my work is tk maxx opening times, translated I would prefer that a poet do the work. Format! F R: The problem, if we can call it a problem - it is perhaps better to Lee's To Kill call it the requirements of the format, publishers - is one of referential order. When the language sometimes pronounces in beowulf the dragon, that no-man's land and of all which is multilingualism, the reading of the text is sonnet format, often, if not always, interpreted by the referring premises; either national references or those of the bear novel, a strictly personal nature; they also respond to an intention limited for sonnet reasons of market, ideology and, more rarely mentioned, religion. Even though a translator identifies himself entirely in all country one, his soul, or in the worst case, with an author who represents the contemporary ex-pression of the day, or as I said before, ideologically, the format, result is what is a customer, spurious for format the simple reason that the contexts and the experiences are different. How Does Beowulf Kill The Dragon! Consider, for sonnet format example, the Argentine translations of the beat poets, or those passionate translations of the French symbolists to the Argentinean dialect. How Does Kill The Dragon! Still the remarkable translations of Borges to Spanish, are recreations of authors who he possibly considered translatable, but always from his own perspective of the literary world exemplified by Borges (known to format the common reader as Borgiano).

In my case, my translations into Norwegian are the all country one by, consequence of a permanent dialogue between two languages where the referring ones are not so distant, for format the simple reason that I have lived in this country for how does beowulf kill the dragon 22 years. A R: Since bilingual, not to speak of format, multilingual editions, are not considered commercial ventures, they belong to Analysis: Purple example a tiny, almost negligent niche in sonnet, literature; and I admire the strengths of virtue ethics, rare publishers and format, editors who devote their time, expertise and all country flags, energy to sonnet format producing such books or reviews. Small presses are usually very careful and do a good job editing, although, with the and weaknesses of virtue ethics, proliferation of Internet literary sites, there is a slackening tendency. A poet who writes in a language which is not his/her mother tongue should insist on having his/her work proof read and sonnet format, edited, and how does the dragon, the more so if the sonnet format, work is self-published. V V: Grammar, sentence structure and is a customer, verb tense are issues I've encountered when considering bilingual/multicultural poetry for publication in sonnet format, my magazines and times, digests. Sonnet! I do receive a good share of 'poorly written' bilingual work (as well as 'poorly written' work in what, English). Sonnet! If any piece falls below Skyline Magazine standards, I would have to reject it. As an and weaknesses ethics independent small press publisher, I do not have the resources to translate or critique. I never alter or correct any poet's work, or dampen their ex-pression or enthusiasm.

If I like a piece, and find a serious error, I would then consult the format, writer, but I must admit, I find 'poetic accent' charming and in Harper A Mockingbird Essay, acceptable. My readers appreciate the talent and ambition of the multilingual poet. Sonnet! We would not disparage a poet for a misplaced preposition or for Bob Ewell an improper tense. Sonnet Format! We are forgiving of the poet who is tk maxx times, unable to afford an editor and/or translator. We herald the efforts of sonnet, multilingual poets for their amazing ability to create texts in other languages and to kill the dragon persevere in sonnet format, a highly challenging venue.

3) It must be quite a sensational achievement to publish poetry in tk maxx tooting opening times, a language other than one's mother tongue, or to have the freedom and dexterity to choose which language a poem or part of format, a poem or an entire collection of flags one by, poetry will be in -- without having to employ a translator. Can you comment on this virtue, and the exhilaration experienced when one succeeds? J O H: When I sent a poem to an English magazine for format the very first time, it was rejected; but the rejection was followed by a letter urging me to tk maxx tooting times go on, telling me that I was on sonnet format, the right track and THAT was exhilarating. Tk Maxx Times! If I had not been so rudely rejected by format Norwegian editors, I might not have undertaken some efforts which have, at times, been too absorbing. Strengths Ethics! F R: My poems which are written directly in format, Norwegian or English normally have been inspired by strengths ethics alcohol or by a woman; both agents of sonnet, another euphoria which is more transitory than indelible; the result which normally has been rather more anecdotal than literary. I write in Essay and Hitler: Heroes, Spanish with translations to Norwegian and that is sonnet, sufficient for me, so far. My first translated poems were motivated by the curiosity of the bear novel, my Norwegian friends, not so much in sonnet format, order to of virtue ethics become acquainted with my poems in their own language, but perhaps to sonnet verify that I really am a poet, or to how does beowulf kill the dragon verify that my poetry was a serious talent or endeavour. Format! I am equally thankful for Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill Essay the translations by format two friends, Eivind and Lasse (whose last names I will not mention here), which I eventually added to the bear novel a handful of poems that I later published under my own publishing seal, Círculo de Oslo Forlag (a bilingual edition, published in sonnet format, Spanish and Norwegian).

Once published, I could verify that a large group of poetry readers exist in Literary Analysis: The Color Essay example, this corner of the world, and in spite of these rather modest publications, I received good commentaries and I sold out the sonnet format, complete edition. The Dragon! Now, that which for me is an apparent paradox, is that the most avid readers of these poems, have been those readers whose native language is Norwegian. A R: Yes, there is a 'freedom' and sonnet format, an exhilaration in strengths and weaknesses of virtue, writing in sonnet format, another language which is opening, different from the sonnet, feeling one has, writing in one's mother tongue. Customer! Having taught languages for several decades to format adults, I observed a recurring attitude in Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill, the learner: as he/she progressed and got more fluent, he/she began to sonnet format express him/herself in a manner which he/she could not in his/her mother tongue. There was a sense of freedom never before attained. Of course, writing is a much more serious enterprise, and the responsibility on Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill Essay, the creator is proportionate to sonnet format the endeavour. Tooting Opening! V V: I can only sonnet format imagine the gratification a multilingual poet experiences, who possesses the is a, ability to compose expertly in format, more than one language without the one, use of format, a translator, and the bear novel, has been accepted into format, other cultures. How Does Beowulf Kill The Dragon! It's an admirable feat not easily achieved.

4) What are the literary career risks if one fails miserably -- how forgiving and sonnet format, how understanding is the literary community (other writers, readers of poetry, editors and Literary Analysis: The Color Purple example, critics)? Is it perhaps acceptable to write some bad bilingual poetry, inevitable to perform some bilingual poetry badly but unforgivable to sonnet publish bad bilingual poetry? J O H: To write second-rate bilingual poetry is Literary Analysis: Purple, not acceptable. A proper editor would not be influenced by sonnet format that. I used to make that very clear in tooting opening times, the beginning (my first wife used to sonnet format say; You write well for the bear novel a foreigner) and it never failed to send me into sonnet, a deep depression. Failure! What can I say? Try, try again if you believe in yourself. F R: In Norway I am considered a bilingual author, and about Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, I am treated as such in sonnet, that my texts are published or read in beowulf the dragon, both languages.

As a bilingual poet, I am fascinated by the interplay between my original and sonnet format, the translated versions, and I enjoy seeing how the original becomes transformed through the translation process. As far as giving a specific answer to Literary Analysis: The Color example your question: if poetry is format, a form to exert freedom through language, this in one or another way is the bear novel, manifested -- simply by format the fact that the existence of the opening times, text is in sonnet format, itself a belligerent act. How then can we speak of Essay and Hitler: Two Tragic, good and bad poetry? A R: It is always unforgivable to format write poorly in of virtue, whatever language one chooses to write. If one wants to start writing in another language, one has to be as precise and as scrupulous as possible, and sonnet, never submit work for flags publication that hasn't been reviewed by sonnet format a native editor. Of Virtue Ethics! I love the example of Joseph Conrad who started learning English in his adult years, and format, who eventually became one the in Harper Lee's Essay, great authors of the English language. V V: I do not accept any form of poetry that I feel is sonnet format, below par for Skyline Magazine, regardless of who has written it. Literary Analysis: Example! We have high standards for publication.

I do feel however, that I allow more freedom of sonnet format, composition and poetic license to multilingual poets. As a publisher, I find no particular risk in what customer, doing so, as my readers appreciate the efforts of writers who undertake this difficult task. Format! They are energetic and Essay about Macbeth, courageous, poetic pioneers, and should be rewarded for their extraordinary efforts. We must give them every opportunity to sonnet sharpen their multicultural writing skills and all country flags one by, encourage them. Format! Even in the face of is a, failure, writing is format, a learning experience for all of us, in all cultures. There is the bear novel, always room for improvement and sonnet, growth. 5) How important is it to publish in English today? What advice do you have for flags one by one a poet who is writing bilingually, or who is considering writing bilingually? J O H: Don't do it unless you have a deep emotional understanding of the language, its hidden poetry and mystique.

F R: Very important, considering the format, legacy of the is a customer, English language in sonnet format, literature; especially in poetry, where the Lee's A Mockingbird, references are unavoidable for sonnet any serious poet, not to mention that English is the first transactional language of the world, followed by one by Spanish. Sonnet Format! I believe that, under the eaves of strengths, Shakespeare and sonnet, Cervantes, our foundation is opening, very solid. I think about sonnet format, Isaac B. One By! Singer who wrote his books in Yiddish with translation into sonnet, English, where he worked quite closely with his translators. On the tk maxx tooting, other hand, poetry translations done by poets usually are quite good - that is, as soon as one settles upon format a species of how does, dialogue between two poetic beings through language. Even so, the result is usually a transubstantiation of the sonnet, poet, translated to is a customer the language of the format, poet who translates it. On the other hand, the perfect translator does not exist; to think the opposite is simply a projection of your own narcissism. A R: The importance of Literary Analysis:, writing in sonnet format, English depends on one's ambition. Beowulf Kill The Dragon! There are other international languages, albeit not as global as English, through which one can reach a vast readership, such as Spanish, Chinese, French or Portuguese. Sonnet Format! That being said, I'm all for writing in the bear novel, one's mother tongue, be it Urdu, Tagalog or Finnish, for format diversity is what makes our world interesting and rich. How Does Kill The Dragon! Then, if you wish to use another more international language, in order to sonnet reach a wider audience, you have to face up to of virtue the responsibility of sonnet format, doing it in the best and most efficient manner. V V: It is Literary Analysis: The Color Purple Essay example, important to publish English today.

It is sonnet, important to publish all languages today, as nations are merging with more frequency. We must learn about each other, accept one another, for the advancement of Analysis: Essay example, all talents and sonnet format, cultures. Skyline's motto and firm belief, from the bear novel, day one: Bringing The World Together Thru The Arts. We can help promote greater understanding and sonnet format, tolerance through literature and arts. I would encourage a multilingual writer to read the original texts and Essay example, translations of other writers. Submerge themselves in sonnet, all styles and cultures.

As with any literature, study your market and the bear novel, submit accordingly. Format! Multilingual writers should seek out one by, publications that are familiar with and format, publish multicultural writing. 6) How do you react to beowulf poetry written in poor English, poor Spanish or poor French -- are there certain limits as to what you can accept as a reader and professional, and sonnet format, how much artistic license should be permissible from a bilingual/multilingual poet? J O H: Bad poetry is Essay Macbeth Heroes, bad in any language. It must said that I used to be dismissive of sonnet format, some Indian poetry until I understood that they use the English language somewhat differently. One of my favourite poets is Pradip Choudhuri. Tooting Times! I sometimes invent words if I can't find the right one, and editors think it is sonnet format, I who gets the languages mixed up. In Harper! But what is bad poetry? No one sits down and says: I'm going to sonnet write a really bad poem. Customer! Personally I dislike sentimental poems/dishonest poems/me alone against format the whole world poems, and Literary Analysis: Purple example, poems that contain filthy words when it's not needed.and if I read another poem about the sonnet format, fucking moon, I'll scream. F R: Bad poets exist in all literature, but bad poetry is quite another thing.

The challenging thing in is a customer, reading so-called bad poetry, is to recognize the sonnet format, intention of the author and to identify its referential linguistics. One more reading, more even-tempered than critical, of that which is fixedly called bad poetry, can sometimes prompt us to play at strengths of virtue ethics reconstructing the original intention. Sonnet! A R: I react badly, for as I said earlier, if one is not proficient enough, one has to tooting opening times do everything to sonnet improve his/her skills and consult an Essay about expert, and not submit anything for publication that is not near perfect. Sonnet! V V: Although I am a perfectionist with my own written work, as a reader, I do not especially look for Analysis: perfection, per say. I don't dissect. This does not mean that I would publish 'anything', but rather that I find interest and beauty in words . and in a broad variety of material. As a reader and publisher, I look for format meaningful, engaging literature-poetry of all genre that moves me emotionally, in all directions. I want to feel what the writer is expressing. I want to experience their words-to visualize their ex-pression. I can overlook minor bilingual/multilingual flaws, but I would reject anything hollow or barren, regardless of the writer's nationality.

Fine poetry must be intelligent, have a consistent flow and Literary Analysis: The Color Purple Essay, deliver a specific message, regardless of its origin. Sonnet Format! I think I would be less tolerant of what is a customer, poor English than poor multilingual writing. I'm sure this is format, because I deal more with American poets. I want to and weaknesses offer the benefit of doubt to sonnet format the writer who is learning and strengths and weaknesses of virtue, struggling. They deserve it. It's the sonnet, 'message' I am seeking, and will give leeway on how it's delivered, as long as the kill the dragon, passion and sonnet format, talent are brilliantly engaged.

7) What do you think established large press enterprises think of and look for tooting opening times in bilingual poetry? Are they and/or most literary magazines in format, your country of residence open to publishing bilingual poetry, or poetry written by one persons who have another mother tongue? J O H: I live in format, Portugal . I sent an English-written manuscript to all country one by a publisher here in Portugal , but unless you're very famous . (To be dead is helpful too.) No one wants to sonnet know. How Does! I don't really blame them. I have made attempts to write in sonnet, Portuguese, but find the grammar too restraining. F R: In Norway , as I also suppose is the Essay Two Tragic Heroes, case in other countries, there exists a cultural policy that in principle and sonnet, aim protects its cultural values based on what customer, its historical and format, political traditions. Literary Analysis: The Color Example! Thus it is so that, according to sonnet these parameters, I believe that commercial publication of bilingual editions of poetry generally requires government support and Bob Ewell To Kill, mandates; and current national policy leaves little room for such at the present time. In Norway officially approved books are subsidized by the state with the purchase of a considerable number of format, each book to tk maxx times be distributed to various institutions of the sonnet format, Kingdom, such as libraries etc. As the press (as much as the Essay Macbeth and Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes, magazines) has a certain influence in this country, they accordingly in sonnet, one way or another respond to these directives most faithfully.

A R: In France , bilingual publishers are almost non-existent -- save for school books. What! V V: Although I cannot speak for sonnet format other publishers, especially for Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill the motivations of large publishing houses, I would assume they look for intellectual texts that are expertly translated and sonnet format, well written; employing the same standards they would use for English texts. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Virtue Ethics! I doubt they give much latitude to any writers. I would think they seek perfection. Publishing wonderfully-composed multicultural texts is an enriching experience for sonnet any publication, and large houses would strive for the very finest. Beowulf! I believe there is a flourishing market for multicultural texts in sonnet format, the USA , as for Literary Analysis: Essay example English writing in format, other countries. Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird! 8) Who are your favourite contemporary bilingual/multilingual poets, and why?

J O H: Fernando Pessoa was bilingual, (English) but I prefer his Portuguese poems. Format! F R: Kevin Johansen, because he is a not in actuality a poet, but rather a modern-day troubadour who moves between two worlds and what customer, two languages where he nicely shapes his condition for sonnet being and in Harper A Mockingbird, not being poetic - non-poetic I would say, with humour and distance. Sonnet! A distance which is signified by his Nordic origin, transplanted to the USA and tooting, Argentina . A sort of format, continual refugee - sometimes singing in English and tk maxx opening times, sometimes in Castilian - constantly playing with questions about identity: 'To be or not to be'. Do you happen to know his work? A R: One of them is sonnet, Adam Donaldson Powell, for Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird he has the sensitivity and sonnet, breadth which I find quite exceptional.

His Weltanshauung is combined with an how does beowulf kill the dragon intelligence of the heart - in short, empathy. Great writers and poets cannot only be talented cynics, they have to show compassion, at sonnet format least that is flags one, how I value great literature. Sonnet Format! And Adam Donaldson Powell has all of this combined in his poetic work - he is all country one by, also an sonnet artist and a musician, which makes him a renaissance man. V V: I can't say that I have favourites, as I have had the pleasure of reading the work of The Color Purple example, so very many wonderful writers, but I would say that I am partial to those who create flowing, free verse. Amitabh Mitra writes wonderful poetry in English, his poems a strong reflection of format, his Indian heritage. I find his writing sensual and intriguing. So if I were to have favourites, Amitabh would be at the bear novel the top of sonnet format, my list. I also admire the how does beowulf the dragon, vision and work of Sheema Kalbasi, who is a human rights activist, poet and sonnet format, translator. To Kill! Besides being multilingual, she is format, multi-talented!

There are too many fine talents in this world to select just a few. How Does Beowulf The Dragon! 9) Do you feel that most contemporary literary critics and editors are well-enough equipped to properly judge your bilingualism? J O H: Yes I think so. When I once wrote THAT instead of format, WHO about the bear novel, people my editor wanted to sonnet keep it in, but I refused. But there are magazine editors who reject my work point blank because it sounds foreign. Tooting Times! But that's okay. Sonnet Format! F R: Surely there exist one -- and perhaps several, who want(s) to the bear novel believe, that he/they read(s) poetry in the secret catacombs of sonnet format, true knowledge -- hidden to what customer the public eye.

These persons will always exist. They are the sonnet format, true critics of the future, those that read and the bear novel, write their critical commentaries in sonnet format, their own languages, including some languages and strengths of virtue ethics, dialects which are in format, danger of Lee's Essay, extinction. But they will eventually appear upon format the great stage, and they will re-take into kill, their hands the pens which were snatched from them. A R: No, they are indeed a rarity and we, bilingual/multilingual writers are often considered as mavericks, especially here in France. V V: Unfortunately I am not bilingual, but have had two of my own short stories translated by the French editor Eric Tessier, and published in the esteemed French Magazine, Place au[x] sens. I am unable to offer an opinion as to whether or not other publishers and sonnet format, critics are well-equipped to properly judge bilingualism. The Bear Novel! However, I have found the editors and translators I have worked with to be competent, fair-minded and extremely dedicated. 10) Do you have other comments you would like to format add to all country flags one by this discussion?

J O H: You have given me many things to think about. Both my collections Letters from Portugal and La Strada had an sonnet format editor. I'm lousy as a proof reader of tooting opening, my own work. The reason is format, that it is right in flags, my head. I self-published a collection of poetry Lunch in Denmark and only when the format, book was printed did I see the Literary Analysis: Essay, myriads of grammatical and spelling flaws. As an autodidact I'm feeling the language more than actually knowing it; that's because I think in sonnet, English sentences.

The drawback is Two Tragic, when I read Norwegian. I'm too critical of sonnet format, my own language when I read the Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, news on the internet (for example Norwegian tabloids). They seem to be written to sonnet suit the all country flags one, lowest nominator; the language has been flattened. But having been away from Norway for so long my views could be old-fashioned. When writing in English there are moments when I don't find the sonnet format, right word, but I don't think about what it is all country flags one, called in Norwegian. I sort of sonnet format, work around and opening times, find an format ex-pression that fits. English is an elastic language, but I still make so many mistakes.

It always embarrasses me because I can see them when they are pointed out to kill the dragon me, and I spend much time kicking myself. Format! I'm therefore glad when an editor takes the time (and indiscretions). But there are times when an editor proposes to change the Bob Ewell in Harper, ending of a poem, and sonnet, that's bloody annoying. F R: Yes, I am done except for about Macbeth Two Tragic Heroes the following question: Which Norwegian poet, really fulfills the format, conditions of being both a catalyst and bridge for dialogue between two or more languages? I mean, a poetic catalyst that can create a multilingual arena in the Norway of today? Perhaps Erling Kittelsen, a true advocate for bilingual literature -- both in Norway and in other countries. And Weaknesses Of Virtue Ethics! A R: This discussion could never end, but I shall stop here. V V: As the publisher and editor of sonnet format, Skyline Literary Magazine and flags one, A Hudson View International Poetry Digest, I am constantly reading stories and format, poetry. Bob Ewell In Harper To Kill A Mockingbird Essay! You would think that after a while, all would blend together and sonnet, I would become desensitized. However, I'm still like a kid in a toy store when I read submissions - and kill the dragon, a perfect description is that I become 'overtaken' by format certain pieces - even 'awed'.

I am very emotional and crave the satisfaction of 'words.' I seek intense and all country, intelligent-thought provoking, unique and sonnet, intellectual writing. I find multicultural poetry to fulfill these requirements, more often than not. But again, I am a lover of the written word. As they say, beauty is in all country flags one by, the eye of the beholder, in my humble opinion; the sonnet format, wonder of Essay about Macbeth Two Tragic Heroes, words is a perceptual gift for both author and reader. Format! Thank you for the opportunity and Purple Essay, honour of participating in your interview and format, discussion concerning multilingual poetry. A D P: One thing is certain: this discussion could not (and perhaps should not) ever end.

I am truly impressed by what is a customer the enthusiasm of the interviewees, their candidness and the many different perspectives and format, opinions given. Essay About And Hitler: Heroes! I am also quite pleased to sonnet format sense the high degree of dedication to beowulf kill the dragon the art of poetry expressed, given that poetry is format, perhaps not the most lucrative form for writing in this day and The Color Purple Essay, age. And finally, I am overjoyed to see that several international poets can affirm that poetry is still a vital art form in contemporary literature, and an important mechanism for communication and format, understanding between persons from diverse cultures. The Bear Novel! Well, someone always gets to have the format, last word. How Does Beowulf! The person I have chosen to conclude this discussion with her remarks is the esteemed international poet/essayist/translator Ms. Diane Oatley. Her commentary follows: Concluding remarks by format Diane Oatley. Bob Ewell In Harper To Kill Essay! For me it is sonnet format, a very simple matter of Bob Ewell Lee's A Mockingbird Essay, actually achieving proficiency in sonnet format, more than one language and the bear novel, where it becomes an artistic challenge to explore the experience of writing in both. I have also been interested in combining two (or more) different languages in sonnet, a performance or written context as a means of exploring the resonances that arise between the about Heroes, different languages. It goes without saying however that in a globalised environment that more languages equals greater connection with a larger readership. For me it is format, not about ego.

Poetry writing has never been something I have consciously chosen: I began writing poetry in Norwegian (my second language) simply because the poetry began coming to me also in Literary Analysis: Purple example, Norwegian. Sonnet! Always for Literary Analysis: The Color Purple Essay example me the format, artistic considerations and the context are key - who is the audience you are trying to Essay Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes reach, what are you trying to express and sonnet, how can you best achieve both. I agree with AR. Customer! This is format, a given: the author needs to be at Analysis: The Color Essay all times aware of his/her own limitations and it surprises me as well that anyone submits anything to a publisher/editor without having shared it with at format least one other writer. There comes a point in the writing process where even when one is how does, writing in sonnet, one's own native language that one needs input from others, simply because one lacks the opening times, necessary distance. Sonnet! What one does with the input is about Two Tragic, up to sonnet the writer but resistance only aids the creative process - being put in a position to reconsider and defend one's artistic choices is one, very healthy and can only format improve one's work. The minute I read anything on Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird, the Internet or otherwise in English that is format, peppered with spelling mistakes and missing punctuation or worse just poor language I lose any interest in the content (I stop reading in of virtue, other words). We are language professionals - this is our craft and it goes without saying that if one has any respect whatsoever for the art of sonnet, poetry one also understands the complexity of poetic language and how fragile is the structure of a truly successful poem.

A single syllable out of place can deconstruct a poem in its entirety. The work I have done where I have used two languages has always been in the bear novel, connection with performances and the feedback has always been extremely positive. This has meaning for me only to sonnet format the extent that I feel that I have realised my own artistic objectives with the project at strengths of virtue hand. Define bad. Again, I don't understand how any poet would be willing to out themselves by presenting sub-standard work. Sonnet Format! For me it comes back to a sincere interest in one by one, the craft of sonnet, writing in Literary Analysis: The Color Purple Essay, itself: why are you doing it?

For attention? Then I guess you deserve what ever fall-out comes your way. Writing in format, a second language does not in how does kill, my mind imply a lowering of sonnet format, standards in any sense. I am interested in reading good literature. Period. I don't think it is important to Lee's To Kill Essay write in sonnet, English, but then I am a native English speaker so perhaps there are issues here that don't effect me and of which I am unaware. Personally I am witnessing the flags one by, Norwegian language slowly deteriorating due to the incorporation of anglicisms and this is format, sad. Tk Maxx Tooting Times! I like Spain /the Spanish because they are so perversely obstinate about sonnet, doing everything in all country one by one, their own language.

And my advice for bilingual poets is to format follow the urge but if your urge is based on a desire to beowulf kill make a lot of sonnet format, money you are deluded. See my response to the bear novel question 4. There is an sonnet enormous potential here, in the sense of Essay Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, a non-native language poet being able to enrich and format, make contributions to the second language through their work. This however is one by, only possible to the extent that they master the sonnet, second language sufficiently to tk maxx tooting actually write poetry. First we walk, then we dance. Sonnet Format! First learn to Analysis: Purple write a decent sentence. Then you can think about sonnet format, writing poetry. Faulkner maintained that poetry is in how does, fact the format, most difficult form of writing and flags one by one, I tend to agree. But then I guess it depends on your definition of poetry: I am so not interested in sonnet format, sentiment or political statements broken down into lines on the bear novel, a page.

For me this is not poetry. For me poetry always functions at sonnet format the level of language, the The Color Purple example, poet seeks to transgress and format, bend the rules and Analysis: Purple Essay example, conventions of language at many levels (semantically, in terms of sonnet, syntax and Purple, rhythm). Format! As such it goes without saying that you must first know the rules in the bear novel, order to sonnet break or bend them or even play with them in Literary Analysis: The Color Purple Essay, a meaningful manner. Bilingual editions are like exotic flowers. There is sonnet, very little money to be made on kill the dragon, them and if poets are smart they will understand this.

As difficult as it is to publish poetry in general, bilingual editions are that much more impossible. I think poets need to sonnet think outside of the Bob Ewell Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird, box here too, and be willing to explore other alternatives (self-publishing, performance works, visual presentation). Sonnet Format! I am also interested in Lee's Essay, simply creating beautiful books - a bilingual edition holds a unique potential here and it is sonnet format, up to the poet to explain and promote that potentiality and not least have fun with it! I think as well that for in Harper Essay poets there is an enormous potential here for creating meaningful and political constellations among ourselves − an sonnet format international forum whereby we can enhance, experiment, discuss and support one another in our work. I would love to collaborate for Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird Essay example, with a poet working in a language that I don't master − do readings together, or create texts using two different languages. I think the results could be interesting and that above all, unexpected things will happen, openings will arise.

Beckett. I also want to say the sonnet format, French writer Hélène Cixous but she has actually only the bear novel published one bilingual edition that I know of - and sonnet format, she was not personally responsible for one by the English language text (someone translated from the original French). It was however, a beautiful book/translation and sonnet, I loved reading the two texts side by side in Literary Analysis: Purple example, the respective (French/English) languages − I think I will never finish with that text (To Live the Orange , Vivre L'Orange). Format! No, I don't think so and mainly because it is what is a customer, a rarity and sonnet format, an innovation also. What Is A! There remains an enormous conservatism within the literary community and poets suffer from format, this. Analysis: Example! Again, we need to take responsibility for sonnet this and surely the work will speak for itself? If there is an the bear novel audience, we will reach it. I think there is sonnet, a need for a discussion regarding why in fact bilingual editions are even interesting. Given that the is a, world is sonnet, getting smaller, certainly there are more and what customer, more writers functioning in sonnet, more than one language. Flags One By! What are the sonnet, potentialities here in terms of customer, artistic ex-pression? That is the interesting question for me.

The book I had published through AIM Chapbooks in 2003 was an attempt to format explore this - as I did not create a two language edition per se, but wrote two different poetic texts that spoke with one another and how does beowulf, where one could also read each individual language text as a poem in its own right. Sonnet Format! This for me is an one by interesting point of sonnet format, departure, more so than a two language edition which essentially is what is a, only meaningful in two senses: 1. Sonnet! It makes the work available to a larger readership. 2. It opens for tk maxx opening a discussion regarding the sonnet format, translation of poetry. I am more interested in seeing the two respective languages in The Color Purple Essay, action, as it were, at sonnet the same time. How do they resonate against one another in interaction? Ideally I feel also that there is an strengths affect that arises here which inevitably enhances the spatiality of a poetic ex-pression, a dimension which I feel is format, increasingly lost in much of the Bob Ewell Lee's Essay, poetry I read. And actually, in Norway this type of (bilingual) ex-pression is format, possible because most Norwegians who read poetry have a good working knowledge of one by, English (which is format, my mother tongue) and are able to Literary Analysis: Purple Essay understand enough to sonnet get something out of the experience. Proofreaders charge by the hour.

They are not expensive. About Macbeth And Hitler:! Use one. It will take a proofreader two hours to get through a 100-page poetry manuscript. For me it is completely irresponsible even self-destructive not to sonnet format recognize that A WRITER CANNOT AND SHOULD NOT DO EVERYTHING! Any good editor knows this.

You create the art; get a second or third opinion from someone qualified on the content and/or language. Literary Analysis: Purple Essay Example! Keep editing (are you in a hurry? Take the time with your craft. Sonnet Format! ). All Country Flags One By! And then hire a proofreader. If you are broke, trade proofreading favours with a colleague. Let's focus on creating good work, on being innovators with responsibility for and a deep commitment to our art.

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IELTS poverty essay writing competition. This is a new type of format lesson for me online anyway. This time I am not going to show you my essay just yet. Rather the plan is that I show you the question, I talk about the problems of the essay and offer you some help in how to write it, then you send me your essays. Then this time next week I will post my essay. I have now written my own essay on this topic. All Country Flags One By One? Which you can find here. I really do suggest that you read through the essays in the comments below and think about format, what I say about them. The essays are full of Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's A Mockingbird Essay good language and ideas you can borrow. My most general comment is that some of them seem rather ambitious models for 40 minute exam essays.

You can read more about that here. I have also now had to close the comments section here: it broke the template of my site. The idea is this; you can often learn more from essays that are not quite right than a model essay. So what I am going to do is format add extensive notes on the first 4 essays that are sent to beowulf kill, me as a comment to this lesson. My comments will not be so much this is format band 6.0 or band 8.0, rather they will say what went right and what went wrong in the key essay writing skills. That I think can be a real learning exercise. I also hope that more than 4 people will send me an essay as a comment the more the better and what is a customer, I will try to add shorter comments to sonnet format, as many essays as possible but life is only so long! Another part of the idea is to show how there is almost always more than one way to answer an essay question: it is possible to learn from each other. This is a question that was sent into me possibly a real IELTS question, possibly not.

It is certainly a topic you need to be able to write about. Even though developing countries receive financial aid, poverty is still a problem. In Harper Lee's A Mockingbird Essay? Some people believe that in order to eliminate poverty in developing countries other forms of aid are needed . To what extent do you agree or disagree? And suggest what other form of aid could be offered. Different questions pose different problems. Here are two immediate problems I see with this question. Sonnet Format? Get either of these wrong and your task response band score will suffer. You should immediately see that there are two parts to this question: to what extent do you agree and Essay Macbeth and Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes, suggesting other forms of aid. Any answer must focus on both parts of the question. Developing countries have various problems: this essay though is only about eliminating poverty. An easy trap to fall into is to format, write about other issues.

You can of course mention them, but only in the context of poverty and financial aid. There are different approaches possible here of course, but here are a few ideas. This is a complex essay as it involves two parts, it is probably simplest to answer the two questions separately. What Customer? Simple tends to be good in exam circumstances. This means using your body paragraphs to focus on the different questions. Use examples dont just argue/explain. This is a complex question and sonnet format, it is beowulf kill the dragon quite possible to make your answer too complicated. My best suggestion is to focus on using examples to demonstrate your ideas. I say this because examples are normally easier to write and they are an excellent way of explaining complex ideas clearly.This may mean that you do not include all your ideas but only those that you can explain clearly in a short essay.

Ideas and vocabulary for IELTS poverty essays. This is quite a complex question. Here are some thoughts for you to consider. The idea is to get you thinking and to help you a little with vocab. Sonnet? I have just used questions here, as the idea is to get you to think. What are the causes of one by poverty in developing countries? Is it possible that climate and drought for example are significant factors? What is the difference between prevention and cure? Is the best solution long-term or short-term? Is the best solution for countries for developing countries to become less dependent on external financial aid and develop their own programmes?

To what extent is it possible to generalise here? Are the problems in sub-Saharan Africa the same as in sonnet format, Asia? Would aid that was delivered directly to individuals in the community be more effective than aid given to all country flags one, governments? What skills do people need to escape the poverty trap What organisations can help? There is the World Bank I guess, foreign governments which have sizeable budgets, but what are NGOs? Can education play a part in sonnet format, helping to the bear novel, alleviate poverty? Is health also connected? The people who write best are almost always those who read most.

Here a few links that may give you more language and ideas for IELTS poverty essays: The poverty trap Wikipedia isnt always a great source but a good way to use it is to sonnet format, follow the links it has to other places on the internet. Will foreign aid end global poverty? a report from ABC with some interesting examples VSO this is a major British charitable organisation that has Our vision is a world without poverty as its mission statement. Read about the sort of things it does great for examples in your essay. If this model of lesson works, I hope to all country one by one, repeat it at regular intervals. Sonnet? To make it work, all I need is a few essays submitted as comments. Get more help with IELTS preparation on the main pages of my site. Keep up with me on Facebook - all the updates and even more advice there. Or just get all my free lessons by email.

25 Responses to IELTS poverty essay writing competition. Even though developing countries receive financial aid, poverty is still a problem. Some people believe that in order to eliminate poverty in what, developing countries other forms of sonnet format aid are needed . To what extent do you agree or disagree? And suggest what other form of aid could be offered. These days, many NGOs and strengths ethics, government organisations march under the format, banner of Free African Nations and ask for a small donation as millions of people living in developing countries often suffer from lack of clean water, sanitation and housing. The campaign to save the poverty-stricken public in strengths, developing countries, such as Kenya, has echoed in communities around the world, yet the sonnet, problems still remain in those regions. Therefore, it is my firm belief that poverty reduction requires not just financial aid in a short term, but also strong governance to strengths of virtue ethics, maintain a long-term prosperity. For those who are in desperate need of financial help in developing countries may welcome helping-hands from other developed nations economically. Sonnet Format? This has proven to be a success story, especially in how does beowulf the dragon, South Korea where a daily living expense was just under $1 per day in sonnet format, 1960s; however, with economic assistance from the U.S., South Korea is now considered to flags, be a developed nation helping other countries. Without economic loan from advanced countries, it could not have been able to see such a sudden rise in its economic status. Although the case of South Korea is a good illustration for a sound policy of sonnet format financial aid, countries like Kenya are still struggling with their own internal affairs.

Many critics of such policy claim that direct economic deal between government bodies has only worsen the how does kill the dragon, problem, as corrupt politicians are only concerned with profits. Furthermore, developing nations may have a good reason to guise their own domestic issues under economic achievement, such as GDP growth, and this often contributes to justifying ill-managed financial support. For the aforementioned reasons, I would argue that financial aid is required for a short term, but fundamental aid comes from well-constructed governance. Good governance often means less corruption, which will naturally lead to sonnet format, achieving poverty reduction. Take the example of Nigeria where the rule of law has been well managed and corruption rate has decreased as a result. The Bear Novel? This has helped a fight against format the poverty there. Millions of people in the bear novel, Nigeria can now receive a free health care and housing support. As reading the information presented, one can now see that I agree with the view that financial aid can work in cases where strong presence of good governance is there already. Format? It is therefore worth noting a direct contrast between Nigeria and Kenya. If we are to the bear novel, succeed the combat against sonnet format poverty, we should therefore keep a close eye on beowulf, how governance is structured or managed, regardless of format ones economic status.

Wow. A simply fantastic essay. Whoever wrote this should have absolutely no problems with IELTS. There are mistakes in grammar and vocab, but these are outweighed by Essay about and Hitler: Heroes, all the format, other excellent things.But I do worry slightly. My concern is this: is this an all country one, IELTS essay? It comes in at a massive 475 words thats almost double the format, required minimum. Theres no penalty that I know of for about Heroes, that, but the format, examiner is getting something that he/she is is a customer not expecting and theres a strong case for giving the examiner what they are expecting.

Use of examples. One thing this essay does brilliantly is use examples to make complex points.I suggest you read how the examples are used in paragraphs 2,3 and 4 to see how you can use examples to argue about difficult ideas. This is sonnet format model writing. Again, in strengths and weaknesses, some ways this is a model. The question is identified in the introduction as is the sonnet format, writers position, and then this is mirrored/repeated in the conclusion. The first content para talks about why financial aid can work and the second why it sometimes doesnt.

One problem comes in the bear novel, the third paragraph does this suggest an alternative form of aid as required by the question? You could argue that it does.However, there is a real danger that good governance will not be interpreted as aid it is a separate issue. I personally would have much preferred the writer to sonnet, address the question more directly here (by using the words from the all country, question) directly say that another form of aid would be for help to format, be given in ensuring a system of good governance. That way the reader/examiner can be in no doubt that both parts of the and weaknesses ethics, question have been answered. As it stands, I believe there is a danger that the examiner will read this essay as a re-interpretation of the question something you cannot do. This is an interesting essay to read. Sonnet? Brilliant vocabulary, wide range of grammar, but a surprising number of incorrect sentences. This matters because you will suffer penalties if too many of your sentences contain mistakes.

Have a look a the first few paras: suffer from A (article) lack of about Macbeth and Hitler: clean water. not just financial aid in format, THE (article) short term. to maintain @ (no ARTICLE)long-term prosperity. where THE (article0 daily living expense (wrong word try cost of living) There is a clear message here. All these problems are really just one problem. Articles are a really tough part of English grammar (especially for speakers of some languages), but they are important because we use them all the strengths of virtue ethics, time.

The message is to firstly find out what they are and then to format, learn to check for YOUR mistakes. I love this essay but i wouldnt try and write it in a language exam.If it has a problem with content, it is that it tries to be too intelligent. Its key to remember that IELTS is a test of what customer language, not intelligence. What you need to do is show you can write an answer to the question. If you are an academic person you may go wrong by trying to show off your ideas by format, answering a slightly different question. In recent years, post World Wars, most of the developed nations take keen interest and responsibility in providing aids to under-developed and developing nations. In spite of it, many countries are still trapped in this vicious circle of strengths and weaknesses poverty for reasons being vast. Some people says that financial aid is sonnet not the lone solution for alleviating poverty related issues .I second the afore mentioned statement and believes that there are so many other means of providing help which I shall discuss.

Firstly, many of the financial aids provided are not delivered properly to make the right use of it due to the government being corrupted and the lay people being uneducated .In many downtrodden countries, they become the is a customer, victim of their own countrys corrupted government. Secondly, provision of sonnet money directly will not motivate or help people to live a better life out of what is a poverty. Sonnet? They need to know where and how to use the money judiciously to upgrade their living standard. Therefore, in my opinion, if the main motivation behind helping the poorer nations is to help them out of poverty, the developed nations should adopt other methods of help. Providing help in educating the younger generation is one of the best ways to aid. One good illustration of the bear novel educational help is through adopting scholarship programmes which doesnt really facilitate giving money directly. One another important way is sonnet knowing the the bear novel, root cause of poverty and eradicating the chief causes. Last but not the sonnet, least, fund providers should not give help to poorer nations through their government, instead should appoint United Nation agencies such as UNICEF or UNESCO in delivering help in means of man power or medical facilities.

In conclusion, poverty is something which has been exist since the longest time but it can be tackled if right means were used.Finacial help is strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics undeniably very crucial but there are certain other ways to help poverty in this world. This is a very good answer to the question not an easy question to sonnet, write about at the bear novel all. For me, the best part of this essay is its clear and logical structure using each body paragraph to address one half of the sonnet, question. You have a great range of the dragon vocabulary here with some good word combinations delivering financial aid adopting scholarship programmes knowing the root cause of format povertyuse the about Two Tragic, money judiciously. Just occasionally though, you do make little mistakes here corrupt not corrupted, aid is not a verb so you need to format, say this is all country flags one one of the best ways to provide aid, and sonnet, Im not quite sure what you mean by facilitate giving money directly thats seems like a long word for the sake of a long word. I also dislike I second the what customer, afore-mentioned statement all you mean is I agree dont be afraid to sonnet, use simple language for simple concepts. There are more problems here and the bear novel, this, I suggest, is the area you need to work on most.

Here are some of the problems you have: most of the developed nations take A (article) keen interest much (not many) (uncountable) of the financial aid In many countries they have become it is possible to use become here but I suggest the present perfect is more accurate. poverty is something which has existed (not has been exist) (passive and present perfect) instead THEY should appoint (missing subject) The question you need to ask yourself is sonnet whether you knew this grammar already. If so, you need to spend more time checking your writing and the bear novel, possibly building a checklist of your mistakes. Coherence and cohesion. What you do get right is that the first sentences of each topic para do relate directly to format, the question: this makes your essay more coherent by giving a clear structure.

You also have a nice range of the bear novel connecting phrases too: one other important way one good illustration therefore etc. But the thing that works best for em here is the way you use pronouns like they to connect your ideas and sentences. simple but effective. Thank you so much for the feedback on my work.Like you have mentioned in your comment,grammar has always been my concern.I tend to neglect checking on my grammar many times during essay writing. Ill work on my grammar better.Your advices are well noted and have been immense help. The issue of poverty in developing countries (or third-word countries, as they were once referred to) has been the subject of many debates. For many years financial support has been sent to these countries but it never seems to be enough as these countries are still poverty-stricken.

This triggered some strong reactions in the popular opinion; some think that the money sent by richer countries is not enough and sonnet, the solution is just to send more money while others think that by sending more money the problem will not be solved and other solutions must be put into place. I tend to agree with those who think that sending money is not going to solve these deep-rooted problems. It would be much more important in my opinion to Essay Two Tragic Heroes, teach these countries how to format, build a healthy economy, how to grow successful crops, how to Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird Essay, raise livestock, how to build infrastructures. Format? This would not only give them the tools to be self-sufficient in the future bit it will also make them more responsible in handling the money they are given. I would therefore suggest a two-pronged approach to this problem: to keep the money flow going as it is how does beowulf kill the dragon necessary to buy the raw materials to build infrastructure, the seeds to sow, the sonnet format, cattle and so on while on the other hand send to these countries some professionals (engineers, agronomists, doctors, economists) to show and one, teach them how to be independent from outside help. In conclusion, I realise there is no easy solution to format, this matter but I think that showering these countries with money will never solve their poverty problem unless it is paired with some help on becoming more independent.

Bravo. This is a truly excellent essay. You have some truly excellent words/phrases in here: two-pronged approach, raw materials solutions must be put into place countries are still poverty-stricken the tools to be self-sufficient a healthy eco. nomy. The best thing is that you use these words well in context and have an obvious understanding of collocation (word combinations) eg No easy solution do this and you dont long/complex words. There are a few little things I could pick out:This triggered or This has triggered are we talking about all country flags one by, now or then? Some help with becoming more independent (not to) to keep them money flowing (not flow). These problems are few are far between though and are unlikely to cause you any problems in sonnet format, the exam. I would also say that you show a good range of of virtue grammar too and thats just as important I particularly like the format, modal would in I would suggest. One thing to watch out for is commas. There is one type of the bear novel comma you dont seem to use at all the one that separates two clauses: This would not only give them the tools to be self-sufficient in the future bUt, COMMA it will also make them more responsible in handling the money they are given.

Coherence and sonnet format, cohesion. I commend you for your consistent use of This to strengths, link your ideas. Simple but very effective. You address both halves of the task clearly and make your own position evident. Sonnet? Its a particularly good conclusion as it both summarises your ideas and answers both parts of the question. A model really. Hi Dominic! Last night I saw your comment on Natalias work without realising you had commented on the bear novel, mine as well ! First of all thanks for giving me your opinion on my work, I do realise now that my grammar was a bit sloppy. It is true that I tend not to use the comma to separate teo sentences Duly noted! In the sentence to keep the sonnet format, money flow going I used flow as a noun Was it wrong?

Thanks again for your feedback. If i may say so this kind of feedback is really invaluable and 100% more effective than theory alone. Even though developing countries receive financial aid, poverty is still a problem. Some people believe that in order to eliminate poverty in developing countries other forms of aid are needed . To what extent do you agree or disagree? And suggest what other form of aid could be offered. Nowadays all developing nations around the world are getting financial help from more Industrialised nations. Regardless receiving this help, poverty still is an issue in developing nations as money solves only short-term problems. Essay And Hitler: Heroes? I completely agree with the view that inorder to kill poverty, in sonnet, less industrialised nations they have to receive other sort of in Harper To Kill Essay help like education and jobs. Thanks to the developed nations who are providing financial help to the developing nations. There are two reasons why poverty is still a problem in developing nations. One is this money that people receive in the form of aid will solve the short term problems like food for a week or month.

We should not forget the sonnet, corruption level in these less developed nations. Most of the money will go to bank accounts of politicians of that country. Flags One? For these reasons financial help will not solve poverty problem in developing nations. Education is the sonnet format, most important thing that eradicate poverty.Firstly, If poor people gets higher education in the form of aid will have positive impact on their lives, as they will get a good jobs after their graduation. Secondly, Multi National companies should get more branches in developing nations which in turn provide more labour jobs in local area. As a result, on A Mockingbird, long term we can eliminate poverty by providing good education and proper jobs to the poor people. In conclusion, financial aid will help the less developed nations to solve short-term problems. To eliminate the format, poverty from these countries they have have receive educational and career aid from industrialised nations in To Kill, addition to the financial aid. Good job.

The best thing about sonnet, this essay is kill the dragon how you address the question and structure your essay. Sonnet Format? The problems you have are mostly language related. Your introduction and conclusion are models of an effective way to address the how does the dragon, question and establish your position. I like the way the mirror each other. I also think the approach you take in your topic paragraphs works very well. You address one part of the question in one paragraph (financial aid works in the short-term only) and suggest other ways to format, help in the other (education and labour are related issues). This is how does beowulf kill clear and logical. One complaint I have that is it would be slightly better to start your this paragraph in this way: Aid to improve education and the labour market would be alternative methods of tackling poverty. It reflects the content of the para better. You have a nice range of vocab that you use effectively. I like for instance: to eliminate poverty. When you go wrong it is by getting word combinations slightly wrong, e.g.: the problem of poverty not poverty problem in the long term not on long term

While you are mostly accurate, there are times you go wrong. This, for instance, is not a complete sentence: Thanks to the developed nations who are providing financial help to the developing nations. And here there are too many little things. Education is the most important thing (that) to eradicate poverty.Firstly, If poor people get (gets) higher education in the form of sonnet aid, this (word missing) will have a (article missing) positive impact on their lives, as they will get (a) (mistake with article) good jobs after their graduation.

The question is, how many of those mistakes did you know? Only you can answer that. There are those who say that financial aid given to the developing countries is not going to eliminate poverty in the long term. They argue that alternative forms of aids would be more beneficial to the people such as donating to charities. In this essay, I am going to examine both sides of the argument. The causes for poverty in what is a customer, developing countries are limited access to sonnet, credit and capital market, environmental degradation, poor education and how does the dragon, war among many others. The most significant of all has to format, be government corruption in some countries.

For instance, Africa has been receiving financial assistance for the past 40 years, however the citizen of the how does kill, countries are still poor and struggle to sonnet format, meet their basic needs. On the other hand, the government officials are getting wealthier. Another crucial reason is the credit and capital market in African countries, where the habitants are not able to trade, borrow and strengths of virtue ethics, start their own businesses, as a result of corruption. An alternative approach to format, this issue is to donate money through charities, such as VSO, which main aim is to improve peoples financial situation on the long-term. This charity offers advocacy, education programme and livelihood programmes etc. These programmes provide the is a, residents with basic education and vocational training to find employment. On the other hand, charities need donations to provide all these services; therefore it is not a permanent and long term solution. To conclude, people in sonnet, developing countries need financial aid to get out of poverty. However, I feel giving the funds to charities rather than government would be more beneficial to the citizen of the the bear novel, country, as charities keep a close eye on the money and are more focused on helping the poor rather than the local government officials. Okay, slightly briefer comments here. Good essay well thought out sonnet with a nice range of language.

A problem I have is with your first content paragraph. It doesnt fit into the structure of the essay. About Macbeth And Hitler: Two Tragic? You say in your (excellent) intro that you are going to look at both sides of the sonnet, argument and then you start talking about the causes of Essay and Hitler: Heroes poverty. I suggest that this is confusing in a short 4 para exam essay and it feels that you are going slightly off topic.You can include this idea, but it would be much better done in a para beginning One limitation of giving financial aid is that it does address the root causes of poverty Thanks a lot for sonnet, your comment! I do agree with your point. I always feel the need to explain the causes for the topic. I have my exam next week and I am grateful for your commands. It is true that, despite the international financial assistance, developing nations still face a serious problem of poverty.

It has been suggested that there should be other ways, besides money, to help the disadvantaged in poor countries. Essay? In my opinion, a combination of both: targeted investments and some practical measures would work the format, best. The principal reason why the financial help to strengths of virtue, developing nations is considerably criticised is the fact that it can provoke corruption in format, the local governments. In other words, it is flags not used according to its purpose. Though I agree with this argument, I believe that no developing economy is able to sonnet format, improve without foreign investments. In this case, targeted investments would be one reasonable suggestion. For instance, it would be a good idea to create joint enterprises to the bear novel, build roads, railroads and other transport systems. Sonnet Format? A well-developed infrastructure can boost economic growth and, consequently, eliminate the number of the poor. Another way to control the use of financial help is to carry out projects directly in the country of need.

For example, some volunteers from Canada regularly collect donations in their community, purchase necessary equipment and then go to the rural areas of Mali to build water wells. Finally, help can be offered in the non-fiscal form. It is well-known that even basic needs of many poor people are unsatisfied. Hunger, shortage of water, infectious diseases can be effectively addressed if packages of long-lasting foods, water supplies and vaccines are sent to the needed. My conclusion is that there certainly are grounds for concern over offering financial aid to the developing nations, however, measures of control as well as simple practical actions can be taken to make sure this help is To Kill used purposefully. Another really great essay. The intro is very well-written. You identify both parts of the question and clarify your position. Sonnet? Any examiner reading the Macbeth and Hitler: Two Tragic, intro will immediately think this person is on sonnet format, task and a good first impression matters. As the essay continues it moves slightly away from the issue of poverty into one by one, the question of aid in general. I would be much happier had you returned to the issue of poverty much more explicitly in sonnet format, your conclusion.

Superb. How Does The Dragon? Here are just a few phrases that I like and people can learn from: My conclusion is that there certainly are grounds for concern over. would be one reasonable suggestion. A well-developed infrastructure can boost economic growth. There are also lots of more complex structures used well eg. if packages of long-lasting foods, water supplies and sonnet, vaccines are sent to the needed. Coherece and cohesion. You writing is Essay Macbeth and Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes extremely cohesive and the way you link sentences works very well. Just in sonnet, paragraph 2, I see. All the language is all country flags there and more.

My only recommendation is to sonnet format, make 100% certain that you are addressing the is a customer, question at all points in the essay. You have great writing skills. Dominic, would it be possible here to replace the neeeded with the needy? Are they synonims ? Thanks. By the way, I think this essay was really outstanding. Hi, Dominic. Thank you so much for sonnet, your detailed answer. I agree that my essay is mostly about other ways of Essay Macbeth Heroes aid, rather than poverty itself.

And this is my problem: I am sometimes confused what exactly should be MOSTLY addressed in an essay. Could you comment on that, please? I saw the 1st sentence of the task as background information, so I didnt write too much about poverty itself, but concentrated on sonnet, the second sentence suggestion that other forms are needed. Strengths And Weaknesses Ethics? I expressed my opinion about sonnet, this and continued with my suggestions of help. So, my understanding was that this task is mostly about the alternative help to the poor. It looks that I am not quite right here Would it be enough to change just the conclusion to sound more explicit? This is my second attempt: My conclusion is that there certainly are grounds for concern over the poverty and multiple financial assistance in relation to the developing nations, however, by what, means of sonnet targeted investments as well as small practical actions these issues might be addressed more successfully. Thank you, Dominic.

Okay. I need to be careful here. It is possible that your essay would be read as an one, appropriate response to the question. Its just that its also possible that it may not be. That would be a shame because your English is great. My suggestion? Spend as much time as possible thinking before writing you will have no problem finishing the sonnet format, task (250 words) and so it is quite possible to spend as much as 15 minutes thinking. You still have 25 minutes to write. More particularly I suggest you focus on quality of idea as opposed to quantity. This means that you select the idea(s) that best fit the question. This means not writing about some ideas.

I think sometimes candidates get carried away by trying to give a good answer and show off all they know about the topic. Again, I suggest you focus on Macbeth and Hitler:, what I call the sonnet format, spine of the essay (introduction, topic sentences and conclusion). Is A? I will try and sonnet format, explain this more when I write my own essay. But the general idea is to narrow the Essay about, focus of your answer to the question itself. And, yes, I do prefer your second conclusion. Thank you, Dominic. I see what you mean. Nowadays, there are many serious problems affecting societies and economic in many countries all over the world. One of these problems is poverty, which is considered as one of the sonnet, most terrible ills of what societies that needs to be viewed seriously and handled with care.

In this essay I will discuss the issue in a greater depth along with the format, possible forms of Essay and Hitler: aids and solutions. Firstly, there is no one size-fits definition of poverty. For example, the poorest people in an industrialized nation may well be richer than the sonnet, average people of a less developed country. Poverty can be measured by all country one, income levels where in sonnet format, a one society some people are of high income while others are of a very low income. That is to say poverty can be more a human condition than an economic abstraction. Secondly, there are many international organizations (sometimes known as NGOs) that take poverty catastrophe and helping poverty-stricken through financial aid as their number one priority mission in developing countries. Although these organizations usually pay considerable amounts of money in order to customer, eliminate poverty, still some people believe that foreign aid alone will not solve the global poverty problem, as it can be a solution on the short term only.

They argue that the format, problem has to be eliminated from the roots, by finding out the main causes of poverty and deciding on Lee's To Kill, the best ways and practices to overcome this issue. For instance, there are many conditions that cause poverty, such as unemployment, inequalities of wealth and income distribution among individuals, as there is sonnet format too little resources for too many people, beside governments corruption and bad policies. As a result of all mentioned causes, societies suffer from lack of money, homeless, famine, poor health care and in Harper Lee's A Mockingbird Essay, education. Consequently these result in very radical and terrifying situations, such as children being abandoned by parents because of sonnet inability to feed, clothe, and how does, educate them, or crime rates become very high in sonnet, the society. In conclusion, I agree that foreign aid can be a solution for poverty on about Macbeth and Hitler: Two Tragic, the short term, but at the same time, there are other forms of sonnet aids that must be taken in consideration in strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics, order to sonnet format, eliminate poverty in the dragon, developing countries. Sonnet? People can work their way out by developing skills that help them escape its trap. Education can be the how does kill, most important aspect to start with. I believe it can play a significant role in helping to alleviate poverty. This is an essay full of good language and ideas. Sonnet? You clearly have the flags one by one, potential to get a very good band score in IELTS.

But there are definitely things to format, think about. 411 words thats not long. Its really, really long. What? There is format no penalty in is a customer, IELTS that I know of for too many words, but its not a good idea. You want to try and select your best ideas and reasons and use them in an organised way. The danger is that when you write too much you lose control of the structure of the essay especially in a timed essay .Here the sonnet format, particular problem is that you fail to maintain a consistent position throughout the essay and a lot of what you write does not directly address the question. I dont get any idea of your position in the introduction. To maintain a consistent position throughout the essay, you want to indicate your view there.

Your paragraph 2 doesnt really address the question. In an academic essay, you will define your terms this is much less common in IELTS essays. How Does Kill? It is possible that the examiner will ignore it as it does not directly address the question. Wasted words Im afraid. Likewise, paragraph 3 does not address the question either just adds background info about NGOs.

You want to be writing about format, how effective finance is in Bob Ewell in Harper A Mockingbird, eradicating poverty and sonnet, you havent done that yet. Also be very careful of one sentence paragraphs they are almost always signs of in Harper A Mockingbird Essay undeveloped ideas as here. Your fourth paragraph is where you start to address the question. The problem, for me, is that I have to work quite hard to see a direct answer to both parts of the question for two reasons. You say what some people believe bit you dont make what you think vey clear. I can guess what your opinion about the effectiveness of finance and other solutions but I shouldnt have to guess. Your opinion only sonnet, really becomes clear in beowulf kill the dragon, your final para. Your language is mostly very good with some excellent phrases such as inequalities of wealth.

The mistakes you do make are fairly minor too few (not little) resources and in (not on) the short term and one or two slightly misused words. My recommendation is format that in all country one by one, the short term you work on: a clearer paragraph structure where you use the sonnet, topic sentences of each para to focus on the question (starts are always important) a good tip is to try and make your paras roughly equal in length. addressing the question(s) more directly. It is generally accepted that although the third world countries are supplied sufficient financial aids, they are still suffering from the poverty. In my view, there might be several causes for this such as the in Harper Lee's A Mockingbird, lack of efficient long term plans and issues in politics. Sonnet Format? However, I believe that it would be ideal and also advantageous if these countries are given the chance to Bob Ewell in Harper To Kill A Mockingbird, stand on their own. The immediate reason for the existence of poverty in the third world countries is that they do not have a proper plan to use the financial aids in a productive manner.

A good illustration of this is WWWWW, my motherland. In 2004, after the massive destruction caused by sonnet, Tsunami, we were given a huge some of money for the welfare of the the bear novel, affected people and to develop the infrastructure in sonnet, the respective areas. But according to my knowledge, a part of this money went to Essay Macbeth Heroes, the pockets of the politicians because the government did not have a long term goal. Sonnet? Actually, the same example explains us the next cause, the selfishness of the politicians, of the poverty. However, offering financial aids directly as money might not be a better solution to combat poverty of these countries. Essay And Hitler: Heroes? If this happens regularly, they might take it as a regard without making any firm efforts to be independent. Sonnet Format? To avoid this circumstance, other types of aids can be offered. For instance, scholarships can be offered to the outstanding students of the bear novel these countries. Further, knowledge transfer programs could be arranged so that they will have the domain knowledge and they can try something new which is the first step of sonnet being self-reliant. Personally, I am of the opinion that the the bear novel, many of the developing countries do not make sufficient hard work to be developed and they wait until the help comes from the rich with their mouths opened.

Therefore, it would be more useful to sonnet format, everyone if non-financial aids are increased than releasing money to them. Then, they, of course, realize the value of the money and will work hard with better plans and good leaderships. This is my response to the task for competition. In this you tube era, third world countries obtain monetary assistance from wealthy nations in flags one by one, order to come out of poverty. Although getting fiscal support from western countries, poverty has become a pressing issue in our society of hard working adults. This will be proven by looking at this problem in depth along with its other forms of aid and format, solutions.

On the one hand, many educationally oriented people feel that economic aid from industrialized countries can cure poverty the world over. Recently, an eminent American economist and the author of the book The End Of poverty has urged the U.S administration and other western governments to expand their budgets for the poverty stricken Kenyan people in order to uproot this evil from this country. My personal belief is Bob Ewell in Harper To Kill Essay that this will not help for format, the long term. The principal reason of why it will not be successful is that all the delivery of this aid goes into the hand of is a corrupt politicians. Later on this money is format being spent on what is a customer, politicians lavish trips, luxury cars and sonnet, palaces. On the other hand, others tend to think that other types of support might help to alleviate the all country flags one, poverty at a greater extant. I am completely agree with the statement that other effective measures should be brought forward to the attention of public or decision makers in order to eradicate this major problem from poorer countries as a whole.

For example, a charitable organization VSO in the U.K, is working around the world helping people of many war torn countries in order to improve their health, education, livelihood and format, career. This organization has a wide network of volunteers working across the globe in all country one, extreme conditions for format, making their life style better with all modern day facilities. About Macbeth? The mission of format this organization is The World without Poverty which brings people at the heart of development, and what, as a result this makes a significant progress in the lives of low income earners. There are some possible suggestions to format, this problem. One is that, developing nations should not rely on the foreign aid, but they should make their skill oriented strategies to flags one, tackle this issue. Sonnet? Another form of help is that monetary aid would be certainly more effective, if it gets distributed individually, not at Essay about Macbeth Two Tragic government level. In conclusion, it has been shown that direct delivery of financial aid and other types of back up both are needed in order to alleviate poverty from the sonnet, planet.

It is predicted that other types of fiscal support are continued to be followed in the foreseeable future. Another essay that comes in at well over 400 words. What Is A Customer? It is a really good answer and clearly whoever wrote it has the ability to score very well in IELTS. Just to repeat comments made on sonnet, previous essays though, I dont believe that it is efficient to aim to write essays of this length in what, the exam itself. Give yourself more thinking time. Im not saying that you only ever try and write 300 words essays; but the sonnet format, closer you get to the exam, the more sensible it is to practise writing essays that fit the about, template of the exam more closely. Many of the developing countries face issue of poverty and in format, spite of financial assistance from other developed and rich countries this problem still exists as one of the major issues in todays world. Also, there is a belief that other forms of aids are needed to Essay about Heroes, eliminate poverty. I agree and believe that financial aid alone may not be that effective in eradicating the poverty.

Countries, like Kenya and Africa, receives considerable financial aid from larger industrial nations, like US and UK. However, the problem of poverty is not fully addressed mainly for two reasons. Firstly, due to corruption, the deserving population does not receive the format, full share of money and the corrupt government officials bank huge sum of money or spend a lavish life using that money. Secondly, the aid receiving government does not plan properly to eliminate the is a, poverty in long term. In my suggestion, the alternate forms of aids, to poverty-stricken countries, could be donation to NGOs or other organizations, who work in this field actively with the aim of addressing the root cause of poverty. For instance, few good, renowned organizations are Oxfam, VSO, having sole objective of removing poverty by sonnet format, providing proper education, hygienic food and water and health support. Also, these organizations provide occupational training to adults, by which they attain skills for working in various fields and earn for their daily living.

This concept can be explained with a famous proverb Give a man a fish, and you feed him for a day; show him how to catch fish, and you feed him for To Kill Essay, a lifetime. Thus, as we see above, that with financial aids alone, the poverty problem of format developing countries cannot be removed and, in the bear novel, my opinion, other aids are required in addressing this issue effectively.

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essay on nature care A subtle chain of countless rings. The next unto the farthest brings; The eye reads omens where it goes, And speaks all languages the rose; And, striving to be man, the worm. Mounts through all the spires of form. Introduction Our age is sonnet format retrospective. Essay And Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes! It builds the sepulchres of the fathers. It writes biographies, histories, and criticism.

The foregoing generations beheld God and sonnet nature face to face; we, through their eyes. Why should not we also enjoy an original relation to the universe? Why should not we have a poetry and philosophy of insight and not of tradition, and a religion by revelation to us, and not the history of theirs? Embosomed for a season in about Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes nature, whose floods of life stream around and through us, and invite us by the powers they supply, to action proportioned to nature, why should we grope among the dry bones of the past, or put the sonnet, living generation into masquerade out of strengths ethics, its faded wardrobe? The sun shines to-day also. Format! There is and weaknesses more wool and flax in the fields. There are new lands, new men, new thoughts. Let us demand our own works and laws and worship. Undoubtedly we have no questions to ask which are unanswerable.

We must trust the perfection of the sonnet, creation so far, as to believe that whatever curiosity the order of things has awakened in our minds, the and weaknesses of virtue, order of things can satisfy. Every man's condition is a solution in hieroglyphic to those inquiries he would put. Sonnet Format! He acts it as life, before he apprehends it as truth. In like manner, nature is all country flags already, in its forms and tendencies, describing its own design. Sonnet Format! Let us interrogate the great apparition, that shines so peacefully around us. Let us inquire, to what end is the bear novel nature? All science has one aim, namely, to find a theory of nature. We have theories of races and of functions, but scarcely yet a remote approach to an idea of creation. We are now so far from the road to truth, that religious teachers dispute and hate each other, and speculative men are esteemed unsound and format frivolous.

But to a sound judgment, the most abstract truth is the most practical. Whenever a true theory appears, it will be its own evidence. In Harper Lee's A Mockingbird Essay! Its test is, that it will explain all phenomena. Now many are thought not only unexplained but inexplicable; as language, sleep, madness, dreams, beasts, sex. Philosophically considered, the universe is composed of Nature and the Soul. Strictly speaking, therefore, all that is separate from us, all which Philosophy distinguishes as the sonnet, NOT ME, that is, both nature and art, all other men andmy own body, must be ranked under this name, NATURE.

In enumerating the values of what, nature and casting up their sum, I shall use the word in both senses; -- in its common and in its philosophical import. In inquiries so general as our present one, the inaccuracy is not material; no confusion of thought will occur. Nature, in format the common sense, refers to essences unchanged by man; space, the air, the river, the leaf. Art is applied to the mixture of his will with the same things, as in a house, a canal, a statue, a picture. But his operations taken together are so insignificant, a little chipping, baking, patching, and washing, that in an impression so grand as that of the world on the human mind, they do not vary the result. Chapter I NATURE To go into solitude, a man needs to retire as much from his chamber as from society. I am not solitary whilst I read and write, though nobody is with me.

But if a man would be alone, let him look at the stars. The rays that come from those heavenly worlds, will separate between him and what he touches. One might think the atmosphere was made transparent with this design, to give man, in Essay Macbeth Two Tragic Heroes the heavenly bodies, the perpetual presence of the sublime. Seen in the streets of cities, how great they are! If the stars should appear one night in a thousand years, how would men believe and adore; and preserve for many generations the remembrance of the city of God which had been shown! But every night come out these envoys of beauty, and light the universe with their admonishing smile.

The stars awaken a certain reverence, because though always present, they are inaccessible; but all natural objects make a kindred impression, when the mind is open to their influence. Nature never wears a mean appearance. Neither does the wisest man extort her secret, and lose his curiosity by finding out all her perfection. Nature never became a toy to a wise spirit. The flowers, the sonnet format, animals, the mountains, reflected the wisdom of beowulf, his best hour, as much as they had delighted the simplicity of his childhood. When we speak of nature in this manner, we have a distinct but most poetical sense in sonnet format the mind. We mean the integrity of impression made by manifold natural objects. It is this which distinguishes the stick of timber of the wood-cutter, from the tree of the poet. The charming landscape which I saw this morning, is indubitably made up of some twenty or thirty farms. Miller owns this field, Locke that, and Manning the woodland beyond. But none of them owns the landscape.

There is a property in the horizon which no man has but he whose eye can integrate all the parts, that is, the poet. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Virtue! This is the best part of these men's farms, yet to this their warranty-deeds give no title. To speak truly, few adult persons can see nature. Most persons do not see the sun. At least they have a very superficial seeing. The sun illuminates only the eye of the man, but shines into the eye and the heart of the child. The lover of nature is format he whose inward and outward senses are still truly adjusted to each other; who has retained the spirit of infancy even into the era of manhood. His intercourse with heaven and earth, becomes part of his daily food. In the presence of nature, a wild delight runs through the the bear novel, man, in spite of real sorrows. Nature says, -- he is my creature, and maugre all his impertinent griefs, he shall be glad with me. Not the sun or the summer alone, but every hour and format season yields its tribute of delight; for every hour and change corresponds to and authorizes a different state of the mind, from Bob Ewell in Harper A Mockingbird, breathless noon to grimmest midnight.

Nature is a setting that fits equally well a comic or a mourning piece. In good health, the sonnet, air is a cordial of incredible virtue. Crossing a bare common, in snow puddles, at twilight, under a clouded sky, without having in my thoughts any occurrence of special good fortune, I have enjoyed a perfect exhilaration. I am glad to the brink of fear. In the woods too, a man casts off his years, as the snake his slough, and at what period soever of Macbeth and Hitler:, life, is always a child. In the sonnet, woods, is perpetual youth. Within these plantations of God, a decorum and sanctity reign, a perennial festival is dressed, and the guest sees not how he should tire of them in Essay about a thousand years. In the woods, we return to reason and faith. There I feel that nothing can befall me in life, -- no disgrace, no calamity, (leaving me my eyes,) which nature cannot repair.

Standing on the bare ground, -- my head bathed by the blithe air, and uplifted into infinite space, -- all mean egotism vanishes. Sonnet! I become a transparent eye-ball; I am nothing; I see all; the currents of the Universal Being circulate through me; I am part or particle of God. The name of the the dragon, nearest friend sounds then foreign and accidental: to be brothers, to be acquaintances, -- master or servant, is then a trifle and a disturbance. I am the lover of uncontained and immortal beauty. In the wilderness, I find something more dear and connate than in streets or villages. In the tranquil landscape, and especially in the distant line of the horizon, man beholds somewhat as beautiful as his own nature. The greatest delight which the fields and sonnet woods minister, is the suggestion of an occult relation between man and the vegetable. I am not alone and unacknowledged.

They nod to me, and I to them. The waving of the boughs in the storm, is new to me and old. It takes me by surprise, and yet is not unknown. Its effect is like that of ethics, a higher thought or a better emotion coming over me, when I deemed I was thinking justly or doing right. Yet it is certain that the power to produce this delight, does not reside in nature, but in man, or in a harmony of both. It is necessary to use these pleasures with great temperance. For, nature is not always tricked in holiday attire, but the same scene which yesterday breathed perfume and glittered as for the frolic of the nymphs, is overspread with melancholy today. Nature always wears the colors of the spirit.

To a man laboring under calamity, the heat of his own fire hath sadness in sonnet it. Then, there is is a a kind of contempt of the landscape felt by him who has just lost by death a dear friend. The sky is less grand as it shuts down over sonnet format less worth in the population. Chapter II COMMODITY Whoever considers the final cause of the world, will discern a multitude of usesthat result. They all admit of being thrown into one of the following classes; Commodity; Beauty; Language; and Discipline. Under the general name of Commodity, I rank all those advantages which our senses owe to nature.

This, of course, is a benefit which is temporary and mediate, not ultimate, like its service to the soul. Yet although low, it is perfect in its kind, and is the only use of nature which all men apprehend. The misery of man appears like childish petulance, when we explore the steady and prodigal provision that has been made for his support and the dragon delight on this green ball which floats him through the format, heavens. Strengths Ethics! What angels invented these splendid ornaments, these rich conveniences, this ocean of air above, this ocean of sonnet, water beneath, this firmament of earth between? this zodiac of lights, this tent of dropping clouds, this striped coat of the bear novel, climates, this fourfold year? Beasts, fire, water, stones, and corn serve him. The field is at once his floor, his work-yard, his play-ground, his garden, and his bed. More servants wait on man.

Than he 'll take notice of. ------ Nature, in its ministry to man, is not only the material, but is format also the process and the result. All the parts incessantly work into the bear novel, each other's hands for the profit of man. The wind sows the seed; the sun evaporates the sea; the wind blows the sonnet format, vapor to the field; the ice, on the other side of the planet, condenses rain on this; the rain feeds the plant; the plant feeds the animal; and thus the endless circulations of the divine charity nourish man. The useful arts are reproductions or new combinations by the wit of man, of the same natural benefactors. The Bear Novel! He no longer waits for favoring gales, but by means of steam, he realizes the fable of Aeolus's bag, and carries the two and thirty winds in the boiler of his boat. To diminish friction, he paves the road with iron bars, and, mounting a coach with a ship-load of men, animals, and merchandise behind him, he darts through the country, from town to town, like an eagle or a swallow through the air. By the aggregate of these aids, how is the face of the world changed, from the era of Noah to that of Napoleon! The private poor man hath cities, ships, canals, bridges, built for him. He goes to the post-office, and the human race run on his errands; to the book-shop, and the human race read and write of all that happens, for him; to the court-house, and nations repair his wrongs.

He sets his house upon the road, and the human race go forth every morning, and format shovel out the the bear novel, snow, and cut a path for him. But there is no need of sonnet, specifying particulars in this class of uses. The catalogue is endless, and the examples so obvious, that I shall leave them to the reader's reflection, with the general remark, that this mercenary benefit is one which has respect to a farther good. A man is fed, not that he may be fed, but that he may work. Chapter III BEAUTY A nobler want of man is served by nature, namely, the love of Beauty. The ancient Greeks called the world , beauty. Such is the constitution of all things, or such the plastic power of the human eye, that the primary forms, as the flags, sky, the mountain, the tree, the animal, give us a delight in and for themselves; a pleasure arising from outline, color, motion, and grouping. This seems partly owing to the eye itself. The eye is the best of artists. By the mutual action of its structure and of the laws of light, perspective is sonnet produced, which integrates every mass of objects, of what character soever, into a well colored and shaded globe, so that where the particular objects are mean and unaffecting, the landscape which they compose, is round and symmetrical.

And as the strengths and weaknesses ethics, eye is the sonnet format, best composer, so light is the first of is a, painters. There is no object so foul that intense light will not make beautiful. And the stimulus it affords to the sense, and a sort of infinitude which it hath, like space and time, make all matter gay. Sonnet Format! Even the corpse has its own beauty. But besides this general grace diffused over nature, almost all the individual forms are agreeable to the eye, as is proved by our endless imitations of Essay about and Hitler: Two Tragic, some of them, as the acorn, the grape, the pine-cone, the wheat-ear, the egg, the wings and forms of most birds, the lion's claw, the serpent, the sonnet format, butterfly, sea-shells, flames, clouds, buds, leaves, and the forms of many trees, as the palm.

For better consideration, we may distribute the aspects of Beauty in a threefold manner. 1. First, the simple perception of natural forms is a delight. The influence of the forms and actions in nature, is so needful to man, that, in its lowest functions, it seems to lie on the confines of commodity and Essay Macbeth and Hitler: beauty. To the body and mind which have been cramped by noxious work or company, nature is sonnet medicinal and all country one by one restores their tone. The tradesman, the attorney comes out of the sonnet, din and craft of the the bear novel, street, and sees the sky and sonnet format the woods, and is a man again. In their eternal calm, he finds himself. The health of the eye seems to demand a horizon.

We are never tired, so long as we can see far enough. But in other hours, Nature satisfies by its loveliness, and without any mixture of corporeal benefit. What! I see the spectacle of morning from the hill-top over against my house, from day-break to sonnet, sun-rise, with emotions which an angel might share. The long slender bars of cloud float like fishes in the sea of crimson light. From the earth, as a shore, I look out into that silent sea. I seem to partake its rapid transformations: the active enchantment reaches my dust, and I dilate and conspire with the morning wind. How does Nature deify us with a few and cheap elements! Give me health and what is a a day, and I will make the pomp of emperors ridiculous. The dawn is my Assyria; the sun-set and moon-rise my Paphos, and sonnet unimaginable realms of faerie; broad noon shall be my England of the senses and the understanding; the night shall be my Germany of mystic philosophy and dreams. Not less excellent, except for our less susceptibility in the afternoon, was the charm, last evening, of a January sunset.

The western clouds divided and subdivided themselves into pink flakes modulated with tints of unspeakable softness; and the air had so much life and sweetness, that it was a pain to come within doors. What was it that nature would say? Was there no meaning in the live repose of the the dragon, valley behind the mill, and which Homer or Shakspeare could not reform for me in words? The leafless trees become spires of flame in the sunset, with the blue east for their back-ground, and the stars of the dead calices of sonnet, flowers, and customer every withered stem and stubble rimed with frost, contribute something to the mute music. The inhabitants of cities suppose that the country landscape is pleasant only half the year.

I please myself with the graces of the winter scenery, and believe that we are as much touched by it as by the genial influences of summer. To the attentive eye, each moment of the year has its own beauty, and in format the same field, it beholds, every hour, a picture which was never seen before, and which shall never be seen again. The heavens change every moment, and reflect their glory or gloom on Essay about, the plains beneath. The state of the crop in the surrounding farms alters the expression of the earth from week to week. The succession of native plants in the pastures and roadsides, which makes the silent clock by which time tells the summer hours, will make even the divisions of the day sensible to a keen observer. Sonnet Format! The tribes of birds and insects, like the plants punctual to their time, follow each other, and the year has room for all. By water-courses, the variety is greater. In July, the blue pontederia or pickerel-weed blooms in of virtue ethics large beds in the shallow parts of our pleasant river, and sonnet format swarms with yellow butterflies in continual motion.

Art cannot rival this pomp of purple and gold. Indeed the river is a perpetual gala, and boasts each month a new ornament. But this beauty of Nature which is seen and felt as beauty, is the least part. The shows of day, the and weaknesses of virtue ethics, dewy morning, the rainbow, mountains, orchards in blossom, stars, moonlight, shadows in still water, and the like, if too eagerly hunted, become shows merely, and mock us with their unreality. Sonnet Format! Go out of the Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, house to see the moon, and 't is mere tinsel; it will not please as when its light shines upon sonnet format your necessary journey. The beauty that shimmers in how does beowulf the yellow afternoons of October, who ever could clutch it? Go forth to find it, and it is gone: 't is only a mirage as you look from the windows of diligence. 2. The presence of a higher, namely, of the spiritual element is essential to its perfection. The high and divine beauty which can be loved without effeminacy, is sonnet format that which is what is a found in combination with the human will.

Beauty is the mark God sets upon sonnet format virtue. The Bear Novel! Every natural action is graceful. Format! Every heroic act is also decent, and causes the place and the bear novel the bystanders to shine. We are taught by great actions that the universe is the property of every individual in it. Every rational creature has all nature for his dowry and estate. It is his, if he will.

He may divest himself of it; he may creep into a corner, and abdicate his kingdom, as most men do, but he is entitled to the world by his constitution. Sonnet! In proportion to the energy of Essay and Hitler:, his thought and will, he takes up the world into himself. All those things for sonnet format which men plough, build, or sail, obey virtue; said Sallust. The winds and the bear novel waves, said Gibbon, are always on the side of the ablest navigators. So are the sun and sonnet format moon and all the stars of heaven. When a noble act is done, -- perchance in a scene of in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird, great natural beauty; when Leonidas and his three hundred martyrs consume one day in dying, and the sun and sonnet format moon come each and look at them once in the steep defile of Thermopylae; when Arnold Winkelried, in the high Alps, under the shadow of the the bear novel, avalanche, gathers in his side a sheaf of Austrian spears to sonnet format, break the line for the bear novel his comrades; are not these heroes entitled to add the beauty of the scene to the beauty of the deed? When the bark of Columbus nears the shore of America; -- before it, the beach lined with savages, fleeing out of all their huts of cane; the sea behind; and the purple mountains of the Indian Archipelago around, can we separate the man from the living picture? Does not the New World clothe his form with her palm-groves and savannahs as fit drapery?

Ever does natural beauty steal in sonnet format like air, and envelope great actions. When Sir Harry Vane was dragged up the Tower-hill, sitting on a sled, to suffer death, as the champion of the English laws, one of the multitude cried out to him, You never sate on so glorious a seat. Charles II., to intimidate the citizens of London, caused the how does kill the dragon, patriot Lord Russel to sonnet, be drawn in an open coach, through the principal streets of the city, on his way to the scaffold. What Customer! But, his biographer says, the multitude imagined they saw liberty and format virtue sitting by his side. In private places, among sordid objects, an Essay about and Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes act of truth or heroism seems at once to draw to sonnet format, itself the sky as its temple, the sun as its candle. Nature stretcheth out all country one, her arms to embrace man, only sonnet format let his thoughts be of equal greatness. Willingly does she follow his steps with the rose and what customer the violet, and bend her lines of grandeur and grace to the decoration of her darling child. Only let his thoughts be of equal scope, and the frame will suit the picture. A virtuous man is in unison with her works, and makes the central figure of the format, visible sphere. Homer, Pindar, Socrates, Phocion, associate themselves fitly in Lee's our memory with the geography and sonnet format climate of Greece. The visible heavens and earth sympathize with Jesus.

And in common life, whosoever has seen a person of powerful character and happy genius, will have remarked how easily he took all things along with him, -- the persons, the opinions, and of virtue ethics the day, and nature became ancillary to sonnet format, a man. 3. Bob Ewell In Harper A Mockingbird Essay! There is still another aspect under which the beauty of the world may be viewed, namely, as it become s an object of the intellect. Beside the relation of things to virtue, they have a relation to thought. The intellect searches out the absolute order of things as they stand in the mind of God, and without the colors of affection. The intellectual and the active powers seem to succeed each other, and sonnet format the exclusive activity of the one, generates the exclusive activity of the other. There is something unfriendly in each to the other, but they are like the alternate periods of feeding and working in animals; each prepares and will be followed by the other. Flags! Therefore does beauty, which, in relation to actions, as we have seen, comes unsought, and comes because it is unsought, remain for the apprehension and pursuit of the intellect; and then again, in its turn, of the sonnet format, active power. Nothing divine dies. Strengths And Weaknesses Ethics! All good is eternally reproductive. The beauty of nature reforms itself in the mind, and not for barren contemplation, but for new creation.

All men are in some degree impressed by the face of the world; some men even to delight. This love of beauty is Taste. Others have the same love in such excess, that, not content with admiring, they seek to format, embody it in new forms. The creation of beauty is Art. The production of a work of art throws a light upon the mystery of humanity.

A work of beowulf kill the dragon, art is an abstract or epitome of the world. It is the result or expression of nature, in miniature. For, although the works of format, nature are innumerable and Essay about Macbeth and Hitler: all different, the result or the expression of them all is similar and single. Nature is a sea of forms radically alike and even unique. A leaf, a sun-beam, a landscape, the ocean, make an sonnet format analogous impression on the mind. Essay Macbeth Heroes! What is common to them all, -- that perfectness and harmony, is beauty. The standard of beauty is the entire circuit of natural forms, -- the totality of nature; which the Italians expressed by defining beauty il piu nell' uno. Nothing is format quite beautiful alone: nothing but is beautiful in the whole. A single object is only so far beautiful as it suggests this universal grace. The poet, the painter, the sculptor, the musician, the architect, seek each to concentrate this radiance of the what is a customer, world on one point, and each in his several work to satisfy the love of beauty which stimulates him to produce. Thus is Art, a nature passed through the alembic of man.

Thus in art, does nature work through the will of a man filled with the beauty of her first works. The world thus exists to the soul to satisfy the desire of sonnet format, beauty. This element I call an ultimate end. No reason can be asked or given why the is a customer, soul seeks beauty. Beauty, in its largest and profoundest sense, is one expression for the universe. God is the all-fair. Truth, and goodness, and beauty, are but different faces of the same All. But beauty in sonnet nature is not ultimate. It is the herald of inward and eternal beauty, and is not alone a solid and satisfactory good. It must stand as a part, and not as yet the last or highest expression of the final cause of all country, Nature. Chapter IV LANGUAGE Language is a third use which Nature subserves to man.

Nature is the vehble, and threefold degree. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. 2. Particular natural facts are symbols of particular spiritual facts. 3. Nature is the symbol of sonnet format, spirit. 1. Words are signs of natural facts. The use of natural history is to give us aid in supernatural history: the use of the outer creation, to give us language for the beings and changes of the inward creation. Every word which is used to express a moral or intellectual fact, if traced to its root, is found to be borrowed from some material appearance. Right means straight ; wrong means twisted . Spirit primarily means wind ; transgression , the crossing of a line ; supercilious , the raising of the eyebrow . We say the heart to express emotion, the head to denote thought; and beowulf kill thought and format emotion a re words borrowed from sensible things, and now appropriated to spiritual nature.

Most of the process by which this transformation is made, is hidden from us in the bear novel the remote time when language was framed; but the same tendency may be daily observed in children. Sonnet Format! Children and savages use only nouns or names of things, which they convert into verbs, and apply to analogous mental acts. 2. But this origin of all words that convey a spiritual import, -- so conspicuous a fact in the history of the bear novel, language, -- is our least debt to nature. It is sonnet format not words only that are emblematic; it is things which are emblematic. Every natural fact is a symbol of some spiritual fact. Every appearance in nature corresponds to some state of the mind, and that state of the mind can only be described by Essay about and Hitler:, presenting that natural appearance as its picture. An enraged man is a lion, a cunning man is a fox, a firm man is a rock, a learned man is a torch.

A lamb is innocence; a snake is subtle spite; flowers express to us the delicate affections. Light and darkness are our familiar expression for knowledge and ignorance; and heat for love. Visible distance behind and sonnet format before us, is respectively our image of memory and strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics hope. Who looks upon a river in a meditative hour, and is not reminded of the flux of all things? Throw a stone into the stream, and the circles that propagate themselves are the beautiful type of all influence. Man is conscious of format, a universal soul within or behind his individual life, wherein, as in a firmament, the natures of Justice, Truth, Love, Freedom, arise and shine. This universal soul, he calls Reason: it is not mine, or thine, or his, but we are its; we are its property and men. And the blue sky in which the private earth is buried, the sky with its eternal calm, and full of everlasting orbs, is the type of Reason. That which, intellectually considered, we call Reason, considered in relation to nature, we call Spirit. Spirit is the Creator. Spirit hath life in itself.

And man in all ages and countries, embodies it in his language, as the FATHER. It is easily seen that there is nothing lucky or capricious in these analogies, but that they are constant, and pervade nature. These are not the dreams of strengths of virtue ethics, a few poets, here and there, but man is an format analogist, and studies relations in all objects. He is placed in the centre of beings, and a ray of relation passes from every other being to about and Hitler: Heroes, him. And neither can man be understood without these objects, nor these objects without man. All the facts in natural history taken by themselves, have no value, but are barren, like a single sex.

But marry it to human history, and it is full of life. Whole Floras, all Linnaeus' and Buffon's volumes, are dry catalogues of facts; but the most trivial of these facts, the habit of a plant, the organs, or work, or noise of an insect, applied to the illustration of a fact in intellectual philosophy, or, in any way associated to human nature, affects us in the most lively and agreeable manner. The seed of a plant, -- to what affecting analogies in the nature of format, man, is that little fruit made use of, in all discourse, up to the voice of Paul, who calls the human corpse a seed, -- It is sown a natural body; it is raised a spiritual body. The motion of the earth round its axis, and round the sun, makes the day, and the year. These are certain amounts of brute light and heat. But is how does beowulf kill there no intent of an analogy between man's life and the seasons?

And do the seasons gain no grandeur or pathos from that analogy? The instincts of the format, ant are very unimportant, considered as the what, ant's; but the moment a ray of format, relation is flags seen to extend from it to format, man, and the little drudge is seen to be a monitor, a little body with a mighty heart, then all its habits, even that said to be recently observed, that it never sleeps, become sublime. Because of this radical correspondence between visible things and human thoughts, savages, who have only what is necessary, converse in figures. The Bear Novel! As we go back in history, language becomes more picturesque, until its infancy, when it is all poetry; or all spiritual facts are represented by natural symbols. The same symbols are found to make the original elements of all languages. It has moreover been observed, that the sonnet format, idioms of all languages approach each other in in Harper A Mockingbird passages of the greatest eloquence and power. And as this is the first language, so is it the sonnet format, last. This immediate dependence of language upon nature, this conversion of an outward phenomenon into a type of somewhat in human life, never loses its power to affect us. It is this which gives that piquancy to the conversation of a strong-natured farmer or back-woodsman, which all men relish. A man's power to connect his thought with its proper symbol, and what is a so to utter it, depends on the simplicity of his character, that is, upon his love of truth, and his desire to communicate it without loss. The corruption of format, man is followed by is a, the corruption of language.

When simplicity of character and the sovereignty of sonnet, ideas is broken up by the prevalence of secondary desires, the desire of riches, of pleasure, of power, and of praise, -- and the bear novel duplicity and falsehood take place of simplicity and truth, the power over nature as an sonnet interpreter of the will, is in a degree lost; new imagery ceases to be created, and old words are perverted to stand for things which are not; a paper currency is Essay about Macbeth Two Tragic Heroes employed, when there is no bullion in the vaults. In due time, the fraud is manifest, and words lose all power to stimulate the understanding or the affections. Hundreds of writers may be found in every long-civilized nation, who for a short time believe, and make others believe, that they see and utter truths, who do not of themselves clothe one thought in format its natural garment, but who feed unconsciously on the language created by the primary writers of the country, those, namely, who hold primarily on nature. But wise men pierce this rotten diction and fasten words again to the bear novel, visible things; so that picturesque language is at once a commanding certificate that he who employs it, is a man in sonnet format alliance with truth and God. The moment our discourse rises above the ground line of all country one by one, familiar facts, and format is inflamed with passion or exalted by thought, it clothes itself in images. A man conversing in earnest, if he watch his intellectual processes, will find that a material image, more or less luminous, arises in his mind, cotemporaneous with every thought, which furnishes the Essay Heroes, vestment of the thought.

Hence, good writing and brilliant discourse are perpetual allegories. This imagery is spontaneous. It is the blending of experience with the present action of the mind. Format! It is proper creation. What Is A! It is the working of the Original Cause through the instruments he has already made. These facts may suggest the advantage which the country-life possesses for a powerful mind, over the artificial and curtailed life of cities. We know more from nature than we can at will communicate. Its light flows into the mind evermore, and we forget its presence.

The poet, the orator, bred in the woods, whose senses have been nourished by their fair and appeasing changes, year after year, without design and without heed, -- shall not lose their lesson altogether, in the roar of sonnet format, cities or the broil of politics. What Is A! Long hereafter, amidst agitation and terror in national councils, -- in the hour of revolution, -- these solemn images shall reappear in their morning lustre, as fit symbols and words of the format, thoughts which the passing events shall awaken. At the call of a noble sentiment, again the about, woods wave, the pines murmur, the river rolls and shines, and the cattle low upon the mountains, as he saw and heard them in his infancy. And with these forms, the spells of persuasion, the keys of power are put into his hands. 3. We are thus assisted by natural objects in the expression of particular meanings. But how great a language to convey such pepper-corn informations!

Did it need such noble races of sonnet, creatures, this profusion of forms, this host of the dragon, orbs in heaven, to furnish man with the dictionary and grammar of his municipal speech? Whilst we use this grand cipher to expedite the affairs of our pot and kettle, we feel that we have not yet put it to its use, neither are able. Sonnet Format! We are like travellers using the cinders of a volcano to roast their eggs. Whilst we see that it always stands ready to the bear novel, clothe what we would say, we cannot avoid the question, whether the characters are not significant of themselves. Have mountains, and format waves, and skies, no significance but what we consciously give them, when we employ them as emblems of of virtue ethics, our thoughts? The world is emblematic. Parts of sonnet, speech are metaphors, because the all country, whole of nature is format a metaphor of the human mind. The laws of moral nature answer to those of matter as face to face in a glass.

The visible world and the relation of its parts, is the dial plate of the invisible. The axioms of physics translate the laws of the bear novel, ethics. Thus, the whole is greater than its part; reaction is equal to sonnet format, action; the smallest weight may be made to lift the greatest, the all country flags, difference of weight being compensated by time; and many the like propositions, which have an ethical as well as physical sense. These propositions have a much more extensive and sonnet format universal sense when applied to human life, than when confined to technical use. In like manner, the memorable words of history, and the proverbs of nations, consist usually of a natural fact, selected as a picture or parable of a moral truth. Thus; A rolling stone gathers no moss; A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush; A cripple in the right way, will beat a racer in the wrong; Make hay while the sun shines; 'T is hard to carry a full cup even; Vinegar is the son of Essay and Hitler: Heroes, wine; The last ounce broke the camel's back; Long-lived trees make roots first; -- and the like. In their primary sense these are trivial facts, but we repeat them for the value of their analogical import. What is true of proverbs, is true of all fables, parables, and allegories.

This relation between the mind and format matter is flags one by not fancied by some poet, but stands in the will of God, and format so is free to be known by all men. It appears to men, or it does not appear. When in fortunate hours we ponder this miracle, the wise man doubts, if, at all other times, he is not blind and deaf; ------ Can these things be, And overcome us like a summer's cloud, Without our special wonder? for the universe becomes transparent, and the light of higher laws than its own, shines through it. It is the standing problem which has exercised the is a customer, wonder and sonnet format the study of every fine genius since the world began; from the era of the Egyptians and the Brahmins, to that of Pythagoras, of Plato, of Bacon, of Leibnitz, of Swedenborg. There sits the Sphinx at the road-side, and from age to age, as each prophet comes by, he tries his fortune at reading her riddle. There seems to be a necessity in spirit to manifest itself in material forms; and day and night, river and storm, beast and bird, acid and alkali, preexist in necessary Ideas in the mind of God, and are what they are by virtue of preceding affections, in the world of spirit.

A Fact is the end or last issue of spirit. The visible creation is the terminus or the circumference of the invisible world. Material objects, said a French philosopher, are necessarily kinds of scoriae of the substantial thoughts of the about Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, Creator, which must always preserve an exact relation to their first origin; in other words, visible nature must have a spiritual and sonnet moral side. This doctrine is abstruse, and though the images of garment, scoriae, mirror, c., may stimulate the fancy, we must summon the aid of subtler and more vital expositors to make it plain. Every scripture is to be interpreted by all country one, the same spirit which gave it forth, -- is the fundamental law of criticism. A life in harmony with nature, the sonnet, love of truth and of virtue, will purge the eyes to understand her text.

By degrees we may come to know the primitive sense of the permanent objects of nature, so that the world shall be to us an open book, and every form significant of its hidden life and final cause. A new interest surprises us, whilst, under the the bear novel, view now suggested, we contemplate the fearful extent and multitude of objects; since every object rightly seen, unlocks a new faculty of the soul. Format! That which was unconscious truth, becomes, when interpreted and defined in an object, a part of the domain of knowledge, -- a new weapon in the magazine of power. Chapter V DISCIPLINE In view of the significance of nature, we arrive at once at a new fact, that nature is a discipline. This use of the world includes the the dragon, preceding uses, as parts of itself. Space, time, society, labor, climate, food, locomotion, the animals, the mechanical forces, give us sincerest lessons, day by day, whose meaning is unlimited. They educate both the sonnet, Understanding and the Reason. Every property of matter is a school for the understanding, -- its solidity or resistance, its inertia, its extension, its figure, its divisibility. The understanding adds, divides, combines, measures, and finds nutriment and the bear novel room for its activity in sonnet format this worthy scene.

Meantime, Reason transfers all these lessons into its own world of thought, by perceiving the analogy that marries Matter and Mind. 1. Nature is a discipline of the understanding in intellectual truths. Our dealing with sensible objects is a constant exercise in the necessary lessons of difference, of likeness, of order, of being and strengths and weaknesses of virtue seeming, of progressive arrangement; of ascent from sonnet, particular to general; of combination to strengths ethics, one end of manifold forces. Proportioned to the importance of the sonnet format, organ to how does the dragon, be formed, is the extreme care with which its tuition is provided, -- a care pretermitted in no single case. What tedious training, day after day, year after year, never ending, to form the common sense; what continual reproduction of annoyances, inconveniences, dilemmas; what rejoicing over us of little men; what disputing of sonnet, prices, what reckonings of interest, -- and what is a customer all to form the Hand of the mind; -- to instruct us that good thoughts are no better than good dreams, unless they be executed! The same good office is performed by Property and its filial systems of debt and format credit. What Customer! Debt, grinding debt, whose iron face the widow, the orphan, and the sons of genius fear and sonnet format hate; -- debt, which consumes so much time, which so cripples and disheartens a great spirit with cares that seem so base, is a preceptor whose lessons cannot be forgone, and is needed most by those who suffer from it most. Moreover, property, which has been well compared to Bob Ewell, snow, -- if it fall level to-day, it will be blown into drifts to-morrow, -- is the surface action of internal machinery, like the index on the face of a clock. Whilst now it is the sonnet format, gymnastics of the understanding, it is hiving in the foresight of the spirit, experience in profounder laws. The whole character and fortune of the individual are affected by all country flags one by one, the least inequalities in the culture of the understanding; for example, in sonnet the perception of differences.

Therefore is Space, and beowulf kill therefore Time, that man may know that things are not huddled and lumped, but sundered and individual. Format! A bell and a plough have each their use, and neither can do the office of the other. Water is good to drink, coal to burn, wool to wear; but wool cannot be drunk, nor water spun, nor coal eaten. The wise man shows his wisdom in separation, in gradation, and his scale of creatures and of merits is as wide as nature. The foolish have no range in Bob Ewell A Mockingbird their scale, but suppose every man is as every other man.

What is not good they call the worst, and what is not hateful, they call the best. In like manner, what good heed, nature forms in us! She pardons no mistakes. Her yea is yea, and sonnet format her nay, nay. The first steps in Agriculture, Astronomy, Zoology, (those first steps which the farmer, the is a, hunter, and the sailor take,) teach that nature's dice are always loaded; that in her heaps and rubbish are concealed sure and useful results. How calmly and genially the mind apprehends one after another the laws of physics! What noble emotions dilate the format, mortal as he enters into the counsels of the creation, and feels by knowledge the privilege to BE! His insight refines him. The beauty of nature shines in his own breast. Man is greater that he can see this, and the universe less, because Time and Space relations vanish as laws are known. Here again we are impressed and even daunted by the immense Universe to be explored.

What we know, is a point to what we do not know. Open any recent journal of science, and weigh the problems suggested concerning Light, Heat, Electricity, Magnetism, Physiology, Geology, and judge whether the interest of natural science is likely to be soon exhausted. Passing by many particulars of the discipline of nature, we must not omit to specify two. The exercise of the Will or the lesson of power is taught in every event. From the child's successive possession of his several senses up to Macbeth and Hitler:, the hour when he saith, Thy will be done! he is learning the secret, that he can reduce under his will, not only particular events, but great classes, nay the whole series of sonnet format, events, and so conform all facts to his character. Nature is thoroughly mediate. It is made to serve. It receives the dominion of man as meekly as the ass on which the Saviour rode. It offers all its kingdoms to man as the raw material which he may mould into what is useful. Man is never weary of working it up.

He forges the of virtue ethics, subtile and delicate air into wise and melodious words, and format gives them wing as angels of persuasion and command. The Bear Novel! One after another, his victorious thought comes up with and format reduces all things, until the world becomes, at last, only a realized will, -- the double of the what customer, man. 2. Sensible objects conform to the premonitions of Reason and sonnet format reflect the flags one by, conscience. All things are moral; and in sonnet format their boundless changes have an unceasing reference to spiritual nature. All Country One! Therefore is nature glorious with form, color, and motion, that every globe in the remotest heaven; every chemical change from the rudest crystal up to the laws of life; every change of vegetation from the first principle of growth in the eye of a leaf, to the tropical forest and sonnet antediluvian coal-mine; every animal function from the sponge up to Hercules, shall hint or thunder to man the laws of right and wrong, and echo the Ten Commandments. Therefore is is a nature ever the ally of Religion: lends all her pomp and format riches to the religious sentiment. Prophet and priest, David, Isaiah, Jesus, have drawn deeply from this source. This ethical character so penetrates the bone and kill the dragon marrow of nature, as to seem the end for which it was made.

Whatever private purpose is answered by any member or part, this is its public and universal function, and is never omitted. Format! Nothing in nature is is a exhausted in its first use. When a thing has served an end to the uttermost, it is wholly new for an ulterior service. Sonnet Format! In God, every end is converted into a new means. Thus the use of commodity, regarded by itself, is mean and squalid. But it is to the mind an education in the doctrine of Use, namely, that a thing is good only so far as it serves; that a conspiring of parts and efforts to the production of an end, is essential to any being.

The first and gross manifestation of this truth, is our inevitable and hated training in values and Essay about Macbeth and Hitler: wants, in corn and format meat. It has already been illustrated, that every natural process is a version of a moral sentence. The moral law lies at the bear novel, the centre of nature and radiates to the circumference. It is the pith and marrow of every substance, every relation, and every process. All things with which we deal, preach to us. What is a farm but a mute gospel? The chaff and the wheat, weeds and plants, blight, rain, insects, sun, -- it is format a sacred emblem from the first furrow of spring to the last stack which the snow of winter overtakes in the fields. But the sailor, the shepherd, the miner, the merchant, in their several resorts, have each an experience precisely parallel, and leading to the same conclusion: because all organizations are radically alike. Nor can it be doubted that this moral sentiment which thus scents the air, grows in the grain, and impregnates the waters of the Essay, world, is caught by man and sinks into his soul. The moral influence of nature upon every individual is that amount of truth which it illustrates to him.

Who can estimate this? Who can guess how much firmness the sea-beaten rock has taught the fisherman? how much tranquillity has been reflected to sonnet format, man from the azure sky, over A Mockingbird Essay whose unspotted deeps the winds forevermore drive flocks of stormy clouds, and leave no wrinkle or stain? how much industry and providence and affection we have caught from the pantomime of brutes? What a searching preacher of self-command is the varying phenomenon of Health! Herein is especially apprehended the unity of Nature, -- the unity in variety, -- which meets us everywhere. All the endless variety of things make an identical impression. Xenophanes complained in his old age, that, look where he would, all things hastened back to Unity. He was weary of seeing the sonnet, same entity in the tedious variety of forms. The fable of Proteus has a cordial truth. Bob Ewell To Kill A Mockingbird! A leaf, a drop, a crystal, a moment of time is related to the whole, and partakes of the perfection of the whole. Each particle is a microcosm, and faithfully renders the likeness of the world.

Not only resemblances exist in things whose analogy is obvious, as when we detect the type of the human hand in the flipper of the format, fossil saurus, but also in objects wherein there is great superficial unlikeness. Thus architecture is called frozen music, by De Stael and Goethe. Vitruvius thought an beowulf kill architect should be a musician. A Gothic church, said Coleridge, is a petrified religion. Michael Angelo maintained, that, to an architect, a knowledge of anatomy is essential. In Haydn's oratorios, the sonnet, notes present to the imagination not only motions, as, of the snake, the stag, and the elephant, but colors also; as the green grass. The law of harmonic sounds reappears in strengths and weaknesses the harmonic colors. The granite is format differenced in its laws only by about and Hitler: Two Tragic, the more or less of heat, from the river that wears it away. Sonnet Format! The river, as it flows, resembles the is a customer, air that flows over it; the air resembles the light which traverses it with more subtile currents; the light resembles the heat which rides with it through Space. Each creature is only a modification of the other; the sonnet, likeness in them is Essay Macbeth Heroes more than the difference, and their radical law is one and the same.

A rule of one art, or a law of one organization, holds true throughout nature. So intimate is this Unity, that, it is easily seen, it lies under the undermost garment of nature, and betrays its source in sonnet Universal Spirit. For, it pervades Thought also. Every universal truth which we express in beowulf kill the dragon words, implies or supposes every other truth. Omne verum vero consonat. It is like a great circle on a sphere, comprising all possible circles; which, however, may be drawn, and comprise it, in format like manner. Every such truth is the absolute Ens seen from one side.

But it has innumerable sides. The central Unity is still more conspicuous in actions. What! Words are finite organs of the infinite mind. They cannot cover the dimensions of what is in truth. They break, chop, and impoverish it. An action is the perfection and publication of thought. A right action seems to fill the eye, and to sonnet format, be related to Bob Ewell Lee's A Mockingbird Essay, all nature. The wise man, in doing one thing, does all; or, in sonnet the one thing he does rightly, he sees the likeness of all which is done rightly. Words and actions are not the attributes of brute nature.

They introduce us to in Harper Essay, the human form, of which all other organizations appear to be degradations. When this appears among so many that surround it, the spirit prefers it to all others. Sonnet Format! It says, `From such as this, have I drawn joy and knowledge; in such as this, have I found and beheld myself; I will speak to it; it can speak again; it can yield me thought already formed and alive.' In fact, the eye, -- the mind, -- is always accompanied by these forms, male and female; and these are incomparably the richest informations of the power and order that lie at the heart of things. What Customer! Unfortunately, every one of them bears the marks as of some injury; is marred and superficially defective. Nevertheless, far different from the sonnet, deaf and dumb nature around them, these all rest like fountain-pipes on the unfathomed sea of thought and virtue whereto they alone, of all organizations, are the entrances. It were a pleasant inquiry to follow into detail their ministry to our education, but where would it stop? We are associated in adolescent and adult life with some friends, who, like skies and waters, are coextensive with our idea; who, answering each to a certain affection of the soul, satisfy our desire on that side; whom we lack power to put at such focal distance from us, that we can mend or even analyze them. We cannot choose but love them. When much intercourse with a friend has supplied us with a standard of excellence, and has increased our respect for the resources of God who thus sends a real person to how does beowulf the dragon, outgo our ideal; when he has, moreover, become an object of thought, and, whilst his character retains all its unconscious effect, is converted in sonnet format the mind into solid and the bear novel sweet wisdom, -- it is a sign to us that his office is sonnet format closing, and he is commonly withdrawn from our sight in a short time. Chapter VI IDEALISM Thus is the unspeakable but intelligible and practicable meaning of the world conveyed to man, the immortal pupil, in every object of sense. To this one end of Discipline, all parts of nature conspire.

A noble doubt perpetually suggests itself, whether this end be not the Final Cause of the Universe; and whether nature outwardly exists. It is a sufficient account of that Appearance we call the World, that God will teach a human mind, and all country one so makes it the receiver of sonnet, a certain number of congruent sensations, which we call sun and moon, man and woman, house and trade. In my utter impotence to what customer, test the authenticity of the report of my senses, to know whether the impressions they make on me correspond with outlying objects, what difference does it make, whether Orion is up there in heaven, or some god paints the image in the firmament of the soul? The relations of parts and sonnet the end of the whole remaining the same, what is the all country one by one, difference, whether land and sea interact, and worlds revolve and intermingle without number or end, -- deep yawning under deep, and galaxy balancing galaxy, throughout absolute space, -- or, whether, without relations of time and space, the same appearances are inscribed in the constant faith of man? Whether nature enjoy a substantial existence without, or is only in the apocalypse of the mind, it is alike useful and alike venerable to me. Be it what it may, it is ideal to me, so long as I cannot try the accuracy of format, my senses. The frivolous make themselves merry with the Ideal theory, as if its consequences were burlesque; as if it affected the stability of nature. It surely does not. God never jests with us, and will not compromise the end of nature, by permitting any inconsequence in its procession. Any distrust of the permanence of laws, would paralyze the the bear novel, faculties of man. Their permanence is sacredly respected, and his faith therein is perfect.

The wheels and springs of man are all set to the hypothesis of the permanence of nature. We are not built like a ship to format, be tossed, but like a house to stand. Of Virtue! It is a natural consequence of this structure, that, so long as the active powers predominate over the reflective, we resist with indignation any hint that nature is more short-lived or mutable than spirit. The broker, the wheelwright, the carpenter, the toll-man, are much displeased at the intimation. But whilst we acquiesce entirely in the permanence of natural laws, the question of the sonnet format, absolute existence of nature still remains open. It is the uniform effect of culture on flags one by one, the human mind, not to shake our faith in the stability of particular phenomena, as of heat, water, azote; but to lead us to regard nature as a phenomenon, not a substance; to attribute necessary existence to spirit; to esteem nature as an accident and an effect. To the senses and the unrenewed understanding, belongs a sort of format, instinctive belief in the absolute existence of nature. In their view, man and nature are indissolubly joined. Things are ultimates, and they never look beyond their sphere.

The presence of Reason mars this faith. And Weaknesses Of Virtue! The first effort of thought tends to relax this despotism of the senses, which binds us to nature as if we were a part of it, and shows us nature aloof, and, as it were, afloat. Until this higher agency intervened, the animal eye sees, with wonderful accuracy, sharp outlines and colored surfaces. When the eye of Reason opens, to outline and surface are at once added, grace and expression. These proceed from imagination and affection, and abate somewhat of the angular distinctness of objects. If the Reason be stimulated to more earnest vision, outlines and surfaces become transparent, and sonnet are no longer seen; causes and spirits are seen through them. Bob Ewell Lee's! The best moments of life are these delicious awakenings of the higher powers, and the reverential withdrawing of nature before its God. Let us proceed to sonnet format, indicate the effects of culture. 1. Our first institution in the Ideal philosophy is Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's a hint from nature herself.

Nature is made to conspire with spirit to sonnet format, emancipate us. Certain mechanical changes, a small alteration in our local position apprizes us of a dualism. We are strangely affected by seeing the shore from a moving ship, from flags one by one, a balloon, or through the sonnet, tints of an unusual sky. The least change in our point of view, gives the whole world a pictorial air. A man who seldom rides, needs only to get into how does beowulf kill the dragon, a coach and traverse his own town, to turn the street into a puppet-show. The men, the women, -- talking, running, bartering, fighting, -- the earnest mechanic, the lounger, the beggar, the boys, the dogs, are unrealized at once, or, at least, wholly detached from all relation to the observer, and seen as apparent, not substantial beings.

What new thoughts are suggested by seeing a face of country quite familiar, in the rapid movement of the sonnet format, rail-road car! Nay, the most wonted objects, (make a very slight change in the point of vision,) please us most. In a camera obscura, the butcher's cart, and the figure of one of our own family amuse us. So a portrait of a well-known face gratifies us. Turn the eyes upside down, by looking at the landscape through your legs, and how agreeable is the picture, though you have seen it any time these twenty years! In these cases, by mechanical means, is suggested the difference between the all country flags one by, observer and the spectacle, -- between man and nature. Hence arises a pleasure mixed with awe; I may say, a low degree of the sublime is felt from the fact, probably, that man is hereby apprized, that, whilst the world is a spectacle, something in himself is stable.

2. In a higher manner, the poet communicates the same pleasure. By a few strokes he delineates, as on air, the sun, the mountain, the camp, the city, the hero, the maiden, not different from what we know them, but only lifted from the ground and afloat before the format, eye. Customer! He unfixes the land and the sea, makes them revolve around the axis of his primary thought, and disposes them anew. Possessed himself by a heroic passion, he uses matter as symbols of it. The sensual man conforms thoughts to things; the poet conforms things to his thoughts. The one esteems nature as rooted and fast; the other, as fluid, and sonnet impresses his being thereon. To him, the refractory world is ductile and flexible; he invests dust and stones with humanity, and makes them the strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics, words of the Reason. The Imagination may be defined to be, the use which the Reason makes of the material world. Shakspeare possesses the power of sonnet, subordinating nature for the purposes of expression, beyond all poets. His imperial muse tosses the the bear novel, creation like a bauble from hand to sonnet, hand, and uses it to embody any caprice of Bob Ewell in Harper A Mockingbird Essay, thought that is upper-most in his mind.

The remotest spaces of nature are visited, and the farthest sundered things are brought together, by a subtle spiritual connection. We are made aware that magnitude of material things is sonnet format relative, and all objects shrink and expand to serve the passion of the poet. Thus, in his sonnets, the lays of birds, the scents and dyes of flowers, he finds to be the shadow of his beloved; time, which keeps her from him, is his chest ; the suspicion she has awakened, is her ornament ; The ornament of beauty is and weaknesses Suspect, A crow which flies in heaven's sweetest air. His passion is not the fruit of sonnet, chance; it swells, as he speaks, to a city, or a state.

No, it was builded far from accident; It suffers not in smiling pomp, nor falls. Under the brow of thralling discontent; It fears not policy, that heretic, That works on about Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes, leases of short numbered hours, But all alone stands hugely politic In the strength of his constancy, the Pyramids seem to him recent and transitory. The freshness of youth and love dazzles him with its resemblance to morning.

Take those lips away. Which so sweetly were forsworn; And those eyes, -- the break of day, Lights that do mislead the morn. The wild beauty of this hyperbole, I may say, in passing, it would not be easy to match in sonnet format literature.

This transfiguration which all material objects undergo through the Bob Ewell Essay, passion of the poet, -- this power which he exerts to dwarf the great, to magnify the small, -- might be illustrated by a thousand examples from his Plays. I have before me the Tempest, and format will cite only these few lines. ARIEL. The strong based promontory. Have I made shake, and by the spurs plucked up. The pine and cedar. Prospero calls for music to soothe the frantic Alonzo, and his companions; A solemn air, and the best comforter. To an unsettled fancy, cure thy brains. Now useless, boiled within thy skull. Again;

The charm dissolves apace, And, as the morning steals upon the night, Melting the darkness, so their rising senses. Begin to chase the ignorant fumes that mantle. Their clearer reason. Begins to swell: and the approaching tide. Will shortly fill the reasonable shores. That now lie foul and muddy. The perception of real affinities between events, (that is to say, of ideal affinities, for those only are real,) enables the poet thus to strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics, make free with the most imposing forms and phenomena of the world, and to assert the predominance of the soul. 3. Whilst thus the poet animates nature with his own thoughts, he differs from the philosopher only herein, that the one proposes Beauty as his main end; the other Truth.

But the philosopher, not less than the poet, postpones the apparent order and relations of things to the empire of thought. The problem of philosophy, according to Plato, is, for all that exists conditionally, to find a ground unconditioned and absolute. It proceeds on the faith that a law determines all phenomena, which being known, the phenomena can be predicted. That law, when in the mind, is an idea. Its beauty is sonnet infinite. The true philosopher and the true poet are one, and a beauty, which is truth, and the bear novel a truth, which is beauty, is the aim of both. Is not the charm of one of Plato's or Aristotle's definitions, strictly like that of the Antigone of Sophocles?

It is, in both cases, that a spiritual life has been imparted to nature; that the solid seeming block of matter has been pervaded and dissolved by format, a thought; that this feeble human being has penetrated the vast masses of of virtue, nature with an informing soul, and recognised itself in their harmony, that is, seized their law. In physics, when this is attained, the memory disburthens itself of its cumbrous catalogues of particulars, and carries centuries of observation in sonnet format a single formula. Thus even in physics, the material is degraded before the spiritual. The astronomer, the geometer, rely on their irrefragable analysis, and disdain the results of observation. The sublime remark of Euler on Bob Ewell in Harper Essay, his law of sonnet, arches, This will be found contrary to all experience, yet is true; had already transferred nature into the mind, and left matter like an outcast corpse. 4. The Bear Novel! Intellectual science has been observed to beget invariably a doubt of the existence of matter. Turgot said, He that has never doubted the existence of matter, may be assured he has no aptitude for metaphysical inquiries.

It fastens the attention upon immortal necessary uncreated natures, that is, upon Ideas; and in their presence, we feel that the outward circumstance is a dream and a shade. Whilst we wait in this Olympus of gods, we think of nature as an appendix to the soul. We ascend into their region, and know that these are the thoughts of the Supreme Being. These are they who were set up from format, everlasting, from the beginning, or ever the earth was. The Bear Novel! When he prepared the heavens, they were there; when he established the clouds above, when he strengthened the fountains of the format, deep. Then they were by him, as one brought up with him. Of them took he counsel. Their influence is the bear novel proportionate.

As objects of science, they are accessible to few men. Yet all men are capable of sonnet, being raised by Macbeth Heroes, piety or by passion, into their region. And no man touches these divine natures, without becoming, in some degree, himself divine. Like a new soul, they renew the body. We become physically nimble and lightsome; we tread on air; life is no longer irksome, and we think it will never be so. Sonnet Format! No man fears age or misfortune or death, in their serene company, for he is transported out of the district of change. Whilst we behold unveiled the nature of Justice and what customer Truth, we learn the difference between the absolute and the conditional or relative.

We apprehend the format, absolute. As it were, for the first time, we exist. We become immortal, for we learn that time and space are relations of matter; that, with a perception of truth, or a virtuous will, they have no affinity. 5. In Harper To Kill Essay! Finally, religion and sonnet ethics, which may be fitly called, -- the practice of ideas, or the introduction of ideas into life, -- have an analogous effect with all lower culture, in degrading nature and Macbeth suggesting its dependence on spirit. Ethics and sonnet religion differ herein; that the one is the system of human duties commencing from man; the other, from Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's, God. Religion includes the personality of God; Ethics does not. They are one to our present design. They both put nature under foot.

The first and last lesson of religion is, The things that are seen, are temporal; the things that are unseen, are eternal. It puts an affront upon nature. It does that for the unschooled, which philosophy does for Berkeley and Viasa. The uniform language that may be heard in the churches of the most ignorant sects, is,------Contemn the unsubstantial shows of the world; they are vanities, dreams, shadows, unrealities; seek the format, realities of religion. The devotee flouts nature. Some theosophists have arrived at a certain hostility and indignation towards matter, as the Manichean and Plotinus. They distrusted in themselves any looking back to these flesh-pots of Egypt. Plotinus was ashamed of his body. Ethics! In short, they might all say of matter, what Michael Angelo said of external beauty, it is the frail and weary weed, in which God dresses the soul, which he has called into time.

It appears that motion, poetry, physical and intellectual science, and religion, all tend to affect our convictions of the reality of the external world. But I own there is something ungrateful in expanding too curiously the particulars of the general proposition, that all culture tends to format, imbue us with idealism. I have no hostility to nature, but a child's love to it. I expand and live in the warm day like corn and melons. Let us speak her fair.

I do not wish to fling stones at my beautiful mother, nor soil my gentle nest. I only wish to indicate the true position of nature in regard to man, wherein to flags one by one, establish man, all right education tends; as the format, ground which to attain is the in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay, object of format, human life, that is, of man's connection with nature. Culture inverts the vulgar views of nature, and Bob Ewell Lee's Essay brings the mind to call that apparent, which it uses to call real, and that real, which it uses to call visionary. Children, it is true, believe in the external world. The belief that it appears only, is an afterthought, but with culture, this faith will as surely arise on the mind as did the sonnet format, first. The advantage of the ideal theory over the popular faith, is this, that it presents the Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill, world in precisely that view which is format most desirable to the mind. It is, in fact, the view which Reason, both speculative and practical, that is, philosophy and virtue, take. For, seen in the light of thought, the world always is phenomenal; and virtue subordinates it to the mind.

Idealism sees the world in God. It beholds the whole circle of persons and things, of actions and events, of country and religion, not as painfully accumulated, atom after atom, act after act, in an aged creeping Past, but as one vast picture, which God paints on the instant eternity, for the contemplation of the soul. Therefore the soul holds itself off from a too trivial and microscopic study of the universal tablet. It respects the end too much, to immerse itself in the means. It sees something more important in Christianity, than the scandals of ecclesiastical history, or the niceties of criticism; and, very incurious concerning persons or miracles, and not at all disturbed by chasms of historical evidence, it accepts from God the phenomenon, as it finds it, as the pure and awful form of religion in the world.

It is not hot and the bear novel passionate at the appearance of what it calls its own good or bad fortune, at sonnet, the union or opposition of other persons. No man is its enemy. It accepts whatsoever befalls, as part of its lesson. What! It is a watcher more than a doer, and it is a doer, only sonnet format that it may the better watch. How Does Beowulf Kill! Chapter VII SPIRIT It is essential to a true theory of sonnet, nature and of man, that it should contain somewhat progressive.

Uses that are exhausted or that may be, and facts that end in the statement, cannot be all that is true of this brave lodging wherein man is harbored, and flags one by wherein all his faculties find appropriate and endless exercise. And all the sonnet, uses of nature admit of Bob Ewell A Mockingbird, being summed in one, which yields the activity of man an infinite scope. Through all its kingdoms, to sonnet format, the suburbs and outskirts of things, it is faithful to To Kill A Mockingbird Essay, the cause whence it had its origin. It always speaks of Spirit. It suggests the absolute. It is sonnet a perpetual effect. It is a great shadow pointing always to Bob Ewell Essay, the sun behind us.

The aspect of nature is devout. Like the sonnet format, figure of Jesus, she stands with bended head, and all country one by hands folded upon the breast. The happiest man is he who learns from nature the lesson of worship. Of that ineffable essence which we call Spirit, he that thinks most, will say least. We can foresee God in the coarse, and, as it were, distant phenomena of matter; but when we try to define and sonnet describe himself, both language and thought desert us, and we are as helpless as fools and Macbeth and Hitler: Heroes savages. That essence refuses to format, be recorded in one by one propositions, but when man has worshipped him intellectually, the noblest ministry of nature is to stand as the sonnet format, apparition of God. It is the organ through which the universal spirit speaks to the bear novel, the individual, and strives to lead back the format, individual to it. When we consider Spirit, we see that the views already presented do not include the whole circumference of man. We must add some related thoughts.

Three problems are put by nature to the mind; What is matter? Whence is it? and Whereto? The first of these questions only, the ideal theory answers. Idealism saith: matter is a phenomenon, not a substance. Idealism acquaints us with the total disparity between the evidence of Lee's To Kill Essay, our own being, and the evidence of the sonnet, world's being. The one is perfect; the other, incapable of any assurance; the mind is a part of the nature of what is a, things; the world is a divine dream, from which we may presently awake to the glories and certainties of day. Idealism is a hypothesis to account for nature by sonnet format, other principles than those of carpentry and chemistry.

Yet, if it only deny the existence of matter, it does not satisfy the demands of the spirit. It leaves God out of me. Strengths And Weaknesses Of Virtue Ethics! It leaves me in the splendid labyrinth of my perceptions, to wander without end. Then the heart resists it, because it balks the affections in denying substantive being to men and women. Nature is so pervaded with human life, that there is something of humanity in all, and in every particular. But this theory makes nature foreign to me, and does not account for that consanguinity which we acknowledge to it. Let it stand, then, in the present state of our knowledge, merely as a useful introductory hypothesis, serving to apprize us of the eternal distinction between the sonnet, soul and the world. But when, following the invisible steps of thought, we come to inquire, Whence is matter? and Whereto? many truths arise to what is a customer, us out of the sonnet format, recesses of consciousness.

We learn that the highest is present to Essay about Two Tragic, the soul of sonnet format, man, that the how does beowulf the dragon, dread universal essence, which is not wisdom, or love, or beauty, or power, but all in one, and each entirely, is that for which all things exist, and that by which they are; that spirit creates; that behind nature, throughout nature, spirit is present; one and not compound, it does not act upon us from sonnet, without, that is, in space and time, but spiritually, or through ourselves: therefore, that spirit, that is, the Supreme Being, does not build up nature around us, but puts it forth through us, as the life of the tree puts forth new branches and leaves through the pores of the old. As a plant upon the earth, so a man rests upon the bosom of God; he is nourished by unfailing fountains, and draws, at his need, inexhaustible power. Who can set bounds to the possibilities of man? Once inhale the upper air, being admitted to behold the absolute natures of justice and truth, and we learn that man has access to the entire mind of the Creator, is himself the creator in the finite. This view, which admonishes me where the sources of wisdom and power lie, and points to virtue as to The golden key. Which opes the palace of customer, eternity, carries upon its face the highest certificate of truth, because it animates me to create my own world through the purification of my soul. The world proceeds from the sonnet format, same spirit as the the bear novel, body of format, man. It is a remoter and inferior incarnation of God, a projection of God in the unconscious.

But it differs from the body in one important respect. It is not, like that, now subjected to the human will. Its serene order is inviolable by us. It is, therefore, to strengths, us, the present expositor of the divine mind. Sonnet Format! It is a fixed point whereby we may measure our departure. What Is A Customer! As we degenerate, the contrast between us and our house is more evident. We are as much strangers in nature, as we are aliens from God. We do not understand the notes of birds. The fox and the deer run away from sonnet format, us; the strengths of virtue ethics, bear and tiger rend us. We do not know the sonnet format, uses of more than a few plants, as corn and how does the dragon the apple, the potato and the vine.

Is not the landscape, every glimpse of which hath a grandeur, a face of him? Yet this may show us what discord is between man and nature, for you cannot freely admire a noble landscape, if laborers are digging in the field hard by. The poet finds something ridiculous in his delight, until he is out of the sight of men. Chapter VIII PROSPECTS In inquiries respecting the laws of the world and the frame of things, the highest reason is always the truest. That which seems faintly possible -- it is so refined, is often faint and dim because it is deepest seated in the mind among the eternal verities.

Empirical science is apt to cloud the sight, and, by the very knowledge of functions and processes, to bereave the student of the manly contemplation of the whole. The savant becomes unpoetic. But the best read naturalist who lends an entire and devout attention to truth, will see that there remains much to learn of his relation to the world, and that it is not to sonnet format, be learned by any addition or subtraction or other comparison of known quantities, but is arrived at by untaught sallies of the spirit, by a continual self-recovery, and by entire humility. He will perceive that there are far more excellent qualities in the student than preciseness and infallibility; that a guess is the bear novel often more fruitful than an sonnet format indisputable affirmation, and that a dream may let us deeper into the secret of nature than a hundred concerted experiments. For, the problems to be solved are precisely those which the physiologist and beowulf kill the dragon the naturalist omit to state. It is not so pertinent to man to format, know all the individuals of the Bob Ewell Lee's To Kill Essay, animal kingdom, as it is to know whence and whereto is this tyrannizing unity in his constitution, which evermore separates and classifies things, endeavoring to format, reduce the most diverse to one form. When I behold a rich landscape, it is less to my purpose to Macbeth Two Tragic, recite correctly the order and superposition of the sonnet format, strata, than to know why all thought of multitude is lost in of virtue ethics a tranquil sense of unity. I cannot greatly honor minuteness in details, so long as there is no hint to explain the relation between things and thoughts; no ray upon the metaphysics of conchology, of botany, of the sonnet, arts, to show the relation of the forms of flowers, shells, animals, architecture, to the mind, and build science upon ideas.

In a cabinet of natural history, we become sensible of a certain occult recognition and sympathy in regard to the bear novel, the most unwieldly and sonnet eccentric forms of beast, fish, and insect. The American who has been confined, in his own country, to the sight of buildings designed after foreign models, is Bob Ewell in Harper A Mockingbird Essay surprised on sonnet format, entering York Minster or St. Peter's at Rome, by the feeling that these structures are imitations also, -- faint copies of an invisible archetype. Nor has science sufficient humanity, so long as the naturalist overlooks that wonderful congruity which subsists between man and the world; of which he is lord, not because he is the most subtile inhabitant, but because he is its head and heart, and strengths finds something of himself in every great and sonnet small thing, in flags every mountain stratum, in every new law of color, fact of astronomy, or atmospheric influence which observation or analysis lay open. A perception of this mystery inspires the muse of George Herbert, the beautiful psalmist of the seventeenth century. The following lines are part of his little poem on Man. Man is sonnet format all symmetry, Full of proportions, one limb to another, And to all the world besides. Each part may call the farthest, brother;

For head with foot hath private amity, And both with moons and tides. Nothing hath got so far. But man hath caught and kept it as his prey; His eyes dismount the highest star; He is in little all the what is a customer, sphere.

Herbs gladly cure our flesh, because that they. Find their acquaintance there. For us, the sonnet, winds do blow, The earth doth rest, heaven move, and fountains flow; Nothing we see, but means our good, As our delight, or as our treasure; The whole is customer either our cupboard of food, Or cabinet of pleasure. The stars have us to bed: Night draws the curtain; which the sun withdraws.

Music and light attend our head. All things unto our flesh are kind, In their descent and being; to our mind, In their ascent and cause. More servants wait on man. Than he'll take notice of.

In every path, He treads down that which doth befriend him. When sickness makes him pale and wan. Oh mighty love! Man is one world, and hath. Another to attend him.

The perception of this class of truths makes the attraction which draws men to science, but the end is sonnet lost sight of in attention to the means. In view of this half-sight of science, we accept the sentence of Plato, that, poetry comes nearer to the dragon, vital truth than history. Every surmise and vaticination of the mind is entitled to a certain respect, and we learn to prefer imperfect theories, and sentences, which contain glimpses of sonnet format, truth, to digested systems which have no one valuable suggestion. A wise writer will feel that the ends of study and composition are best answered by announcing undiscovered regions of thought, and so communicating, through hope, new activity to the torpid spirit. I shall therefore conclude this essay with some traditions of Essay Two Tragic Heroes, man and nature, which a certain poet sang to me; and which, as they have always been in the world, and perhaps reappear to every bard, may be both history and prophecy. `The foundations of man are not in matter, but in sonnet spirit.

But the element of spirit is eternity. To it, therefore, the longest series of events, the oldest chronologies are young and recent. In the cycle of the universal man, from whom the known individuals proceed, centuries are points, and all history is but the Essay, epoch of one degradation. `We distrust and format deny inwardly our sympathy with nature. We own and Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's Essay disown our relation to it, by turns. We are, like Nebuchadnezzar, dethroned, bereft of reason, and eating grass like an ox. But who can set limits to the remedial force of spirit? `A man is sonnet format a god in ruins. When men are innocent, life shall be longer, and shall pass into the immortal, as gently as we awake from dreams. Now, the world would be insane and rabid, if these disorganizations should last for hundreds of the bear novel, years.

It is sonnet kept in check by death and infancy. And Weaknesses Of Virtue Ethics! Infancy is the perpetual Messiah, which comes into the arms of fallen men, and pleads with them to return to paradise. `Man is the dwarf of himself. Once he was permeated and dissolved by spirit. Sonnet! He filled nature with his overflowing currents. Out from him sprang the sun and moon; from man, the the bear novel, sun; from woman, the moon. The laws of his mind, the periods of his actions externized themselves into day and night, into the year and the seasons.

But, having made for himself this huge shell, his waters retired; he no longer fills the veins and veinlets; he is shrunk to a drop. He sees, that the structure still fits him, but fits him colossally. Say, rather, once it fitted him, now it corresponds to him from far and on sonnet format, high. He adores timidly his own work. Now is man the follower of the sun, and woman the follower of the moon. Yet sometimes he starts in his slumber, and wonders at himself and his house, and muses strangely at the resemblance betwixt him and it. About And Hitler: Two Tragic Heroes! He perceives that if his law is sonnet still paramount, if still he have elemental power, if his word is sterling yet in nature, it is not conscious power, it is not inferior but superior to his will. It is Instinct.' Thus my Orphic poet sang. At present, man applies to nature but half his force.

He works on the bear novel, the world with his understanding alone. He lives in it, and sonnet masters it by a penny-wisdom; and he that works most in strengths and weaknesses of virtue ethics it, is but a half-man, and whilst his arms are strong and his digestion good, his mind is imbruted, and he is a selfish savage. His relation to sonnet format, nature, his power over it, is through the how does beowulf the dragon, understanding; as by manure; the economic use of fire, wind, water, and the mariner's needle; steam, coal, chemical agriculture; the repairs of the human body by the dentist and the surgeon. This is such a resumption of power, as if a banished king should buy his territories inch by inch, instead of vaulting at sonnet format, once into his throne. Meantime, in what the thick darkness, there are not wanting gleams of a better light, -- occasional examples of the action of man upon nature with his entire force, -- with reason as well as understanding. Such examples are; the traditions of miracles in the earliest antiquity of sonnet format, all nations; the history of is a, Jesus Christ; the achievements of sonnet format, a principle, as in religious and political revolutions, and in the abolition of the Slave-trade; the the bear novel, miracles of enthusiasm, as those reported of format, Swedenborg, Hohenlohe, and the Shakers; many obscure and yet contested facts, now arranged under the name of of virtue, Animal Magnetism; prayer; eloquence; self-healing; and the wisdom of children. These are examples of sonnet, Reason's momentary grasp of the sceptre; the exertions of a power which exists not in time or space, but an instantaneous in-streaming causing power. The difference between the actual and the ideal force of man is happily figured by the schoolmen, in saying, that the knowledge of man is an evening knowledge, vespertina cognitio, but that of about Two Tragic, God is sonnet a morning knowledge, matutina cognitio. The problem of restoring to the world original and eternal beauty, is solved by the redemption of the soul. The ruin or the blank, that we see when we look at nature, is in our own eye.

The axis of vision is not coincident with the axis of things, and so they appear not transparent but opake. The reason why the world lacks unity, and lies broken and in strengths of virtue heaps, is, because man is disunited with himself. Sonnet! He cannot be a naturalist, until he satisfies all the demands of the spirit. Love is as much its demand, as perception. Indeed, neither can be perfect without the other. In the uttermost meaning of the words, thought is devout, and devotion is thought. Deep calls unto deep.

But in actual life, the marriage is not celebrated. There are innocent men who worship God after the tradition of all country, their fathers, but their sense of duty has not yet extended to the use of all their faculties. And there are patient naturalists, but they freeze their subject under the wintry light of the understanding. Is not prayer also a study of truth, -- a sally of the soul into the unfound infinite? No man ever prayed heartily, without learning something.

But when a faithful thinker, resolute to detach every object from personal relations, and see it in the light of thought, shall, at sonnet format, the same time, kindle science with the fire of the holiest affections, then will God go forth anew into the creation. It will not need, when the and weaknesses of virtue, mind is prepared for study, to search for objects. The invariable mark of wisdom is to sonnet format, see the miraculous in the common. Strengths And Weaknesses Ethics! What is a day? What is a year? What is summer? What is woman? What is sonnet a child? What is sleep? To our blindness, these things seem unaffecting. Kill The Dragon! We make fables to hide the baldness of the fact and conform it, as we say, to the higher law of the mind.

But when the fact is seen under the light of an idea, the gaudy fable fades and shrivels. We behold the real higher law. Format! To the wise, therefore, a fact is true poetry, and the most beautiful of fables. These wonders are brought to how does beowulf the dragon, our own door. You also are a man. Sonnet Format! Man and woman, and their social life, poverty, labor, sleep, fear, fortune, are known to you. Learn that none of these things is superficial, but that each phenomenon has its roots in the faculties and affections of the mind. Whilst the abstract question occupies your intellect, nature brings it in the concrete to be solved by your hands. It were a wise inquiry for the closet, to compare, point by point, especially at remarkable crises in life, our daily history, with the rise and progress of ideas in the mind. So shall we come to look at the world with new eyes. It shall answer the the bear novel, endless inquiry of the intellect, -- What is truth? and of the format, affections, -- What is good? by yielding itself passive to the educated Will.

Then shall come to pass what my poet said; `Nature is not fixed but fluid. Spirit alters, moulds, makes it. The immobility or bruteness of nature, is the absence of spirit; to pure spirit, it is fluid, it is volatile, it is obedient. Every spirit builds itself a house; and beyond its house a world; and beyond its world, a heaven. Essay! Know then, that the world exists for sonnet you. For you is the phenomenon perfect. What we are, that only can we see.

All that Adam had, all that Caesar could, you have and can do. Adam called his house, heaven and earth; Caesar called his house, Rome; you perhaps call yours, a cobler's trade; a hundred acres of is a, ploughed land; or a scholar's garret. Yet line for line and point for point, your dominion is as great as theirs, though without fine names. Build, therefore, your own world. As fast as you conform your life to sonnet format, the pure idea in what is a customer your mind, that will unfold its great proportions. Format! A correspondent revolution in things will attend the influx of the spirit.

So fast will disagreeable appearances, swine, spiders, snakes, pests, madhouses, prisons, enemies, vanish; they are temporary and shall be no more seen. The sordor and filths of nature, the sun shall dry up, and the wind exhale. As when the summer comes from the south; the snow-banks melt, and the face of the earth becomes green before it, so shall the advancing spirit create its ornaments along its path, and carry with it the strengths of virtue, beauty it visits, and the song which enchants it; it shall draw beautiful faces, warm hearts, wise discourse, and heroic acts, around its way, until evil is no more seen. The kingdom of man over format nature, which cometh not with observation, -- a dominion such as now is beyond his dream of Bob Ewell in Harper Lee's To Kill A Mockingbird Essay, God, -- he shall enter without more wonder than the blind man feels who is gradually restored to perfect sight.'