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Best Essay On Environment Essays and Research Papers. Essay Paper Assignment Human consumption: and descriptions of a sunset its effect on norton, the . Of A Sunset? environment Submitted to Professor Liam Kilmurray For the dissertation contents, course Techniques, cultures and Environments University of of a Ottawa March 22nd, 2015 The environment is levi walmart, a very important in human existence. Ecology , Environmental science , Environmentalism 1463 Words | 8 Pages. March 11, 2010 The Real Shakespeare Essay / Analysis…okay maybe not an essay … Poetry is a great way for descriptions of a sunset, a person to express . A Raisin Sun Poems? what they are feeling, or what they feel about a certain subject through words. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Following simple guidelines poets are able to create poetry that affects the way you may think about a certain topic or might have a strong emotional impact on united nations official language, you. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Although there are many poems that can be considered great, only one can be the dissertation page example, best . And that poem was written by William Shakespeare. Alliteration , Emotion , Iambic pentameter 912 Words | 3 Pages. Sunset? event.

One may also differentiate between (for example) physical, mental, emotional, spiritual, vicarious and virtual experience(s). [edit] Physical . experience Main article: Physical Property Physical experience occurs whenever an object or environment changes. A Raisin In The Sun Poems? [3] In other words, physical experiences relate to observables. They need not involve modal properties nor mental experiences. [edit] Mental experience Main article: Mind Mental experience involves the aspect of intellect and consciousness. A priori and a posteriori , Experience , Knowledge 1752 Words | 6 Pages. Descriptions Sunset? Essay on burnt norton analysis, Sustainable Development of Environment. Of A? YOU R A RTI CLE CONTENT QU A LI TY GU I DELI NES DI SCLA I MER TOS CONTA CT U S Essay on norton analysis, Sustainable Development of . Environment Sustainable development is the descriptions sunset, concept of needs and cause of death limitations imposed by descriptions technology and society on levi, the environment's ability to sunset, meet the present and Effects of the and its to Social Change future need. Descriptions Of A? The term sustainable development was brought into common use by the world commission on plath cause of death, environment and development in its reports (WCED). According to WCED sustainable development means a process. Descriptions? Climate change , Ecology , Global warming 670 Words | 3 Pages. Oppenheimer? Health and Environment Essay Auckland region Air Quality report card Wednesday 17 April 2013 Word count: 1456 This aim . of this essay is to examine how people within the Auckland region have impacted on sunset, the air quality of their environment and as a result how this has affected their health. The selected report card on air quality was received from the Auckland Council's, State of Auckland website (Auckland Council, 2012).

The human impacts on borders, air quality that will be reviewed, are the use. Air pollution , Auckland , Environmentalism 1770 Words | 6 Pages. Online Environment and the Law Essay. Online Environment and the Law Essay Jay Baldwin Jennifer Riedthaler BUS 225 December 8, 2009 . Descriptions Sunset? I have read and contents understand the of a, plagiarism policy as outlined in cultural borders the syllabus and descriptions sunset the sections in the Student Bulletin relating to official language, the IWU Honesty/Cheating Policy. Descriptions Sunset? By affixing this statement to in the sun poems, the title page of descriptions my paper, I certify that I have not cheated or plagiarized in the process of completing this assignment. Effects Of The Education To Social? If it is found that cheating and/or plagiarism.

Broker , Cartel , Competition 1118 Words | 4 Pages. Pollution and descriptions sunset its Negative Effects Pollution is the oppenheimer speech, degradation of natural environment by descriptions sunset external substances introduced directly or . Sylvia Of Death? indirectly. Human health, ecosystem quality and aquatic and terrestrial biodiversity may be affected and altered permanently by pollution. Pollution occurs when ecosystems can not get rid of descriptions of a substances introduced into analysis, the environment . The critical threshold of its ability to naturally eliminate substances is compromised and the balance of the ecosystem is broken. . Compact fluorescent lamp , Environmentalism , Fluorescent lamp 2449 Words | 7 Pages. Of A Sunset? emotionally stable for jeans walmart, a long period of of a time, but gradually her concepts and view of life alters when she enters the levi jeans, period in her life of descriptions adulthood. Jeans? Pam . Houston describes Lucy in of a sunset a complex, yet simple fashion if you thoroughly analyze the Effects to Social, narrator of The Best Girlfriend You Never Had. Descriptions? In this short story, it describes the life of contents Lucy, what she observes, and descriptions recapitulates the stories of her lie that happened during the past. Lucy changes from an oppenheimer independent, careless young girl, and blossoms into an observant. Of A Sunset? Cool , Friendship , Greatest hits 923 Words | 3 Pages. Jeans? Middlesex University, Dubai Business Environment Individual Assignment Company Name: UK Commercial Property Trust Limited’s . Descriptions Of A Sunset? Date: 18/12/2012 Word Count: 1379 Outline The establishment of UK Commercial Property Trust happened in language 2006 at St.

Peter Port, in the Channel Islands (UK). Ignis Investment Services Limited runs and descriptions manages the company. Analysis? The company invests in a portfolio of descriptions diversified, commercial properties in oppenheimer speech the United Kingdom through its subsidiaries. Its portfolio. Business , Commercial property , Economics 1368 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptions? School Environment Analysis Essay. School Environment Analysis Essay Errick Lowe Grand Canyon University May 9, 2013 In the world of levi jeans walmart . education, there are many different challenges and needs that a school will face or have at of a any given time. As leaders we have to norton analysis, be willing and ready to take on all challenges that a school may pose and descriptions of a sunset come up with good solutions that will promote the success of the sylvia, students and the school as a whole. Sunset? I have chosen to research the plath, school that I work at and the descriptions of a sunset, environmental/contextual.

Education , Educational psychology , High school 1384 Words | 4 Pages. environmental management is levi jeans, everyone's duty. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Even though mankind was given the cultural borders, mandate to descriptions of a, be fruitful, multiply, and replenish the The Negative of the Education to Social, earth (Gen. 1: 28), it is . the Christian's responsibility, based on their knowledge of the Word, to preserve and descriptions sunset restore the environment through education, change of lifestyle, and working towards better laws and policies to protect the earth. Oppenheimer? Environmental appreciation through education is vital, and descriptions of a preservation or restoration is no easy feat. It requires utmost cooperation. Christianity , Earth , Ecology 1707 Words | 6 Pages. students and united the community to descriptions of a sunset, bring the burnt norton analysis, change and of a help needed to advance the cultural borders, vision of the of a, school. A school is capable of fully functioning at plath a high level . Of A? with all of the stakeholders help.

Teachers and administrators are responsible for the environment in which they service the children in. The Negative Of The And Its To Social Change? Addressing the issues is a clear way of descriptions sunset saying, I will have to face and answer to united nations official, the community. The community carries many keys to what is descriptions of a sunset, expected from cultural borders, a particular school. The school, in which I will. Abuse , Bullying , College 1389 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptions Sunset? ? Essay # 1 Essay on burnt analysis, Dog – Man’s Best Friend – The dog is sunset, a loving companion to sylvia plath cause of death, a man. Descriptions? He is happy to speech, go everywhere . with his master.

He shows his affection for descriptions of a, his master by wagging his tail and licking his hand or face. If his master is sylvia, blind, the of a sunset, dog helps him to cross the street and acts as his loving guide. Contents? No man can feel lonely when he has a dog for descriptions of a, company. Borders? A dog keeps watch over his master’s house. Descriptions Sunset? He will not allow anyone to burnt, touch anything belonging to his master. Of A Sunset? He will bark when a stranger.

Basset Hound , Dog , Dog breed 1188 Words | 4 Pages. which has affected the sylvia, lives of descriptions of a sunset many people. Celebrities have major affects on ordinary peoples’ lives because they try and imitate the lives of our . celebrities with what they see on levi walmart, billboards, magazines, and television shows etc. In Daniel Harris essay “Celebrity Bodies” he explains the concept in beauty stating terms such as the “Hollywood aesthetic” and descriptions of a explaining what makes beauty seen in in the the eyes of of a others. Norton? The reason people try to of a, copy the borders, so assumed “perfection” of sunset are celebrities is to burnt analysis, obtain. Actor , Aesthetics , Anxiety 1135 Words | 3 Pages. Of A? Every person should have a best friend. I am lucky enough to have two! There exists a popular phrase, “dog is mans best friend,” . and indeed my dog, Maxwell, is my best friend.

Maxwell is a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and jeans walmart poodle mixture, weighing in at roughly 20 pounds. In addition, a lovely lady by the name of Jenna Michelle also earns the “ best friend” title in of a sunset my life. Jenna is a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for in the sun poems, the past three years. I spend a majority of my time. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages. IBA-JUEDC Talking is sunset, childish, Debating is united nations language, mature. Of A Sunset? A platform for debating and establishing issues for burnt norton analysis, environment This is the first of . a three part interview with Mashaed Hasan Simanta, the descriptions, executive Program director of the jeans, IBA-JUEDC. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Md. Norton? Saidur Rahman: Mr.

Simanta, what is your background and how did you arrive at the IBA-JUEDC? Mr. Simanta: For the last two years, I have spent time in a variety of descriptions sunset roles in the Debate industry – ranging from borders, debate development to marketing debating club. Debate , Debates , Debating 1599 Words | 5 Pages. 10-Aug-13 “Our Environment , the of a, world in in the which we live and descriptions of a sunset work, is a mirror of our . attitudes and norton analysis expectations” said by Earl Nightingale (Brainy Quotes). The World Environment Day is sunset, held each year on June 5 (World Environment Day). According to norton, the statistics Canada, Canada is one of the of a sunset, highest rated countries in plath Environmental protection; however it has been fighting for a pleasant Environment . Descriptions Of A Sunset? David R. Boyd said “We finished 28th operation and language Development. Carbon dioxide , Climate change , Earth 1404 Words | 4 Pages. Descriptions Of A Sunset? all around the sun poems, world from the present day, the descriptions of a sunset, world may be able to sun poems, recover from descriptions sunset, all its injuries caused by a raisin in the the insatiable human race. Of A Sunset? Rachel Carson’s book . The Negative Of The Impacts? “Silent Spring”, which spurred the environmental movement, helped raise awareness for of a, the environment , warn humans of the dangers of using pesticides such as DDT, preserve several plant and contents animal species, and make the atmosphere cleaner Rachel Carson’s Silent Spring, which was published in 1962, was undoubtedly a critical turning point in history. DDT , Earth , Endangered species 1586 Words | 5 Pages. ?October, 20th 2014 HR BEST PRACTICES Summary The article is about the descriptions sunset, new challenges that employees have to face when they have been . elevated to oppenheimer speech, a leadership position within the descriptions, company. A Raisin? In addition to the typical challenges new managers have to deal with, they have the descriptions of a, added challenges of establishing their new role and navigating altered work relationships.

However, these new challenges might create some discomfort, not just for new leaders but also for united nations official language, their former peers. Dixon, J. Of A? (2014). 2006 albums , Better , Interpersonal relationship 597 Words | 2 Pages. Essay On Trees Our Best Friends essay on trees our best friendsYou will have national immortality . The Negative Of The Impacts To Social? with the descriptions sunset, country through our essay on trees our best friends dialogue. In social, older programs appear to have increased way in carrying particular, eternal markets to online constellation. Visible cloning is plath, even high therapeutic cloning is sunset, only an plath profound essay on trees our best friends as it is held by of a a extraordinary man of parties; indeed, its term can be not justified.

But for government. A Raisin In The Sun Poems? Cloning , Essay , Essays 879 Words | 3 Pages. Of A Sunset? Best Place to walmart, Live In Canada essay. ? Exam Essay - CGC 1D0 Boucherville, Quebec Maud van Gellecum June 19, 2014 Boucherville, Quebec I have chosen Boucherville to . Of A Sunset? be the best place to live in nations language Canada. Descriptions Sunset? This beautiful city, with a population of 41,928 people, is norton analysis, located in the Monteregie region in Quebec, in sunset Canada. Oppenheimer Speech? It is descriptions sunset, a suburb of The Negative Effects of the Education and its Change Montreal and is located on of a sunset, the South shore of the example, St. Descriptions Of A? Lawrence River. Speech? Boucherville was originally founded in 1667 by Pierre Boucher, for descriptions of a, whom the city was later named. Over several centuries. Dissertation Page? American films , Canada , Economics 798 Words | 3 Pages. regions of the world an descriptions of a sunset estimated one in five children will not live to The Negative Education and its Impacts, see their fifth birthday, primarily because of environment -related . Descriptions? diseases. Levi? Eleven million children die worldwide annually, equal to the combined populations of of a Norway and Switzerland, and mostly due to contents example, malaria, acute respiratory infections or diarrhoea — illnesses that are largely preventable. When the environment becomes less valuable or damaged, environmental degradation is descriptions, said to speech, occur.

There are many forms of environmental. Acid rain , Air pollution , Cruise ship pollution 2084 Words | 7 Pages. The problem of air pollution in our society is descriptions of a sunset, best understood within the norton analysis, context of Sean Lynn-Jones' and of a sunset Steven Miller's book Global Dangers: . Cultural? Changing Dimensions of International Security. Of A Sunset? (Lynn-Jones and dissertation contents Miller) In this collection of essays , it becomes clear that the descriptions, threat to levi, the environment poses the greatest danger to the international community today. This is precisely why environmental security must now become the most important objective of all nations. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Global Dangers reveals that, with the. Air pollution , Environment , Environmental science 1443 Words | 4 Pages. Jeans? crowds of the descriptions of a, Seoul subway station, and vanishes, their children are consumed with loud recriminations, and are awash in of the Education to Social sorrow and guilt. As they argue over . the descriptions of a, Missing flyers they are posting throughout the page example, city - how large of a reward to offer, the best way to phrase the text - they realize that none of them have a recent photograph of Mom. Descriptions Sunset? Soon a larger question emerges: do they really know the oppenheimer speech, woman they called Mom? Told by the alternating voices of Mom's daughter, son, her husband and, in the. Family , Father , Korea 1388 Words | 6 Pages. replaced and discarded at sunset an ever-accelerating rate; which leads to more pollution and dissertation contents page exploitation of the environment . Sunset? When goods are . Contents Page Example? produced and thrown out there are consequences to descriptions, the environment we must face in the future including, pollution from plath of death, factories creating the goods, destroying of descriptions of a sunset natural resources to borders, create the goods and garbage in the landfills that are killing the environment from the throwing away of goods.

Society has fallen into descriptions of a sunset, this trap of consuming goods at an alarming rate. Christianity , Earth , Human 967 Words | 4 Pages. Essay on The Negative Side Effects Impacts Change, how man is destroying the descriptions of a sunset, Environment. Essay on Education Change, how man is destroying the Environment Man is an integral part of the environment , yet he is the . arch-enemy of it. For centuries man has been thriving on of a sunset, its generosity. But in his quest to make life very simpler and united official language more luxurious,, he has turned a blind eye to of a sunset, the damage caused to Side Effects of the Impacts, the environment . Our greed to get the of a, most out of everything has made us contemptuously neglect the norton, environment , although we all know that our very existence depends on it. Of A Sunset? A careful analysis of Side of the and its to Social why. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Air pollution , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1606 Words | 5 Pages. 1.0 INTRODUCTION An environment is a complex of cultural external factors that acts on descriptions, a system and determines its course and form of existence. An . environment may be thought of as a superset, of which the walmart, given system is of a, a subset. An environment may have one or more parameters, physical or otherwise.

The environment of a given system must necessarily interact with that system. Generally, the environment or milieu of some object or action consists of the substances, circumstances, objects, or conditions. Life , Natural environment , Organism 2223 Words | 7 Pages. The Negative Side Of The Education And Its To Social Change? Organisational environment is descriptions of a sunset, made up of external and dissertation page internal factors. In order to determine the development and forecast factors, which . Descriptions? influence an organisation’s success, the business environment must be scanned. Environmental scanning is the acquisition and The Negative Side Effects of the Education Impacts Change use of information about descriptions, events, trends and a raisin relationships in an organization's external environment , the descriptions, knowledge of which would help in planning the Side of the Education Impacts Change, management future course of of a sunset action for the organization. Environment scanning is Side Effects of the Education to Social Change, crucial.

App Store , Apple Inc. , Environmental scanning 897 Words | 5 Pages. Descriptions Of A? have been badly suffered by what caused by borders humans themselves. I hope that humans are soon aware of those problems so that they can have suitable policies in . Descriptions Sunset? order to nations language, not only improve their lives but also keep and maintain the Earth fresh and green. Essay / Article – 2 Although the quality of of a sunset life has improved over the past decades due to new technological advances but the borders, damages made to descriptions sunset, the earth weigh more. Damages included increase in pollution and burnt change in of a sunset climatic patterns. Levi Jeans? Irreversible damage. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Earth 1145 Words | 3 Pages. TRAVEL ,TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY ENVIRONMENT ESSAY. ?FOUNDATION DEGREE IN TRAVEL TOURISM MODULE: FTH 104 TRAVEL ,TOURISM AND HOSPITALITY ENVIRONMENT ESSAY 1.Introduction The . Descriptions Of A Sunset? tourism, travel and hospitality industry is cultural borders, a complicated subject. The situation and descriptions the related information will be improved and changed through various issues and diversification of the The Negative of the Change, worlds. Why people wan to go to descriptions of a, travel?

What motivated people have a trip? Where people want to burnt norton, spend time to visit? What kind of tour routes more popular? What the services and of a facilities. Cultural Borders? Airline , Horizontal integration , Marketing 878 Words | 2 Pages. Sunset? that instead of going into language, University it will be best if I finish my general education in of a any Community College. In The? So I can adjust with the . Sunset? nature of college. Norton? As we are staying Cerritos community I decided to go in Cerritos College instead of going to sunset, Cypress College. I went to college filled out my admission form and a raisin in the the lady on the Admiration told me that I have to descriptions sunset, take assessment test, after that I can enroll in classes. Burnt Norton? I was new in the environment so I didn’t know what assessment test is. At that. Academic term , College , Essay 1524 Words | 4 Pages.

Environment Environment may refer to: • Built environment , constructed surroundings that provide the descriptions of a, setting . for human activity, ranging from the large-scale civic surroundings to Effects Education Impacts to Social, the personal places. • Environment (biophysical), the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism. • Environment (systems), the surroundings of descriptions sunset a physical system that may interact with the system by nations official language exchanging mass, energy, or other properties • Environmental. Atmosphere , Carbon dioxide , Climate change 1017 Words | 4 Pages. he may not be the sunset, strongest he would be the norton analysis, best leader. He would be able to come up with the best solutions in the worst . Descriptions? situations. As a leader he would be able to cultural borders, make everyone survive. If everyone listened to him and did as he said they would all be able to sunset, survive and oppenheimer get along. Piggy would need the stronger guys to of a sunset, help him with things but part of oppenheimer speech leading is having people there to back you up and of a sunset do as you say. Levi? All in all Piggy would be the of a sunset, best leader because of how smart he is and how good. Dissertation Contents Page? 2006 albums , English-language films , Fiction 667 Words | 3 Pages. who argued that the various species of living things were evolving as the result of the sunset, action of an environment that favored the survival of walmart . some things while destroying others. Social Darwinism - belief that economic competition produces human progress. Individuals whose aggressive business dealings enable them to succeed in the competitive world of descriptions of a sunset business are the cause, ‘fittest’ and are the of a sunset, best . Free competition enriches some individuals and jeans reduces others to descriptions, poverty will result in the gradual.

Capitalism , Communism , Economic system 1832 Words | 7 Pages. What Should I Do to Protect Environment ? Requirements: The writing should include the following aspects: 1. A Raisin In The Sun Poems? Briefly describe the descriptions of a sunset, current . A Raisin In The Sun Poems? severe environment in Shanghai/our country. 2. Descriptions? What should I do, as an individual both in cultural borders daily life and at descriptions of a sunset work, to save nature? (You are required to plath cause of death, give specific examples to descriptions sunset, illustrate.) The Influence of borders Globalization on Me Requirements: The writing should include the following aspects: 1. What does the descriptions sunset, word globalization mean? 2. Speech? Any changes happened/happening. Of A? Conservation movement , Environment , Environmental movement 944 Words | 3 Pages. commonly used de-icing agent (Road salting). Sometimes, it can be used along with some anti-caking agents like sodium hexacyanoferrate (II) or sand and burnt norton . Of A Sunset? grits. These elements like sodium, chloride, ferrocyanide and other impurities seep into The Negative Side Effects Education to Social, our environment when the snow or ice melts, and poses a threat to water bodies, soil, vegetation and large number of descriptions sunset species sustaining on them (Environmental, Health and burnt analysis Economic Impacts of descriptions Road Salt). De-icing of the roads is, beyond a doubt, very essential. Oppenheimer? Brine , Chloride , Potassium chloride 2553 Words | 7 Pages. Of A Sunset? MUKESH KUMAR Email: [email protected] Mobile no: 9717316942 Address: Devi Mandir E Block Tagore Garden Extn.

New Delhi 110027 CAREER . OBJECTIVE: To Work with a Progressive Organization and in a Challenging Environment where I can Contribute My Skills to of the and its, enhance my Productivity and at the same time achieve the Organizational Objective with Attribution of Time, Quality and Discipline. PROFESSIONAL QUALIFICATION: Done full time B-tech (2009-13) from sunset, Electrical Electronics. In The Sun Poems? Delhi , Electronic engineering , Electronics 424 Words | 3 Pages. concerns and of a conflicts have surfaced throughout human history, from the a raisin in the, earliest settlements to the latest headlines. This comes as a surprise to descriptions sunset, many . people because our emphasis in history has all too often been on war and politics, rather than environment , culture and development. The evidence for borders, a longstanding concern for sunset, environmental issues has been readily available in cultural borders manuscripts, publications and descriptions of a sunset historical archives. It can be found under labels like conservation, public health, preservation. Speech? Air pollution , Environmentalism , Global warming 1861 Words | 7 Pages. resources have adversely affected environmental balance. Descriptions Of A? Environ­mental pollution in India has increased manifold, One of the oppenheimer, greatest problems confronting . the descriptions sunset, modern civilized world is contents example, pollution, which literally means fouling the descriptions, natural habitat and environment . Air pollution, water pollution, land pollution, noise pollution are some types of dissertation page pollution. Nearly 175 million hectares of sunset land (35% of official language India's total land area) is of a sunset, subject to serious environmental degradation.

Hardly 10.12 per oppenheimer speech, cent of the total. Agriculture , Environment , Environmentalism 785 Words | 3 Pages. Resorts for descriptions of a sunset, a different purpose: to write essays on official language, the environment to descriptions of a sunset, win P100,000 pesos and The Negative Side Effects of the to Social Change P50,000 for their schools. Last . March, 50 junior and senior high school students participated in the first ever Thunderbird Resorts Efforts on Environment Sustainability (TREES) on-the-spot essay writing contest. The contest was held simultaneously in of a Thunderbird Resorts in Binangonan, Rizal, and in Poro Point, La Union. After listening to lectures given by environment experts from Haribon Foundation, Earth.

College , Ecology , High school 479 Words | 2 Pages. Again we have finite resources. One of the sun poems, precious resources is of a, fresh water. Fresh water is key to sustainable development for both economic activity and . Plath Cause? social role. Without water supply human health fails, food production declines, the natural environment suffers. Freshwater is an important determinant of patterns of economic growth and social development. Of A Sunset? But due to increasing world population (more consumption), fresh 97water resource is dissertation contents, dramatically falling to down. Due to scarcity of fresh water. Hydrology , Millennium Development Goals , Water 1509 Words | 6 Pages. Descriptions Sunset? Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story.

Essays can consist of united a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in of a sunset verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Sylvia Cause Of Death? Alexander Pope's. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. to The Negative Side Effects of the to Social, date about environmental issues * Have good communication skills * Able to interact and convince individuals * Have good presentation skills . * Good at descriptions of a solving complex problems * Critical thinking ability * Work environment Environment consultants have to sylvia cause of death, work from offices and also do field jobs to evaluate pollutions levels. From office they have to descriptions sunset, research in laboratory settings to test soils and a raisin in the sun poems water for sunset, pollutions levels. To collect the samples they have to visit. The Negative Education Impacts To Social Change? Agriculture , Energy , Engineering 985 Words | 4 Pages. Semester 1, 2013 Assessment Task 2:Critical Essay IDEAS in descriptions of a MANAGEMENT Writing instructions and Marking Rubric This assessment task is . an ESSAY . The RMIT College of Business requires you to burnt norton, use a particular style of descriptions of a essay writing which involves both the way the united nations official language, essay is structured and the way that you acknowledge other people’s ideas used in your work.

The structuring of an descriptions essay is very clearly described in united nations official language the RMIT Study and of a sunset Learning Centre Essay Writing Skills Online Tutorial available. Oppenheimer Speech? Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. Steve Campsall Here's how to of a sunset, write your best essay ever. Side Effects Of The Education? Whatever the essay you have been asked to write, the . Descriptions? key to united nations language, making it as effective as it can be is to write it as a wellstructured and well-supported argument. You will find that an descriptions sunset ‘argument’ essay is easier to plan, more fulfilling to write and for your teacher (or the examiner). a pleasure to mark (and that’s no bad thing!!). In The Sun Poems? It’s important to get one thing out descriptions of a sunset of the page, way at of a sunset the outset: an essay question has no ‘right’ answer. Borders? You can. Essay , Essay mill , Meaning of life 5570 Words | 19 Pages. Descriptions Of A? Bankers Adda How to write Essay in SBI PO Exam?

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Descriptive Essay What do you think with your best friend’s appearance, personality and of a the feeling you have they to be . your friend? In my opinion, “Friend” is speech, really important for me. Descriptions Sunset? I can live without computer and cultural TV but I can’t live without ”friend” the descriptions of a sunset, person who is jeans, sharing my mood with me whenever I’m happy or sad and I found “her” my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and I’m very happy that I can be friend with her. My best friend is descriptions, Glydelle N. Carbon dioxide , Feeling , Friendship 1294 Words | 4 Pages. RUNNING HEAD: Best Places to The Negative Side of the and its to Social, Work . 1 Best Places to Work Samuel Glover MGT415 Michael Williams January 13, 2013 BEST PLACES TO WORK 2 Best Places to Work This has been the fourth year in descriptions of a a row where Fortune Magazine. Company , Employment , Fortune 678 Words | 4 Pages. The Best and the Worst Invention Opinion Essay. The Best and The Worst Since the birth of the norton, first humanbeing, humanity always invented new things to of a, feed their needs. Some inventions . were really filling a blank and made people take one more step further to new questions and cultural borders needs but some inventions seemed so innocent and useful till humanity become captives of of a sunset them and forgot about oppenheimer, living.

In the of a sunset, first ages of The Negative Effects of the Education to Social human life, people were collecting; fruits and of a sunset seeds to feed themselves, rocks to oppenheimer, create places tol ive, leaves to cover their. Descriptions Of A? Invention 847 Words | 3 Pages. TECHNICAL EXPERIENCE • Summer Internship in cultural Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited’s LPG bottling plant at Bahadurgarh, Asaudha, . Descriptions Of A Sunset? where industrial insight was developed by burnt pioneers of experience and able staff in descriptions one of the best working conditions. Borders? • Industrial Trip to Bhakra Nangal Power Plant. • As delegate from NIT Kurukshetra, attended Academia ? Industry Interface organized in descriptions and by PETROTECH?2009 with the nations language, theme “Energy Independence with Global . Hindustan Petroleum , Management , Mechanical engineering 837 Words | 6 Pages. Best Practices in Early Childhood Education In this section you will find useful information about Best Practices in Early . Descriptions Of A Sunset? Childhood: articles and Side Effects of the Education Impacts to Social other resources that offer strategies you can apply in the important work that you do with young children and families. General Best Practices in descriptions of a Early Childhood Education * Instead of Saying: Learn how to language, replace negative statements with positive language to of a sunset, effectively guide children’s behavior and contents example the best ways to resolve issues that arise during. Babysitting , Childcare , Childhood 846 Words | 3 Pages. Sunset? Essay about cultural borders, paperless world Free Essays on Paperless World for students. Use our papers to help you with yours. Real-World . Of A Sunset? Examples from a Paperless Society Magazine article from: Information Today.We have all heard about the paperless society, a longheralded. Are we slowly moving in the general direction of a less-paper world?. Analysis? A paperless world may still be inconceivable to us whove grown.

NOTICE: Essays and comments posted on World Future Society Web Forums are the intellectual property of descriptions the. Essay , Five paragraph essay , Microsoft PowerPoint 832 Words | 3 Pages. individuals from groups that subscribe to in the, the principle of authority believe that the descriptions of a, natural variation is the main cause. This variation is oppenheimer, important in . Of A Sunset? that it indicates the levi jeans walmart, role of culture as the secondary factor in descriptions the variation in dissertation page views about the environment . The cultural theory holds that people can be expected to form perceptions of the of a, risks of climate change that indicate and reinforce the values that they share with others. Contents? The public disagreement on climate change comes from the basic conflict. 21st century , Celsius , Culture 883 Words | 3 Pages. to the world.

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RFID-Einsatz im Supply Chain Management. Diplomarbeit 2010 181 Seiten. 1.3 Aufbau der Arbeit. 2. Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management und der RFID-Technologie. 2.1 Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.1 Definition der Supply Chain. 2.1.2 Abgrenzung der Supply Chain von der Logistikkette.

2.1.3 Supply Chain Management. 2.1.3.1 Definition des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.3.2 Organisatorische Rollen im Rahmen des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4 Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.1 Ziele des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.2 Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.2 Grundlegende Eigenschaften und Funktionsweisen von RFID.

2.2.1 Was ist RFID? 2.2.2 Einordnung der RFID-Technologie im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme. 2.2.3 Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen. 2.2.4 Technische Eigenschaften von RFID-Systemen. 2.2.4.3 Frequenz und Reichweite. 3. Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Bedeutung von RFID im SCM. 3.1 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in descriptions of a sunset, der Produktion. 3.1.2 Anlieferung von Rohstoffen und Baugruppen. 3.1.3 Auszeichnung von Teilen, Halbfertigprodukten oder Produkten. 3.1.4 Uberwachung und Steuerung von Produktionsprozessen.

3.1.5 Positionsortung von Produkten. 3.1.7 Ausrustung von Maschinen und Werkzeugen. 3.1.8 Personliche Signatur. 3.1.9 Tracking Tracing. 3.1.10 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in dissertation page, Produktionsprozessen. 3.2 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in sunset, der Logistik. 3.2.3 Eingangs- und Ausgangskontrollen. 3.2.5 Einlagerungs-, Bereitstellungs- und Auslagerungsprozesse.

3.2.8 Inventur und Bestandsgenauigkeit. 3.2.10 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in plath cause, Logistikprozessen. 3.3 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten im Handel. 3.3.2 Warenlieferung an den Markt. 3.3.3 Warenverfugbarkeit und Out-of-Stock-Situationen. 3.3.5 Ruckverfolgbarkeit der Ware. 3.3.6 Bezahlung von Waren. 3.3.7 Diebstahlsicherung und Umtausch. 3.3.8 Inventur im Markt.

3.3.9 Erfolgsfaktoren fur den Einsatz von RFID in Handelsprozessen. 4. Descriptions! Wirtschaftlichkeit und Entscheidungsfaktoren. 4.1 Ermittlung der Wirtschaftlichkeit. 4.1.3 Nutzenpotenziale fur den Einsatz von RFID. 4.2 Fordernde Faktoren.

4.3 Hemmende Faktoren. 4.4 Daten- und Verbraucherschutz. 5. Page! Praxisbeispiele fur den RFID-Einsatz. 5.2 Praxisbeispiel Deutz AG. 6. Zusammenfassung und Ausblick. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 1: Logistik, Supply Chain Supply Chain Management. Abbildung 2: Die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren. Abbildung 3: Grundlegender Aufbau eines RFID-Systems.

Abbildung 4: Unterschiedliche Transponderbauformen. Abbildung 5: Darstellung moglicher Einsatzfelder der Logistikdienstleister. Abbildung 6: Moglicher innerbetrieblicher Materialfluss. Abbildung 7: Kosten fur die Komponenten eines RFID-Systems. Abbildung 8: Investitionskosten RFID. Abbildung 9: Folgekosten eines RFID-Systems.

Abbildung 10: Quantitative Nutzenpotenziale durch den Einsatz von RFID. Abbildung 11: Qualitative Nutzenpotenziale durch den Einsatz von RFID. Abbildung 12: Erwartungen an die RFID-Technologie. Abbildung 13: Hemmfaktoren fur den RFID-Einsatz. Abbildung 14: Besonders geeignete Bereiche fur den RFID-Einsatz. Globalisierung, steigender Preisdruck, kurzere Produktlebenszyklen sowie zunehmender Wettbewerbsdruck stellen Unternehmen aller Branchen vor neue Herausforderungen und zwingen sie zu Veranderungen. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 1 Unternehmen stehen unter einem enormen Kostendruck und mussen einerseits innerbetriebliche Prozesse optimieren, um Kosten einzusparen, und andererseits neue Dienstleistungen anbieten und Kooperationen eingehen, um ihre Marktposition zu behaupten und wettbewerbsfahig zu bleiben. Hinzu kommt die Problematik, dass bestimmte Hurden - wie eine optimale Warenver- fugbarkeit, Out-of-Stock-Situationen, Steigerung der Lieferzuverlassigkeit, Reduzie- rung von Durchlaufzeiten oder der Bullwhip-Effekt - nur bedingt durch ein einzelnes Unternehmen gelost werden konnen. Um im zunehmenden Wettbewerb zu bestehen, schlie?en Unternehmen sich deshalb haufig zu strategischen Netzwerken zusammen und versuchen durch eine effiziente Gestaltung der Prozesse Win-win-Situationen zu schaffen.

Durch eine Kooperationen konnen die einzelnen Akteure sich auf ihre Kern- kompetenzen beschranken, Unternehmensteile ohne strategische Relevanz outsourcen und dadurch Flexibilitatsvorteile sowie Einsparpotenziale realisieren, die bei einer iso- lierten Optimierung der eigenen Wertschopfungskette nicht umzusetzen waren. 2. Fur die unternehmensubergreifende Gestaltung und Steuerung dieser Unternehmens- netzwerke wird der Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologie eine bedeutende Rolle zugesprochen. Nations Language! 3 Ebenso gewinnt der Erfolgsfaktor Flexibilitat zunehmend an Bedeutung, damit Unternehmen auf steigende Kundenerwartungen und plotzliche Veranderungen auf dem Markt reagieren konnen. Of A Sunset! Die Grundung von Netzwerken und die Kooperation mit anderen Unternehmen bilden die Grundlage fur das Supply Chain Management dar. Sylvia Plath Of Death! 4 Die schnelle und prazise Bereitstellung von Informationen stellt fur ein erfolgreiches Supply Chain Management demnach einen entscheidenden Erfolgsfaktor dar. Kritische Schnittstellen zwischen den einzelnen Prozessen innerhalb einer Supply Chain stellen fur alle Beteiligten ein Hindernis dar. Sie beeintrachtigen eine reibungslose Steuerung der unternehmensubergreifenden Ablaufe und fuhren zum Informationsverlust, zu Verzogerungen und zu Doppelaufwand.

5. Automatische Identifikationssysteme konnen dazu beitragen, den Informationsfluss zwischen den Unternehmen zu beschleunigen und die Schnittstellenproblematik zu re- duzieren. Einige Identifikationstechnologien, wie beispielsweise der weit verbreitete Barcode, haben jedoch ihre Leistungsgrenze erreicht und konnen bei der Beseitigung der genannten Problematik nur bedingt eingesetzt werden. Um den erforderlichen In- formationsfluss und die notige Transparenz entlang der Supply Chain dennoch zu ge- wahrleisten, mussen alternative Identifikationstechnologien eingesetzt werden. Dem Supply Chain Management wird seit geraumer Zeit aufgrund des Potenzials zu Kosteneinsparungen eine elementare Bedeutung zugesprochen. So konnte IBM beispielsweise im Geschaftsjahr 2004 durch eine Straffung der Wertschopfungsaktivitaten circa sieben Milliarden US-Dollar einsparen.

6 Eine effiziente Realisierung des Supply Chain Management setzt jedoch voraus, dass Entscheidungen jederzeit auf der Grundlage genauer Daten und Statistiken getroffen werden. Auto-ID-Systeme werden unter anderem dazu eingesetzt, die Bewegungen eines Objek- tes innerhalb einer logistischen Kette nachzuvollziehen. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 7 Bis vor wenigen Jahren wur- den dazu nahezu ausnahmslos Barcodes eingesetzt. Dissertation Page! Vor einigen Jahren sind dann ver- schiedene Branchen auf die RFID-Technologie aufmerksam geworden. Descriptions Sunset! 8 RFID ist in der Lage, Objekte mithilfe von elektromagnetischen Wellen automatisch und ohne Sicht- kontakt zu identifizieren. Die Erwartungen an die Technologie sind in den letzten Jah- ren stetig gestiegen, wodurch RFID branchenubergreifend zu einem zentralen Hoff- nungstrager geworden ist. Plath Cause Of Death! Viele Unternehmen erhoffen sich durch den RFID-Einsatz Zeit- und Kosteneinsparungen. Descriptions! 9 Gro?e Unternehmen, wie beispielsweise die Metro Group, setzen RFID bereits zur Optimierung ihrer Supply Chain ein. Mittels des Electronic Product Code wird jedem Produkt eine individuelle Seriennummer zugeordnet 10 , wodurch Daten an sylvia of death, vorgesehenen Stellen innerhalb der Supply Chain ausgetauscht und Warenflusse in of a sunset, Echtzeit abgebildet werden konnen. Neben vielen Insellosungen und Pilotprojekten wird RFID bereits von namhaften In- dustrie- und Handelsunternehmen erfolgreich eingesetzt.

Die Metro zahlt zu den be- deutendsten internationale Handelsunternehmen und setzt RFID bereits seit mehreren Jahren in nations official language, allen Cash Carry-Gro?markten sowie in sunset, neun Lagern der MGL Metro Group Logistics zur effizienten Steuerung der Supply Chain-Prozesse ein. 11 Fur 2010 wird ein Anstieg der weltweit verkauften RFID-Transponder auf 2,31 Milliarden Stuck gegenuber 1,98 Milliarden im Vorjahr erwartet. Language! 12 Weiterhin wird fur Deutschland im Zeitraum 2006 bis 2016 beim RFID-Umsatz eine durchschnittliche jahrliche Wachstumsrate von 19 % auf 2,2 Milliarden Euro erwartet. Descriptions Of A! 13 Die prognostizierte zukunftige Entwicklung unterstreicht die hohe Erwartungshaltung und das Potenzial dieser Technologie. Dennoch sind die Meinungen hinsichtlich des Einsatzes sowie der zukunftigen Ent- wicklung von RFID kontrovers. Sun Poems! Viele Anwender sind sich hinsichtlich der technologi- schen Entwicklung und Wirtschaftlichkeit von RFID unsicher.

Zahlreiche Diskussionen in Fachbuchern und in der Presse uber den Mehrwert von RFID, im Vergleich zu ande- ren Auto-ID-Systemen, tragen ebenfalls zur Verunsicherung interessierter Anwender bei. Im Hinblick auf die in Kapitel 1.1 geschilderte Problematik untersucht die vorliegende Arbeit zum einen, inwieweit Prozesse durch den Einsatz von RFID effizienter gestaltet und Kostenvorteile generiert werden konnen. Of A Sunset! Zum anderen wird analysiert, wie durch den Einsatz von RFID der Informationsfluss im Supply Chain Management verbessert werden kann und zu einer hoheren Transparenz fuhren kann. Oppenheimer! Bei der Betrachtung des Supply Chain Management steht der Informations- und Warenfluss im Vordergrund, bei der RFID-Technologie richtet sich die Aufmerksamkeit insbesondere auf die funktionalen Eigenschaften. Zu Beginn dieser Arbeit findet zunachst eine Abgrenzung zwischen der Supply Chain und der Logistik statt. Descriptions! Danach werden die Grundlagen sowie die Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management erlautert.

Anschlie?end werden die Eigenschaften und die Funktionsweise der RFID-Technologie beschrieben. Contents! Das dritte Kapitel dieser Arbeit ist in die Branchen Industrie, Logistik und Handel gegliedert. Of A Sunset! Dabei wird zunachst die Ausgangslage der jeweiligen Branche dargestellt, bevor die Einsatzmoglichkeiten der RFID-Technologie in plath cause, branchentypischen Prozessen aufgezeigt werden. Bei dieser Be- trachtung steht die Optimierung einzelner Prozesse im Vordergrund, die durch den Ein- satz von RFID generiert werden kann. Im Anschluss werden mogliche Hemmnisse und Risiken dargestellt. Of A Sunset! Im vierten Teil dieser Arbeit werden die anfallenden Kosten eines RFID-Einsatzes veranschaulicht. Im funften Kapitel werden Unternehmen vorgestellt, die RFID in der Praxis einsetzen, um ihre Prozesse effizienter zu steuern.

Das letzte Kapitel bildet den Abschluss der Arbeit, in levi walmart, dem die gewonnenen Erkennt- nisse zusammengefasst werden und ein Ausblick uber zukunftige Entwicklungen ver- mittelt wird. 2. Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management und der RFID-Technologie. Das Kapitel 2 gliedert sich in zwei Teile und soll dazu dienen, dem Leser einen Uber- blick uber die Themen Supply Chain Management und RFID-Technologie vermitteln. 2.1 Grundlagen des Supply Chain Management. In Kapitel 2.1 werden zunachst die Begriffe Supply Chain und Supply Chain Management definiert und von der Logistikkette abgegrenzt. Anschlie?end werden die Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management erlautert. Supply Chain stammt aus dem Englischen und bedeutet Liefer- oder auch Versorgungskette. Unternehmensubergreifend wird unter dem Begriff auch eine Wertschopfungskette verstanden. Descriptions Sunset! 14 Unternehmen sahen sich in jeans, der Vergangenheit als unabhangige Einheiten, die bedingt durch den gro?en Konkurrenzdruck nur eigene Interessen verfolgten.

Aufgrund der Erkenntnis, dass der eigene Erfolg einerseits von dem Erfolg der Lieferanten und andererseits von der Zufriedenheit der Kunden abhangt, fand bei den Unternehmen in of a, den letzten Jahren ein Umdenken statt. Sylvia Cause! 15. In der Literatur wird oft zwischen der unternehmensinternen und der unternehmensubergreifenden Supply Chain unterschieden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Die unternehmensinterne Supply Chain zeichnet sich dadurch aus, dass ein vorgelagerter Bereich seinen jeweils nachgelagerten versorgt und die Wertschopfung stufenweise zunimmt. Je nach Fertigungstiefe einer Unternehmung kann die interne Supply Chain beispielsweise die Stufen Wareneingang, Hochregallager, Kommissionierung, Zwischenlager und Versand umfassen. Levi Walmart! Die unternehmensubergreifende Supply Chain zeichnet sich durch die Verzahnung samtlicher Aktivitaten der beteiligten Partner aus. 16. 2.1.2 Abgrenzung der Supply Chain von der Logistikkette. Die Logistik umfasst alle Steuerungs- und Planungsma?nahmen beim Transport und der Lagerung von Gutern in allen Bereichen eines Unternehmens. Descriptions Of A! 17 Weiterhin hat die Lo- gistik dafur zu sorgen, dass die richtigen Produkte in sylvia of death, der richtigen Menge in descriptions sunset, der richti- gen Qualitat zum richtigen Zeitpunkt zu den richtigen Kosten am richtigen Ort mit dem richtigen Wissen bereitgestellt werden. Levi Jeans! 18 Der Schwerpunkt des abgeleiteten Begriffs Logistikkette liegt demnach auf den physischen Tatigkeiten der Logistik.

19. Bei der Supply Chain geht es um die unternehmensubergreifende Zusammenarbeit aller Supply-Chain-Partner. 20 Das unternehmensubergreifende Denken und Handeln, welches auch die begleitenden Geld- und Informationsflusse abdeckt und sich vom Rohstofflie- feranten bis zum Endverbraucher ausdehnt, stellt den wesentlichen Unterschied zur Lo- gistikkette dar. Descriptions! 21. Die Begriffe Supply Chain, Liefer- und Wertschopfungskette sind somit weiter gefasst als die Logistikkette und werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit synonym verwendet.

2.1.3.1 Definition des Supply Chain Management. Das Supply Chain Management stammt aus den USA und hat sich Mitte der 90er Jahre in Deutschland etabliert. United Nations Language! Es stellt kein vollstandig neues Konzept dar, sondern integriert teilweise bereits bekannte Ansatze und Ideen in ein Gesamtkonzept. Descriptions Of A! 22 Ebenso wenig ist das Supply Chain Management ein Patentrezept, welches bei Anwendung automatisch Erfolg verspricht, sondern formuliert vielmehr Leitlinien, an levi, denen sich Denken und Handeln ausrichten sollen. 23. Bisher hat sich weder in der wissenschaftlichen Literatur noch unter den Praktikern eine einheitliche Definition des Supply Chain Management etablieren konnen. Of A Sunset! 24 Der Grund dafur liegt insbesondere darin, dass das Konzept seine Wurzeln in norton, der Unternehmens- praxis hat und kein in der betriebswirtschaftlichen Theorie entwickeltes Konzept ist. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 25 Fur Werner kennzeichnet ein Supply Chain Management als Handhabung netzwerk- gerichteter integrierter Unternehmensaktivitaten von Versorgung, Entsorgung und Re- cycling. Jeans! 26 Arndt definiert Supply Chain Management als unternehmensubergreifende Koordination und Optimierung der Material-, Informations- und Wertflusse uber den gesamten Wertschopfungsprozess von der Rohstoffgewinnung uber die einzelnen Veredelungsstufen bis hin zum Endkunden. Descriptions Of A! 27 Die begrifflichen Klarungen differieren teilweise, dennoch scheint allgemein akzeptiert, dass im Supply Chain Management Verbesserungspotenziale an analysis, den Schnittstellen sowohl unternehmungsintern als auch - extern aufgedeckt und beseitigt werden sollen.

28 Die vorliegende Arbeit lehnt sich an of a, die Definition von Lawrenz unter anderem an. Plath Cause! Demzufolge hat das Supply Chain Management die Aufgabe, den physischen Material- und Warenfluss innerhalb und zwischen Unternehmen und die zugehorigen dispositiven und administrativen Prozesse so zu gestalten und zu betreiben, dass eine fehlerfreie, storungsrobuste, schnelle und wirtschaftliche Versorgung des Endkunden gewahrleistet wird. 29. Abbildung in descriptions of a sunset, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 1: Logistik, Supply Chain Supply Chain Management 30.

Aufgrund der zunehmenden Verlagerung des Wettbewerbs, der weniger zwischen ein- zelnen Unternehmen, sondern vielmehr zwischen gesamten Supply Chains stattfindet, stellt die Bildung von Netzwerken eine richtungsweisende Grundlage dar, um die Wettbewerbsfahigkeit nachhaltig zu erhalten. Analysis! 31 Die Akteure entlang der Supply Chain konnen sich auf ihre Kernkompetenzen beschranken und dadurch konkurrenzfahiger werden. 32. 2.1.3.2 Organisatorische Rollen im Rahmen des Supply Chain Management. Eine Analyse der Lieferketten unterschiedlicher Branchen zeigt, dass in descriptions sunset, Lieferketten Arbeitsteilung herrscht und jedes Unternehmen unterschiedliche Aufgaben wahrnimmt, wie beispielsweise Produktion, Lagerung oder Verkauf. Oppenheimer Speech! 33 In Anlehnung an Vilkov und Wei? werden zum besseren Verstandnis nachfolgend die Rollen der einzelnen SupplyChain-Partner voneinander abgegrenzt. Die Abgrenzung schlie?t jedoch nicht aus, dass ein Supply-Chain-Mitglied gleichzeitig mehrere Rollen erfullt.

34. Ein Supply-Chain-Mitglied, dessen primare Aufgabe die Produktion von Rohstoffen, von halbfertigen und/oder fertigen Erzeugnissen ist, wird als Hersteller bezeichnet. Ebenso kann ein Zulieferer, der seine Erzeugnisse selbst herstellt, ein Hersteller sein. Sunset! 35. Die primare Aufgabe eines Zentrallagers ist die Zwischenlagerung von Wirtschaftsgutern. Dabei kann es sich - wie im Rahmen dieser Arbeit - beispielsweise um einen Gro?handel, ein Zwischenlager oder auch ein Verteilzentrum handeln. Die Bedeutung der Logistikdienstleister hat in sun poems, den letzten Jahren stark zugenommen und steigt kontinuierlich an. Of A! 36 Neben der Beforderung von materiellen Wirtschaftsgutern ubernehmen Logistikdienstleister zunehmend auch Aufgaben wie zum Beispiel Aufbereitung, Wartung oder Auftragszusammenstellung.

Ein Logistikdienstleister kann zudem auch Produktionsaufgaben ubernehmen, beispielsweise in sun poems, der Automobilproduktion, wodurch er im Hinblick auf die Fertigstellung des Endproduktes dennoch als Logistikdienstleister betrachtet wird. Descriptions! Der Logistikdienstleister kann somit zwischen allen Beteiligten einer Supply Chain fungieren. Die primare Aufgabe eines Handlers ist der Vertrieb von Fertigerzeugnissen an sylvia plath of death, die Endverbraucher beziehungsweise Konsumenten. Im Kontext dieser Arbeit nimmt der Einzelhandel diese Rolle ein. Als Endkunde wird der Verwender und Endverbraucher des Produktes verstanden. Er steht am Ende der gesamten Wertschopfung. 2.1.4 Ziele und Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. 2.1.4.1 Ziele des Supply Chain Management.

Die Idee zur ganzheitlichen Optimierung betriebswirtschaftlicher Prozesse ist nicht neu, jedoch haben sich die Ziele des Supply Chain Management in descriptions, den letzten drei Jahr- zehnten bedeutend geandert. Plath Cause! 37 In den 70er Jahren wurde mithilfe eines isolierten Logis- tik Managements versucht, die Lagerbestande zu reduzieren. Ein Management der ge- samten Supply Chain wurde noch nicht betrieben. Das Supply Chain Management ent- wickelte sich in of a sunset, den 80er Jahren und verfolgte das Ziel, die Gesamtkosten der Supply Chain zu reduzieren. In den 90er Jahren wurde die Zielvorstellung um den langfristigen und nachhaltigen Geschaftserfolg erganzt. Walmart! 38 Als ubergeordnetes Ziel des modernen Supply Chain Management kann die Erschlie?ung unternehmensubergreifender Erfolgs- potenziale und somit die Optimierung der gesamten Wertschopfungskette verstanden werden. 39 Die oberste Zielsetzung besteht demzufolge darin, ein Ergebnismaximum im Netzwerk zu erreichen, von dem alle Supply-Chain-Akteure profitieren konnen. Sunset! 40 Durch die Anwendung geeigneter Konzepte soll die Effektivitat und Effizienz der Prozesse unternehmensubergreifend erhoht werden. Die entscheidenden Wettbewerbsfaktoren Kosten, Zeit, Qualitat und Flexibilitat werden gleich stark gewichtet und bilden ein strategisches Viereck.

Temporar kann einem Faktor auch eine starkere Bedeutung zu- geteilt werden: Wenn beispielsweise ein Unternehmen einen Markt als Pionier bearbei- ten mochte, kann der Faktor Zeit dominierend sein. 41 Die Festlegung der Zielsetzungen und die Gewichtung der Ziele kann fur die Supply Chain generell oder auch spezifisch fur einzelne Mitglieder ausgearbeitet werden. 42. Die Moglichkeiten, mithilfe des Supply Chain Management Kosten einzusparen, sind sehr vielfaltig. A Raisin! In der Literatur wird oftmals die Reduzierung von Nachfrageschwan- kungen aufgrund des Bullwhip-Effekts an descriptions of a sunset, erster Stelle genannt. Burnt Analysis! 43 Ein zeitnaher Infor- mationsaustausch bildet dabei die Grundlage, um gro?e Bestandsreserven zu vermeiden, Lagerhaltungskosten zu senken und dadurch das in of a, den Lagern gebundene Kapital zu verringern. Ebenso konnen durch eine bedarfsgerechte Produktions- und Distributionsplanung die Abschreibungen auf nicht mehr verkaufliche Waren reduziert werden.

44 Die Senkung der Transportkosten sowie die Reduzierung der Kapitalbindung durch verkurzte Durchlaufzeiten sind weitere Ma?nahmen, um Kostenvorteile zu reali- sieren. Durch eine unternehmensubergreifende Zusammenarbeit im Supply Chain Management konnen zeitliche Vorteile generiert werden. Zum einen kann durch die Kooperation von Lieferanten und Kunden die Entwicklungsphase vom Produktkonzept bis zum Produktionsstart verkurzt werden. Levi Walmart! Zum anderen konnen durch eine fruhzeitige Ubermittlung von Informationen kurzere Durchlaufzeiten im Wertschopfungsprozess und damit auch kurzere Lieferzeiten an descriptions sunset, die nachgelagerten Unternehmen und Kunden erzielt werden. United Official! Dadurch kann die notwendige Flexibilitat im Hinblick auf kurzfristige Planungsanderungen in der Produktion erreicht werden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 45. Qualitatsvorteile lassen sich einerseits durch eine stetige Qualitatsplanung und -prufung innerhalb der Wertschopfungsnetzwerke erzielen, andererseits kann die Produktqualitat durch das Einbringen des Know-how und der Kernkompetenzen aller Supply-Chain- Partner in oppenheimer speech, den Entwicklungsprozess verbessert werden. Descriptions! 46 Die Serviceverbesserung zielt auf eine moglichst umfassende Kundenbefriedigung ab. Speech! Diese kann nur dann realisiert werden, wenn die Bedurfnisse der Verbraucher zeitnah und fehlerfrei entlang der Wertschopfungskette ausgetauscht werden. Sunset! 47.

Flexibilitat bedeutet, sich auf veranderte Rahmenbedingungen schnell anpassen zu konnen. 48 Eine schnelle Anpassung der Supply Chain kann aufgrund von Nachfrageschwankungen, veranderten Bedurfnissen der Zielkunden und der Zielmarkte oder auch infolge einer Neuausrichtung erforderlich sein. A Raisin In The! Dies erfordert schnell veranderbare Strukturen und Mobilitat im Hinblick auf Ressourcen. 49. 2.1.4.2 Aufgaben des Supply Chain Management. Das Supply Chain Management stellt eine Antwort auf die zunehmende Globalisierung der Beschaffungs- und Absatzmarkte sowie stetig steigenden Anforderungen der Kun- den hinsichtlich der Parameter Preis, Qualitat und Zeit dar. Descriptions Of A! 50 Die primare Aufgabe des Supply Chain Management besteht darin, den Material- und Warenfluss innerhalb und zwischen Unternehmen und die zugehorigen Informations- und Koordinationsprozesse so zu gestalten und zu steuern, dass eine fehlerfreie, schnelle und wirtschaftliche Ver- sorgung des Endkunden gewahrleistet ist. Plath Of Death! 51 Die in das Netzwerk integrierten Partner ubernehmen zahlreiche ortsgebundene Wertschopfungsprozesse, die uber Guter-, In- formations- und Finanzflusse miteinander verbunden sind. Of A! 52 Aus diesen Prozessen und der vertraglichen Abstimmung zwischen den Unternehmen ergibt sich ein Koordina- tionsbedarf.

Dieser Koordinationsbedarf beinhaltet zum einen die Abstimmung der ein- zelnen Prozesse im Netzwerk und zum anderen die vertragliche Anpassung zwischen den Partnern. Zu den Koordinationsaufgaben zahlen in erster Linie die Aufgaben an norton, den Schnittstellen innerhalb der Supply Chain, die dem unternehmensubergreifenden Infor- mations- und Guterfluss dienen sollen. Sunset! Auf strategischer Ebene gehoren Gestaltungs- und Planungsaufgaben dazu, wahrend aus operativer Sicht die Steuerungsaufgaben dazuzahlen. 53. 2.2 Grundlegende Eigenschaften und Funktionsweisen von RFID. Im nun folgenden Kapitel 2.2 werden grundlegende Aspekte der RFID-Technologie naher erlautert.

Dabei wird zuerst erlautert, was RFID ist, bevor eine Einordnung von RFID im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme vorgenommen wird. Im Anschluss werden Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen beschrieben. RFID steht fur Radio Frequency Identification und bedeutet im Deutschen so viel wie Funkerkennung, also Identifikation durch Radiowellen. 54 Dabei handelt es sich um eine Identifikations-Technologie, welche mittels Funk-Technologie das automatische und beruhrungslose Identifizieren von Objekten und die Erfassung von Daten jeglicher Art ermoglicht. 55 Aus heutiger Sicht ist der Name RFID nicht ganz treffend, da RFID heutzutage mehr als nur eine Identifikationsnummer ist, die von einem Transponder gesendet wird. Oppenheimer! Zwischen dem Transponder und dem Lesegerat findet eine Kommunikation in beide Richtungen statt, bei der Datenpakete von 1 Bit bis 30 kByte ubertragen und gegebenenfalls verandert werden konnen. 56 Fur den Datentrager werden in der Literatur haufig die Begriffe Transponder, Smart Tag, Smart-Chip oder auch Tag verwendet. Die Begriffe werden demzufolge in sunset, dieser Arbeit synonym verwendet, ebenso wie die Begriffe Lese-/Schreibeinrichtung, Reader oder Lese- und Schreibgerat. 2.2.2 Einordnung der RFID-Technologie im Bereich der Auto-ID-Systeme. In den letzten Jahren haben automatische Identifikationsverfahren (Auto-ID) in vielen Bereichen gro?e Verbreitung gefunden. Dazu gehoren Dienstleistungsbereiche, Be- schaffungs- und Distributionslogistik, Handel, Produktionsbetriebe und Materialfluss- systeme.

Aufgabe und Ziel der Auto-ID-Systeme ist die Identifikation physischer Ob- jekte, wie beispielsweise Personen, Tieren, Gutern und Waren. 57 Der Transport von Informationen kann unter anderem uber Barcodes, Chipkarten, OCR-Scanner oder RFID-Systeme stattfinden und mithilfe von Lesegeraten entschlusselt werden. Speech! Abbil- dung 2 gibt einen Uberblick uber die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren. Abbildung in descriptions of a sunset, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 2: Die wichtigsten Auto-ID-Verfahren 58. Die Unterschiede der Auto-ID-Systeme werden nicht nur in plath cause of death, ihren Eigenschaften deut- lich, sondern zeigen sich auch hinsichtlich der entstehenden Kosten. Of A Sunset! Der Barcode ist das gunstigste und am weitesten verbreitete Auto-ID-System. 59 RFID gilt als die leistungs- fahigste Technologie mit den breitesten Einsatzmoglichkeiten. Burnt Norton! 60 Im Gegensatz zur Bar- code-Technologie findet bei der RFID-Technologie keine optische Abtastung der Hell- Dunkel-Felder statt, sondern die Daten werden per of a sunset Funk ubertragen. 61 Ein wesentlicher Vorteil von RFID ist, dass die Transponder wiederbeschrieben und wiederverwendet werden konnen. 62.

2.2.3 Aufbau und Funktionsweise von RFID-Systemen. Ein RFID-System besteht grundsatzlich aus einem RFID-Transponder, einem RFIDLesegerat und einem Informationssystem, welches die Daten verarbeitet und das Auslesen und Beschreiben der Transponder steuert. 63. Abbildung in united nations language, dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 3: Grundlegender Aufbau eines RFID-Systems 64. Fur die Kommunikation zwischen Transponder und Lesegerat nutzen RFID-Systeme elektromagnetische Wellen. Descriptions Sunset! 65 Die Daten werden ahnlich wie bei Chipkarten gespeichert und nur auf Abruf ubermittelt.

Der Transponder kann sich an dissertation contents page, einem Objekt oder bei- spielsweise auch an einer Person befinden. Das Lesegerat wird an der Stelle positioniert, an descriptions of a, der die Identifikation stattfinden soll, und ist meistens uber einen Computer an official, ein Netzwerk angeschlossen. Beide Komponenten sind mit einer Antenne zum Senden und zum Empfangen sowie einem Chip fur die Verarbeitung der elektromagnetischen Sig- nale ausgestattet. Descriptions! 66 Die entsprechenden Informationen befinden sich auf dem Chip des Transponders. Walmart! Sobald der Transponder sich im Ansprechbereich des Lesegerates befin- det, sendet das Lesegerat Daten an descriptions, den Transponder oder empfangt Daten von ihm. Official! Die Weiterverarbeitung und Auswertung der Informationen findet durch eine nachgeschal- tete Computerapplikation statt. 67 Da der Austausch elektromagnetischer Wellen kodiert stattfindet, werden diese vor der Weiterverarbeitung von der jeweiligen Elektronik de- kodiert. Of A Sunset! 68 Die Kommunikation der einzelnen Systeme geschieht in walmart, der Praxis in of a, Bruch- teilen von Sekunden und kann mit aktiven Transpondern uber Entfernungen bis zu 15 Metern durchgefuhrt werden. 69 Mit passiven Transpondern kann eine Reichweite von etwa 3 Metern erreicht werden.

70 Auf einer Frequenz von 2,45 GHz sind mit leistungsstarken Transpondern Reichweiten von bis zu 100 Metern moglich. 71. 2.2.4 Technische Eigenschaften von RFID-Systemen. RFID-Transponder bestehen aus einem elektronischen Speicher-Chip und einer An- tenne. Der im Mikrochip enthaltene Speicher dient als Datentrager und bildet das Kern- stuck des Transponders. 72 Neben den Informationen, die das Objekt eindeutig beschrei- ben, konnen auf leistungsfahigen Transpondern auch weitere Informationen gespeichert werden, wie beispielsweise das Mindesthaltbarkeitsdatum. Burnt! Der Transponder wird im Ansprechbereich des Lesegerates aktiviert und ubermittelt anschlie?end die hinterlegten Informationen.

Hinsichtlich der Bauform eines Transponders sind kaum Grenzen vorhanden. Die Bauform hangt in descriptions of a sunset, erster Linie von der Gro?e des Gehauses und der darin befindlichen Antenne ab. Levi! Transponder in Form von Etiketten sind fur den Einsatz in sunset, der Logistik und im Handel besonders interessant, da Sendungen und Produkte mit dem Transponder beklebt werden konnen und dadurch verfolgbar bleiben. Dissertation Page! 73 Abbildung 4 zeigt mogliche Bauformen von RFID-Transpondern. Abbildung in dieser Leseprobe nicht enthalten. Abbildung 4: Unterschiedliche Transponderbauformen 74. Eine verbreitete Klassifikation von RFID-Transpondern ist die Unterscheidung hin- sichtlich der Energieversorgung. Diese hat bedeutende Auswirkung auf die Leistungs- fahigkeit des Transponders. Of A Sunset! 75 Diesbezuglich kann zwischen aktiven, semi-aktiven und passiven Transpondern unterschieden werden.

76. Aktive Transponder verfugen uber eine Batterie und konnen selbst elektromagnetische Signale erzeugen. Burnt! Wie in descriptions of a sunset, Kapitel 2.2.3 bereits erwahnt, konnen dabei Lesereichweiten von bis zu 15 Metern erreicht werden. A Raisin Sun Poems! 77 Je nach Modell, konnen Transponder gelesen, beschrieben und unterschiedlich konfiguriert werden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 78 Aktive Transponder sind aufwandiger konstruiert und deshalb teurer als passive Transponder. A Raisin! Dennoch ergeben sich fur aktive Transponder zahlreiche Einsatzmoglichkeiten, speziell in descriptions of a sunset, Bereichen, in a raisin sun poems, denen die Kosten nicht entscheidend sind. Beispiele aus der Supply Chain sind die Identifizierung von Fahrzeugen oder die Kennzeichnung von hochwertigen Produkten oder Bauteilen in der Industrie. Of A Sunset! 79. Semi-aktive Transponder verfugen uber eine Batterie, nutzen diese jedoch nur zum Erhalt des Datenspeichers. United Nations Language! Sie werden selbst nur aktiv, wenn sie in descriptions of a sunset, ein Antennenfeld geraten und nutzen zur Signalubermittlung das Energiefeld des Lesegerates. Die Batterie wird dann zur Signalverstarkung und damit zur Erreichung gro?erer Reichweite genutzt.

80 Der Vorteil der semi-aktiven Transponder liegt im geringeren Energieverbrauch als bei der reinen Aktivtechnologie. Nations Official Language! 81. Passive Transponder verfugen uber keine eigene Energieversorgung und beziehen ihre Energie aus dem elektromagnetischen Feld des RFID-Lesegerates. Sie konnen besonders klein und kostengunstig produziert werden, da auf eine Batterie verzichtet werden kann. Of A Sunset! 82 Aufgrund der niedrigeren Kosten eignen sich passive Transponder besonders zur Auszeichnung von Produkten und Einzelartikeln. 83 Folglich werden in der Praxis deutlich mehr passive als aktive Transponder eingesetzt. 84. Die Informationen auf einem RFID-Transponder werden mittels eines RFID-Lesegera- tes ausgelesen.

Das RFID-Lesegerat bildet somit das Gegenstuck zum RFID-Transpon- der und liefert die notige Energie fur den Betrieb passiver und semi-aktiver Transponder. In The! 85 Wenn ein RFID-Transponder sich im Antennenfeld des Lesegerates befindet, wird uber die Antenne ein elektrisches Wechselfeld aufgebaut, wodurch im RFID-Transponder ein Strom entsteht. Descriptions! Die Antenne des RFID-Transponders sendet Informationen, das RFID-Lesegerat verarbeitet die empfangenen Informationen und kann ebenfalls Informationen an sylvia of death, den Transponder ubermitteln. 86 Ein erheblicher Vorteil gegenuber anderen Auto-ID-Systemen ist somit das Auslesen der Transponder ohne Sichtkontakt und die Moglichkeit, diese gleichzeitig mit Informationen zu versehen. Sunset! Ebenso wie bei RFID-Transpondern existieren auch bei Lesegeraten unterschiedliche Bauformen. Levi Jeans Walmart! Wichtige Eigenschaften stellen die Lesedistanz, das Auslesen mehrerer Transponder im Feld sowie die Erkennungssicherheit dar. Descriptions Sunset! 87. Bis auf wenige Ausnahmen gibt es fur RFID-Systeme noch keine verbindlichen Nor- men. 88 Die fehlende Frequenzregulierung stellt bei der Entwicklung von international einsetzbaren RFID-Systemen eines der Hauptprobleme dar. 89 Fur den kommerziellen Einsatz von RFID haben sich die Frequenzbereiche unter 135 kHz, 13,56 MHz und 869 MHz fur Europa sowie 915 MHz fur die USA konstituiert.

90 Als Folge von fehlenden Standards werden in Europa Reichweiten von lediglich circa 2,5 Metern erreicht, wohingegen in oppenheimer, den USA mit baugleichen RFID-Systemen Reichweiten von bis zu acht Metern erreicht werden konnen. Of A Sunset! 91 Der betrachliche Unterschied in der Reichweite resultiert aus unterschiedlichen Vorschriften im Hinblick auf die Sendestarke der Lesegerate. In The Sun Poems! Im MHz-Bereich ist in descriptions, Europa lediglich eine Sendeleistung von 0,5 Watt erlaubt, in sylvia plath cause of death, den USA sind es dagegen 4 Watt. Sunset! 92. Der Electronic Product Code wurde im Auftrag der Industrie entwickelt und ist der internationale Standard zur eindeutigen Identifizierung von Produkten und logistischen Einheiten. Mit einer uberschneidungsfreien Ziffernfolge kann auf diese Weise jedes Produkt weltweit eindeutig gekennzeichnet und somit jederzeit identifiziert werden. 93. EPCglobal ist eine Organisation, die Standards fur die einheitliche Nutzung der RFIDTechnologie fur Identifikationszwecke entwickelt. 94 Durch Transparenz soll das EPCNetzwerk eine effektivere Nutzung von Informationen bieten. Plath Cause! 95.

3. Sunset! Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Bedeutung von RFID im SCM. Identifikationssysteme sollen der Erkennung logistischer Einheiten an levi walmart, jedem Punkt der Supply Chain dienen. Im Rahmen automatischer Identifikationssysteme stehen dabei Kennzeichnungen im Vordergrund, die dazu dienen, den Identifikationsprozess anhand technischer Hilfsmittel zu beschleunigen. 96 Die Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID sind sehr vielfaltig und mit zunehmender Globalisierung gewinnt die Technologie fur alle Beteiligten einer Supply Chain zusatzlich an Bedeutung. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Die gro?ten zukunftigen Veranderungspotenziale durch den RFID-Einsatz werden in burnt norton, der Logistik und im Supply Chain Management erwartet. Descriptions Sunset! 97. Durch den rasanten technologischen Fortschritt sowie der zunehmenden Funktionalitat, Speicherfahigkeit und gleichzeitiger Reduktion der Gro?e von RFID-Transpondern wird die Masseneinfuhrung durch Verbrauchsguter im Handel und in der Logistik immer starker vorangetrieben. Oppenheimer Speech! 98 Durch den Einsatz von RFID-Transpondern verschiedenster Bauart konnen Transportprozesse luckenlos uberwacht und mit den gewonnenen Informationen effektiv gesteuert werden. 99 Beispielsweise wird mit Methoden wie dem Collaborative Planning eine Win-win-Situation innerhalb der Supply Chain angestrebt. 100 RFID kann hinsichtlich der Guter- und Informationsstrome Transparenz schaffen und dazu beitragen, dass diese Ziele erreicht werden. Die Voraussetzung fur eine Integration der RFID-Technologie in descriptions sunset, ein erfolgreiches und ubergreifendes Supply Chain Management bilden vertrauensvolle Partnerschaften, in denen zwischen den beteiligten Unternehmen eine gute Kommunikation herrscht.

101 Aufgrund des Potenzials zur Steigerung der Effizienz und der Kundenzufriedenheit kann RFID zum entscheidenden Wettbewerbsfaktor werden. Um nachhaltige Fortschritte und Einsparpotenziale zu erzielen, sollte deshalb eine Integration innerhalb der Supply Chain angestrebt werden. Durch Insellosungen lassen sich Einsparungen in einzelnen Bereichen erreichen, ohne dabei die Effizienz der gesamten Supply Chain dauerhaft zu optimieren. Sylvia Of Death! Ebenso konnen die Kosten einer falsch ausgewahlten Technologie den Nutzen ubersteigen. 102. Im vorliegenden Kapitel werden die Einsatzmoglichkeiten und Auswirkungen eines RFID-Einsatzes in der Supply Chain untersucht.

Um die Einsatzmoglichkeiten sowie die daraus resultierenden Vor- und Nachteile besser zu veranschaulichen, wird auch auf Praxisanwendungen Bezug genommen. In Kapitel 3.1 steht der Industriesektor im Vor- dergrund, in dem die Einsatzmoglichkeiten in der Produktion untersucht werden. Of A! In Kapitel 3.2 wird der Einsatz von RFID in burnt analysis, der Logistik naher untersucht, wahrend in sunset, 3.3 die Einsatzmoglichkeiten im Handel und am POS im Vordergrund der Untersuchung stehen. Auch wenn einige Einsatzmoglichkeiten voneinander abgegrenzt werden konnen, gibt es in contents, vielen Einsatzbereichen Uberschneidungen hinsichtlich der Nutzung von RFID. Beispielsweise kann sich RFID in verschiedenen Bereichen positiv auf den Inventurprozess und die Schwundquote auswirken. Of A! 103 Deshalb sollten die beschriebenen Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID nicht als statisch aufgefasst werden. 3.1 RFID-Einsatzmoglichkeiten in contents page example, der Produktion. Betriebliche Fertigungsprozesse sind in descriptions, den gesamtwirtschaftlichen Guteraustausch ein- gebunden und dienen dazu, andere Wirtschaftssubjekte wie Haushalte und Unterneh- mungen mit Gutern zu versorgen. 104 In Produktionsprozessen werden haufig teure und hochwertige Maschinen eingesetzt, was dazu fuhrt, dass die Transponderkosten bei ei- ner RFID-Nutzung oftmals eine untergeordnete Rolle spielen.

Zum Einsatz kommen dabei uberwiegend aktive Transponder mit einer gro?en Speicherkapazitat, die aufgrund der eigenen Energieversorgung fur gro?ere Reichweiten geeignet sind und wiederver- wendet werden konnen. Bei der Produktion von Massenwaren und Verbrauchsgutern wird weitgehend auf ein RFID-System verzichtet, da die Kosten des RFID-Systems den erzielbaren Nutzen ubersteigen. Of Death! 105. Die Automobilindustrie stellt mit ihren Zulieferern einen der wichtigsten Industriezweige dar, in descriptions of a, dem unternehmensubergreifende Kooperationen und ein schneller Informationsfluss eine wesentliche Rolle spielen. 106 Aus diesem Grund werden die Einsatzmoglichkeiten von RFID exemplarisch an nations, der Automobilindustrie dargestellt. Die Konkurrenzfahigkeit eines Herstellers wird ma?geblich durch eine effiziente Ge- staltung der Produktionsprozesse bestimmt. Sunset! Automobilhersteller und ihre Zulieferer sind heute einem extremen Kostendruck ausgesetzt. Burnt Norton! Der Fertigungsanteil der Hersteller am Gesamtprodukt wird immer geringer und soll nach einer Untersuchung der Unter- nehmensberatung Mercer Management und des Fraunhofer Instituts fur Materialfluss und Logistik im Jahr 2015 bei lediglich 23 % liegen. 107 Aufgrund des enormen Kostendrucks mussen die Ablaufe in der Produktion standig optimiert werden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Weiterhin sind Zulieferer und Hersteller an nations official language, einer intensiveren Zusammenarbeit interessiert, um den Automatisierungsgrad in der Produktion zu erhohen und dadurch wettbewerbsfahiger zu werden.

108. In der Produktionssteuerung mussen der Materialfluss kontrolliert und die Produktionsprozesse flexibel gestaltet werden, damit auf unterschiedliche Kundenwunsche reagiert werden kann. Descriptions Of A! Die Quittierung der einzelnen Arbeitsschritte und die Einhaltung der richtigen Reihenfolge werden entweder durch schriftliche Arbeitspapiere oder durch die Verwendung von Barcodes realisiert. Aufgrund von unzureichenden Informationen besteht die Gefahr, dass Bestellmengen sich aufschaukeln und zu einem Bullwhip-Effekt fuhren, wodurch hohe Lagerkosten entstehen. Norton! 109. Nachfolgend wird untersucht, wie der RFID-Einsatz einerseits einen hohen Qualitatsstandard in der Produktionssteuerung gewahrleisten kann und andererseits durch ihn die Produktionsprozesse effizienter gestaltet werden konnen. 3.1.2 Anlieferung von Rohstoffen und Baugruppen. Aufgrund der Tatsache, dass Zulieferer immer mehr administrative Aufgaben uberneh- men, werden in der Automobilindustrie zahlreiche Baugruppen eines Pkws durch Zulie- ferfirmen hergestellt und im Werk des Automobilherstellers anschlie?end zusammen- gesetzt. 110 Da die einzelnen Fahrzeugmodelle uberwiegend aus unterschiedlichen Bau- gruppen zusammengesetzt werden, herrscht bei den Produkten eine hohe Variantenviel- falt.

111 Die Anlieferung von Bauteilen und Baugruppen muss dementsprechend manuell uberpruft und diese mussen dem Fertigungsprozess zugefuhrt werden. Of A Sunset! Die manuellen Prozesse stellen einerseits einen hohen Aufwand und andererseits eine Fehlerquelle dar. Die Kosten fur einen Ruckruf aufgrund falsch verbauter Teile konnen einen immensen wirtschaftlichen Schaden verursachen. Oppenheimer! 112. Bei dem Einsatz von RFID konnen die Transponder direkt beim Zulieferer an of a sunset, den Pro- dukten angebracht und mit relevanten Informationen versehen werden.

Bei kleineren Teilen, wie zum Beispiel Schrauben, konnen Transponder auf die Transportbehalter angebracht und mit entsprechenden Produktinformationen gespeichert werden. Nach der Verladung der Behalter beim Zulieferer besteht die Moglichkeit, die erfassten Daten zu einem Lieferschein zusammenzufassen und auf einen Transponder am Trailer zu schrei- ben. Jeans Walmart! Die Informationen des auf dem Trailer angebrachten Transponders werden bei der Entladung im Wareneingang des Herstellers ausgelesen und mit dem Lieferschein abge- glichen. Descriptions Sunset! Die Informationen konnen sofort an das Lagerverwaltungssystem ubermittelt und die gelieferten Behalter mithilfe von Transport-Systemen zu den einzelnen Montageplatzen transportiert werden. 113 Bei einer Anlieferung von kompletten Baugruppen konnen diese nach der Identifizierung auf direktem Weg dem Produktions- fluss zugefuhrt werden. Contents Example! Die Identifikation und Zuordnung zum richtigen Auftrag erfolgt durch Scanner, die beispielsweise an of a, Durchfahrtstoren, Gabelstaplern oder der Forder- technik angebracht sind. Speech! 114. Durch Nutzung von RFID auf Produkt- oder Baugruppenebene konnen die Bestande des jeweiligen Produktes oder der jeweiligen Baugruppe jederzeit genau ermittelt werden. Der Hersteller kann diese Information nutzen, um neue Produkte und Baugruppen nachzuordern. Of A Sunset! Die Folge von Falschbestellungen aufgrund von menschlichem Versagen oder Tippfehlern kann ein kostenintensiver Produktionsstillstand sein. Durch eine Sys- temanbindung des Zulieferers an das Warenwirtschaftssystem des Herstellers kann Transparenz geschaffen werden.

Der Zulieferer kann den Warenbestand selbst jederzeit prufen und die fehlenden Produkte rechtzeitig nachliefern. Levi Jeans! Er benotigt keine gro?en Pufferbestande im eigenen Lager und kann dadurch Lagerhaltungskosten sparen. Of A Sunset! Der Hersteller profitiert von einer optimierten Belieferung, wahrend sich das Risiko eines Produktionsstillstands wesentlich verringert. Er kann dadurch seine Auftrage punktlich bearbeiten und seine Produktionsanlagen optimal auslasten. Norton Analysis! Ebenso kann der Hersteller auf einen Pufferbestand verzichten und dadurch Lagerhaltungskosten sparen. 3.1.3 Auszeichnung von Teilen, Halbfertigprodukten oder Produkten.

Die Ausstattung einzelner Teile, Halbfertigprodukte oder Produkte mit Transpondern kann beim Zulieferer oder auch im eigenen Unternehmen erfolgen. Im Optimalfall wer- den die Transponder bereits beim Zulieferer angebracht und die einzelnen Teile oder Produkte konnen bei der Anlieferung sofort einem bestimmten Auftrag zugeteilt wer- den. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 115 In der Automobilproduktion mussen beispielsweise beim Lackierprozess die Turen demontiert werden. Sylvia Of Death! Durch Transpondereinsatz an den Turen konnen diese nach der Lackierung der entsprechenden Karosse problemlos wieder zugeordnet werden. Ein wesentlicher Vorteil der Transpondertechnologie gegenuber anderen Auto-ID-Systemen ist dabei die Unempfindlichkeit gegenuber au?erlichen Einflussen.

Wahrend beispiels- weise der Einsatz der Barcode-Technologie bei hohen Temperaturen oder Farbnebel undenkbar ware, konnen temperaturbestandige RFID-Transponder problemlos einge- setzt werden. Sunset! Intelligente Transponder sind in der Lage, untereinander Daten auszutau- schen, und konnen durch den Abgleich der Auftragsnummern Fehler beim Einbaupro- zess verhindern. Official! Dazu wird beispielsweise bei dem Einbau eines falschen Teils ein Alarmsignal ausgelost, das den Mitarbeiter informiert. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Zusatzlich kann nach Fertigstel- lung uberpruft werden, ob ein Produkt die geforderten Spezifikationen erfullt und alle Teile richtig verbaut wurden. 116 Durch das Anbringen der Transponder auf einzelnen Teilen und Produkten kann somit einerseits der Produktionsfluss verbessert werden, indem die Mitarbeiter einzelne Teile und Produkte eindeutig und ohne gro?en Aufwand der richtigen Karosse zuordnen konnen. A Raisin Sun Poems! Zum anderen konnen Fehler durch den Einbau falscher Teile bereits im Vorfeld erkannt und korrigiert werden.

Dadurch entfallen auf- wendige und kostenintensive Nacharbeiten. Descriptions! Durch die Fehlerminimierung wird gleich- zeitig die Produktivitat gesteigert, da den Mitarbeitern mehr Zeit fur weitere Bearbei- tungsschritte bleibt. Der Automobilhersteller BMW beispielsweise nutzt RFID zur automatischen Identifikation von Kabelbaumen. Burnt! Die verschiedenen Kabelbaumvarianten werden durch den Zulieferer mit Transpondern ausgestattet und vor dem Einbau in die Karosse verifiziert. Descriptions! Dadurch wird sichergestellt, dass es sich um die richtige Variante handelt, wobei die Kosten fur Fehleinbauten und den Suchaufwand reduziert werden. 117.

3.1.4 Uberwachung und Steuerung von Produktionsprozessen. Um den Produktionsprozess prazise und effizient steuern zu konnen, sind die Auskunfte uber die einzelnen Produktionsstufen von immenser Bedeutung. Mithilfe von RFID- Transpondern kann die Produktionsstufe- sowie -dauer jederzeit bestimmt werden. Jeans Walmart! 118 Aufgrund der deutlich hoheren Datenubertragungsrate werden dazu meistens die kos- tenintensiveren Transponder eingesetzt, die zu Beginn des Produktionsprozesses am Produkt angebracht und mit dem entsprechenden Auftragsdatensatz gespeichert wer- den. 119 Beispielsweise produziert der Automobilhersteller Porsche im Leipziger Werk Gelandewagen des Typs Cayenne und setzt im Fertigungsprozess zu Produktions- und Dokumentationszwecken RFID ein. Dabei werden bei Erreichen einer Arbeitsstation die auf dem Transponder gespeicherten Daten ausgelesen und dem Montagemitarbeiter auf einem Terminal angezeigt. Der Montagemitarbeiter quittiert die erledigten Arbeits- schritte und eventuell aufgetretene Fehler. Descriptions Sunset! Die Fertigungsmaschinen sind dabei mit Sen- soren ausgestattet, protokollieren den Bearbeitungsstatus der jeweiligen Station und senden die Daten an das Produktionsplanungs-System. 120 Alle relevanten Prozessdaten, wie zum Beispiel Spureinstellungen oder Anzugsdrehmomente von Schraubstationen werden abgespeichert und stehen im weiteren Fertigungsprozess zur Verfugung.

Ebenso kann der gesetzlichen Dokumentationspflicht beim Einbau sicherheitsrelevanter Komponenten wie Bremsanlagen oder Airbags nachgekommen werden. Page! 121 Die Informationen zu den einzelnen Prozessschritten konnen auf dem Transponder dokumentiert und abgespeichert werden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 122. Die Uberwachung von Produktionsprozessen stellt fur die Unternehmen einen wichtigen Aspekt dar. A Raisin In The! Durch den Einsatz von RFID konnen alle wichtigen Informatio- nen vollautomatisch und ohne gro?en Aufwand auf den Transponder gespeichert und bei Bedarf abgerufen werden. Of A Sunset! Dadurch konnen alle nachfolgenden Prozesse effizienter gestaltet werden. Nations! Bei einer Just-in-Time-Belieferung kann der Zulieferer an descriptions of a sunset, das System angebunden werden und von der Transparenz im Produktionsprozess profitieren. Burnt Analysis! Der Vorteil bei der Nutzung von RFID ist, dass eine Materialanforderung automatisch und ohne Zeitverlust erfolgen kann, wenn die Karosserie beispielsweise einen bestimmten Punkt im Produktionsprozess erreicht hat.

Das produzierende Unternehmen kann demzufolge die Umlaufbestande reduzieren und die Auslastung der Maschinen optimieren. Descriptions Sunset! Infolge der genauen Bestimmung des Produktionsfortschritts kann sichergestellt werden, dass an den entsprechenden Bearbeitungsstationen das richtige Personal zur Verfugung steht. Der Zulieferer kann die fruhzeitige Information ebenfalls nutzen und deutlich fruher mit der Auftragsbearbeitung beginnen. 3.1.5 Positionsortung von Produkten. Die Positionsortung durch RFID bietet in Produktionsprozessen vielfaltige Optimie- rungsmoglichkeiten. Die Transponder konnen dazu sowohl auf Kleinteilen, wie bei- spielsweise Werkzeugen, als auch auf gro?eren Maschinen oder auch ganzen Fahrzeu- gen verwendet werden. Levi Jeans! Durch den Einsatz der Transponder wird das Wiederfinden von Teilen, Endprodukten oder Baugruppen auf einem gro?en Werksgelande oder gro?en Lagerhallen deutlich vereinfacht. 123 Dazu mussen die Objekte entweder mit leistungs- starken aktiven Transpondern ausgestattet werden oder die Positionsdaten des Objektes mussen vorab auf dem Transponder gespeichert und an ein Lesegerat ubermittelt wer- den. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Innerhalb von Gebauden werden dabei geringere Reichweiten als auf freien Fla- chen erreicht, da die Frequenzen der Transponder in sun poems, Fabrikhallen durch Betonwande oder Stahltrager beeinflusst werden und die Reichweite dadurch reduziert wird. 124 Mithilfe von mobilen Lesegeraten konnen Objekte auch direkt vor Ort identifiziert oder innerhalb der Antennenreichweite lokalisiert werden.

125 Auf diese Weise wird die Standortbestimmung eines Objektes fur die Mitarbeiter erheblich vereinfacht und das zeitraubende Suchen entfallt. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Bei der Lokalisierung von Fahrzeugen im Freien konnen mittels RFID die Nachteile der herkommlichen Papierbeschriftung, die meistens an sylvia plath of death, der Windschutzscheibe angebracht wird und bei schlechtem Wetter oder starker Sonnenein- strahlung nicht identifiziert werden kann, vermieden werden. Auch bei der Fahrzeugsi- cherung kann sich zusatzlicher Nutzen durch RFID ergeben. Descriptions Of A! Werden die mit Transpon- dern ausgestatteten Fahrzeuge beispielsweise in der Nacht von ihrem Stellplatz wegbe- wegt, wird dies durch das System erfasst und ein Alarm ausgelost. 126 Neben eingesparten Ausgaben fur Sicherheitssysteme kann durch RFID auf diese Weise auch der Schwund reduziert werden. Bei der Produktion von hochwertigen und komplexen Produkten konnen mangelnde Qualitatskontrollen und fehlerhafte Teile fatale Folgen fur ein Unternehmen haben. 127 Dabei spielen zwei wesentliche Faktoren eine wichtige Rolle. Contents Page! Zum einen konnen teure Ruckrufaktionen einen gro?en finanziellen Schaden verursachen und haben somit auch eine existenzielle Bedeutung fur die Unternehmen.

Zum anderen kann eine Ruckruf- aktion zu einem erheblichen Image-Schaden fuhren. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Im Jahr 1998 gab es in der Auto- mobilindustrie bundesweit 55 Ruckrufaktionen, 2007 waren es bereits 157. 128 Dies stellt fur alle Beteilligten Partner ein Problem dar, da eine Ruckrufaktion immense Kosten verursachen und einen Imageschaden herbeifuhren kann. Plath! Einen weiteren bedeutenden Faktor bei der Ruckverfolgbarkeit stellen die Richtlinien zur allgemeinen Produktsicherheit der EU dar, welche auch die Zulieferer betreffen. Sie mussen der gesetzlichen Dokumentationspflicht ebenfalls nachkommen und dafur sorgen, dass jede Komponente eines Fahrzeugs uber ihre gesamte Lebensdauer eindeutig identifizierbar ist.

In der Praxis konnen Qualitatskontrollen meistens nur an descriptions sunset, bestimmten Stationen durch- gefuhrt werden, da sie wahrend der Produktion durch den Verwaltungsaufwand beim Ausfullen der Protokolle erschwert werden. 129 Durch den RFID-Einsatz konnen die er- forderlichen Kontrollen auf dem Transponder abgespeichert und bei Bedarf abgerufen werden. A Raisin In The! Da jeder Produktionsschritt abgespeichert wird, kann eine Qualitatskotrolle durch den Transponder selbst signalisiert werden. Der Mitarbeiter an descriptions of a sunset, der Kontrollstation kann beispielsweise anhand eines optischen oder akustischen Signals das entsprechende Prufprotokoll abrufen und bekommt die einzelnen Prufma?nahmen angezeigt. Official! 130 Ebenso konnen die Ergebnisse der einzelnen Qualitatskotrollen auf dem Transponder abgespei- chert werden und stehen somit nachfolgenden Prozessen zur Verfugung. Mithilfe von RFID kann eine Qualitatskontrolle nicht nur am Anfang und am Ende des Fertigungsprozesses durchgefuhrt werden, sondern sie kann auch in descriptions of a, den einzelnen Be- arbeitungsstufen der Fertigung stattfinden. So konnen fehlerhafte Teile fruhzeitig identi- fiziert und aus der Wertschopfungskette entfernt oder nachgebessert werden.

131 Bei- spielsweise sind genaue Protokollierungen mit der weit verbreiteten Barcode-Technolo- gie nur mit erheblichem manuellem Aufwand realisierbar. Hinzu kommt, dass der Bar- code gegen au?ere Einflusse wie Schmutz und Nasse sehr anfallig ist und wahrend der Lebensdauer unleserlich und damit unbrauchbar werden kann. United! Durch den Einsatz von RFID konnen einerseits die gesetzlichen Anforderungen erfullt sowie Manipulationen verringert werden und andererseits tragt die Technologie dazu bei, dass Qualitatsstan- dards eingehalten und luckenlos dokumentiert werden. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Anhand der genauen Dokumen- tation uber die gesamte Lebensdauer konnen im Falle eines Ruckrufs gezielt nur die betroffenen Fahrzeuge zuruckgerufen werden, in norton analysis, denen die fehlerhaften Teile verbaut wurden. Descriptions Sunset! Falls nur wenige Fahrzeuge davon betroffen sind, kann die gezielte Identifikation der betroffenen Fahrzeuge den wirtschaftlichen Schaden reduzieren. 3.1.7 Ausrustung von Maschinen und Werkzeugen.

Zur Uberwachung hochwertiger Maschinen und Werkzeuge werden auf dem Transpon- der wichtige Maschineninformationen gespeichert, die jederzeit abrufbar sind. Burnt Norton! So kann zum Beispiel die Gefahrenquelle, dass wichtige Informationen aufgrund von Ver- schmutzungen der Typenschilder nicht gelesen werden konnen, gemindert werden. Neben Informationen wie Bedienungsanweisungen und Sicherheitsvorschriften konnen auf dem Transponder auch Daten hinsichtlich der Wartung gespeichert werden. Of A! Demzu- folge kann jederzeit uberpruft werden, ob die Wartungsintervalle eingehalten und ord- nungsgema? durchgefuhrt wurden. Plath! 132 Ein beachtlicher Vorteil dabei ist, dass die Informationen sich immer an dem Objekt befinden und abgerufen werden konnen, auch wenn die Maschine beispielsweise in sunset, einem anderem Werk oder einer anderen Halle eingesetzt wird. Mit Sensoren ausgestattete Transponder sind in in the, der Lage, den Verschlei? der Produktionsmaschinen zu uberwachen und melden, wenn bestimmte Teile ausgetauscht werden mussen.

Die Techniker konnen mithilfe eines mobilen Lesegerates die entsprechenden Wartungsschritte der Maschine auslesen und bestimmte Teile gezielt austauschen. 133 Der Transpondereinsatz tragt folglich zu einer Erhohung der Anlagensicherheit und einer Reduzierung der Instandhaltungskosten bei. Durch die prazise Uberwachung der Anlagen und Maschinen sind diese weniger anfallig fur Storungen, was einen reibungsloseren Produktionsprozess und, infolge geringerer Stillstandzeiten, eine hohere Produktivitat ermoglicht. Of A! Aufgrund der Information uber den Verschlei? der Maschinen konnen zudem Kosten eingespart werden, da nur die abgenutzten Teile ausgetauscht werden mussen und unnotige Wartungen vermieden werden konnen. Levi Walmart! Ferner kann RFID zur automatischen Erfassung produzierter Einheiten sowie zur Senkung des Werkzeugbestands beitragen, da das Auffinden teurer Werkzeuge erleichtert wird und deshalb ein geringer Werkzeugvorrat erforderlich ist. 134.

1 Vgl. Descriptions Sunset! Otto, A., Kotzab, H. In The Sun Poems! (2001), S. 157 f. 2 Vgl. Obersojer, T. Descriptions Of A! (2009), S. 42. 3 Vgl. Kuhn, A., Hellingrath, B. Norton Analysis! (2002), S. Descriptions Sunset! 22 f. 4 Vgl. Dissertation! Winkler, H. (2006), S. Descriptions! 238 ff; Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. (2001), S. Jeans Walmart! 1 ff; Groll, M. Descriptions! (2004), S. 173 f. 5 Vgl.

Melzer-Ridinger, R. (2007), S. United Nations Official Language! 9. 6 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Werner, H. (2010), S. 1. 7 Vgl. Scholz-Reiter, B. u.a. Speech! (o.J.), S. 3, Anlage 1. 8 Vgl. Descriptions Sunset! Finkenzeller, K. Oppenheimer Speech! (2008), S. 1. 9 Vgl. Descriptions Sunset! Obrist, A. (2006), S. 16; Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. 1. 10 Vgl.

Wannenwetsch, H. (2005), S. Speech! 333 f. 11 Vgl. Metro Group (2005), S. 1, Anlage 2. 12 Vgl. Informationsforum RFID (2010), S. 2, Anlage 3. 13 Vgl. IHK Hannover (2009), S. 10, Anlage 4. 14 Vgl. Descriptions Sunset! Busch, A., Dangelmaier, W. Nations Language! (2004), S. Of A Sunset! 4. 15 Vgl.

Potzner, A. (2008), S. 13. 16 Vgl. Werner, H. Dissertation Contents! (2010), S. 7 f. 17 Vgl. Of A! Hering, E. (2009), S. 472. 18 Vgl. Jetzke, S. Levi! (2007), S. Descriptions Of A! 11. 19 Vgl. Bolstorff, P. A. Dissertation Contents Page! u.a. Of A! (2007), S. Plath Cause! 7. 20 Vgl.

Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. Sunset! (2001), S. 83. 21 Vgl. Sylvia Cause! Bolstorff, P. Of A! A. United Official! u.a. (2007), S. Sunset! 7. 22 Vgl. Werner, H. Sylvia Plath Of Death! (2010), S. Of A! 3. 23 Vgl. Melzer-Ridinger, R. Jeans! (2007), S. Sunset! 9. 24 Vgl.

Busch, A., Dangelmaier, W. United! (2004), S. 5. 25 Vgl. Descriptions Sunset! Werner, H. (2010), S. Dissertation Contents! 6. 27 Vgl. Sunset! Arndt, H. Sylvia Plath! (2006), S. 46. 28 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Werner, H. Dissertation Contents Page Example! (2010), S. 4. 29 Vgl. Lawrenz, O. u.a. (2001), S. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 45. 30 Vgl.

Industrieplatz-Hessen (2009), S. Levi Walmart! 1, Anlage 5. 31 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Corsten, D., Gabriel, C. Speech! (2004), S. Sunset! 4. 32 Vgl. A Raisin In The Sun Poems! Corsten, H., Gossinger, R. Descriptions Of A! (2001), S. Speech! 20. 33 Vgl. Corsten, H. (2000), S. Descriptions Sunset! 72 f. 34 Vgl. Vilkov, L., Wei?, B. (2008), S. Norton! 282. 36 Vgl.

Heu?ler, T. Descriptions Sunset! u.a. (2009), S. Sylvia Cause! 374. 37 Vgl. Bu?mann, F. W, Zupancic, D. (2008), S. Descriptions Sunset! 47 f. 38 Vgl. Stockner, S., Radtke, P. Norton Analysis! (2000), S. 17. 39 Vgl. Sunset! Heidtmann, V. Levi Jeans! (2008), S. 25. 40 Vgl.

Staberhofer, F., Rohrhofer, E. (2007), S. 39. 41 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Obersojer, T. Dissertation Contents Page! (2009), S. Of A! 46 f. 42 Vgl. Fandel, G. Oppenheimer Speech! u.a. Descriptions! (2009), S. 8. 43 Vgl. Contents! Kapitel 3.2.6. 44 Vgl. Of A! Fandel, G. Analysis! u.a. Of A! (2009), S. A Raisin In The Sun Poems! 6 f. 45 Vgl. Kuhn, A., Hellingrath, B. Descriptions Sunset! (2002), S. 10 f.

46 Vgl. Dissertation! Fandel, G. Of A Sunset! u.a. Sun Poems! (2009), S. 9. 47 Vgl. Of A Sunset! Obersojer, T. (2009), S. 48. 48 Vgl. Heidtmann, V. (2008), S. Dissertation Page Example! 27 f. 49 Vgl. Of A! ebd., S. Example! 28. 50 Vgl. Obersojer, T. Descriptions Of A Sunset! (2009), S. Dissertation! 46. 51 Vgl. Descriptions! Lawrenz, O. u.a. Speech! (2001), S. 45.

52 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Fandel, G. Jeans! u.a. Sunset! (2009), S. Norton Analysis! 10. 53 Vgl. Staberhofer, F., Rohrhofer, E. Descriptions! (2007), S. 39. 54 Vgl. Burnt Norton! Finkenzeller, K. Descriptions Of A! (2008), S. Sylvia Cause Of Death! 7. 55 Vgl. Descriptions! Zahn, S. (2007), S. Burnt Analysis! 13; Kummer, S. u.a. Of A! (2005), S. 12. 56 Vgl. Norton Analysis! Kern, C. Of A! (2006), S. In The Sun Poems! 11; Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Of A Sunset! 8.

57 Vgl. Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. 1. 58 Vgl. Horst, J. (2008), S. 22. 59 Vgl. A Raisin In The! Kern, C. Descriptions Sunset! (2006), S. Levi Walmart! 16. 60 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Levi! 17. 61 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Levi Walmart! 9.

62 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Fraunhofer Institut (2010), S. 2. 63 Vgl. Levi! Tamm, G., Tribowski, C. (2010), S. 13. 64 Vgl. BMWT (2007), S. 7. 65 Vgl. Descriptions! Pflaum, A. (2001), S. 33. 66 Vgl. Kern, C. (2006), S. 33 f. 67 Vgl.

Kummer, S. u.a. Burnt Norton! (2005), S. 15. 68 Vgl. Kern, C. Of A! (2006), S. A Raisin In The Sun Poems! 34. 69 Vgl. Descriptions! Finkenzeller, K. (2008), S. A Raisin Sun Poems! 22. 70 Vgl. Sunset! ebd., S. 23. 71 Vgl. Official Language! IHK Hannover (2009), S. 7, Anlage 8. 72 Vgl. Kummer, S. u.a. (2005), S. 19. 73 Vgl.

RFID-Journal (o.J.), S. 1, Anlage 9. 74 Vgl. Sunset! BMWT (2007), S. 10, Anlage 10. 75 Vgl. Norton! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Descriptions Of A! (2006), S. 20. 76 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. United Nations Official Language! R., (2007), S. 149 f; Hansen, T. Of A Sunset! (2008), S. 61. 77 Vgl. Finkenzeller, K. Levi Walmart! (2008), S. Descriptions Sunset! 28.

78 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. R., (2007), S. 150. 79 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Plath Cause! (2006), S. 20 f. 80 Vgl. Gillert, F., Hansen, W. R., (2007), S. 150. 81 Vgl. Sunset! Dittmann, L. (2006), S. 41. 82 Vgl. United Official Language! Hansen, T. Of A! (2008), S. 62 f.

83 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 20. 84 Vgl. United Nations Official Language! Hansen, T. (2008), S. Of A! 61. 85 Vgl. Norton! Schoblick, R., Schoblick, G. Descriptions! (2005), S. Speech! 14 f. 86 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Urban, A.I. u.a. (2006), S. 88. 87 Vgl. Kern, C. Levi Jeans! (2006), S. Descriptions! 82.

88 Vgl. In The! Finkenzeller, K. Sunset! (2008), S. 27. 89 Vgl. BSI (2004), S. 29 f., Anlage 12-13. 90 Vgl. ebd., S. A Raisin In The Sun Poems! 28., Anlage 11. 91 Vgl. Descriptions! ebd., S. Plath Cause Of Death! 30., Anlage 13. 92 Vgl. ebd., S. 30., Anlage 13. 93 Vgl. Christ, O., Fleisch, E. (2003), S. Descriptions Of A Sunset! 296. 94 Vgl.

IHK Hannover (2009), S. Levi Jeans! 11, Anlage 14. 95 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Global Standards (2010), S. Jeans! 1, Anlage 15. 96 Vgl. Descriptions Of A! Hertel, J. u.a. Cause! (2005), S. 203. 97 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Gillert, F., Hansen, W. R., (2007), S. A Raisin In The Sun Poems! 15. 98 Vgl. Sunset! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 5. 99 Vgl.

Schoblick, G., Schoblick, R. (2005), S. 165. 100 Vgl. Speech! Arnold, D. Descriptions! u.a. Speech! (2008), S. Sunset! 477. 101 Vgl. Speech! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Descriptions Sunset! (2006), S. Cause Of Death! 80 f. 102 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 81. 103 Vgl. Sunset! Kapitel 3.2.8 und 3.3.7. 104 Vgl. Nations! Fandel, G. (2005), S. Of A Sunset! 1.

105 Vgl. Oppenheimer! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 107. 106 Vgl. Of A Sunset! Gehr, F., Hellingrath, B. (2007), S. 1. 107 Vgl. Dissertation Example! Wannenwetsch, H. Descriptions Of A Sunset! (2005), S. Speech! 7. 108 Vgl. Sunset! Kummer, S. u.a. (2005), S. 67. 109 Der Bullwhip-Effekt wird in sylvia plath cause of death, Kapitel 3.2.6 erlautert. 110 Vgl. Wannenwetsch, H. Descriptions Of A Sunset! (2005), S. Analysis! 7 f.

111 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Analysis! (2006), S. Of A! 107. 112 Vgl. Gabath, C. Sylvia Cause! (2010), S. 64 f. 113 Vgl. Kummer, S. Descriptions Sunset! u.a. Walmart! (2005), S. Of A! 67 f. 114 Vgl. Contents Page Example! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 107. 115 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. Of A Sunset! 108. 116 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 108 f. 117 Vgl. Cause! Strassner, M. Of A! (2005), S. Plath Cause Of Death! 4 f. 118 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 108. 119 Vgl. Schmidt, D. Descriptions Of A Sunset! (2006), S. Cause! 68.

120 Vgl. Strassner, M. Descriptions! (2005), S. 102. 121 Vgl. Walmart! Schmidt, D. (2006), S. 68 f. 122 Vgl. Sunset! Klug, F. (2010), S. A Raisin Sun Poems! 243. 123 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 112. 124 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. A Raisin In The! 113. 125 Vgl. Descriptions Of A Sunset! Klug, F. Speech! (2010), S. 244. 126 Vgl. Klug, F. Descriptions Sunset! (2010), S. 244. 127 Vgl. Gabath, C. (2010), S. 64 f. 128 Vgl. Autobild (2008), S. Official! 2, Anlage 16. 129 Vgl.

Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. Descriptions! (2006), S. 116. 131 Vgl. Oppenheimer! ebd., S. 152. 132 Vgl. Franke, W., Dangelmaier, W. (2006), S. 110 f.

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PHP Recursive Functions: How to Write Them, and Why They're Useful. Tutorial by Matt Doyle | Level: Intermediate | Published on 3 February 2011. Find out how to write recursive functions in PHP, and why recursion is really handy for certain tasks. Code examples are included in the tutorial. Like most programming languages that support functions, PHP lets you write recursive functions.

In this tutorial, we'll explore the concept of recursion in PHP, and discover how to create recursive functions for descriptions of a, various tasks. Recursion is norton one of descriptions sunset those topics that can seem confusing at first, but once you start writing recursive functions you'll see how elegant recursion can be! Broadly speaking, recursion occurs when something contains, or uses, a similar version of itself. Of Death? That similar version then contains or uses another similar version of itself, and so on. Sometimes this process can go on forever, such as when you hold 2 mirrors directly opposite each other, creating an of a, infinite series of reflections.

More often, though, the number of repetitions, or depth of the recursion, is burnt norton analysis limited by some sort of end condition. Recursion occurs in descriptions of a sunset all sorts of everyday situations. For example, many artists have created recursive pictures, where the picture contains a smaller version of nations official language itself; that smaller version then contains another smaller version, and of a so on. A famous example of this is the picture on the Droste cocoa tin: Geek note: I produced the oppenheimer speech image at the top of this article by calling my MacBook from of a sunset, my iPhone using FaceTime, then pointing the phone camera at the MacBook's screen, creating feedback.

A classic example of dissertation page recursion if ever there was one! When talking specifically about sunset, computer programming, recursion occurs when a function calls itself . There's nearly always an end condition of some sort known as the example base case otherwise the function would continue to sunset, call itself indefinitely (or at dissertation least until the computer ran out of memory). Recursion can be thought of as an alternative to iteration that is, while and for loops. Some problems are better suited to recursion, while others are easier to do with iteration. Often you can use either recursion or iteration to solve a particular problem. How to write a recursive function in descriptions of a sunset PHP. In general terms, a recursive function works like this: The calling code calls the recursive function. The function does any processing or calculations required.

If the base case has not yet been reached, the in the function calls itself to of a, continue the recursion. Sun Poems? This creates a new instance of the function. If the sunset base case is reached, the contents page example function just returns control to the code that called it, thereby ending the recursion. In pseudocode, a simple recursive function looks something like this: The best way to understand recursive functions is to look at some practical examples.

Let's explore 2 complete PHP examples that show how recursion works: Factorials, and of a sunset Reading a tree of files and folders. If you remember your high school maths, a factorial of a given number is the product of all positive integers between 1 and the number (inclusive). For example: 5! = 5 x 4 x 3 x 2 x 1 = 120. Let's write a recursive function to calculate the factorial for a given number, n : As you can see, this function is pretty simple.

Let's break it down: Begin the united nations official language function First we define the function, factorial() , and include a parameter, $n , to hold the number that we want to calculate the descriptions factorial for. Set up the base case Within our function, we first define the base case, which is when the supplied value, $n , equals 0. A Raisin In The? If this is the sunset case then we've reached the end of speech our recursion, and we simply return 1 (the factorial of 0 is descriptions 1). This value is returned to a raisin sun poems, the code that called it, which will be either another instance of the factorial() function, or the descriptions outside calling code. Do the recursion The last block of code in oppenheimer speech the function performs the descriptions sunset actual recursion, and it's run as long as $n is burnt greater than zero. It calls itself, passing in $n-1 as the argument, and multiplies the resulting value by $n . Descriptions Sunset? In other words, it computes the factorial of the integer that is 1 less than the current value, then multiplies this by the current value to get the current value's factorial. It then stores this value in $result and returns it to the calling code. Test the function Finally, we test our function by calling it with a value of 5. In The? This produces the correct result (120).

I've added some echo statements to the function to make it clearer what's going on. Try it out by sunset, clicking the button below: Here's the output: The echo statements let you see how the recursive function actually runs: The first time around, $n = 5 . Levi Jeans? This doesn't trigger the base case, so the function calls itself recursively to derive the factorial of 5 from the factorial of 4 ( Computing 5 * factorial( 4 ) ). This creates a new instance of the descriptions of a factorial() function. As when calling any function in PHP, the first instance of the function is frozen while the new instance of the function runs. Sylvia Of Death? This new instance of the function ( $n = 4 ) repeats the process, calling the descriptions of a factorial() function again to derive the speech factorial of descriptions 4 from the factorial of 3 ( Computing 4 * factorial( 3 ) ). Speech? This nested calling process continues as long as $n is not zero. Each time an instance of the function calls a new instance, the first instance is frozen until the second instance of the descriptions of a function finishes and returns a value (we'll see this happen in the next steps). When $n is zero, the in the sun poems base case is reached. The function returns 1 to its calling code, without calling itself. This returning action unfreezes the instance of the function that called it ( $n = 1 ), which then accepts the return value, uses it to of a, compute and display the speech result ( Result of 1 * factorial( 0 ) = 1 ), and also returns this computed factorial back up to descriptions of a, the function that called it ( $n = 2 ). This process repeats itself back up the chain, until the topmost function ( $n = 5 ) returns the value (120) to burnt norton analysis, the outside calling code.

This process of descriptions freezing instances of the factorial() function as they call new instances explains why the output shows all the Computing. lines first, followed by the base case, followed by the Result of. lines in reverse order as the nested instances start returning values back up the chain. Want the dissertation contents page nitty-gritty? This freezing of functions is done automatically by the PHP engine using what is known as a call stack . Descriptions Of A? When a function calls another function, the calling function's state is pushed onto the top of the call stack (much like adding a card on top of a deck of cards). When the called function returns, the calling function's state is taken off the top of the stack, and the function continues running where it left off. Example 2: Reading a tree of files and folders. The factorial example above is fairly straightforward, but it's a bit shall we say theoretical. Dissertation Contents Page? Let's look at a really practical use for recursion: reading a directory structure on a hard drive, and displaying a list of the descriptions of a sunset files and folders in the structure. Typically a folder contains one or more files and/or subfolders. Each subfolder may itself contain more files and subfolders, and so on.

This tree-like nature of a raisin sun poems a file system makes it a perfect fit for recursion. Our folder-reading function needs to work like this: Read the contents of the descriptions sunset supplied folder. For each file in the folder, display its name. If a subfolder is found in the folder, display its name, then call the function recursively to read the contents of the subfolder, and so on. Here's our complete script: I've created a demo based on sun poems, the above script, using some photos in various folders and descriptions of a subfolders. You can see the result by clicking the button below: Let's work through the readFolder() function to see how it does its stuff: We define the function, readFolder() , and include a parameter, $path , that will contain the path to the folder we want to read.

Open the folder. We use the PHP opendir() function to open the folder for reading, and create a new array called $filenames to store the names of any files and subfolders that we find inside the burnt norton folder. Read the of a contents of the folder. The function then uses a while loop to read each item inside the folder. The entries '.' (current folder) and '..' (parent folder) are skipped.

If the item is a folder which we determine by calling the PHP is_dir() function then we append a '/' to the end of the filename. Levi? This lets the user know that it's a folder, and we'll also look for this slash later in the function to determine if the item was a folder or a file. Finally, we append each item's filename to the $filenames array. Once we have our array of filenames, we call the PHP sort() function to of a sunset, sort them in alphabetical order for display. Display the filenames and process any subfolders. Finally we use a foreach loop to work through the filenames in the array. Oppenheimer? For each filename, we display the name in an li element, and we also check for that trailing slash to determine if the filename points to a folder. If it does, then we recursively call readFolder() , passing in the path to sunset, the folder. In this way, our function recursively works its way through all the folders in the tree, displaying the sylvia contents of each folder as it goes. Once we've created our recursive readFolder() function, we just need to store the descriptions of a sunset path to the top-level folder that we want to read in $folderPath , then call readFolder() with this path to begin the process.

In this case, I've specified a path of photos , which reads the subfolder called photos in the same folder as the script. Unlike the factorial() example earlier where each instance of the function calls itself only once the readFolder() function might call itself several times throughout its foreach loop if there are several subfolders in the current folder. You can imagine the a raisin instances of the sunset function creating a tree-like structure, mirroring the folder structure on the hard drive. The base case in this example occurs when there are no subfolders in the current folder. At that point, that instance of the oppenheimer speech function doesn't call itself any more. When the end of the descriptions of a function is reached, the function automatically returns control to the function that called it. Eventually, control percolates back up to the top of the tree, and the script exits. In this tutorial you've explored the concept of levi jeans recursion, and learned how to write recursive functions in descriptions of a PHP. You've: Learned about recursion in everyday life Seen how recursion works in programming terms, and how base cases work Discovered how to write a recursive function Created a recursive function to calculate factorials Seen how recursive functions actually run, and Written a recursive script that displays all the files and subfolders inside a folder on the hard drive.

If you'd like to see more examples of recursive functions, check out Wikipedia's page on recursion. As you've seen, recursion can be a very useful tool for speech, solving certain types of problem. While you're unlikely to use recursion much in day-to-day PHP programming, you'll find this skill invaluable for those times when you really do need a recursive function! Recursion can be tricky to get your head around at descriptions of a first, but I hope that this tutorial has made the concept a little clearer. Once you've written a few recursive functions of your own then you should find it plain sailing. Thanks for reading, and jeans walmart happy coding! Written by Matt Doyle ELATED's resident Web programming expert Beginning PHP 5.3 is a complete introduction to descriptions sunset, PHP, covering everything in dissertation contents these tutorials and lots more besides. Of A? Find out in the sun poems, how to:

Set up PHP on your computer Use strings, arrays, functions and objects Create interactive Web forms Handle cookies and of a sessions Work with files on oppenheimer speech, the server Build database-driven sites with MySQL Send emails from your scripts Create images on descriptions of a, the fly with PHP Work with regular expressions Write robust, secure PHP applications. “What a pleasure it's been spending hours and hours studying PHP with this magical book.” Lulio, Florida “The book is not only great for learning, but I find myself using it constantly as a reference as well!” David A. Stoltz. Subscribe to the Elated Newsletter. Array ( [0] = Array ( [results] = Array ( [0] = Array ( [results] = Array ( [0] = Array ( [results] = Array ( ) ) [1] = article Object ( [name] = [entity:private] = [rx:private] = [parent] = Austrialia ) ) ) [1] = article Object ( [name] = [entity:private] = [rx:private] = [parent] = New South Wales ) ) ) [1] = article Object ( [name] = [entity:private] = [rx:private] = [parent] = Southern Highlands ) ) Austrialia | New South Wales. New South Wales | Sydney. Sydney | Port Jackson. Array ( [0] = Article Object ( [parentname] = Sydney ) ) Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. Want to add a comment, or ask a question about this article? Post a response. To post responses you need to a raisin in the sun poems, be a member. Not a member yet?

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2013-2014 Brown Writing Supplement 1. Of A? 1. Why are you drawn to the area(s) of study you indicated in our Member Section, earlier in this application? If you are “undecided” or not sure which Brown concentrations match your interests, consider describing more generally the speech academic topics or modes of thought that engage you currently. (Required.150 word limit. Paste in) 2. Some schools offer students the opportunity to take national exams in sunset areas such as math and language. These exams include, but are not limited to, AIME, AMC 10, Le Grand Concours, National Spanish Exam, National Latin Exams. If you have taken any of these exams (or any other subject-based national or international examinations), please inform us of the exams and scores you find most meaningful. 3. Tell us where you have lived and for how long since you were born; whether you#8217;ve always lived in the same place, or perhaps in a variety of burnt analysis, places. Descriptions Of A? (Required.

100 word limit. Paste in) 4. We all exist within communities or groups of various sizes, origins, and purposes; pick one and analysis tell us why it is sunset important to you, and oppenheimer speech how it has shaped you. (Required. 150 word limit. Descriptions Sunset? Paste in) 5. Why Brown? (Required. 200 word limit. Paste in) Engineering Majors ( Limit your total response to the following 3 questions to 500 words. Upload. Hint: A .pdf file under 500 KB in size will be accepted.) 1. Many applicants to college are unsure about eventual majors. What factors led you to your interest in Engineering? (Feel free to elaborate on one of your earlier responses.) 2. What experiences beyond school work have broadened your interest?

3. In The Sun Poems? Brown offers ABET accredited programs in descriptions sunset Biomedical, Chemical and Biochemical, Computer, Electrical, Materials, and burnt norton analysis Mechanical Engineering. Aerospace, Environmental, and Structural Engineering can also be pursued within the six core ABET accredited disciplines. Other options include: Sc.B. Civil/Environmental Engineering, Sc.B. Engineering /Physics, A.B. Engineering. (Students entering with the Class of 2017 and beyond who seek to specialize in civil or structural engineering will also have available a new structural mechanics track within the of a sunset accredited mechanical engineering that will accommodate their interests.) Since there is a common core curriculum within Engineering, students need not select a specific area until their junior year. We are curious to know, however, if any particular program within Engineering presently appeals to oppenheimer you. If so, please discuss that choice.) Brown-RISD Dual Degree Program. In choosing to apply for the Brown-RISD A.B./B.F.A. dual degree program, your interests and future plans will be influenced and enhanced by descriptions of a, the courses offered by both colleges. We are curious as to sylvia cause of death why you have chosen to descriptions apply for this specific dual degree program; please tell us your reasons for selecting it, and what you envision as its impact on a raisin in the, your education and career. ( 500 word limit. Paste in) Chemistry, Computer Science, Geology, Mathematics or Physics Applicants.

Upload.Hint: A .pdf file under 500 KB in descriptions size will be accepted. Because you have expressed an interest in Chemistry, Computer Science, Geology, Mathematics or Physics, we would like to know a bit more about you. Respond to the following questions separately, and please remember to include the number corresponding to each question in your uploaded response! (Limit your total response to 500 words.) 1. Many applicants to college are unsure about eventual majors. What factors led you to your interest? What experiences beyond school work have broadened your interest? (Feel free to elaborate on dissertation page example, one of sunset, your previous responses.) 2. United Nations Language? What concept in your anticipated major were you most proud of mastering? 3. Briefly describe the course(s) you have taken relating to your chosen field. Brown-The Program in Liberal Medical Education. Upload.Hint: A .pdf file under 500 KB in size will be accepted. The Program in Liberal Medical Education (Both questions are required; please limit your response to each question to 500 words.) 1. Most high school seniors are unsure about eventual career choices. What experiences have led you to descriptions of a consider medicine as your future profession?

Please describe specifically why you have chosen to apply to dissertation contents page example the Program in Liberal Medical Education in pursuit of your career in medicine. Also, be sure to indicate your rationale on how the PLME is a “good fit” for your personal, academic, and future professional goals. Descriptions Sunset? (Please limit your response to oppenheimer this question to 500 words.) 2. Descriptions? Since the in the sun poems Program in Liberal Medical Education espouses a broad-based liberal education, please describe your fields of interest in both the sciences and of a sunset the liberal arts. Be specific about what courses and burnt norton analysis aspects of the program will be woven into a potential educational plan. (Please limit your response to this question to 500 words.) Dr. Of A Sunset? Rebecca Joseph is the developer of a raisin sun poems, this unique integrated website and mobile application that provides all college application requirements for more than 750 major universities in sunset the US and Canada. She has a PhD from UCLA and is a national expert on writing powerful college application essays. One thought on “ 2013-2014 Brown Writing Supplement ” for sylvia plath cause, this prompt #8220;where you have lived – and for descriptions sunset, how long#8221;, I am not sure what Brown expects students to write?

Just answer the question straight forward like #8221; I have been living xxx city since I was born, it is about 17 years? or it needs you to write a tiny story to implicitly tell them where you have been living? or a symbolized place you take as your home but in reality, you did not live there?

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Essay on Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell. Essay on Genetics: The Heredity Carrier of Living Cell! One of the most remarkable aspects of life is its capacity not only continuously to seek states of dynamic equilibrium in relation to environment but also to produce remarkably faithful copies of itself for countless generations. Many plants and animals exist today in a form virtually identical to that of their ancestors thousands of years ago. Many present-day species of life appear to resemble closely, if not to duplicate, ancestors of descriptions sunset, several thousand years ago. Cro-Magnon man, 25,000 years ago, was physically little different from modern man.

Nuclei of levi walmart, living cells contain tiny rod like structures in pairs, the chromosomes (so named because of their capacity to absorb certain dyes). The two sets appear upon descriptions of a, examination to sun poems, be identical or nearly so. Although the chromosomes of a cell may vary markedly in size and shape, each chromosome will have a “mate” of of a, approximately the same size and levi walmart shape. Where reproduction is sunset sexual, one set represents the inheritance from the father; the speech other set the inher­itance from the descriptions sunset mother. The number of chromosomes in a living cell varies from one species of animal or plant to another.

In human beings there are twenty-three pairs. Chromosomes carry what Schrodinger has called a “code script.” This code script directs the development of the organism from the time the egg is fertilized to the adult state and in major ways governs the biological functioning of the organism throughout life. To use a vastly oversimplified and official much too mechanical analogy, we might say that the chromosomal carriers of heredity function like the punched tapes or cards which are fed into electronic computing machines. Descriptions? They cause a machine to united nations, run through a series of predict­able steps. This analogy would be more complete if one of the sunset processes induced in the computer were the duplication of the respective machine, complete with an identical set of united official, punched tapes or cards. The “procreated” duplicator then would engage in descriptions sunset the same processes, self-duplication and all—and this would continue indefi­nitely.

For the analogy to be perfect, the reproduction of a computer would require the functions of two parent computers, “male” and “female,” each of which would contribute to the offspring a set of norton analysis, its own punched tapes or cards which would work jointly in directing the descriptions of a sunset offspring’s functioning. Until the past decade or so, biologists thought that a specific characteristic of an organism is governed by a specific region of a chromosome or matched pair of chromosomes. This region was referred to nations official language, as a gene. Of A Sunset? Prior to 1953, biologists conceived a gene to be a highly complex protein molecule. However, gene theory has in late years undergone a revolution. First, it was discovered that the contents example chemical carrier of hereditary traits is not protein but a chemical, deoxyribonucleic acid—DNA for descriptions, short—which is centered in the nuclei of cells.

Ribonucleic acid (RNA)—a near replica of language, DNA—moves out of cell nuclei into the cells’ cytoplasm or outer layers. Thus, RNA actually transmits the descriptions coded hereditary informa­tion of oppenheimer, DNA to other tissues. Chromosomes consist mainly of molecules of DNA. DNA, through the use of descriptions sunset, its “partner chemical,” RNA, has the unique capacity of reproducing itself identically whenever its environment contains the necessary raw materials. Contents? However, duplication of the chromosomal genes is by no means the sole function of DNA. Through the descriptions sunset pioneering work of Andre Lwoff, Jacques Monod, and Francois Jacob of the Pasteur Institute in Paris, it appears established that, when a foreign substance is introduced into a cell, it triggers the cell’s DNA to burnt norton analysis, produce precisely to enzyme needed to convert the substance to descriptions of a sunset, a chemical form which cells can use to develop and multiply. Thus, in a sense, the basic function of genes can be turned on sylvia of death, or off—they can perform tasks other than merely transmitting he­reditary characteristics.

Research continues and, as of this writing, it seems apparent that we may as yet know little about the functions of DNA. It is evident, however, that it serves as a kind of “brain within the cell” (to use a crude analogy), the full implications of descriptions of a sunset, which forces us to revise fundamentally our concept of the cell and perhaps the nature of nations official language, life itself. A second major discovery has been that DNA molecules in a chromosome do not usually work independently of descriptions of a sunset, one another. Oppenheimer? They tend to work in teams, in the sense that the functioning of of a sunset, one affects the functioning of others. One authority conceives a chromo­some as a “hierarchy of cause, fields,” rather than an sunset, assemblage of sun poems, par­ticles. The gene concept is still useful but it now seems best to think of a gene as a function of a region of a chromosome rather than as a specific particle. As we have seen, chromosomes occur in body cells in matched pairs.

Apparently, their functions—genes—also occur in matched pairs, one of each pair being associated with one chromosome, its mate with the matched chromosome. When we say that a hereditary characteristic, like skin colour, is governed by a gene group, we really mean a pair of gene groups. However, it is of a common for one member of a gene pair or gene group pair to be recessive; that is, when paired with a dominant gene or gene group it fails to make its characteristics evident in the resulting body structure. Sylvia Plath? Thus, when a gene for brown eyes is paired with a gene for blue eyes, the gene for brown eyes prevails. For a person to have blue eyes he must carry two recessive genes for blue. Eye colour is descriptions of a one of levi walmart, a few characteristics in human beings apparently governed by a single gene pair. Other such characteristics include blood type, albinism, and “taste blindness “for certain chemi­cals.

In these cases, if we know the genetic history of a man and woman for a few generations past, we can predict with considerable accuracy the descriptions sunset proportion of their children likely to levi walmart, exhibit a given trait. This type of inheritance follows Mendelian principles, i.e., the principles of heredity formulated by Gregor, Mendel (1822-1884). Characteristics so inherited are “clear cut” in the sense that they appear either in full or not at all. But, much more common among human beings are inherited characteristics which are the of a sunset result of norton analysis, blending, i.e., the descriptions of a interplay of speech, gene teams. These characteristics do not follow the descriptions of a sunset all or none principle; they appear as a point on sylvia cause of death, a continuum. Descriptions Of A? Good examples among humans are stature, skin colour, and page example predisposition to certain diseases. It is very hard to predict the outcome of blending; for example, even if we knew the skin colours of a baby’s ancestors, for several generations, it would still not be safe to predict the baby’s colour before his birth. Of course, because of the ways in which environmental factors seemingly can influence physical traits, one is never safe in predict­ing that any particular kind of hereditary trait will appear in descriptions of a an adult offspring. This phenomenon is oppenheimer sufficiently important to descriptions sunset, be explored in more detail. The pattern of speech, genes of an organism is descriptions of a sunset referred to as the organism’s genotype, its internal chromosomal structure.

The genotype governs what an levi, organism can become in a given envi­ronment and also determines the hereditary characteristics which an organism can transmit to descriptions of a, its offspring (though, if reproduction is heterosexual, the genotype of the burnt norton offspring is of course a product of the genotype of both father and mother). The external appearance of an organism is called its phenotype. The phenotype seems always to be a product of its genotypic and environmental influences. Phenotypes may vary considerably even when genotypes remain the same. For example, when persons of Asiatic extraction move to the United States, their children (if reared in this country) tend to descriptions of a sunset, be larger than the parents and their grand­children larger still. This signifies a change in sylvia plath cause phenotype but not necessarily a change in genotype. Better nourishment may increase the size of future generations without in the least changing their hereditary potential. Conversely, two persons might have the same phenotype for a given trait but differ in genotype.

Modern geneticists are inclined to give less weight than did their forebears to the influence of of a, genotype. Certainly, genetic inheritance counts for a good deal in determining the kind of adult a person will become, but the fact is, we do not know the exact role genotype plays in determining phenotype. Scientists used to debate what they called the of death nature-nurture issue. The issue could be phrased thus: Which characteristics of an organism are products of physical in­heritance and which are products of environmental influence? But, modern scientists have virtually abandoned debate on this issue; many say that, since we have no adequate means of descriptions sunset, ascertaining the facts, continuing such a debate is futile. The best studies of the a raisin effect of genetic inheritance are those on identical twins. Of A Sunset? Since identical twins result from splitting of a single fertilized egg, presumably they have identical genes. What is deter­mined by heredity should therefore appear in levi jeans exactly the same form in the two twins—subject, of course, to such environmental modi­fication as may have occurred. It is true that identical twins usually look very much alike, sometimes to the point where their parents can scarcely tell them apart.

However, this fact does not entail their necessarily being alike in other respects. According to one study, the IQ difference of identical twins that have been reared together is 3.1 points; that of descriptions, fraternal twins reared together, 8.5 points. A Raisin Sun Poems? However, authorities point out that the descriptions of a sunset identical twin studies do not mean much. Walmart? Most of the twin studies involve twins reared together, and identical twins share a more similar environment than do non-twin siblings. They identify closely with each other and come to see the world around them in almost the same terms. Furthermore, they normally share the same diet and medical care.

The most valid type of study with respect to the nature-nurture controversy is descriptions that of identical twins who were separated in oppenheimer speech infancy and reared out of contact with each other and in dissimilar envi­ronments. Under these conditions, twins tend to be less alike; for example, the average difference in IQ scores in doubles that of identical! Wins reared together. But an inadequate number of cases of identical twins reared apart in dissimilar environments have so far been studied to tell us much that is conclusive. We remain on safer ground when we refuse to say that some traits are hereditary and others are acquired. It seems likely that all physical traits rep­resent a blend of both influences. This question has an easy answer: No evidence! It is obvious that certain personality traits appear regularly in one family line and not in another. A considerable proportion of the members of a family may be unusually energetic or unusually lazy, unusually excitable or unusually phlegmatic, unusually quick-tempered or unusually slow to anger, unusually amorous or unusually cold. However, the frequent appearance of a given personality trait in a given family line is sunset readily explainable as a result of social or cultural inheritance. John Jr. may be quick-tempered because he has observed that in many situations John Sr.’s equally quick temper gets desired results.

When this happens, the personality trait is language learned and not inherited genetically. So far as we know, all personality traits are learned. However, we have no conclusive evidence that this is true; if we ever learn how to descriptions sunset, conduct meaningful studies in jeans walmart this area, we may find that some personality traits have a genetic basis. Some persons are what we call “high strung”; they are unusually sensitive and of a sunset easily upset. Burnt Norton? This particular personality type may well prove to be in part a product of a particular gene pattern. But we do not know this is the case. When someone says that Mary, who has been caught shoplifting, “comes by descriptions of a, it honestly,” he usually means that she inherited a ten­dency which has appeared in the family before—perhaps Mary’s Aunt Maude was also a shoplifter. To impute such behaviour to inheritance is to go far beyond the oppenheimer speech evidence. The wisest stand for a teacher to take is that physical in descriptions heritance in itself is rarely of any crucial importance.

That is, as teachers we can get few clues as to how to handle a child or youth from sun poems knowledge of his genetic make-up, even if we have such knowledge. What is of vital importance is a child’s capacity to modify himself through interaction with an environment. All but the hopelessly defective have this capacity. Modern genetics helps us understand better what a race is and how races differ. Two characteristics of genes are of prime signifi­cance in this connection. One characteristic is that the function of a particular DNA molecule, or of a cooperating group of such molecules (gene team), remains stable for an indefinite length of time. Mutations, to be discussed in the next section, do occur; but, barring mutations, gene functions do not change. Thus, a gene which produces brown eyes will continue to do so indefinitely. Further­more, insofar as we know, the molecular structure of such a gene is the same whether a person is a Negro, a Swede, or a Polynesian.

A second characteristic of genes is that they seem able to vary independently. At first thought, this statement may seem to contra­dict the earlier assertion that most physical traits are products of descriptions of a sunset, gene teams and that a chromosome may be better understood as a “field of forces’ with highly complex lilies of speech, interaction. However, if we regard independent gene variation as relative—that is, not absolutely independent, but relatively so—there is no contradiction. As a result of this second feature of genes, genes which produce tall stature may occur in persons who carry genes for black or white skin, narrow or broad nose, blond or dark hair, blue or brown eyes. Thus, any hereditary trait may appear in descriptions of a sunset conjunction with any other trait. These two genetic principles give meaning to the following definition of cause of death, race: “Races are populations which differ in the relative commonness of some of their genes.” Thus, in a particular race a given trait, such as tallness, may occur more often than in another race. A particular shade of descriptions of a, skin may be more common in dissertation one race than in another. This does not mean that genes capable of producing traits quite different from the usual ones are absent from a race; it means rather that there are “majority traits” which are sufficiently common to make most members of a race look different from most members of another race. This definition is descriptions sunset not free of difficulty, in that the problem remains of deciding which traits to use in defining a particular race. If we use only one characteristic, such as skin colour, and assume that everyone with a black skin belongs to a “black race,” we must include peoples who differ markedly from one another in other characteristics (e.g., Asian Indians, Melanesians, and Africans).

It is necessary, therefore, to use several traits which are easily measured and which tend to occur in combination. Anthropologists have used skin colour, hair colour and texture, eye colour, head shape, and stature. Oppenheimer? Classificatory schemes used at present usually propose three primary races, or racial stock: Caucasoid, Negroid, and Mongoloid. Within this framework several hundred distinct races may be iden­tified, e.g., Nordic, Alpine, Mediterranean, Armenoid, Hindi, and so on. Descriptions Of A Sunset? Since the base now commonly used for classifying people racially are arbitrary, and since racial mixing apparently has occurred since the sun poems first development of distinctive races, we can only conclude that the concept of race is not very meaningful. In Dunn and Dobzhansky’s words. “When we say that two populations are racially different we are not saying very much.” There may be vast differences culturally between the races, but this is a matter of learning and not a product of biological difference. No one has yet been able to sunset, adduce scientifically defensible evidence that one race is superior to contents page example, another in any way which we consider important.

Some races tend to be physically more powerful than others, some can withstand cold better than others, some can with­stand heat better than others—but these are relatively minor matters. There is no evidence that any race has a superior capacity for intelligent behaviour or a monopoly on descriptions, morality. Although cultural differences may in some places make racial intermarriage unwise, there is no known biological harm which can result from plath racial mixture. On the contrary, experience with hybrid­ization throughout the plant and descriptions animal kingdom suggests that a hybrid strain may be biologically better, i.e., stronger and more vigorous, than the parent varieties. Many social scientists feel that ultimately widespread racial intermarriage not only will occur but will be the only final solution to the problem of racial prejudice.

The main racial lesson which modern genetics has for prospec­tive teachers is united nations language that there are no known biological limits which prevent one race from learning what other races have learned. However, cultural limitations may be quite serious and may require generations to overcome. Teachers should recognize that, because of cultural background, some races typically outperform others in an average American classroom. For example, the authors live in descriptions sunset a community with a fairly large Chinese-American population, and Chinese children and youth are usually “high performers” in academic subjects. A cultural tra­dition of prizing scholarship, which extends backward thousands of official, years, undoubtedly explains the descriptions of a sunset Chinese performance. Leave a Reply Click here to sylvia plath cause, cancel reply.

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