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Raspberry Pi Alamode CNC Controller. This is my first attempt at an instructable. Definition Psychology. I hope it helps someone else. Switches and Lights and fans, oh my. Please read through the In or World Today, Sharing is Caring Essay, comments for more details. I bought a CNC machine some time ago and I was never happy with it. It used a traditional parallel port controller and of course no modern computers have those. So it was always a point of definition, frustration. I used an old Pentium based computer and ran LinuxCNC on it for a while but was still not happy with that. So I started looking for another solution.

I decided that I would try to put together an Arduino based controller and try to use USB to communicate with it. After studying that for Essay Retention a while I came to burnout psychology realize the Arduino was just not going to be able to do all that needed to be done on Essay The Inclusive Learning its own. The Arduino UNO just does not have enough memory or processing capacity to process a design file by burnout definition psychology itself. So I modified my solution and started working on using a Raspberry Pi as my host computer. I created a Visio drawing of what I intended to do: It didn't turn out that way and the drawing continued to The Inclusive evolve as I learned more. It kept on changing until I finally got my project completed. I have now built an Arduino based CNC Controller system that uses a Raspberry Pi as its host computer. The Raspberry Pi processes an nc file that contains a design that is described in GCode commands that can be understood by the Arduino.

I have used a few tools on my Windows 8.1 Pro laptop to design a few simple things (like tutorials in psychology makercam here: http://www.makercam.com/). This is a great introduction to Censorship Language in Broadcast Should be Based designing things for CAD/CAM and it is really easy to use. After creating a design that I wanted to use I wirelessly connected to burnout psychology the Raspberry Pi using WinSCP to theme of desiree's transfer design files to the Raspberry Pi. You can get WinSCP here: http://www.soft-now.com/listing/123823/WinSCP?did=11055pid=1ppd=search,44532390848,winscp20download,e,,c,0. gclid=CJuIkNHds74CFagWMgodpxMAJw. Burnout. Its great, you can just drag a file from one window to the other to move files between systems. You will have to about Retention know the burnout, IP address of your Raspberry Pi to connect to it. If you have gone through the initial setup of the In or World Today, Sharing, Raspberry Pi and setup a network connection you can get the IP address by using the ifconfig command on the Raspberry PI. A really helpful tool for getting your IP address and seeing that your Pi is online is a tool called the Advanced IP Scanner here: http://www.advanced-ip-scanner.com/.

Another great tool is Wireshark: http://www.wireshark.org/ I then used Remote Desktop Connection (Remote Desktop connection is definition part of Windows and should be on your Windows machine. Censorship In Broadcast Should Be Based. It can be run by entering mstsc in the Run Open: box) to connect to my Raspberry Pi. Otherwise you could use VNC or TightVNC: http://www.tightvnc.com/. TightVNC is what you need to put on your Raspberry Pi to allow you to use Remote Desktop Connection from another machine. Burnout Definition. I can now run the Grbl Controller on the Raspberry Pi which in hugo turn connects to an Alamode (an Arduino like board that plugs directly into the GPIO connector on the Raspberry Pi and provides automatic voltage level translation. So that the Arduino can communicate with the psychology, Raspberry Pi directly. The Alamode also provides Arduino headers to allow for Arduino shields to be plugged directly into it. So I ended up with a stack of Essay about Participant Retention, three boards that are tightly integrated due to being plugged directly into each other.

The Alamode (Arduino) processes the GCode commands from the Raspberry Pi into burnout psychology signals that are sent to about The Inclusive Learning the CNC Controller shield to run the psychology, stepper motors and passes the various function signals on to the CNC Controller shield too. They can then be accessed from the external world. All is well so far. But now I have to connect these things to the external world. Step 1: 100% Grbl Compatible CNC Controller. First, I purchased the 100% Grbl compatible CNC Controller shield from: http://blog.protoneer.co.nz/arduino-cnc-shield. I already had an hugo Arduino and intended to use that with the CNC Controller shield and run something on my laptop to control everything. Then I found out that the Arduino would not be able to definition psychology process an entire design file all by itself.

This is due to it not having enough memory to handle more than one GCode command at a time. In fact not all GCode commands are currently completely implemented in the Arduino Grbl software. However, the Arduino does directly interface with the about Reflection Community Health Experience, CNC Controller shield and can pass commands to the stepper drivers on the CNC Controller shield without any additional circuitry. The sets of three yellow jumpers that you see in the pictures set the micro stepping for the stepper motors. The one single yellow jumper selects how the definition psychology, limit switches work. Mine are set up so that when the switch closes a ground is detected (the default). The alternative is to of desiree's baby sense a hi when Vcc is selected. That is to say that the limit switch logic can be set to sense a hi or lo, your choice. The two yellow jumpers on burnout definition psychology the left side of the picture are for Essay Participant Retention selecting which axis the A-axis mirrors (two motors on one axis). I used polarized headers to burnout connect to the stepper drivers so that I would not be able to plug in my stepper motors backwards - that's pretty important.

The 100% Grbl compatible CNC Controller shield does not actually include any stepper motor drivers. It is only a means of integrating the Essay about The Inclusive Assignment, stepper motor drivers into definition an Arduino shield conveniently and it works great for that purpose. The CNC Controller shield is designed to use the Pololu type step driver modules like the Censorship Language, A4988 stepper motor driver carrier that is shown here: http://www.pololu.com/product/1182. I purchased some from China that were about $4.00 each and appear to burnout definition psychology be exactly the same (we shall see when I actually try to use them). They came with some heat sinks too but I decided to Essay about Participant Retention use the burnout psychology, ones you see (from Adafruit) instead of the Censorship of Offensive Language Media, ones that were included instead. You actually only psychology need to populate the X, Y and Z stepper driver carriers on the CNC Controller board (because the Grbl software on the Arduino only baby knows about definition three axes). Unless you intend to use the A-Axis too (for a second motor on one of the primary axes). The CNC Controller allows you to mirror the control signals from X, Y or Z to the A axis by using jumpers. I am not using the fourth axis. I just included the fourth stepper driver carrier so that I would have a spare in Reflection on the case one of the others stops working. Burnout Definition. Then again who knows what might be in the future?

It became clear that I needed some way to process a complete design file and break it into individual GCode commands that the Arduino could then pass on to the CNC Controller shield. Many articles are available on the internet about running the Grbl Controller software which provides this specific function on In or Today, is Caring a Raspberry Pi. I had a Raspberry Pi that I had played with a bit, some time ago, but it was an older version. I am sure it would have worked but I decided to get a new one and dedicate the new one to being the host in my new CNC Controller system. For more information about running the Grbl Controller software on a Raspberry Pi look here: http://zapmaker.org/raspberry-pi/running-grbl-controller-on-raspberry-pi/ Due to reading a lot of burnout, those articles that I mentioned I became concerned that the Raspberry Pi would overheat when inside of an enclosure so I put heat sinks on it. Then I had to trim down the heat sink on the processor as it was too tall. I also came to realize that the Arduino and the Raspberry Pi are slightly, electrically incompatible.

The Arduino operates with 5V logic and the Raspberry Pi operates with 3.3 V logic. So a voltage level translator of about The Inclusive, some sort is burnout definition psychology required as an interface between the two environments. I looked around for a solution and found a few. I didn't really like anything that I was finding and it took a while to get to what I wanted but I eventually found the Essay Reflection on the Health Experience, Raspberry Pi Alamode board. The Alamode board plugs directly into the GPIO connector on the Raspberry Pi and provides the burnout definition, level shifting function that is needed for the Arudino to communicate with it. It also provides Arduino compatible headers so that any standard Arduino shield can be plugged into Essay it too. Including the CNC Controller shield.

So it now appeared that I could have a stack of three boards that communicate with each other properly and elegantly - with no additional circuitry required. Some quick features of the Alamode - that I am interested in: The Alamode has a real time clock that is directly available to the Raspberry Pi (with a coin cell battery backup). The Alamode can be powered from the Raspberry Pi or it can be powered directly through its own micro USB connector. There is a tiny jumper that allows you to burnout definition select how you want to power it. Censorship Of Offensive Language Media Should. The jumper header fell off of psychology, my board (probably my own fault). Language Should Be Based On Age. I looked at it and burnout definition psychology, decided I just didn't need it as I intended on The Inclusive Assignment powering it through its own micro USB port anyway. The big deal is that the burnout definition, Alamode includes the signal level shifting that is required for an Arduino to communicate with a Raspberry Pi. Once the Alamode is connected to about Community Practicum the Raspberry PI you can then load the Grbl software onto the Alamode.

The Grbl code is burnout loaded into the Alamode with the Language in Broadcast Media Should on Age, Arduino IDE. You need to load the Arduino IDE onto the Raspberry Pi to load the Grbl code into the Alamode. The Getting Started instructions at the Alamode site are very good and complete: http://wyolum.com/projects/alamode. Refer to the User Guide for burnout definition instructions on how to set up the real time clock. Let me just say that it works exactly as they say it does. It is hugo munsterberg a bit of burnout psychology, a task to Essay about Assignment get everything together to actually use it but once it is set up (mostly on the Raspberry Pi) it works great. So now I have a stack of three boards. With the Raspberry Pi on the bottom, the Alamode in the middle and the CNC Controller shield on the top.

All plugged together. One problem for psychology me was that the theme of desiree's baby, Alamode does not provide any mounting holes. It does provide a rubber pad that goes on the top of the RJ-45 Ethernet connector on the Raspberry Pi and is the right height (must be very carefully positioned on the RJ-45 connector) but there is no solid connection point other than the GPIO connector. The CNC Controller shield is like most other Arduino shields and is very well held in place due to the friction of the burnout definition psychology, header extenders that are on the Arduino. My original Raspberry Pi did not have mounting holes in it either. That is part of the reason why I decided to get a new one and Essay about Learning Assignment, use it instead.

Later on, I purchased an assortment of nylon standoffs and attached a couple of burnout definition psychology, them to the Raspberry Pi - with a couple of In or Sharing Essay, washers to get the height right. Then I very carefully put a drop of burnout, super glue on the top of each of the theme of desiree's, nylon standoffs and definition, put the Alamode onto the Raspberry Pi. I then left it alone for a while. I was later able to take the screws out of the bottom of the Raspberry Pi and take the Alamode off with the standoffs attached to Censorship of Offensive in Broadcast Should be Based the Alamode - it worked! I also attached a standoff between the Alamode and the CNC Controller shield as there was a hole in a place that made that possible on both boards. So now I have all three boards securely connected together. Early on I decided to use some sort of enclosure to protect my finished project. So I bought one and then came to realize it was not large enough and had to burnout definition measure everything and buy another one. The one I used is is nice box but turned out to be a challenge anyway.

This box is made by Bud and I got through Amazon here: http://www.amazon.com/dp/B005T7ARB6/ref=pe_385040_30332190_TE_M3T1_ST1_dp_1. It is a BUD Industries PN-1339-DG High-Impact ABS NEMA 4x Indoor Box, 6-19/64 Length x 6-19/64 Width x 3-17/32 Height, Dark Gray Finish enclosure. There are some nice brass threaded mounting holes in the corners inside of the box and the box comes with screws to secure the top to the bottom with the brass threaded holes in the outside corners. The box also has a gasket to make it waterproof if you need that. Essay About Participant. In my case it just makes for a very nicely sealed box. I came to believe that I needed to have some sort of carrier to mount my stack to inside of the box. Burnout. So I bought a sheet of of desiree's baby, acetal from Zoro Tools: http://www.zoro.com/g/Acetal%20Sheet%20Stock/00153128/.

Acetal is supposed to burnout definition be somewhat ESD safe but I have not studied that out entirely either. After I got the Essay Reflection Health Practicum Experience, sheet of acetal I cut a piece that would fit inside of the enclosure with my Dremel tool. It isn't pretty and this is one of the things I plan to replace when I finally get my milling machine working again. I ended up having to cut cutouts on burnout both sides of my initial carrier to provide better access for of desiree's the wires and cables that connect the stack to the external world. I also felt that it was important to make sure that there is adequate ventilation in the box. So I mounted two 40mm, 12 VDC, exhaust fans on the top and two inlet vents with filters on the bottom. In the pictures you can see that there are a couple of psychology, extra holes in the carrier - Oops.

I made a 1:1 scale drawings of the of Offensive Language in Broadcast be Based, openings to be put into the box in Visio and then printed those out on my printer. Then I cut out the printed drawings and taped them to burnout definition psychology the box and used them as templates. It wasn't perfect, of course, but was pretty good. I started each modification to Essay about Retention the box by using an burnout psychology Exacto knife to In or World Sharing Essay carefully mark through the templates and then used a Sharpie to make sure I got it right. Then I used my Dremel to cut out the various openings in psychology the box.

Not too difficult to do but you have to be patient and let the Dremel do the work or you will end up with a lot of melted plastic on your hands and the nib that you are using in the Dremel will try to Censorship in Broadcast Media on Age dig into the material occasionally. My only advice is be patient, take you time, don't press to hard, cut in the right direction and it will all work out acceptably - no one is perfect. The hardest openings to cut were the ones for the switches and the connectors. Each of the connectors and switches have flat spots on opposite sides. All of my switches and connectors are 16mm. The flat spots keep the switches or connectors from psychology, turning in the chassis.

That is great if you are using chassis punches but I do not know of any of those that are designed to work on plastic. Essay About Retention. So I had to very carefully cut the holes by psychology hand with my Dremel. I cut them and test fitted each connector one at a time and as soon as I was able to get the switch or connector in the hole I stopped. Hugo. They are pretty good but a nice CNC machine would have done a better job than I did - maybe next time I will have a working CNC machine and I can try that. So here is the hard part. Most CNC machines (milling machines, laser cutters, engravers, water jets, etc.) use stepper motors to position the axes. The CNC Controller board provides X, Y and Z axes as well as an A-Axis that can be used to psychology supplement one of the other axes if needed with an additional motor or a fourth axis could be implemented (but Grbl only knows about three axes right now). My implementation is only going to use three axes at this time.

However, I decided that I needed to bring the A-Axis out because I might someday want to use it. Today, Is Caring. Further, the CNC Controller board provides for the control functions to enable the spindle as well as two other functions. Burnout Psychology. By default they are spindle cooling and spindle direction (alternately these functions can be used to control a laser, a vacuum hold down or a blower / fume extractor and a heating mat for a 3D printer). Hugo Munsterberg. I did not know what I might want to control later on so I decided to bring those signals out of the box too. I ended up with five connectors on burnout psychology one side of my box that can be used to connect to the machine that I want to control. I have labelled everything and about on the Community Experience, everything is also color coded. I want to mention that I used expandable sleeving to bundle wires together where ever possible and to reduce the number of unbundled wires in the build. It helps in a lot of ways and protects the wires a bit but most importantly it makes it really clear what each of the psychology, bundles is about for.

It also makes the entire project a lot better looking. Here is one place that you can get expandable sleeving: https://www.parts-express.com/Search.aspx?keyword=expandable%20sleevingsitesearch=true. Definition Psychology. NTE provides wire and Essay about Retention, heat shrink tubing assortments that are really useful in building electronics. Other useful things are like these: Crimping Tool to put pins onto the ends of wires to be plugged into the various places: http://www.pololu.com/product/1928.

This is definition psychology a really nice tool and works better than a lot of other crimpers that are a lot more expensive. Theme Baby. Of course, you need to have pins and burnout psychology, housings to complete a connection. You can see that I used many pins and housings in in Broadcast Media Should be Based on Age building my CNC Controller. The next thing that had to be done was to connect the inside of the box to the external world. Switches to control the system and psychology, plugs to get the signals to the stepper motors and the spindle and finally a connection to a power supply. The switches are all connected to one header that plugs into the CNC Controller shield and hugo, another one that plugs into the power distribution board for the LEDs that are in the switches. So the definition, switches have a connection both below the carrier and above the carrier. The switches are E-Stop or Arduino Reset (Red), Abort Reset (Yellow), Pause / Feed Hold (Blue) and Sharing is Caring, Cycle Start / Resume (Green). The Reset, Abort and Hold switches are push-push switches. That is they stay pushed in until you push them again. Burnout Psychology. That gives a positive indication of whether or not a button was pushed.

The Resume button is a momentary push button and only stays in as long as you hold it in. Each button illuminates so that you can clearly see if it is pushed in or not. As you can see in the pictures I used colored expandable sleeving and shrink tubing of the Learning, same color as the button for each function to make it easier for me to keep everything straight. The connectors on the other side of the box are color coded too. They are X-Axis (Green), Y-Axis (Blue), Z-Axis (Red), A-Axis (Purple) and Spindle (Yellow). Psychology. These colors match up with the cables on my milling machine. The X, Y and Z axes contain the Censorship of Offensive in Broadcast Media Should be Based on Age, wires for definition the stepper motors and for the limit switches. The A-Axis is only stepper motor wires and will not be used on about my milling machine.

The Spindle connector has the Spindle Enable, Spindle Direction and Cooling Enable wires in it. Again you can see that I tried to use the same color expandable sleeving and heat shrink tubing as much as possible. I connected the burnout definition, two 12 VDC exhaust fans to a header that eventually connects to the power distribution board. Finally, I used a PowerWerks PowerPole snap-in chassis mount that provides 5 VDC through a red connector and red cable, 12 VDC through a yellow connector and yellow cable and of Offensive Media Should be Based on Age, a ground for each side through black connectors. The chassis mount holds the PowerPole connector housings in place inside of the snap-in chassis mount with a pin and these connectors are very well made. More information about the PowerWerks PowerPole connectors can be found here: http://www.powerwerx.com/powerpole-accessories/pow. Externally I am using an ATX power supply that has been slightly modified to provide power for my milling machine (it came with my machine). I built a cable with the PowerWerks PowerPole connections on it that match up to my CNC Controller box PowerPole snap-in chassis mount.

Later on I added an emergency power off switch to my power supply. You can see the burnout definition psychology, emergency switch here: http://www.sourcingmap.com/red-mushroom-cap-1no-1nc-dpst-emergency-stop-push-button-switch-ac-660v-10a-p-256918.html. Hooking up the switches and the connectors was the most time consuming part of the build. The next issue was how to get power to Essay The Inclusive Learning my stack. I decided to build a power distribution board.

I also had an issue with the switches that I used. Psychology. As you can see they have LEDs inside of them. Essay Retention. The LEDs are completely separate from the switches. On top of that the switches just provide a path to burnout ground for the CNC Controller / Alamode. So, to on the Community Health Practicum get the LEDs to light up when the switch is depressed I had to use an inverter (SN7404 Hex Inverter). The LED power function is most of the circuitry on the prototype board. Power is on the edges with 5 VDC on one edge and 12 VDC on the other edge. The four resistors are current limiting resistors to limit the current going through the LEDs.

The 12 pin header is where the switches plug into the board. The headers provide power for everything in the box. 5 VDC for the Raspberry Pi and burnout psychology, the Alamode. 12 VDC for the fans and Assignment, the 12 VDC circuitry on the CNC Controller shield and for definition psychology the 12 VDC path through the relays. The black connector on the prototype board is used to provide the grounds for the signals being controlled by baby the relay stack. Notice that I tied all of the grounds together on the power distribution board. I used a temporary breadboard to figure out how to get the LEDs to definition work the hugo, way I wanted them to work. Then I moved the circuit to an Adafruit Perma-Proto Half-sized Breadboard PCB.

It went pretty quickly and definition psychology, easily. There are pull up resistors in the Alamode (Arduino) that pull up the voltage to near Vcc on the Alamode for each of the functions. A function change of state is sensed when the voltage is pulled lo or to ground. The CNC Controller shield provides the function pins and matching ground pins. Shorting the function to ground changes the state of the function and is sensed by the Arduino code. I wired up the switches to Censorship of Offensive in Broadcast Media Should be Based on Age do just that.

Press the switch and the function is connected to its respective ground pin. Burnout Definition Psychology. However, I also ran a wire from each of the switches to one of the four Inverters that I used (two of the inverters in the HEX Inverter chip are not used). So that when the switch is open a high or Vcc is on Essay about Learning Assignment the input to the inverter which results in a low is on the output and the LED is off. Pressing the switch puts a low or ground on the input to the inverter and hence the output of the inverter transitions to psychology a hi and munsterberg, the LED turns on. I looked into connecting a video display to the enclosure but did not have enough USB ports.

So I bought a 3-port USB hub. It came in a black plastic housing but that was way too big to psychology fit into hugo munsterberg my box. So I took it out of its housing and then used a zip tie to burnout anchor it to about Health Practicum my carrier. Now I have four usable USB ports. One has a wireless network adapter in burnout psychology it. Of Offensive Language Be Based On Age. I also used one with a miniature keyboard but I am not using it now as I am using the Remote Desktop Connection instead.

I also looked at burnout definition, adding an theme baby LCD display to definition the box but found that I just do not have enough room in the box. Another of the USB ports would have been used to connect a touch screen to the system. Next I attached the about The Inclusive Assignment, stack to the top side of the carrier and the power distribution board to the bottom side with nylon standoffs. The last pieces to go onto burnout the carrier were the relays. There are three relays. One for In or World Sharing the spindle, One for spindle direction and the last one for spindle cooling.

They got put into burnout definition psychology a stack and mounted on the carrier with nylon standoffs too. After getting all of the pieces mounted on the carrier they needed to be connected electrically. I built a small wiring harness to Essay Participant Retention connect the relays to the power distribution board and to the CNC Controller board. Burnout Definition Psychology. Each relay connects to its control pin on the CNC Controller board (the white expandable sleeving bundle). Then each relay gets connected to theme the power distribution board for 12 VDC power. On the other side of the relays I made a couple of cables that provide the ground for burnout the signals being controlled by the relays and a very small cable to connect the relays to the spindle connector. It is sleeved with yellow on this side as it connects directly to the Spindle connector on the side of the box. I used inline connections to allow me to hugo munsterberg more easily disconnect the cables and get the definition, carrier into and out of the box. The relays are controlled directly from the Alamode via the CNC Controller shield.

Of course, you could use these three relays to control the functions mentioned but they could also be used to control the functions of the print head and heat pad on a 3D printer or a LASER in a laser engraver along with a fume extractor or whatever. I plan on being able to move this control system between all of those environments in the future - unless I decide to dedicate this one and Essay The Inclusive Learning, build more of them for my future machines. It would also be really easy to use the 5 VDC relays to switch 12 VDC and then use that to psychology control a solid state relay or whatever is wanted. I built another small wiring harness to connect 12 VDC from the Reflection on the Community Practicum, power distribution board to the CNC Controller shield. Burnout Definition Psychology. This 12 VDC is used to power the stepper motors. Now it was time to install the Sharing is Caring, carrier with all of its boards and cables into the enclosure. Definition. The hardest part is connecting the power to Essay on the the power distribution board. First I plugged in the connector to the LEDs that are in the switches.

Next comes the fans and finally the power. Burnout Definition. Everything is color coded because I am notorious for incorrectly connecting things. The cables that are attached to the switches and the connectors have to be gently pushed and pulled to Essay Reflection on the Community Health Practicum Experience get the carrier in the box but once there is sits comfortably. Step 12: Connecting to definition the External World. After getting the In or Today, Sharing is Caring Essay, carrier board connected and in place and then screwed down at its corners the remaining steps are to connect the switches to burnout the CNC Controller shield. Followed by connecting the axes cables to the CNC Controller shield.

Finally the Essay Participant, last connections are the relays and the ground for the spindle connection. It is tight but there is enough room for everything to fit nicely into the box. After getting everything hooked up I powered up the burnout definition, box and started testing everything. The switches worked and I was able to control the system as I thought it should work. Next I went to my laptop and used the Remote Desktop Connection to log into my Raspberry Pi. I had already installed the Arduino IDE on the Raspberry Pi and done a lot to prepare to run the system. It was a learning experience and I did not know what else I might need to Essay about The Inclusive Assignment do to definition make everything work. So I got the software working before I ever put anything in the box. Of Offensive Be Based On Age. The biggest difference between my getting the burnout psychology, software working and the current state is that I now have the switches too and can control the system by pressing those buttons and it all works. I ran the Grbl Control program on my Raspberry Pi and connected to hugo the Grbl program that is running on the Alamode.

I opened a file that I had created (a modified coaster tutorial) and ran the program. It ran all the way through and stopped as I expected it to. I checked to make sure that nothing got hot. Definition Psychology. Now I have to get out my milling machine and get it back together and theme baby, try to make something. Thanks for burnout definition reading my instructable. Let me know what might have done differently. Maybe I will make another one. I'm Italian.

I apoligize about my poor english. Please, do you have further data and some video in which you show the system working with stepper motors. About the data, i talking about precision and theme, repeatability of the tool in burnout flange. I want and i need to hugo munsterberg build my own CNC machine, and psychology, so far your seems to be the best solution. But i want to be sure i don't waste money to Essay about The Inclusive buy what you suggested in you post and definition psychology, have just workin stepper motor, without precision. I hope what i wrote is clear for you. Lately I have been working on my 3D printer and I do not currently have a video of my CNC machine working because it has not worked for some time. We have moved three times in the past three years. I am now working on getting my CNC machine working again. Part of the reason that I started building my CNC controller was that I was not happy about the Censorship Language in Broadcast Media Should on Age, precision and repeatability of my little machine. I bought new lead screws and anti-backlash nuts and started modifying my machine.

It turned out definition psychology that doing the modifications to of desiree's my machine was more difficult than I had anticipated and took a long time. I am now making good progress finishing those modifications. I have printed some new mounting components on my 3D printer that are allowing me to get things done now that I had a lot of trouble doing previously. Hopefully, I will finish things up in the next week or so. Then I could make a video of my machine working but it is psychology not working right now and is in of desiree's baby many pieces. You concern with precision and repeatability is the most important aspect of a machine tool, in my opinion. I can tell you this. Leadscrews are more precise than belts, in general, as belts will occasionally slip and result in missed steps. However, my CNC machine had cheap threaded rods.

So I did not have that problem. I instead I had a problem with precision and burnout psychology, repeatability because the of desiree's, threads were not precision cut. Thus, I replaced the threaded rods with precision lead screws. Also, the anti-backlash mechanisms were not that good and they were replaced with the leadscrews and burnout definition, matching anti-backlash nuts. Further, my original stepper motors were connected to theme of desiree's baby the threaded rods with plastic tubing that didn't work very well and I replaced the tubing with aluminum couplers. The precision and repeatability is not a big factor of the software, it is very accurate.

Precision and repeatability is more determined by definition physical factors of the machine itself. In Or Is Caring. Precision of the leadscrews and anti-backlash nuts, stepping or micro-stepping of the stepper motors, torque and holding capacity of the stepper motors, smoothness of the slide bearings, stability of the burnout definition psychology, machine, orthogonality of the axes, vibration, runout or how much the hugo, spindle's bit moves from perfectly straight, etc. Take a look at the new CNC board from Protoneer. It will make the project a bit cheaper and easier to do (you would not need the Alamode board). If you are interested in the precision and repeatability of the software take a look at psychology, the GRBL site on Github. Lastly, read through the comments here. you will find a lot of great information about CNC machines. this is about Reflection Community Health Practicum Experience absolutely fantastic cdtaylor51! thank you very much!

I am building my second cnc machine (I am doing all traditionally though - linuxcnc, stepper motors, etc.) and I know what it takes to design and build your own. you've done great job! Thanks for taking a look. Good luck on building your machine. you left a description and purchase link for almost everything but the burnout psychology, 8 pin connectors, both male female, used to connect steppers to the box. please let us know what they are called and World, where we can buy them. Thanks much! Try this and definition, there is another parts list in the comments, way back. This link worked a few minutes ago. Worked perfectly. Participant. Thanks much. I've been a maker for 50 of my 58 years and an Instructable reader for as long as they have been around. I can say with certainty that this is one of the best written that I've ever read.

Clear, consise, well thought out, well written. if you had entered a contest I would have voted for it! very well done. Definition. you have a future in technical writing should you persue that line of work. Thanks for Censorship Language in Broadcast Should on Age the kind words. I am now 66 and have been tinkering for a long time. I am a disabled Viet Nam veteran and definition psychology, fully retired now. Essay The Inclusive Learning. I actually did work as a technical writer for a few years and in my last job, before I retired, I worked as a Test Program Engineer and wrote test plans and test procedures for sophisticated electronic systems. I also designed and built prototype electronic test equipment and fixtures and burnout, mentored more junior associates.

I don't really think that I ironed out In or World Today, Sharing is Caring Essay every instance where there could have been some misunderstanding but I think my write up is pretty good. I never thought that it would get as many views as it has. When I look at burnout, the number of views it always surprises me. I tried to enter it in Essay about a contest but was not allowed to as I submitted it a couple of days before the burnout, contest started. I would have really liked to of desiree's have won a laser engraver but I still feel pretty good about burnout definition psychology it just due to the number of people who have read it, tried it, and made comments about it. In Broadcast Should. I recently purchased a 3D printer from a Chinese place and I am enjoying learning about it. Maybe I will write another instructable about definition psychology that someday.

Thanks again for reading my 'able and Essay Participant Retention, your comments. I too am a disabled vet and I apologize for assuming you were a young person! No problem at all. I thought that it was kind of funny that mentioned that I could be employeed as technical writer, as I had actually been one for many years. Thanks for helping me to burnout definition feel a bit younger than I am. Can you point me in Participant the direction you used to burnout get LinuxCNC installed and running on your RPI, I have everything else working on my setup including talking to my alamode board.

Thank you! I am sorry, but I do not use LinuxCNC at all. I am using the Grbl Controller software on my RPi and the Grbl firmware on my Alamode/Arduino. I am not aware that LinuxCNC can be run on a RPi at this time. Hugo. At least, I have never tried to do that. I am not sure that LinuxCNC would run very well on an RPi either. perhaps someone else has done it and maybe give you more positive feedback. Check out the liinks in my write up and you should be able to get Grbl working pretty quickly (if you are familiar with Linux/Unix). Good luck.

Well that makes more sense! I musta missed that step. Thank you. Great instructable. Thanks for all the detail and extensive references. Good photos. Burnout Definition Psychology. Well done! Hi, not found realy 5VDC 12 VDC, please Help. Here is where I got the relays that I used: It was a great help for me.

I am trying to make one. I have a request and a question please. Can I disconnect my PC or Laptop from the RPi after upload the G-Code into the RPi. I don't want to monitor the munsterberg, process but I want to definition psychology run the machine without allocating a PC for the operation continuously. Can you please provide the necessary codes for the arduino and RPi. Thanks in advance. If you built a system like mine then you should be able to test your theory to see if it works - I am able to hugo connect wirelessly to my RPi, transfer files, start Grbl and connect to the Arduino (Alamode) and then set up the machines and eventually start making the burnout, part. I can disconnect from Essay about, my RPi at any time and reconnect at any time.

Your box looks great, inside and outside. Burnout Definition Psychology. Like a pro, you could sell them! Thank you so much for sharing and for giving additional information that I also will need. Very nice instructable! Thanks, I hope you build one too. Thank you for your quick reply with concern.

I think you made it clear what I have needed. Essay Participant Retention. Thank you so much. A great write up. Burnout Psychology. Many thanks for taking the time to compile this. Very helpful. This is a very nice description of all the guts of a CNC controller. But if you want to dodge most of the bits and pieces to assemble this, you can buy a 4 channel CNC controller board from http://synthetos.myshopify.com/products/tinyg. It sells from hugo munsterberg, their store for $129.00. It has a USB input and can be driven from most any computer using the free Chili Pepper software.

You will still need fans, a power supply, case and switches etc, but going this route will result in a much more compact and complete CNC controller. If this idea has been described further down in burnout definition psychology the comments, I apologize. Censorship In Broadcast Media Be Based On Age. In addition I have no connection with Synthetos other that being a very happy customer. Thanks for letting us know about burnout that. There are many solutions out theme of desiree's baby there for building a CNC controller, this certainly is not the only way to do it. It is how I did it and burnout definition psychology, it works well, and In or, I learned a lot doing it. Why not write you own instructible about what you are proposing? I am sure that others would like to definition see how you did it and what it looks like along the way. Nice work! Can I ask where you got your panel mount cable connectors? . and about Retention, buttons while we're at it. You can try the ones that I mentioned in a previous comment:

Is it possible to just connect to the arduino through a usb cable on the pi? I already have the burnout psychology, arduino and about, cnc shield set up and using my PC to control. The communications between the burnout definition psychology, RPi and the Arduino happens through the UART on the RPi and Health Practicum, the UART on the Arduino. In my project this connection is provided by the Alamode boad (including the required voltage translation between the RPi and the Arduino). It doesn't necessarily have to be that way but the software expects it to be that way. Could you use the USB to communicate between the burnout definition, RPi and hugo munsterberg, the Arduino - I am sure it could be done but you would probably have to write some extensive code to do that. I also believe that you would loose some functionality on the Arduino. Someone else might have better insight into doing that sort of thing than I do.

What I did was use the software that I found as easily as possible - I was not interested in trying to invent an alternate way, I was just interested in trying to get everything to burnout definition psychology work together. As for the touchscreen monitor to run the machine: I have done that on several occasions. I just connected an Reflection Practicum Experience HDMI touchscreen to the RPi and could control everthing - actually, I never got the touchscreen to work correctly with the RPi so I just used a miniature wireless USB keyboard that has a touchpad built in to run everything. I have not tried to get the touchscreen to work in burnout a while. Using the baby, remote desktop is just so much easier that I just have no desire to definition try to get the touchscreen working any longer. Touchscreens have their own set of problems on top of everything else.

So I just dropped it and went with the remote desktop instead. My HDMI monitor is something like 5 inches wide and the touchscreen was More accurate enough for me to use it effectively. If you have a larger screen thenyou might have better results. I hope I answered your questions. Munsterberg. Perhaps others might give you different answers. Check out burnout psychology what the Grbl guys have to of Offensive Language Media Should say on Github too. Good luck. I meant LESS ACCURATE More More accurate.

Auto correct strikes again! Hello, cdtaylor51 very good job. Burnout. I work with a CNC in my day to day and want to build one for me to be able to test work that may be made no real scale. I have ordered some stuff, I have a raspberry pi, ordered the shield alamode, and cnc, lack ordering stepmotors but do not know what type / model to theme baby buy, you can provide me a link? Now I have more technical issues in psychology my day to day use the PC to design and create the G code and send to as the machine is operating the machine with some switches and hugo munsterberg, a touch screen of 15 wanted my cnc could have a screen to show me what you're doing, but more importantly as the psychology, grbl only supports 3 axes would be possible to double the system to have 6-axis? X, Y, Z to the movements a and C to swivel and The Inclusive, tilt head and an extra lathe with interpolation with the other 5-axis, using either a PC or another raspberry pi to control the other 2 raspberry pi, or using one raspberry pi but two alamode shells and two cnc, it would be interesting to create a CNC complete the small scale. I believe that I understand your question and I have to say that you are already far beyond my knowledge level about CNC. I would suggest that you get in definition touch with the hugo, guys who are working on definition Grbl on Essay about Retention github. As for the stepper motors: you have to match up the stepper motors with the drivers that you want to use and the motors need to have enough power to move the axes at the speed you want and burnout definition psychology, enough torque to hold as you need.

The most important factors are the maximum current specified for the motors and the maximum voltage and of desiree's baby, current that the drivers can handle also microstepping is an important feature (as you no doubt already know). You will need to understand these relationships to get everything you work. Otherwise buy a kit that has the motors, matching drivers and the high current power supply included - that is the easiest way to go. Definition. If you want to hugo munsterberg build a controller like mine then you may want to consider the new CNC Controller board from Protoneer (no Alamode board needed). I have a couple of them and I am working on a new version of my controller using that new board (look at some of the other comments for more information about the new board).

I don't work for them or anything but I really like the way these boards are made and work. You can use the A4988 type plug-in drivers or external drivers that can handle much higher current and voltage (meaning larger, more powerful motors). I am not sure if I answered all of your questions or not but good luck. I would really like to see what you come up with. I am still trying to learn about CNC. Burnout. Maybe I will take a class or something. Thank you for Essay about Assignment your great instruction! I just have a quick question. You were saying an arduino is not able to process itself, and thus u have to include a raspberry pi, is burnout that because you are running the nc file totally without a laptop or a desktop to generate and command the gcode? If I want to use laptop to create, process and Essay Learning Assignment, command gcode directly to the arduino, do I still need a raspberry pi?

Thank you very much! Your question is interesting. I have discussed it before but maybe not directly as you asked. There are a few reasons for burnout psychology the RPi to be part of the project. The Arduino/Alamode is pretty busy.

It is taking care of the on the Health, real time management of the signals that are causing the motion in the CNC machine. It is also monitoring the psychology, limit switches continuously. On the other hand the RPI is not doing very much. It parses the .nc file and sends one gcode statement at a time to the Arduino. It also keeps track of what has been done and what is yet to be done. The RPi also provides a means to monitor the progress of a design that is being processed. Of course, I monitor that progress on a separate computer that has a monitor as there is no monitor on my controller. About Community Experience. I like being able to just kick off a design and definition psychology, let it go without monitoring it at all.

If I want to then I can reconnect to Essay about Assignment RPi at any time I desire to see how far along it is. Thanks a lot for your detailed comment! I quite got the idea now. I'll try do do more research on definition psychology Grbl! Yes The Raspberry pi is Essay about Learning Assignment just acting like computer . You can use lap top and definition psychology, arduino + arduino cnc shield for making cnc. Search on google GRBL arduino. Thanks a lot for your comment. Essay About The Inclusive. I'm very new to this stuffs, but u've made it a lot clearer! hello, really amazing, I'm 13 years old, I built a 3 axis cnc controller with grbl, I would like to definition build a 5-axis I do not very well understand the links you send me a diagram as much detail as possible? what have you loaded into rasperry more 2? softwere that you use? I would like to know as much as possible! thank you so much for your help! my email [email protected] excuse for my English I'm utillizando google translator thanks again. Okay, I have read your messages.

I do not have any information on building a 3D printer or any other 5-axis machine. Grbl is limited to 3-axes. You might want to look at the RepRap wiki as it is theme essentially a 5-axis machine. Grbl is the only thing that I have loaded on the RPi in addition to the operating system. I made this diagram based off of what I could see from your Instructable, could you tell me if this is wired correctly or not?

I like your diagram. Burnout Definition Psychology. It is pretty much accurate however it appears that there a couple of things that I think may need to be cleared up. Of course, you can do whatever you want to Reflection on the Practicum do. In my build I used 8-pin aviation connectors and the Endstop / Limit switch wires are connected to four of the pins of the aviation connectors. In your diagram you ran all of the limit switches to a separate 6-pin connector. That's okay by me but it is not the way that I did it in burnout definition psychology my build. I also noticed that you tied the limit switches together in In or Today, Sharing is Caring your diagram. I did not do that in my build. Each of the switches are completely separate.

I don't know that it matters. That would be a question that the would have to be posed to the Grbl guys. Another thing that I would like to draw your attention to is that the colors for the axes are not correct. X should be red, Y should be green and Z should be blue. I got it wrong in my build but because of some of the burnout, feedback that I got (read the earlier comments for more info about the theme of desiree's, colors coding of the axes). The purple and yellow were completely arbitrary on my part.

There may be some standard for those too but I am not aware of what it might be. It might be more useful if you labelled the burnout definition psychology, USB connectors for the different things that they go to. Essay. One goes to the Raspberry Pi and definition, the other one goes to the Alamode. It might also be useful to Censorship of Offensive Language in Broadcast Media Should be Based label the switches. I got the burnout psychology, wires going to the steppers a bit mixed up in my photos too. Pin 1 in my build is blue, Pin 2 is red, pin 3 is green and pin 4 is black.

Just in case is about Retention was not noticed: There are four current limiting resistors on psychology the power distribution board that are there to limit the current that goes through the hugo, LEDs in the switches. I have attached a few pictures to this reply to show some of what I have mentioned. Hi, first of all congratulations, you did a very good work. My question is if I don't have the Alamode shield for raspberry, it's possible to use Arduino UNO, I have seen in psychology new RPI CNC BOARD that just connect 10 pin from RPI, to RPI this pins are I2C and UART I think they are the principals. I have your cnc shield (the red one) but I don't have Alamode shield. Thanks, I hope your answer.

Sorry for my English. :) Yes, you can use an about The Inclusive Assignment Arduino UNO if you want to. You will still have to use a voltage translator so that the RPi and definition psychology, the UNO can communicate with each other. Its no big deal but it is required that you provide some way for the +5V on the Arduino UNO to work with the +3.3V on the RPi. Otherwise, you run the In or Today, Sharing, risk of destroying either or both of the burnout, boards. A voltage translator can easily be made with a couple of MOSFETs for each pin that is going to be connected to the other device. You could also use the voltage translators that are provided by Sparkfun or Adafruit or something of your own design.

Take a look at about Participant Retention, these, I think that either one will work. With a local display you could control the system locally. I personally don't see that as very useful. You could also monitor the burnout, progress of Censorship Language Media Should be Based, your project. Psychology. That might be more useful but definitely not essential. As I mentioned previously I can completely control and/or monitor my system with my Remote Desktop Connection. I do not have a display on my system locally.

I just use my laptop to do everything. I might someday decide to build a pendant to do things manually. Censorship Of Offensive In Broadcast Media Should Be Based On Age. Then a local display might be more advantageous. if i was to psychology add a touch screen would it be wired to In or World Today, is Caring Pi or to burnout definition psychology Arduino. It would be easiest to just plug a touch screen LCD into munsterberg the HDMI port on the Pi. The touch screen itself would actually get plugged into definition psychology one of the USB ports on the Pi. I don't think it would be possible to run it with the Arduino - it is already very busy controlling the stepper motors and the spindle and at the same time monitoring the buttons and the limit switches. On the about The Inclusive Learning, other hand the Pi is not very busy. Don't expect very fast response times on a local display and you will need to monitor the definition, temperature on the Pi with a local display running. Those are the concerns that I had that pushed me towards using a Remote Desktop Connection. Hope that helps.

I probably would have put a local LCD/Touchscreen on my build if I would have had a bit larger enclosure. 2 questions, one is silly and Essay Participant, one serious. Would you have put an burnout LCD for the cool factor or do you so an actual need? I was curious if the push-buttons can be replaced by touch screen buttons? BTW, thank you for your prompt reply. Of Desiree's Baby. You rock my friend.

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The Ultimate List of AP World History Tips. Doing well on the AP World History exam really relies on your ability to understand patterns in history. Psychology? By familiarizing yourself with trends in history as opposed to memorizing facts, you can get a 5 on the AP World History exam. For more on how to study for AP World History, see our blog post here . Now to the good stuff here are 50+ AP World History tips. Thesis/Introductory Paragraphs for AP World History. 1. Answer ALL of the Essay about The Inclusive Assignment question : Make sure your thesis addresses every single part of the burnout definition psychology question being asked for the AP World History free response section. Missing a single part can cost you significantly in the grading of your essay. 2. Lean one way : Trying to appease both sides creates an argument thats not nearly as strong as if you take a stance. 3. Lead your reader : Help your reader understand where you are going as you answer the prompt to Essay about The Inclusive Assignment, the essayprovide them with a map of a few of the key areas you are going to talk about in burnout psychology, your essay. 4. Retention? Organize with strength in mind : When outlining the respective topics you will be discussing, start from the burnout definition topic you know second best, then the topic you know least, before ending with your strongest topic area. In other words, make your roadmap 2-3-1 so that you leave your reader with the feeling that you have a strong understanding of the question being asked.

5. Understand the word Analyze : When the AP exam asks you to analyze, you want to think about the In or World Essay respective parts of what is burnout being asked and look at the way they interact with one another. This means that when you are performing your analysis on the AP World History test, you want to make it very clear to Language be Based on Age, your reader of what you are breaking down into its component parts. For example, what evidence do you have to support a point of view? Who are the burnout important historical figures or institutions involved? How are these structures organized?

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Do not group just to bundle certain documents together. The best analogy would be you have a few different colored buckets, and In or Today, is Caring, you want to burnout psychology, put a label over each bucket. Essay Participant? Then you have a variety of different colored balls which each color representing a document, and burnout definition, you want to put these balls into munsterberg buckets. You can have documents that fall into more than one group, but the big picture tip to remember is to group in response to the prompt. This is an definition, absolute must. 33% of your DBQ grade comes from assessing your ability to group. 2. Assess POV with SOAPSTONE : SOAPSTONE helps you answer the hugo munsterberg question of why the person in the document made the burnout definition piece of information at that time. It answers the question of the motive behind the document.

3. S: S represents Speaker or Source. You want to begin by asking yourself who is the source of the of Offensive Language on Age document. Psychology? Think about the background of this source. Where do they come from? What do they do?

Are they male or female? What are their respective views on hugo munsterberg, religion or philosophy? How old are they? Are they wealthy? Poor? Etc. 4. O: O stands for occasion. You want to burnout definition psychology, ask yourself when the document was said, where was it said, and why it may have been created. You can also think of Censorship of Offensive in Broadcast Media Should be Based, O as representative of origin. 5. A: A represents for audience.

Think about who this person wanted to share this document with. What medium was the document originally delivered in? Is it delivered through an official document or is it an artistic piece like a painting? 6. P: P stands for purpose. Ask again, why did this person create or say this document? What is the psychology main motive behind the document? 7. S: S is for the subject of the document.

This is Essay The Inclusive Learning Assignment where you see if you have an understanding of burnout, how the subject relates to the question the test is asking you. In Broadcast? Think about if there are other documents or pieces of history that could further support or not support this document source. 8. TONE: Tone poses the question of what the tone of the document is. This relates closely with speaker. Think about how the creator of the burnout definition document says certain things. Participant? Think about the connotations of certain words. 9. Explicitly state your analysis of POV : Your reader is definition psychology not psychic. He or she cannot simply read your mind and understand exactly why you are rewriting a quotation by a person from a document. Be sure to explicitly state something along the lines of, In document X, author states, [quotation]; the about Participant Retention author may use this [x] tone because he wants to signify [y]. Another example would be, The speakers belief that [speakers opinion] is made clear from his usage of particularly negative words such as [xyz]. 10. Assessing Charts and Tables : Sometimes youll come across charts of statistics.

If you do, ask yourself questions like where the data is coming from, how the data was collected, who released the data, etc. You essentially want to take a similar approach to SOAPSTONE with charts and tables. 11. Assessing Maps : When you come across maps, look at the corners and center of the map. Think about burnout definition psychology why the map may be oriented in Censorship of Offensive, a certain way. Burnout Definition? Think about if the title of the map or the legend reveals anything about the culture the map originates from. Think about how the map was createdwhere did the information for the map come from. Think about Essay Practicum who the map was intended for.

12. Assessing Cultural Pieces : If you come across more artistic documents such as literature, songs, editorials, or advertisements, you want to psychology, really think about the motive of why the piece of art or creative writing was made and who the document was intended for. 13. About Practicum Experience? Be careful with blanket statements : Just because a certain point of definition psychology, view is expressed in a document does not mean that POV applies to everyone from that area. When drawing from the documents, you need to explicitly state which author and document you are citing. 14. Bias will always exist : Even if youre given data in the form of a table, there is bias in the data. Do not fall into the trap of thinking just because there are numbers, it means the numbers are foolproof. 15. Be creative with introducing bias : Many students understand that they need to show their understanding that documents can be biased, but they go about it the wrong way. Rather than outright stating, The document is biased because [x], try, In document A, the author is clearly influenced by [y] as he states, [quotation].

See the difference? Its subtle but makes a clear difference in how you demonstrate your understanding of bias. 16. Refer back to the question: As you write your DBQ essay, make sure to reference back to the question to show the reader how the argument you are trying to make relates to the overarching question. Hugo? This is one way you clearly demonstrate that you spent a few minutes planning your essay in the very beginning. 17. Leave yourself out of psychology, it: Do not refer to yourself when writing your DBQ essays! I has no place in these AP essays. 18. Stay grounded to the documents : All of your core arguments must be supported through the Essay about Reflection on the Community Health Practicum Experience use of the documents. Do not form the majority of your arguments on what you know from burnout definition psychology class. Should On Age? Use what you learned in class instead to bolster your arguments in relation to psychology, the documents presented.

Start your AP World History Prep today. Overall AP World History DBQ Essay Tips Advice. 1. Start essay practice early : At least one month before the AP World History exam date, organize a few essay questions you will work through for of desiree's the next four weeks before the test. Find a proctor whether that be a parent, peer, or teacher and have them simulate a timed test as you answer the essay. 2. Familiarize yourself with the time limits : Part of the burnout psychology reason why we suggest practicing essays early is so that you get so good at writing them that you understand exactly how much time you have left when you begin writing your second to last paragraph. In Or Sharing? Youll be so accustomed to writing under timed circumstances that you will have no worries in terms of finishing on time. 3. Learn the rubric : If you have never looked at an AP World History grading rubric before you enter the test, you are going in definition, blind. You must know the rubric like the back of Essay about Reflection Community Health Experience, your hand so that you can ensure you tackle all the points the grader is looking for. Here are the 2014 Scoring Guidelines . 4. Read the historical background : You know that little blurb at the beginning of the document?

The test takers dont put it there for no reason. The historical background is like a freebieit can tell you the psychology time period of the document and about The Inclusive, shed a little insight into the POV of the source. Read it! 5. Psychology? Familiarize yourself with analyses of art : This one is optional, but a great way to really get used to hugo munsterberg, analyzing art is to visit an art museum and to listen to the way that art is described. Often times there will be interpretations of the artists intent and perspective. AP World History Multiple Choice Review Tips. 1. Psychology? Identify key patterns : You know that saying, history repeats itself? Theres a reason why people say that, and munsterberg, that is definition because there are fundamental patterns in history that can be understood and identified. This is especially true with AP World History.

If you can learn the frequent patterns of history in relation to about on the Community Practicum, the six time periods tested, youll be able to guess in a smart manner when you have absolutely no idea about something. 2. Use common sense : The beauty of AP World History is when you understand the core concept being tested and psychology, the patterns in history; you can deduce the answer of the question. Identify what exactly is being asked and then go through the process of elimination to Essay about Community Health Practicum, figure out the burnout correct answer. Now, this does not mean do not study at all. This means, rather than study 500 random facts about world history, really focus in on of desiree's, understanding the definition psychology way history interacts with different parts of the world. Think about about Practicum Experience how minorities have changed over the course of history, their roles in society, etc. You want to look at things at definition the big picture so that you can have a strong grasp of Essay Assignment, each time period tested.

3. Familiarize with AP-style questions: If AP World History is the first AP test youve ever taken, or even if it isnt, you need to get used to the way the CollegeBoard introduces and asks you questions. Find a review source to practice AP World History questions. Albert.io has hundreds of AP World History practice questions and detailed explanations to work through. 4. Make note of pain points: As you practice, youll quickly realize what you know really well, and what you know not so well. Figure out what you do not know so well and re-read that chapter of your textbook. Then, create flashcards of the burnout definition psychology key concepts of that chapter along with key events from of Offensive Language in Broadcast Media Should that time period. 5. Supplement practice with video lectures: A fast way to learn is to do practice problems, identify where you are struggling, learn that concept more intently, and then to burnout definition psychology, practice again. Crash Course has created an incredibly insightful series of World History videos you can watch on YouTube here. Afterwards, go back and practice again.

Practice makes perfect, especially when it comes to AP World History. 6. Strike out wrong answer choices : The second you can eliminate an answer choice, strike out the letter of that answer choice and circle the word or phrase behind why that answer choice is incorrect. This way, when you review your answers at the very end, you can quickly check through all of your answers. One of the hardest things is managing time when youre doing your second run-through to check your answersthis method alleviates that problem by reducing the amount of time it takes for you to remember why you thought a certain answer choice was wrong. 7. Answer every question : If youre crunched on time and still have several AP World History multiple-choice questions to answer, the munsterberg best thing to definition psychology, do is to make sure that you answer each and every one of Censorship in Broadcast Media on Age, them. There is no guessing penalty for doing so, so take full advantage of this! Tips Submitted by AP World History Teachers. 1. Use high polymer erasers: When answering the burnout multiple choice scantron portion of the AP World History test, use a high polymer eraser. It is the only eraser that will fully erase on Today, Sharing is Caring Essay, a scantron. Thanks for the tip from Ms.

J. at Boulder High School. 2. Outline, outline, outline: Take a few minutes to outline your essay based on themes, similarities, bias, etc. Its the easiest way to burnout psychology, craft a fluid essay. Thanks for the tip from Mr. M at Chapel Hill High School. 3. Stay ahead of Essay Reflection Experience, your reading and when in doubt, read again: You are responsible for burnout a huge amount of information when it comes to tackling AP World History, so make sure you are responsible for some of it. Essay About The Inclusive? You cant leave all the definition work up to your instructor.

Its a team effort. Essay About? Thanks for the tip from Mr. E at Tri-Central High. 4. Integrate video learning : A great way to really solidify your understanding of burnout definition, a concept is to watch supplementary videos on the topic. Then, read the topic again to truly master it. Thanks for the tip from hugo Mr. D at Royal High School. 5. Definition Psychology? Keep a study log : Study for theme of desiree's baby three hours for every hour of definition psychology, class you have and Essay about Participant Retention, keep a study log so that you can see what you accomplished every day as you sit down to study. Thanks for definition psychology the tip from Mr. R. at Stephen F. Austin High. 6. Practice with transparencies: Use transparencies or a white board to Today, Sharing is Caring Essay, create overlay maps for each of the six periods of AP World History at the start of each period so that you can see a visual of the burnout definition regions of the world being focused on.

Thanks for the tip from Ms. About Reflection Community Health Practicum Experience? W at Riverbend High. 7. Read every word : Often times in AP World History many questions can be answered without specific historical knowledge. Many questions require critical thinking and attention to detail; the difference between a correct answer and an incorrect answer lies in burnout definition, just one or two words in the question or the answer. Thanks for the tip from Mr.

R. at Mandarin High. 8. Cover the entire time frame: When addressing the DBQ on continuity, make sure to cover the entire time frame unless you specifically write in your thesis about a different time period. Thanks for the tip from Mr. H at Great Oak High. 9. Summarize then answer : Ms. B recommends at Desert Edge High recommends to World Sharing is Caring, summarize what you know about each answer choice and then to see if it applies to the question when answering the multiple choice questions.

10. Master writing a good thesis : In order to write a good thesis, you want to definition, make sure it properly addresses the whole question or prompt, effectively takes a position on theme, the main topic, includes relevant historical context, and organize key standpoints. Burnout Psychology? Thanks for the tip from Mr. Censorship Of Offensive Should? G at Loganville High. 11.

Tackle DBQs with SAD and BAD : With the DBQ, think about the S ummary, A uthor, and D ate Context. Also consider the B ias and A dditional D ocuments to burnout definition, verify the bias. Thanks for the tip from Mr. G at WHS. 12. Create a refined thesis in your conclusion: 35 with 40 minutes to write each of your essays, starting with a strong thesis can be difficult, especially since students can find it challenging in what they are about to write. By the time you finish your essay, you have a much more clear idea of how to answer the theme of desiree's baby question. Take a minute and revisit the definition prompt and try to provide a much more explicit and comprehensive thesis than the one you provided in the beginning as your conclusion. This thesis statement is much more likely to give you the point for thesis than the rushed thesis in the beginning.

Thanks for munsterberg the tip from Mr. R at Mission Hills High. 13. Burnout Definition Psychology? Annotate: Textbook reading is Essay about essential for success in AP World History, but learn to burnout psychology, annotate smarter, not harder. Essay About Learning Assignment? Be efficient in your reading and psychology, note taking. Read, reduce, and reflect. To read use sticky notes. Using post-its is about Reflection Health Practicum Experience a lifesaver use different color stickies for different tasks (pink summary, blue questions, green reflection, etc.) Reduce go back and psychology, look at your sticky notes and see what you can reduce decide what is truly essential material to know or question. Then reflect why are the remaining sticky notes important?

How will they help you not just understand content, but also understand contextualization or causality or change over time? What does this information show you? Thanks for theme of desiree's the tip from definition Ms. J at Legacy High. 14. Relate back to the themes: Understanding 10,000 years of world history is hard. Knowing all the facts is darn near impossible. If you can use your facts/material and explain it within the Censorship of Offensive Language in Broadcast Media Should be Based on Age context of one of the APWH themes, it makes it easier to process, understand, and apply.

The themes are your friends. Thanks for burnout the tip from Ms. J at Essay about Community Health Experience Legacy High. 15. Form a study group: Everyone has different talents and definition psychology, areas of strength. You dont, and about Participant Retention, shouldnt, try to tackle this class all by yourself. Form a study group and learn from each other, help everybody become better by sharing your talents and skills.

This is also a place where you can vent your frustrations and feel a sense of unity and belonging. We are truly all in this together. Thanks for the tip from Ms. J at Legacy High. 16. Definition? Look for the missing voice in DBQs: First, look for the missing voice. Essay About Reflection On The Community Health? Who havent you heard from in psychology, the DBQ? Whos voice would really help you answer the question more completely? Next, if there isnt really a missing voice, what evidence do you have access to, that you would like to clarify?

For example, if you have a document that says excessive taxation led to the fall of the about Learning Assignment Roman Empire, what other piece of information would you like to have access to that would help you prove or disprove this statement? Maybe a chart that shows tax amounts from prior to the 3rd Century Crisis to the mid of the 3rd century crisis? Thanks for the tip from Ms. J at Legacy High. 17. Go with your gut: When choosing an answer, it can be tempting to feel anxious and to potentially start second guessing yourself. Dont.

Tests are designed to make test takers get stuck between two or three answer choices (leading to anxiety and eating away time for completing the test). Limit the psychology amount you second guess yourself. If you studied properly, there is about Experience a reason why your mind wanted you to pick that original answer before any of the other choices. Thanks for the tip from burnout definition Mrs. S at Carnahan High School of the Future. 18. Dont forget to B.S. in your DBQ : B.S. on everything! (Be Specific).

19. Remember your PIE: Writing a thesis is as easy as PIE: Period, Issue, Examples. 20. Look at every answer option : Dont go for the first correct answer; find the about Retention most bulletproof answer. Definition? The one youd best be able to defend in a debate.

Are you a teacher or student? Do you have an Language in Broadcast be Based on Age, awesome tip? Let us know! Hopefully youve learned a lot from reading all 50+ of definition, these AP World History tips. Doing well in AP World History comes down to recognizing patterns and trends in history, and familiarizing yourself with the nature of the test. Once you get comfortable with the way questions are presented, youll realize that you can actually rely on quite a bit of common sense to answer the DBQs as well as the multiple choice questions. Students often think the key to AP history tests is Censorship of Offensive Media memorizing every single fact of history, and the truth is you may be able to do that and get a 5, but the smart way of burnout definition psychology, doing well on the test comes from understanding the reason why we study history in the first place. By learning the underlying patterns that are tested on the exam, for example how opinions towards women may have influenced the social or political landscape of the world during a certain time period, you can create more compelling theses and demonstrate to theme, AP readers a clear understanding of the definition bigger picture. In case youre the Essay Participant Retention type of student that needs a more structured study plan, we created a one-month AP World History Study Guide here.

Find the patterns, master crafting the essays, and practice hard, and youll do well come May. Good luck! Start your AP World History Prep today. Looking for AP World History practice? Educators, are you looking to improve student outcomes? Rigorous, standards-aligned interactive learning for all AP courses. College Entrance. Up-to-date learning supplements for SAT and ACT. Differentiated Foundations. Math, literacy, and writing supplements for definition psychology school-wide implementations. NGSS Engage.

An innovative CCSS-aligned supplement to accelerate NGSS adoption. When writing the DBQ, do not waste time quoting the documents; paraphrase and show the grader you understand what its saying. Excellent tip, Rebecca! Good tips for theme AP world history. Glad you enjoyed! Thanks to AP World History Teachers for these great tips.. keep it up. Yes, theyre great!

An additional tip is to bring your own watch to the exam so that you can easily keep track of time. Thanks for the addition! My teacher submitted the first tip from teachers on high polymer erasers, and burnout psychology, she is right. I only ever use these eraser for erasing anything in school and hugo, they work much better and last much longer than the stubby pink things on the end of pencils that people like to call erasers. Thanks for sharing! An extra tip is to convey your own particular watch to the exam so you can without much of a stretch monitor time. *AP and Advanced Placement are registered trademarks of the College Board, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. SAT is a registered trademark of the College Board, which was not involved in definition, the production of, and about on the Community Practicum, does not endorse this product.

ACT is burnout definition psychology a registered trademark of ACT, Inc., which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GMAT is a registered trademark of the Graduate Management Admission Council, which was not involved in the production of, and does not endorse, this product. GRE is a registered trademark of munsterberg, Educational Testing Services (ETS), which was not involved in the production of, and psychology, does not endorse, this product.

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havent updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and burnout definition psychology accomplishments should you include for the jobs youve got your eye on? What new resume rules and Censorship of Offensive in Broadcast Media on Age trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on definition psychology, for tips and tricks thatll make sure you craft a winning resumeand help you land a job. Your resume should not have every work experience youve ever had listed on it.

Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of munsterberg your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the perfect person for the job. For each resume you send out, youll want to definition, highlight only the theme of desiree's baby, accomplishments and burnout psychology skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you dont include all of your experience). Essay Participant Retention. Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of All Jobs. Definition Psychology. Since youll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on Essay Retention, the job youre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youre crafting each resume, its just a matter of burnout cutting and pasting relevant information together. Think of Today, Sharing Essay this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff Above the Fold In marketing speak, above the fold refers to definition psychology, what you see on the front half of Essay Retention a folded newspaper (or, in the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically its your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and burnout definition psychology accomplishments are visible on the top third of your resume. This top section is what the hiring manager is going to see firstand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. Hugo. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstand then check out these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to definition psychology, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is when youre making a huge career change and need to explain from the get-go why your experience doesnt match up with the position youre applying to.

In every other case? Consider whether a summary statement would be right for Language Media Should be Based, you or just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. Definition Psychology. There are lots of different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the in Broadcast Media Should be Based on Age, good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is listed first) is still your best bet. Unless its absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumehiring managers might wonder what youre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is psychology, thisyou want the information here to Censorship of Offensive Language Media, be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is a good way to force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on definition psychology, more than one page of your resume, then go for it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do. If youre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to baby, fit more in burnout definition psychology less space. Cant figure out of desiree's baby how to tell your whole story on one page, or want to be able to definition, include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the hugo munsterberg, most important details on that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the burnout psychology, ideal candidate.

Well talk about getting creative in Language Media be Based on Age order to stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic. Make your resume easy on hiring managers eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on burnout, the page. You can use a different font or typeface for about The Inclusive Assignment, your name, your resume headers, and the companies for which youve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. Your main focus here should be on readability for burnout definition psychology, the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free to Really want your resume stand out from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumeslike infographics, videos, or presentationsor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully.

If youre applying through an ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Language Should Be Based. If youre applying to a more traditional company, dont get too crazy, but feel free to add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop. No matter what, dont do it unless youre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You dont need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on definition, the web, like your LinkedIn profile and Twitter handle. (Implicit in theme this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for definition, prospective employers.) Youve heard before that hiring managers dont spend a lot of about Assignment time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in psychology as little time as possible.

These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. In Broadcast On Age. Know that design skills arent your strong suit but want your resume to burnout definition, look stunning? Theres no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the most important document of your job search, so its worth getting it exactly right! 13. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant.

As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of your career history and Censorship Language Should be Based only include the psychology, experience relevant to the positions to which you are applying. The Inclusive Learning Assignment. And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to importance. If theres a choice between including one more college internship or going into burnout, more detail about of Offensive Media Should be Based your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youre applying to). 14. Burnout Psychology. No Relevant Experience? No Worries! Dont panic if you dont have any experience that fits the bill.

Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on your relevant and Essay about Participant transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of why youre ideal for the job. Burnout Psychology. No matter how long youve been in a job, or how much youve accomplished there, you shouldnt have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnt going to get through them. Check out these tips for writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to throw in tons of industry jargon so you sound like you know what youre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the of desiree's, first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you dont actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . Psychology. People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnt just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and add in Language in Broadcast Media Should what the benefit was to burnout psychology, your boss or your company.

By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youre capable of, but also the about Retention, direct benefit the definition, employer will receive by theme of desiree's, hiring you. If youre not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Psychology. Describing soft skills on a resume often starts to World Today,, sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. But being a strong leader or an psychology effective communicator are important characteristics you want to get across. Think about Essay Learning how you can demonstrate these attributes in definition psychology your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointtry it yourself until you get the Censorship of Offensive Media Should on Age, result youre going for!

20. Dont Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Theres no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged? Absolutely list these things as their own jobs within your career chronology.

If every bullet in burnout definition psychology your resume starts with Responsible for, readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to Learning Assignment, mix it up ! Use keywords in your resume: Scan the psychology, job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youre targeting your resume to the job, itll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Theme Baby. Stuck on which words to burnout, include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the most used keywords.

What words shouldnt you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and Essay on the Community hard workeramong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet theres a better way to describe how awesome you are. Psychology. 24. Munsterberg. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of psychology jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to college.

25. Sharing. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological. Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. Burnout Psychology. But if older coursework is In or World Today, Essay, more specific to the job, list that first to burnout definition psychology, grab the World is Caring Essay, reviewers attention. Burnout. Dont list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it. While you dont need to list your GPA, dont be afraid to showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in munsterberg the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education.

Dont be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , Online courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and motivation to get the skills you need for your career. Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for definition psychology, a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Essay About The Inclusive Assignment. Just make sure to skip including skills that everyone is expected to psychology, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Hugo. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy.

If you have lots of skills related to a positionsay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillstry breaking out one of those sections and definition listing it on its own. Below your Skills section, add another section titled Language Skills or Software Skills, and detail your experience there. Againwere going for skimmability here, folks! Feel free to include an Interests section on your resume, but only add those that are relevant to hugo, the job. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at a healthcare company?

Dont even think about it. 32. Definition. Beware of Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for baby, your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the cause. Zhang explains here how to weigh the decision of burnout definition psychology whether to include them or not. Do include awards and Essay about The Inclusive Assignment accolades youve received, even if theyre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., Earned Gold Award for having the companys top sales record four quarters in a row. What about personal achievementslike running a marathonthat arent totally relevant but show youre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to include them.

Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at burnout definition, a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of Essay about months, consider eliminating it from your resume. According to burnout definition psychology, The New York Times career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnt hurt, as long as youre honest about your experience if asked in Essay on the Community Practicum an interview. If you have gaps of a few months in your work history, dont list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. Burnout Definition. If youve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like company closed, layoff due to downsizing, or relocated to new city. By addressing the gaps, youll proactively illustrate the reason for about Participant, your sporadic job movement and make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the burnout definition psychology, perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments. Then, get into Essay, your career chronology, without hesitating to definition, include part-time or volunteer work.

See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Retention. Dont try to creatively fill in gaps on your resume. For example, if you took time out of the workforce to raise kids, dont list your parenting experience on your resume, a la adeptly managed the definition, growing pile of laundry (weve seen it). Hugo. While parenting is as demanding and intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arent going to take this section of definition psychology your resume seriously. 39.

Ditch References Available Upon Request If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesand will assume that you have them. Theres no need to Essay about Participant Retention, address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And dont rely on spell check and grammar check aloneask family or friends to take a look at it for you (or get some tips from an burnout psychology editor on how to perfect your own work ). In Or Sharing. If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wont accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer. Burnout Definition Psychology. To make sure it wont look wonky when you send it off, Googles head of HR Laszlo Bock suggests, Look at it in both Google Docs and Word, and The Inclusive Learning Assignment then attach it to an email and burnout definition psychology open it as a preview. Ready to save your resume and send it off?

Save it as Jane Smith Resume instead of Resume. Its one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to of desiree's baby, pull up your resume and make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youre ready to burnout psychology, pounce when opportunity presents itself.

And, even if youre not job searching, there are plenty of Essay about Participant Retention good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is burnout, a freelance writer, editor, and content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Muses beloved daily publication and led the companys branded content team. If youre an individual or company looking for Censorship Language in Broadcast Media Should, help making your content betteror you just want to burnout definition, go out to teaget in touch at eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for Reflection on the, this class.

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The Steelpan and its diasporic travels. DTS 403 final paper Shaun Poon 996792350. Final Paper: Steelpan and its diasporic travels. Original Steelpan Group. Rising Stars Steelband.

Trinidad and Tobago Stamp. -National Identity: Currency- Trinidad and Tobago $20. Objects surround us; they create environments, create memories, and without a doubt can create an individual. An object can be so many things at once and psychology provide a world of interpretations to the people who interact with it while telling a story that can transcend populations and unify people throughout various nations.

This is what truly makes an object diasporic, its ability to carry meaning across various national boundaries and connect people from different places and hugo munsterberg spaces thorough different times while sharing a common perception. When we look at the work of Arjun Appadurai, and his interpretations in Commodities and culture of psychology, value he takes a focus on the cultural value that an object is infused with and the social life that is carried out as a result of this (Appadurai, 5). About. To place a diasporic context on psychology, this frame of thought, I intend to explore the history of the Steel pan, or Steel drum, a national identity to about Learning the country of Trinidad and Tobago, while focusing on psychology, the way that this object has truly become transnational. Essay About The Inclusive Learning. This instrument did not only forge a national identity but is definition responsible for the unifying of people of about Retention, various ethnicities and social statuses within the country, which speaks volumes of the story that can be associated with this revolutionary instrument in the history of Trinidad and Tobago. As this object has evolved throughout time, adding only value to itself the steel pan has changed hands and crossed borders never once thought, making it representative of a group of people but also providing a series of connections for burnout, future generations of the Essay The Inclusive Assignment, Caribbean Diaspora across the world. But how can an object create a national identity? This is the question that I will explore further in my research as I outline the historic relevance of this object as a representation of a nation and as a people through a diasporic analysis. The Steel pan, originated in the country of Trinidad and Tobago, created out of burnout, necessity one could say, and on the Community Health its purpose was to fill the ears of the people with melodic and harmonious sounds during the time of Carnival. As an annual tradition, Carnival creates unity amongst the definition psychology, people of Trinidad for two days before the period of Lent. This street festival allows thousands of people to flood the streets dancing and playing music while parading in various costumes of amazing colours and styles.

Prior to the steel pan, Carnival music was performed in munsterberg, the streets with an instrument made from bamboo, known as the Tamboo Bamboo, a hollowed out bamboo post that was tweaked to create a variety of definition, sounds and was used in unison amongst the people in Trinidad during the festivities to create music (Aho 35). This instrument was one of the lower class, and munsterberg not one that the government had favoured too much, as a result there was a ban on stick bands due to psychology the violence between stick bands getting into street fights during the parade time causing much harm (Seeger, 52). However, the Essay The Inclusive Learning Assignment, history behind this action by the government affected stick bands and psychology drum players alike due to the religious connections that drum players typically had, and the fact that the ideals were against the official church and the government discouraged this (Seeger, 52). This action by the government did not discourage the people as they raided the scrap yards looking for alternative sounds ending up with garbage lids, brake drums and scrap metal to fulfill their musical needs. Upon discovery they realized the high-pitched noises that garbage cans made when hit on a dented portion and used this as the basis for Essay Retention, what became the steel pan (Seeger, 53). After years of tweaking, reverting to burnout definition psychology oil drums (due to their strength), and adding new dents to incorporate various pitches, steel pans started to take the form they are currently known for. The development of the about The Inclusive, steel pan in the 1930s was centered in the poorer districts of Trinidad by individuals who had very little to no education at all, and were predominantly Afro-Trinidadians.

The people in these areas did not have much opportunity for recognition, areas of achievement or success in employment and education, as a result they channeled their energy into whatever was presented to burnout them, in this case it was music and resistance against the ruling colonial class (Aho, 32). What creators of the steel pan and the steel pan itself represented was distinctive culture and creation of something of their own, an object to express themselves (Aho, 32). The steel pan was able to give a status to those who were seen as lower on hugo, the social scale and provided opportunities for burnout psychology, those who had no opportunity to begin with, it was seen as an object of meaning. This one particular object provided an attachment of the lower class to something tangible, it gave them something to about Participant call their own and as a result unified those who were involved in the process of creation and playing. A quote from William R. Aho places the steelpan in perspective To them the steelband is definition not merely another local institution: it is a way of life (Aho, 37). As popularity of the steelpan grew, the object took on a larger following and started to gain support of people from the middle and upper class, including commercial sponsorship which started to change the governments view of the instrument and the people as a whole (Aho, 43).

However, this is where a change in theme of desiree's, role players begins to take place for this object, the commercialization of the steelpan allowed for further intervention by the upper classes, the same people who had been against definition psychology, the movement from the onset due to its creation by the lower class. With that said, the social interactions of the object begins to change form, originally as the Essay about Reflection on the Community Practicum Experience, only way to provide a sense of belonging for those who were considered less fortunate, the burnout definition psychology, steelpan begins to become more commodified as it picks up acceptance by the upper classes. With this steady rise and acceptance of the steelpan by Essay about Participant Retention, the greater population, coupled with the amount of outside interest, the steelpan began to gather international attention that can be traced to the Trinidadian and Caribbean Diaspora as well. Burnout Definition. Furthermore, to about Participant help harvest the legitimacy of the steelpan as an identity and definition psychology symbol of Trinidad and Tobago, with the corporatization and hugo munsterberg constant popularity, the steelpan/steelband classes began to get offered at schools, and also began to incorporate women from the 1970s onwards (Stuempfle 2). Burnout. With these types of adjustments made at the level of the state, the incorporation of the instrument into the national identity began to take form, and by the time Trinidad had gained independence from Britain, the Steelpan was already a national symbol (Stuempfle 3).

What is interesting about the transition from low class symbol of belonging to national symbol of belonging lies in the class difference of the people. There are many factors that are responsible for the national praise that the steelpan had eventually received in Essay Participant Retention, the latter part of the 1900s, a large part would be the government and its realization that the middle classes were getting involved and saw a need for some sort of national identity because all nations need a national identity and in definition, the post-colonial situation a national identity becomes even more important because it reinforces the Essay Participant, culture, values and political standing of the nation (DeLamater 66). From this point onwards and the governments recognition of the psychology, steelpan as a national symbol, steelpans became the center of mainstream Trinidadian culture (DeLamater 66). Although the use of the pan has remained the same throughout, it is the recognition that has changed over time, and the meaning of the instrument to the people at large. What must be noted is that this instrument was one that was representative of the people, meaning the working class, and didnt really change hands as it technically joined hands with the middle and Essay upper class. However an important aspect that is crucial in burnout, the context of this object is hugo munsterberg how it gained national symbolism only after its integration into the middle class and use by the light skinned or white boys of Trinidad who bridged the social gap of the burnout definition psychology, instrument bringing attention to the government and mainstream Trinidadian society (DeLamater 67). The steelpan movement is one that has transcended into a great legacy for Essay about Retention, Trinidad and Tobago, ultimately forging its national identity along the lines of its independence and was an psychology integral part in creating a more cohesive nation during its time of independence and its future. The Inclusive Learning. This helped bring it to the international forefront as bands were featured in the Montreal World Expo as early as 1967, which allowed for the steel pan to be displayed throughout North America (DeLamater 37). Finally, although the steelpan was considered a national symbol since Trinidads independence, its true certification came in 1992 when it was named the official musical instrument of burnout psychology, Trinidad and placed on the twenty-dollar bill (DeLamater 1).

It is Essay about Reflection on the Community now an instrument with many followings throughout the world, with large bands throughout North America, Europe and Asia, as it follows the transnational people of the Caribbean Diaspora. Object Social/Cultural Context. The steel pan is an instrument which has a very significant cultural following that is always expanding, this instrument was created out of a cultural festival based in definition psychology, Trinidad and Tobago (Carnival) and has followed not only the Trinidadian Diaspora, but the Caribbean Diaspora as well. As previously mentioned, the steelpan is responsible for forging a national identity in the country of Trinidad and Tobago, and with this identity it has truly become a transnational instrument. Of most instruments currently in existence, the steelpan is one of the youngest as it was created in the mid 1900s. It serves a primary purpose as a musical instrument, however not all see it like this, the context of this instrument has changed over hugo munsterberg time, once being a way for the underclass to find sense of belonging in a place where they were unable to, and now it is an definition psychology instrument that has strong Caribbean ties throughout the Essay on the Health Practicum Experience, world.

The journey for burnout definition, the steelpan has not been a long one, but it is indeed one that is significant to the transnationalism of the Caribbean. Originally, the steel pan was created as a single instrument, however as the instrument gained popularity it has only been modified to keep it modern throughout the theme of desiree's baby, evolution process. The original steelpan, otherwise known as the ping pong or tenor pan has been joined by definition, a series of other designs of various pitches, tones and sizes. This has created what is known as a steel band, so not only did this instrument produce a means of expressing ones musical talents but is responsible for forging bands and groups of people for a central purpose, performing music. Appadurai states commodities are things with a particular type of social potential, that they are distinguishable from products, objects, goods and other sorts of things but only in certain respects and from a certain point of view (Appadurai 6). From the initial creation, the World is Caring, steelpan had a purely social benefit for the people, created out of scrap metals from a scrap yard; the burnout psychology, value of this object had more social significance than monetary. It was not created for munsterberg, economic exchange yet still held a state of value that was present from the tedious process of creation. The steelpan for burnout definition, the people of World Sharing is Caring, Trinidad did more than create a sound, it was a lifestyle, and an object that created a sense of belonging out of materials that had no other significance than holding oil. The social benefit far outweighed any sort of exchange at that present time, it allowed for a connection to be formed with an object that eventually formed an identity. William Aho writes, In the psychology, case of steel band music, they were using their own distinctive culture, instruments and music of their own creation, to express themselves and to define an acceptable and comfortable social location for themselves in their own eyes, in the eyes of their peers, and in the eyes of the communities in which their bands were based. (Aho, 32). There was no monetary gain, only the pleasure of being a part of something that was of their own creation, at munsterberg this time this created a sense of cohesion for burnout definition psychology, those who were apart of the movement as George Yeates (leader of the Desperadoes steel band) expresses: The steel band was the only pursuit at the time a young man could have involved himself in and sort of gave a status to a village youth so that when you come from Desperadoes or the about Retention, Laventille Hill and you go to definition psychology another district if your band is a powerful band, you will be respected (Aho, 32).

The steelpan was seen not as a commodity but as an identity for those who became a part of it, the social context of this instrument was everything for them. Steelpans represented freedom of expression for people who were marginalized and ended up becoming a way of life expanding the horizons for musicians throughout the country. It was even publicized that the steelpan was crucial in the development of National Life as outlined by a committee report that stated that the about on the Community Practicum, steelpan not only brought a form of knowledge to the people about music, but also was responsible for burnout psychology, instituting a form of community amongst them. While also contributing to hugo discipline, band organization, and psychology practice to help individuals who never had the munsterberg, chance to acquire these skills adjust to definition a progressive role in society (Aho, 35). Initially, the steelpan was not seen as an object of national identity and created a cultural conflict between the lower classes and the middle/upper classes due to its following, what the middle class saw as less desirables. However, with the acceptance by the middle class and the commodfication of the Community Experience, instrument, the cultural context changed. No longer was the steelpan an instrument that represented the struggles of the lower classes as it became corporatized. Regardless, it is the acceptance of the instrument by the middle and upper classes that were responsible for burnout psychology, forging the national identity because in the end they were the decision makers, the politicians and the educated.

Along with that, the use of the about, object goes from one that was presented during the carnival time, to one that became a commonly utilized instrument as it starts to get used for playing weddings, concerts and various festivals showcasing the talents of these musicians. The common practice of this instrument can be linked to burnout psychology a musical revolution in Trinidad as the genre of Calypso music helped to bring the steelpan into the light of those abroad. With the commodification of the steelpan, the object truly starts to take on a transnational aspect as it becomes fine tuned and produced to cater to so many different classes of Essay about The Inclusive Learning, people, many of whom are responsible for the exportation of the steelpan to North America and the rest of the world. The transnationalism of the pan. As the steelpan began to take on more of a commodity based approach to the people of Trinidad, and burnout psychology as people from across the world started visiting Trinidad for Carnival, known as a true tourist attraction for the island, this, along with the about Participant Retention, increasing demand for pan music helped to assist in the transnationalism of the pan. Economic exchange creates value, says Arjun Appadurai (p3), and as the people of the psychology, steelpan joined with the corporatization of the middle class, this is Censorship Language in Broadcast Should on Age exactly what happened. The corporatization of the steelpan not only assisted in its transnationalism as an object but also helped to resolve a lot of class differences relating to the pan including the violence that was known for happening amongst bands (DeLamater 61).

Furthermore, to represent the transnationalism of the steelpan the types of sponsorship received can accompany it, and during its time of burnout definition psychology, rapid evolution from the 60s onwards, steelbands started to obtain large-scale sponsorship from international organizations such as Coca Cola, Guinness, and Shell oil company, to name a few (DeLamater 61). These are corporations that have international recognition along with a global following that assisted in the legitimacy of the Censorship in Broadcast, pan on burnout definition, a global scale. However, during the latter part of the 90s there was a huge migration of people from the Caribbean to all parts of the world seeking a better future, many throughout North America and Europe. For this reason the transnationalism and about Community Practicum recognition of the pan is burnout more evident. The steelpan is transnational both in repertoire and in its performance by musicians from a variety of countries around the world; Trinidadian pannists are dedicated to the promotion of the steelpan as a transnational art (Stuempfle 17).

Panorama, the annual national steelband competition can be tied to the transnationalism of the steelpan as well, representing the hugo, Trinidadian identity, while also showcasing Trinidad as a cosmopolitan nation as a people who participate in transnational arts (Stuempfle, 211). Although it is native to Trinidad, the steelpan has gained international attention since the 1950s with the definition, widespread of migrants to North America, and Essay about England. A form of belonging and nostalgia can be represented in burnout definition psychology, the consistent spread of the steelpan, as pannists themselves have influenced foreign nations in being educated by the pan. Essay About The Inclusive Learning Assignment. Along with this growing formation and acceptance of the pan, there has been a number of steelbands connected with colleges and high schools as well, in South America, Europe, Africa and Asia for example and also programs designed in definition, teachings of the steelpan such as here in Toronto at York University (Stuempfle 14). Not only is the Essay about Reflection Community Health, context of the steelpan one of national identity for burnout definition psychology, those in Trinidad, but also the instrument has provided a sense of caribbeanization to places that never had strong Caribbean ties, most notably New York City, now home to the largest Caribbean Diaspora in the world (Allen Wilcken, 1). Ray Allen argues that in places that house diasporic groups, like New York, objects such as the steel pan for the Trinidadian and Caribbean Diaspora present a sense of Essay Participant Retention, national pride for them (Allen 128). Burnout Definition Psychology. The formation of various steelpan programs harvests this pride, discipline and competitiveness for the transient populations as well, while setting up opportunities for World Sharing is Caring, their future generations (Allen Wilcken, 129-30). The Steelpan as a diasporic object is one that most definitely characteristic of the term diasporic, however it is not solely the Diaspora of the object alone as it is for the nation of Trinidad. The ability for the steelpan to be recognized globally and create its own following of bands, competitions and musicians has allowed for people all around the world to be exposed to its beautiful sound. Burnout Definition. With this recognition, it is only fitting that an object of such relevance to the national identity of a country be considered a national symbol.

What this object successfully does is represents different spheres of a nation, originated by the lower incomes and classes, the steelpan found its way to acceptance by In or World Sharing is Caring, the middle and upper classes which ultimately started to form its diasporic origin. Throughout time, the burnout definition, historical significance for this object has grown for some and diminished for others. Its principle purpose has remained the same in its short history but in its most recent years it has gained the most of its international prominence as a truly diasporic object along with its diasporic culture. The largest following of the steelpan can be traced to North America where I came across a classic steel pan documentary made in 1956 titled Music from is Caring Essay Oil Drums by Toshi and Peter Seeger. This piece put many diasporic claims of the steelpan into thought as it was filmed by Americans admiring the cultural tradition of the steelpan and their interest in bringing in back to the US to share it with their people. I have attached the file in my bibliography because it is representative of how this object has transcended throughout time as this was filmed shortly after creation, it is a testament to definition how the steelpan has changed over times as it focuses on the instrument from its original conception. Conclusion of National identity.

Steelpans have served as a means to The Inclusive Learning express ones oppression, as a means to express ones perseverance, their musical talents, and finally as a way to express a national identity. This object has moved from the predominant lower class to the association with the definition, middle classes and resulted in transformations throughout time and space. For an object to instill a sense of pride and recognition for an entire nation is something that is not that is easily achievable, however for it to Sharing is Caring Essay garner international attention and followings is something that is truly remarkable. In such a short lifespan, the steelpan has been able to find a representation amongst millions allowing it to become accepted across borders of the world. I set out to identify how an object could produce a national identity and for definition psychology, that question there are many answers. Essay About Participant. In Trinidad specifically, the steelpan was able to forge a national identity because it was relative to definition psychology the people of the country, although not initially, the steelpan began to find its place amongst the people, integrating various classes and races. The meaning of the steelpan in a diasporic sense has lost some claim as it was initially an instrument created by the working class and The Inclusive Learning was representative of their fight against oppression and yearning for a sense of belonging. Currently the steelpan is seen as an instrument dedicated to burnout definition the Caribbean and musical development. It is World Today, Sharing hard to believe it, but the psychology, object had very minimal support in about Assignment, the early years and while gaining support, as it was refined it eventually was able to create a much larger following. There are many key players that are involved in forging a national identity, most notably for the steelpan were the government and the middle class, but the internationalization of corporations throughout the world and their recognition of the steelpan can be attributed to this as well. The steelpan is an object that can easily represent the definition psychology, struggle of a people, the forging/independence of a nation and the transnationalism of a culture on a global scale based on its history.

It is an object that is Participant Retention representative of the definition psychology, hardships that were faced in the past and on the Community eventually brought together the masses. As a result, the making of this instrument as a national identity is necessary for a nation that was identity-less before and definition after its colonization and represents not only a change but also a sense of belonging. For the Essay about The Inclusive Learning Assignment, diasporic groups of Trinidad and the Caribbean throughout the world, the steelpan is a testament to a sense of pride and belonging for those who find themselves attached to burnout definition it, and In or Sharing Essay even those who have never touched it. Originally as a way to express the voice of the powerless, the steelpan presented more opportunities than ever imagined. The steelband movement became a coming together of psychology, high and low, local and foreign, presentation and participation, creating a space for about Reflection on the Community Practicum Experience, national dialogue (Dudley, 274). With this in mind it is phenomenal to see the connections that the steelpan can create across boundaries, because practically everybody can create a form of attachment to music. The livelihood of the burnout, steelpan is responsible for so many things, but amongst them all is the sense of belonging for those who come from Trinidad, as it has become a symbol of who they are. Furthermore, as a third generation Trinidadian and a first generation Canadian-Trinidadian, the connection to this instrument has presented me with a sense of belonging because this object represents not only the nation of my family, but also a relation to the nation through my family. With that said, the steelpan has been able to cross so many transnational barriers in such as short time, and its historical and social context is one that continues to grow with the times and presents a world of opportunity, and also the ability to garnish a sense of belonging for future generations. About The Inclusive Assignment. This is what undoubtedly makes an object a national identity, its ability to be a timeless entity while preserving its context.

Steelband Music in Trinidad and Tobago: The Creation of a Peoples Music. Latin American Music Review 8.1 (1987): 26-58. Allen, Ray, and Lois Wilcken. Island Sounds in the Global City: Caribbean Popular Music and Identity in New York . New York: New York Folklore Society, 1998. Print. (1986) Introduction : Commodities and the Politics of Value. In A. Appadurai (ed) The Social Life of Things: Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Burnout Definition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Of Desiree's Baby. Pp. 3-63. (2007) Music from Behind the Bridge : Steelband Aesthetics and burnout definition Politics in Trinidad and Tobago . In Or World Today,. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

White Collegeboys Steebands in 1950s Trinidad. Arizona State University Paper : 1-84. (1986) The Cultural Biography of Things- commoditization as process. In A. Appadurai (ed) The Social Life of Things- Commodities in Cultural Perspective. Burnout Definition Psychology. Cambridge- Cambridge University Press. Censorship In Broadcast On Age. Pp. Burnout Psychology. 64-91. The Steelband Movement / the Forging of a National Art in Participant Retention, Trinidad and burnout Tobago . Philadelphia: University of about Learning, Pennsylvania, 1995.

The Steel Drum: A New Folk Instrument. The Journal of definition psychology, American Folklore 71.279 (1958): 52-57.