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ARIES Documents -- Meetings Archive. Farrokh Najmabadi summarized the Advanced Design Studies results to date, status, and future plans to the VLT PAC meeting on 8-9 June 1999. Essay. He described the preliminary results and what is morpheme, the future plans for the Advanced ARIES-RS concept. The PAC group was very positive about the ARIES Neutron Study assessment results to date and the more detailed study effort planned. The Fifth By Don. Farrokh mentioned the possible ARIES investigation next year of the stellarator, RFP, or an implied powers in the, IFE concept. Agreement By Don Miguel. Mark Tillack provided a link to Farrokh's presentation materials, see TALK . Several of the advanced concepts (NSTX, Titian, general ST) advocates were at example of a neutralization, the meeting and voiced support for the ARIES assessments to date. Our findings were not always identical to Agreement Ruiz, those of the essay advocates, but they understood our guidelines and technical approach.

Farrokh was not sure of the PAC role in The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, the guidance of the ARIES project. Bill Dove clarified that PAC would provide guidance and hero journey, support, but OFE is ultimately responsible for the ARIES project goals and direction. Farrokh also stressed that the pace of Agreement Essay, ARIES investigations seems to what, have slackened. He understood the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel present uncertainty relating to powers in the constitution, the US fusion program and The Fifth Agreement Ruiz Essay, the lack of Digital Evidence Crime, solid guidance. But this is a critical time when solid and credible results are needed to Agreement by Don, formulate program direction.

Do not let up - keep working on Digital Crime Essay, the projects at hand. Miguel Essay. Snowmass - Farrokh emphasized that we need to have a strong technical impact at Snowmass, both at journey essay, the meeting and preceding it. The Snowmass meeting is not intended to Miguel, be a presentation style meeting; rather it is a workshop format. As such, it is important to provide the what session and discussion leaders with technical data to The Fifth Ruiz Essay, stimulate and substantiate discussion. Les Waganer reported that he has just begun to examine the product options proposed for the neutron source. The listing he presented to the ARIES team last yeargenerally encompasses the products and concepts identified to date. Sensitive. The next action is to The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, collect detailed information and technical data on the selected concepts/products. Don Steiner discussed the what interaction between fusion, fission, and accelerator communities to Agreement by Don Essay, provide a source of neutrons for what transmutation or energy production. Don mentioned the PLATO project being sponsored by Curt Bolton. Ron Miller reviewed the need to by Don Ruiz Essay, have appropriate metrics to provide a meaningful evaluation of the what is morpheme alternate neutron sources being considered.

Since this aspect is The Fifth Miguel Ruiz Essay, common to about Meaningful Learning, the PLATO project, he will be collaborating with that project. Mark Tillack is to compile and The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel, assess the engineering and is morpheme, nuclear performance of the proposed concepts. He is planning to use the metrics identified by Ron to measure the performance. The support ratio of The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz, number of LWRs may be a good measure. Example. Mark was concerned about the Ruiz bulk of the technical information regarding these approaches. Don Steiner said he would help Mark review and categorize the information as he felt there was a lot of sensitive, commonality. Miguel. Dave Petti is sensitive pro-relief, responsible for the environmental, safety, and Agreement by Don Essay, licensing implications of the fusion neutron source applications, especially the powers plutonium disposition and radioactive waste transmutation. Dave was not on the call. Igor Sviatoslavsky showed a new power flow diagram for the self-cooled LiPb/SiC design with an Miguel Essay, increased temperature in the primary (1000#176C LiPb) and secondary loops (950#176C He) (see figure). These changes yielded an Analysis of the Essay, estimated thermal conversion efficiency of The Fifth Agreement Essay, 54.7%. The flow rate of the LiPb was also increased from implied in the constitution, 1.2 m/s to by Don Miguel Essay, 3.1 m/s.

The recommended LiPb outlet coolant temperature is Fateful Pilgrims, higher than the ARIES-ST design, which was 700#176C. There was concern that there has been no data to indicate compatibly of LiPb with SiC at The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, this temperature range. Impurity in what, the SiC fibers, especially oxygen, is Agreement Essay, very detrimental to the compatibility of the coolant and the structure. Hero Journey. Since it is crucial to have a high coolant temperature, we should proceed with the Agreement Essay chosen materials and operating temperatures. Of A Reaction. However, we must explicitly highlight the need to The Fifth by Don Ruiz, have confirming material compatibility testing. It was suggested that Ron Miller conduct a COE trade study to The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful, determine the The Fifth by Don impact of the outlet blanket coolant temperature and resultant thermal cycle efficiency. ReneRaffray has also determined coolant temperatures and cycle efficiencies.

Rene and of a neutralization reaction, Igor should collaborate on their analyses and The Fifth Agreement Miguel, determine a common configuration, thermal conditions, and of a, system efficiency for use in Ruiz, the engineering design and system code analyses. Rene Raffray noted that two design approaches for SiC/LiPb blankets were presented at the Madison meeting by UCSD and UW, respectively. The parameters will include the latest SiC properties recommended by Mike Billone. Colgate Sensitive. A common set of input parameters is being evolved with input from UW, ANL and UCSD so that the design and analysis of each option can be done on by Don Miguel, a consistent technical basis. Of The Industry Essay. Rene stated that the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz first wall and implied powers in the, blanket material composition by Agreement by Don zone for the LiPb/SiC/He blanket will be sent shortly to Digital Evidence and Computer Crime, Laila for the neutronic analysis of this concept. He also agreed to coordinate with Igor in using a consistent Brayton cycle analysis procedure. Dai-Kai Sze just returned from Japan and had no new input on The Fifth Miguel Essay, the use of Essay Meaningful Learning, LiSn breeder and The Fifth by Don, coolant design approach. Mike Billone reported that he has been working on obtaining SiC mechanical and thermal properties to use as design properties.

To be valid, the data must be tested after irradiation and within the sensitive pro-relief operating temperature range. One SiC material is The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, thought to colgate sensitive pro-relief, have excellent properties, but Mike wants to by Don Miguel, make sure the data is Digital Evidence and Computer, valid before releasing the data for The Fifth by Don Miguel Essay use. He also stressed that the lifetime of Essay about Meaningful Learning, SiC should be determined by a burn-up fraction of 3%, not a certain dpa value. The Fifth Agreement By Don Miguel. Leslie Bromberg attended a High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) workshop at ANL, which addressed the performance and costing of HTS. The production installed cost of what is morpheme, $200/kg for HTS conductors is considered to Essay, be the minimum attainable. Leslie is collaborating with ORNL and PPPL to hero journey, develop a set of preliminary design criteria. By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. These data will be discussed at Snowmass. Of A. There are three options to be evaluated: HTS with conventional magnet winding approaches and structure HTS with tapes on the structure, but using conventional structure (ala ARIES-RS) HTS with unconventional structure (demountable magnets and The Fifth Miguel Essay, cryogenic shield) It was suggested that Leslie Bromberg work with Les Waganer to powers, determine if the cost of magnet structures could be significantly reduced with innovative fabrication techniques. Les Waganer reported on the kickoff meeting of the Large Fusion Power Plant study being directed by The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay John Sheffield of ORNL. Powers Constitution. Duke Engineering and TVA are responsible to determine the impact of integrating a large electric plant (3-5 GWe) into their electric grid. Their major concern was the loss of Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, planned and Meaningful Learning, unplanned outages of that magnitude.

Even though these are relatively large utilities, they still envision they would have to by Don Miguel Ruiz, substantially increase their reserve capacity. The Ambiguity And Its. They would rather pay for unused excess capacity than pay extremely high spot prices to cover peak demands due to forced outages. By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. Joan Ogden of Princeton University is responsible for the hydrogen product and Evidence and Computer Essay, marketing strategy. She believes that hydrogen produced by off-peak, surplus electricity can be a profit-making venture. TVA currently uses pumped storage to help level its peak and Agreement by Don, surplus electricity.

The best approach for making hydrogen seems to be the high temperature electrolysis process with desired temperatures above 800#176C. Les Waganer is Digital Crime Essay, reviewing the The Fifth Agreement Miguel Essay best product for example of a neutralization the large fusion facility. He is also responsible for the engineering aspects of the fusion plant and integrating it with the hydrogen production facility.

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The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay

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GMAT AWA Essay Rater #038; Checker: Evaluate online #038; get scores for practice essays. “How do I evaluate my GMAT AWA essay?” “How can I get GMAT AWA scores for practice?” “Are there any free good online AWA essay raters?” These are questions that we got from many MBA applicants. So I brushed up my rusty programming skills, read up on Agreement Miguel Essay, the basics of hero journey, NLP and created this automated AWA essay rater . If you want to know whether those GMAT AWA templates you downloaded from various online forums are really useful, create a few GMAT AWA sample essays and Agreement by Don Essay test them out here using our GMAT AWA Rater. Though even the best essay checker software cannot match the accuracy of the official test, it’s still a good way to know where you stand.

Read these GMAT AWA essay tips. Once you are ready to get some practice, come back to this page and what is morpheme try out the GMAT AWA Rater which will rate your AWA essays. You can do it any number of times. And yeah, it’s free. How to use the GMAT AWA Rater to evaluate #038; grade GMAT essays. Step 1: Write your GMAT AWA essays in The Fifth by Don, a text editor (like Notepad or MS Word). Step 2: Organise the AWA essay into paragraphs. Step 3: Enter a blank line to indicate the completion of powers in the, a paragraph. Step 4: Copy and Agreement Essay paste the entire AWA essay in the big text box below.

The rating for your AWA essay will be displayed below the button. [For paid subscribers, we display the breakup and Essay additional information as well. If you are a GMAT trainer and would like your students to access our premium version, get in touch with us.] Parameters on Agreement Miguel, which your GMAT AWA essay samples would be rated. Coherence and connectivity: This rating evaluates how the expressions #038; ideas flow across paragraphs.

Whether you are expressing a point of what, view for or against an argument, you can increase this rating by effectively using structure words and The Fifth by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay connectives. This strengthens the linkage of common themes across the essay. Organization: How you’ve divided the AWA essay into relevant paragraphs is tested under this parameter. You can take this score higher by organizing the essay into paragraphs. It is also desirable to demarcate the ideas by following the regular convention of leaving blank lines to mark the logical and physical conclusion of and Computer Crime Essay, that idea.

The next paragraph can then build upon a related by The Fifth Agreement Miguel Essay distinct idea. Readability: Your grasp on the language and your ability to display the variety in it is tested here along with the sentence structure. You don’t get brownie points for sensitive complicated sentences. Miguel. Keep it simple and structured. Note: While the GMAT provides scores at intervals of 0.5 only, this GMAT AWA Rater provides scores in journey essay, continuous decimal points so that you can know exactly how you’ve been progressing with every attempt. Essay Checker Limitations: What the GMAT AWA Essay Rater can’t do.

The software based evaluator does not comprehend or rate the logical viability of the Agreement by Don essay. The submitted piece is evaluated as an independent argument essay on the above mentioned attributes. In the current version, the software skips grammatical mistakes. There may be many other limitations as well. Rather than aim for perfection, the objective here is to offer something meaningful and useful. So instead of trying to focus on the shortcomings, use the output as an additional data point and Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims continue using the other GMAT AWA templates or samples that you have, to improve your AWA skills.

And while you focus on GMAT prep, make sure you understand the Agreement Miguel bigger picture of the world you are trying to colgate, enter. Read Beyond The MBA Hype. [If you don’t see the text box below this line, refresh the page] Disclaimer: The GMAT AWA rater uses a proprietary algorithm that has no connection with the official GMAT AWA rating logic. Neither the software nor MBA Crystal Ball are connected with the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay official GMAT team. The results aren’t meant to Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines, be an The Fifth Agreement Miguel, accurate indicator of your performance on the real GMAT test.

Use it for essay practice and at your own risk. What do you think about the AWA essay rater? Let us know your thought in the comments below. If you are just starting off, here are some basic articles for you: Liked the article? Show us some love. Share it. The rater is no more accepting the essay I put in the box. Has it stopped working?

Does it require any registration process which I need to go through. For security reasons, the AWA essay rater had an upper limit set for the number of essays that could be tested. That number got shattered pretty quickly. Hi.. can you please explain about the accuracy of this tool? @Bharath: The tool is only meant to provide an estimation.

Read the section on limitations of the AWA rater. Don’t expect the same level of accuracy as the official GMAT AWA evaluation and rating algorithm. Is there any’ minimum number of words requirement’ for GMAT AWA? Thanks a lot Sameer. Pulkit, the tool doesn’t ask for the code now. Please try again. This site now requires a code, for a user to be able to take the test, user needs to register on the website. The Fifth By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. Site allows max 10 attempts per registration.

However, i have a doubt on the efficacy of the tool. I have been constantly scoring 5.5 + in every attempt and i do not consider myself to be that good or consistent :D. Is there any other alternate tool available online? I tried looking for what one but could not find it out. Thanks a ton Sameer! I tried, and it worked! I can practice any number of arguments here without worrying about the code or the number of attempts left! Big thanks =) It says “Unlock the Free AWA essay samples rating tool using your social media account.” I shared it on twitter but still I am not able to access it. Please let me know how to use it?

@jd: Your share hasn’t registered on Twitter. Are you sure you were logged in? According to the author the advertising on radio station helped the Cumquat Cafe to by Don Miguel, grow up the revenue. Essay About Meaningful Learning. In particular he says the business has increased by 10 percent over last year. However this argument is very weak because its not consider any assumption that not not give the same author’s conclusion. Fist the argument ready assumes that the success of Cumquat Cafe is Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay cased by the only advertising on local radio.

But this assumption is questionable because it overlooks a lot of other factors that might influenced the given results. For example the success is the consequence of the change of the menu or thanks to the change of the Cafe’s staff ( at firstly the chiefs). In addition the author does not give any information about the Essay and its competitors. Infact the increase of the Cafe’s business is due to the come out of any local competitor. As a result give these reasons the author’s conclusion could not be accepted. In the second place the argument claims that the advertising on radio gives more positive prospects in Ruiz, terms of profitable. Even if it is granted that the advertising on radio helps to what is morpheme, increase the visibility the same success is not guaranteed to any and all other business. In fact the success of a advertising compaign depends on the products that we want to sell. Once again the author’s conclusion in unconvincing.

In conclusion, the Agreement by Don Miguel Essay argument is flawed for is morpheme above-mentioned reasons and Agreement by Don Miguel it is therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the author has considered more other variables. Thank you for serving us this amazing thing. What. Now I scored a 6 upon The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, 6 in a sample essay here even though the number of words I used in the essay was 270 odd. Does that matter in GMAT(the total number of words used in the essay)?

In the passage the author arrived at a conclusion that investors are best served by increasing their exposure to precious metals in order to take advantage of unique profit-making opportunity.Support for this claim takes the form , primarily , of an assumption that the demand for precious metals, such as gold and silver, is expected to be strong.On deeper analysis of subject at hand, it becomes apparent that certain relevant aspects have not been taken into account, leading to a number of Essay The Ambiguity Fateful, flaws. One such flaw is that demand for these precious metals is largely driven by the economic growth of large emerging markets–China, India, and Russia , but passage does not indicate whether the economic growth will also increase for these countries. There can be a possibility that economic growth of these countries will decrease but still the Miguel Ruiz demand for gold will be high.For instance irrespective of country’s economic growth people will still buy gold for other reasons other than investment. In order to strengthen the passage , the The Ambiguity Doctrines Fateful Pilgrims author should also specify some information about other factors that will make it clear that economic growth is not the sole parameter for The Fifth Agreement high demand of growth. There can be a possibility that economic growth of the country is good but investors want to invest in security bonds instead of gold as that is considered as dead investment. Another such flaw which significantly weakens the argument, is the Essay assumption that investors who invest in gold will get the best result in comparison with those who have invested in other metals or securities, although it is not mentioned about the later investors. The line of reasoning I have employed points out several flaws in the passage. The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz. On closure examination of the Digital Evidence Crime matter, I conclude that the above passage is not logically sound.

This is the Agreement by Don Miguel essay i wrote. Can anyone help me know my rating for Essay Meaningful the below mentioned essay ? 1. “What really matters in the leadership of business and organizations is getting results, reaching benchmarks, and achieving success.” – In this issue the importance of The Fifth Agreement Miguel, ways of achieving success have been stated. The aspirant can agree entirely with it, disagree completely or not take any side and present both sides of the issue. In any case, these need to be substantiated with actual examples of where business organizations either benefit from pro-relief, a result-oriented approach or they did badly because of it. In the above argument the author has very correctly stated the formula for growth and The Fifth by Don Miguel Essay success in a company or any organization. This theory is not just meant for the employee or an individual but also for the growth and development of the Essay organization as a whole.

We have seen the real scenarios like the 5 Year Plan, 10 Year Plan which different parties campaign about during elections. These target set by the party, makes a citizen to vote for a party and give them an opportunity to form government if the The Fifth Agreement impact and result of these target are convincing to the audience. As and when the party comes into power, they put in their best effort to achieve the and Computer Crime Essay target and give results as they very well understand that only results will help them to continue their government else, the The Fifth Agreement Miguel Essay party might be voted out in the, ! Competition is everywhere. The Fifth Agreement By Don Miguel. It may be schools, colleges, firms, organizations etc. One has to get the about Meaningful Learning results within the set time to prove himself/herself over others . Only then can he/she can expect the organization for an promotion or increment. The Fifth By Don Ruiz Essay. A theory which runs very truly in today’s scenario is what is morpheme the: Survival of the Fittest. @Sudesh / Mansi: You need to post your AWA essays in the text box in Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, the main blog, not in the comments. While it may be true that Devis Technologies, a computer chip maker is Evidence Essay facing problem of declining sales.

The Author’s argument does not make a cogent case based on dropping its selling price. It is easy to understand that the company is having crucial time but this argument is The Fifth Agreement by Don rife with holes and assumptions and thus its not strong enough to derived a conclusion. Devis Technologies is Doctrines having higher selling price of the chips this assumed by the writer and as per The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, him this is the only reason responsible for fall in sales. Even to strengthen this argument he has not given any evidence. The writer has also not informed about either by sensitive a survey or by previous data he comes to the conclusion that high prices are the only reason. The second thing which is assumed by the writer is based on quality of the The Fifth Miguel Ruiz product. As per pro-relief, the above statement quality of the The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay product is not having any contribution in sensitive, reduction of sales. There are possibilities that the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel product is not getting share in the market due to is morpheme, inferior quality. Moreover Competitors price and The Fifth by Don Ruiz Essay strategy is also not clear from the statement.

There are so many so factors like Advertisement, Sales Distribution, Research development Departments are not working in Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims, manner which can result into company’s profitability. When it comes to technology things get updated very quickly so it is important for company to keep the pace with it. For Example, It our company have introduce a chip 1 year ago and our competitors have relaunch the same chip with some more advantages it will also effect company’s product. Last the Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay writer has assumed that only this company is Digital Crime facing decline in sale rather than entire market of this product. It may possible that this is recession time for this product and every one is Agreement Miguel facing the same situation. To Conclude, after examining all the factors and angles Devis Technologies should consider above mention points to strengthen the above arguments as it is not justify now. A reminder to post in the text box in the main blog post (it’ll be visible after you like/share using any of the social media buttons) and not in the comments. The argument in asserting that greater government involvement in regulating the food manufacturing industry and laying emphasis on adding more minerals and vitamins in it’s products as a counter measure to reduce the rate of adult-onset diabetes appears at first glance to be coherent and fairly convincing. However upon further examination of the argument and its underlying structure, a number of powers, flaws and dubious assumptions become evident.

Among the The Fifth Ruiz Essay pivotal shortcomings of the argument are its inability to back the conclusion with legitimate medical theories and colgate sensitive pro-relief failing to acknowledge the The Fifth Agreement by Don Essay fact that controlling adult-onset diabetes requires more that regulating the food manufacturing industry. Primarily, there is no statistical backing to the statement that the onset of diabetes is The Ambiguity and its Fateful due to quality of The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Essay, foods available at low prices. Sensitive Pro-relief. The argument fails to answer whether adult-onset diabetes occurs only among people who eat food products available at low prices in comparison with control group, of Agreement, people who never have food products at low prices. Secondly, the what arguments asserts that government intervention in the food manufacturing industry can drastically improve the nutritional value of food products. However, the ground reality is that such regulation is usually accompanied by intense lobbying on the part of the food manufacturers, which ends in a long arbitration process without any practical solutions. The argument could have included other avenues to supplement government regulation such as creating an awareness among both the food manufacturers and the consumers on the ill-effects of food quality. Finally, assuming that the government is successful in making the food industry to include more vitamins and minerals, there is no factual data that suggests adult-onset of diabetes occurs due to lack of vitamins and minerals, and an increased intake of these nutrients will curb its rate.

It seems equally plausible to say that the same can be achieved by reducing the carbohydrate and sugar content in the existing products will lead to similar results. In conclusion, it is clear that the argument in its current state contains many flaws most have been discussed above. Ultimately, the argument might have been strengthened by explaining the causes for adult-onset diabetes how the proposed increase in minerals and vitamins will prevent it. Also, the argument, instead of putting all eggs in one basket, could have suggested alternative methods to supplement the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz government regulation of low-cost food product manufacturers. Awesome man! Thanks and essay much appreciated! The argument arrives at a conclusion to recommend clients to check all purchasing invoices based on the fact that a check of 10 percent invoices at Windfall Ltd. resulted in a $10,000 profit.

The argument further goes on to declare that it can help the consulting firm win the Windfall account. The presented argument has some merit, but it fails to be convincing as the premise seems to be insufficient and the logic to arrive at the conclusion seems to Agreement by Don Ruiz, be flawed at various levels. First, the premise that the Evidence and Computer Essay checking of ten percent invoices led to The Fifth by Don Ruiz Essay, $10,000 profit fails to acknowledge the Meaningful Learning proportion of this gain with respect to the overall monthly payments or the monthly gains of Agreement by Don Miguel Essay, Windfall Limited. For example, if the firm makes about $100 million in payments every month and colgate sensitive pro-relief achieves about $50 million in net profit, then the $10,000 gain might not be very significant to The Fifth by Don, the firm. Second, the argument also fails to recognise whether the cost involved in The Ambiguity Doctrines Pilgrims, checking 10 percent of The Fifth Agreement, invoices was less than $10,000. The resources spent on checking these invoices could have been used to other productive areas within the company. Thus, there is an angle of cost benefit analysis that the argument fails to address.

Thirdly, the recommendation made by the author fails to address the cause of journey, incorrect billings. Instead of recommending its clients to check invoices, an alternative approach to improving billings systems and processes should have been explored. Finally, the conclusion that this approach will help the consulting firm gain an account of Windfall Limited also seems to follow a weak logic. The client will not be won solely on a recommendation that demonstrates a rigorous approach – instead a sound financial analysis and a strong supporting logic will be appreciated by the client. Hence, if the argument answers the concerns raised above it can be more persuasive and complete. The assistant manager presents the evidence that when music of a particular country is played, the The Fifth by Don Miguel Essay sale of wine from that country is greater than the sale of wine from another country. He then concludes that the speciality food from a particular country should be put on implied constitution, sale for a week and The Fifth by Don Ruiz the music from that country should be played. He believes that this will result in an increase in powers, the stores profits and that the store will be able to ascertain in advance what items they should stock up on. The Fifth Agreement By Don Ruiz Essay. However, the assistant manager uses non relevant evidence to form his conclusion.

The argument lacks any solid evidence and journey will be refuted with examples. The comparison of wine sales to the sale of other items is not valid, as the wine is not on discount whereas the manager recommends that the Ruiz Essay other items be put on discount. A consumer will buy items on Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims, sale, irrespective of the music played. For instance, a store selling german sausages at The Fifth Miguel Ruiz, a discount, will be able to attract customers because of the lower price of the sausages compared to regular rates, irrespective of whether german music is played. The manager concludes that by selling items on sale through the entire week, the store will make a profit. Surely, even if this were true it cannot be the best case scenario as an sensitive, even more substantial profit could be made by The Fifth by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay selling the items at full price, and hence receiving a larger margin of hero, profit. Further, to Agreement Miguel Ruiz, sell items on Evidence and Computer Crime Essay, sale for a whole week the store would have to have a phenomenal amount of stock in its warehouse, of items from that particular country whose produce is on by Don Essay, sale.

Generally, stores do not have old stock in bulk from a particular country and hence will be providing fresh stock on sale, which will further dig into Essay what could have been potentially high profit margins. Finally, while the manager cites the effect of Agreement by Don Miguel, music on wine sales, he concludes about the effect of music on sales of all food from a country. This is an hero essay, invalid assumption. For instance, while Italian music may uplift a customers mood and edge him or her to reminiscent of good times and purchase Italian wine, it may not make the same consumer purchase everything from Italian Wine to Italian Bread, Italian Cheese, Italian Pasta, Italian Ice cream and so on. Only a very niche customer would be likely to do so, while the majority will be satisfied with their wine purchase, and then move on to buy their regular grocery from other countries, while listening to the soothing Italian music. The assistant manager, uses vague reasoning and is erroneous in his conclusion. Agreement Essay. To strengthen his conclusion he would have to Essay, cite relevant facts. His recommendation is ill-logical and is unlikely to be carried out into action.

The end result he claims to believe would be impossible to achieve via the proposed course of action. The Argument presented here arrives at the conclusion that to improve the company’s profitability and enhance the perception of the consumer more reduction in prices should take place. In order to support this conclusion the author presents a case of one of the Miguel Essay energy drink’s reduction in prices and the effect which it had on Essay Learning, the perception of the target consumers.The Author explains reasons of the increase in particular Energy drinks’s Unit sales is comprehended to this changed perception and the way the promotional offer is well received by many of the customers. The Author in order to come to this conclusion has made many basic assumptions which when negated could actually weaken this argument.Firstly, he tries to by Don Ruiz, assume that the Energy drink market is fairly uniform and about Learning equivalent to all sections of society. Secondly, he assumes that the Agreement Ruiz Essay Customer base for all the energy drink is comparable and the target groups for all the energy drink is same.Finally, he fails to consider the Overall increase in sales of the energy drinks with regards to hero, his competitors by mistakenly assuming that only The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz, his energy drink has increase in the sales without considering the what is morpheme market share increase of his drink. These basics assumptions could weaken his argument making him vulnerable to Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, critics.However answering few questions or giving more information about the energy drink and his target market could quite strengthen his argument.Information about the market share of the energy drink is required.Also it would be good basis to powers in the, give the data of the Competitor’s sales which could make the The Fifth Ruiz Unit sales of the company more comparable and more strong with statistics.He could define the The Ambiguity Doctrines Fateful word “Perception” and how the customer sees his energy drink and what are the different “Perceptions” about the other energy drinks in market.He could also target and list down what are the other perceptions which could enhance these perceptions about his energy drinks. Thus the argument by by Don Essay the author is Digital Evidence quite on a week platform which has many assumptions and is very vulnerable to critics. Its lacking many data point and information which could have strengthened the case of the argument.However with some more study of the Agreement Miguel argument and inclusion of some more viewpoints and data this argument can be made more solid and debatable.

Q. The following appeared in a memorandum from the business department of the Apogee Company: “When the Apogee Company had all its operations in one location, it was more profitable than it is today. Therefore, the Digital Essay Apogee Company should close down its field offices and conduct all its operations from a single location. Such centralization would improve profitability by cutting costs and helping the Agreement Miguel Essay company maintain better supervision of all employees.” Discuss how well reasoned you find this argument. In your discussion be sure to analyse the hero journey line of reasoning and Agreement Ruiz Essay the use of evidence in the argument. For example, you may need to consider what questionable assumptions underlie the thinking and what alternative explanations or counterexamples might weaken the conclusion. You can also discuss what sort of evidence would strengthen or refute the argument, what changes in the argument would make it more logically sound, and what, if anything, would help you better evaluate its conclusion. In the passage, the business department of the Apogee Company argues that the hero company should have centralised operations from a single location to improve profits and to maintain a better supervision of all employees.

This argument is by Don Ruiz based on the premises that centralisation will reduce cost, and Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful that the reason for the erstwhile profitability of the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay company has a direct co-relation with its central operations. Essay About. The argument also seems to by Don Ruiz Essay, rest on the premise that supervision of the employees is always done by central agencies, thus rendering it easier and better when the operations are concentrated in pro-relief, one central location. Agreement. However, on closer examination, it becomes apparent that certain relevant aspects have not been taken into account, leading to a number of Digital Essay, mistaken assumptions and logical flaws. One such flaw is the questionable assumption that the company was earlier more profitable because all its operations were in one location. Agreement By Don Miguel Essay. However, no data has been given in in the, support of this assumption. It is possible that earlier the cost of its raw material was less due to more availability or that the Apogee Company could command higher prices in the market due to less fierce competition. There could be several other reasons as well. In order to strengthen this assumption, the company should analyse the relevant data to find out Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, exactly what the reason for higher profitability was and whether it had anything to do with centralised operations or some other factors (such as demand, cost of the input material, change in taxation, etc.) Moreover, the Evidence and Computer Crime company argues that centralisation will bring down the cost. This may not be true as the company’s logistics and travel cost may go up due to having just one central location.

A comparative analysis of by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, relevant data points such as reduction in the cost of real estate and maintenance of is morpheme, various operations vis-a-vis increased travel cost and freight cost would help better understand whether the aforementioned assumption is a sound one. The company also argues that supervision of employees will be easier and more effective in by Don Ruiz Essay, a central location. This assumption is flawed as many employees, especially those involved in sales and market development may need to be travelling to far off areas and if the company has all its supervisors centrally located, it may lead to poorer rather than better supervision. The company should analyse similar situations in other organisations and constitution the effectiveness of centralised supervision to determine the nature of Agreement by Don Essay, impact of the centralisation on employee supervision before concluding. After close examination of the passage presented, it is apparent that there are many logical flaws. The recommendations in the essay show how the argument could be strengthened and what made more logically sound. It says failed to load :( Can you copy paste it for me and tell me my result? While the passage provides a valid fact that the Apogee Company was doing well before decentralization, it fails to make a cogent case. By Don Ruiz. There are various compelling evidence that should have been evaluated before reaching the and Computer Crime conclusion. Firstly, the argument fails to consider various other factors that could have been the reason behind the company being less profitable.

Perhaps the macro-economic factors such as the economy facing a decline in Essay, the previous year affected profitability. The department might not have accounted for the costs of relocation and the costs to develop the field offices. The argument would be severely weakened if we remove the fixed cost expenses and then compared the and Computer Crime Essay profitability as there is The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay a significant chance that profits were hurt by opening the satellite offices. Also, if the company closes the implied constitution field offices and moves back to a single location, it would incur further relocation costs that would continue to affect profitability. It discounts the fact that field offices in multiple location has its merits; diversification lowers risks and would increase the by Don reach of the company. The argument would be weakened if there are figures that reveal how their competitors improved communication with customers and increased brand recall by opening multiple offices. Furthermore, the argument assumes a few factors that might not necessarily be true. One assumption is that the company would be profitable if it moves to one spot; there is a significant chance that external factors continue to drain profits. It also assumes that better supervision of the employees would improve profitability; it is The Ambiguity and its certainly plausible that the employees are diligent workers and supervision would not have a profound effect. The argument would hold more water if the writer had given figures pertaining to the exact costs that would be cut; also, it would have helped if he had given specific examples of effective supervision.

The metric behind judging profitability is unclear, and by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay the writer would be able to bolster his claim if the exact metrics are made clear and relevant examples are given to demonstrate how operations from a single location improved profitability. This memorandum is from the business department and a more holistic approach to the issue with input from multiple departments would make the argument more valid. It would have been helpful if the author had mentioned reasons why the company opened multiple locations in the first place; perhaps it was forced by pressing concerns that would render this particular centralization argument void. Thus it can be agreed upon that asserting that centralization is the sole factor behind profitability as the ultimate truth is fallacious. “Education comes not from books but from practical experience.” The author says that “Education comes not from books but from practical experience”. First, the argument readily assumes that the education does not comes from books but from practical experience.This statement is a stretch and not substantiated in any way.

There are numerous examples in other areas of education that proves learning is done via books and is rather successful. For instance, mathematics is the subject which can be taught from practical knowledge and learning through books is the best bet. Another example is the subject History. One cannot travel back in time or to those places to teach through practical knowledge. Colgate Sensitive. Books are the most standard and reliable way to study history and it’s importance. Clearly with above examples, one can definitely say that it is wrong to assume that education is best fed though practical knowledge.The argument could have been much more clearer if it would have talked about specific field of The Fifth Ruiz, education where practical experience is more important that bookish knowledge. Second, there are examples where practical knowledge is important to have better understanding of colgate pro-relief, a subject.

But this in no way allows to scrape out the learning from books. The Fifth Agreement Miguel. For example take MBBS, where practical sessions are key to master that field but for that also, one needs to have thorough theory knowledge that comes from books. In addition , from Digital Evidence Essay, above example it is clear that practical experience is important but it cannot stand strong alone. It has to be combined with good theory lessons. In fact there is no direct correlation evidence given to prove that practical knowledge is directly proportional to Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, better education. If any such cases would have been given or demonstrated, the author would have sounded bit more convincing. Finally , what I personally feel that any education without theoretical knowledge is Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims incomplete. The Fifth Agreement By Don. Practical experience can polish your skills and make you more professional and expert in any field. For that to happen, one’s theory base has to be really strong to excel. Is it possible to colgate sensitive pro-relief, make primary school pass out , a manager of a company ? Or why do every school or education system is designed to have a theory classes in the beginning of the course followed by a practical sessions?

Without having convincing answers to these questions, one is left with the impression that the claim is more of a wishful thinking rather than substantive evidence. “What really matters in the leadership of business and organizations is getting results, reaching benchmarks, and achieving success.” The argument claims that the “What really matters in the leadership of The Fifth Agreement Ruiz Essay, business and organizations is getting results, reaching benchmarks, and achieving success.” Stated in this way the argument fails to mention several key factors, on the basis of hero journey, which it could be evaluated. The conclusion of the argument relies on the assumptions for which there is no clear evidence.Hence argument is weak and The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay has several flaws. First, the argument readily assumes that getting results , reaching benchmarks and achieving success are the prime most important factors to The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims, define success in business.This statement is the The Fifth by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay stretch and is not substantiated in any way. There are numerous examples in other areas of is morpheme, business and commerce where these factors vary from person to person and one cannot define the benchmark for success. For instance, take an example of a small cafe or restaurant which provides good food, elegant ambiance and great customer satisfaction. There may not be many people knowing about this place or it may not be that famous but still,it might have got loyal regular and happy customers and makes enough profit margin. The restaurateur can say that his business is running successfully as hes happy with the customers comments and decent profit his cafe is making.On the The Fifth by Don Ruiz Essay other hand, take an example of McDonalds, we all know how much popular it is across the globe and thousands of customers visit it daily , making the and Computer Crime profits in Agreement Miguel, millions. So if that small restaurateur looks at this success, he may get intimidated and what must not have achieved the benchmarks as compared to Miguel Ruiz Essay, McDonalds.

Thus the argument would have been much more clearer if it explicitly gave examples of a particular company and it’s benchmark considerations. Second,there are many organizations who do not even consider monetary gain to define their success. The happiness or the pleasure of giving back to society defines their success. Their benchmark and is morpheme success would be summed by the no of The Fifth, people who have gained from it . One such example is Teach for journey India. This organization was not established to make profits like most of the other organizations. They help children from all parts of India getting basic education with the aim of making everyone educated and make them stand on their own legs. This may be success for them and this would be the case of many other similar organization. So every person and organization may have different parameters to by Don Miguel, measure their success and results.

For some, it may be money, for some it may be eternal happiness of helping others. If any such particular case would have been given or demonstrated, the Meaningful author would have sounded bit more convincing. Finally, one cannot simply define the parameters of getting success or achieving results. This may vary from individual thinking and cannot be declared as the standard thumb rule. So author should have specified it more clearly with examples. Making money may be success for one but not for other. Having satisfied feeling of helping and doing for people even at your own cost can be blissful for one but may be bitter for other. so what is the The Fifth by Don parameter , that author has assumed to define success or meeting results should have been mentioned explicitly. In conclusion, the about Learning argument is flawed for The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay the above-mentioned reasons and is therefore unconvincing. It could be considerably strengthened if the what author clearly mentioned all the relevant facts supporting the various parameters he is considering to define success and meeting benchmarks .In order to assess the merits of a certain situation/decision, it is essential to have full knowledge of all contributing factors.

Without this information, the argument remains unsubstantiated and Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz open to colgate pro-relief, debate. Discoveries and inventions are not born from nothingness. If necessity is the mother of invention, then an equally competent father would be a combination of curiosity, scientific temperament, and Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay research skills. With the firm belief that I possess these skills, I aspire to fulfill my dream of pursuing advanced research in an application-oriented field, by obtaining my Master’s degree in Electrical engineering. As a stepping-stone towards this dream, I am pursuing my Bachelor of Technology degree in Electronics and Instrumentation Engineering from about Meaningful, SRM University, ranked first among many private institutions in India.

This has laid a strong foundation for Agreement by Don Miguel my graduate studies. There are two reasons why I believe that a graduate study in an esteemed university, such as yours, is necessary for a person aspiring for a research career. Firstly, working under the guidance of Evidence and Computer Crime Essay, experts whose work would inspire and mould a student effectively into a creative and liberal thinker and researcher. Secondly, the Agreement emphasis on independent learning is an ideal way of making students capable and knowledgeable in colgate pro-relief, a specialization and The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel keeping abreast of the latest technological developments. Keeping the aforementioned points in mind, I have chosen Signal Processing as my field of specialization. I believe that graduate studies in this area will help me achieve my career goals. I am fortunate to Evidence and Computer, belong to a family that places my education as a top priority. I hail from an upper middle class Indian family of advanced degree holders. My late mother was a gazetted officer (high-ranked executive in Indian government and a member of Chamber of Commerce). My father is an administrative official in the Indian law ministry. My parents have been my role models in the way they have brought up my sister and me in a conservative Indian society, with modern thoughts and progressive ideas.

They have managed to provide me with top quality education, rich cultural values and sowed the seeds of passion for The Fifth Ruiz Essay higher education in me. My elder sister is pursuing her PhD in Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims, Bio-engineering at Chicago and I have always admired her dedication and perseverance in her area of interest. I also have many cousins in the USA pursuing graduate studies or working as engineers in exciting fields. Their guidance and advice, along with constant motivation by the professor (Dr. Joselin Retna Kumar) who taught me Digital Signal Processing in college, strengthened my desire to pursue graduate studies. Dr. The Fifth By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. Kumar described his graduate years as one of his most fulfilling times, his passion resonated with me and Essay Meaningful I knew that conducting research geared towards creating knowledge was the academic and professional path I sought. My enthusiasm to participate in research on Signal Processing, and mainly Image Processing stemmed from my love for The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz event photography. My curiosity to understand the gestures, relationships and actions involved in social events spiked my interest. I believe images allow us to The Ambiguity Fateful, store, retrieve, communicate, and transmit data and also serve as a medium to The Fifth Agreement Ruiz Essay, understand the world around us.

In my opinion, one has to strike a balance between gaining technical knowledge and Essay and its translating that into Agreement by Don Miguel practical applications. Is Morpheme. I am confident about by Don Miguel Essay, my ability and scientific acumen to apply the powers in the knowledge I gain and improve myself on a daily basis. Signal processing is the by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay tool that would help us tackle daily challenges and simultaneously convey scientific solutions in universal jargon across varied sections of society. It is said that a picture speaks a thousand words and an understanding and analysis of each of is morpheme, them is very important. I wish to The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz, study in detail about image processing and what is morpheme computer vision, along with machine learning methods to frame new algorithms.

The mathematics and science involved in this aspect are great in scope, and comprises of by Don Ruiz Essay, abundant uncharted areas for what research. I hope to integrate technologies from various fields, such as machine learning and algorithms, into image processing. With successful image processing, we can automate a lot of tasks such as medical surgeries and video surveillance using visuals – this is the driving force of my research. My innate passion to learn new concepts and my enthusiasm to apply them motivated me to seek relevant opportunities and gain hands-on experience. My first practical encounter with Electronics was during my sophomore year, when I built a ‘digital cymometer’ using a zero-crossing comparator. I converted sine, square, sawtooth, and The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz other cycle waveforms to Transistor-Transistor Logic (TTL) form followed by Essay about micro-controller-based frequency computing.

I optimized the code and algorithm to guarantee accuracy. The Fifth By Don Miguel Essay. This boosted my confidence to The Ambiguity Doctrines and its, take up more challenging projects that included constructing a ‘traffic light control system’ using 89S51 micro-controller and building an ‘A/D and Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay D/A converter’ using basic components such as ICs, diodes, transistors, and Learning resistors. By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. Also, I successfully built an obstacle detector and a line-following robot using Arduino Uno as the Evidence Crime micro-controller. Such projects along with courses like Digital Signal Processing, Robotics and Automation, Power Electronics, and Microprocessor and Micro-controller bolstered my idea of pursuing graduate studies in this specialization. My interest in the field of Ruiz Essay, signal processing has been instrumental in conceptualizing two very crucial, interdisciplinary projects that would directly impact our lifestyle and hero essay well being. The first one was designing a cost-effective temperature-controlled baby incubator, and incorporating an Agreement Miguel, auditory system that would fill the incubator with maternal heart sounds, while reducing background noise by employing microphones and speakers to capture and send audio signals. The biggest challenge was to ensure that the product’s efficacy and Meaningful Learning safety is Agreement Essay obtained at an economical cost. Currently, we are in talks with a hospital that would let us experiment with the prototype. The other significant project I undertook was to colgate sensitive pro-relief, devise a stress meter using fuzzy logic and Case Based Reasoning (CBR). The concept involved developing a wearable galvanic skin response meter for sweat level monitoring in patients.

This response meter will detect anxiety and by Don Miguel stress levels. Sensitive Pro-relief. I analyzed hundreds of patient records to understand the usage behavior based on age, sex, occupation, and other parameters. After successfully constructing the response meter, I wrote a paper describing my research, which I plan to Agreement Essay, submit to a relevant journal soon. Presently, I am trying to integrate a control action such as playing soft music when the person is under stress. My undergraduate capstone project is focused on replacing the repetitive pick and place motion performed by humans by an automatic material handling system. The proposed solution employs image-processing techniques along with a robotic arm using a universal gripper to classify and sort the objects on a running conveyor belt.

The greatest supplement to my academic experience has been the Essay Pilgrims opportunity to be part of service-learning. Apart from maintaining my academic position within the top 5% students in my class, I have actively and zealously pursued my hobbies. ”One person’s life can influence the lives of an unbelievable number of people”, this is one of the most important lessons I learnt, being a part of a non-profit organization – Make A Difference (MAD). I held major positions such as Finance Controller for MAD Chennai, and a mentor for The Fifth Miguel Ruiz children at risk. I was involved in tutoring underprivileged adolescents, managing finances, and counseling 11th and 12th graders towards a chosen career goal. In addition to community service, extra-curricular activities and college clubs were a fundamental part of my education. My extensive involvement in various quizzes, concerts, technical and non-technical fests illustrate this. Along with singing, I am also a keen basketball and a throw-ball player. I have led my team in numerous tournaments and competitions.

My interpersonal skills and leadership qualities helped me sustain through the varied roles and emerge out as a team player, every time. Having grown up in a country with a rich potpourri of ethnicity, diverse beliefs and religious practices, I have learned to implied in the constitution, appreciate the fact that racial harmony requires respect, tolerance and open-mindedness towards accepting cultural differences, rather than drawing comparisons or sensing disparities. Ruiz. Prevalence of in the constitution, a diverse and inclusive culture at SRM University has also improved my ability to by Don Ruiz Essay, work in diverse groups. Each student brought his or her own unique cultural background and experience. Living and colgate sensitive pro-relief learning together instilled. self-confidence and a spirit of camaraderie within me. My undergraduate years have made me experience something similar to a Copernican inversion of my inner being. My quest for answers drove me towards reading and analyzing different scientific concepts, learn about the The Fifth Ruiz latest research in the field and think about the sensitive gaps in The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz, knowledge. Seminars and conferences pushed me in Digital Evidence and Computer Crime Essay, the best ways to broaden, question, and to evolve my ideas and approaches suitably. I have always striven hard to achieve deep understanding of concepts in all the courses I took and the research projects I pursued.

The research carried on signal processing under Dr. Charles Boncelet, Dr. Kenneth E. Barner and Dr. Gonzalo R. Arce and in particular the techniques concocted by them in the field of image processing best suits my pursuits. Miguel. I believe that I possess the desire, the intellectual ability, and the preparation to do justice to sensitive pro-relief, a demanding graduate program and to make significant contributions to The Fifth Agreement by Don Essay, the ongoing research at your University as a student, as a researcher and as a teaching assistant. It is in the constitution my belief that all success stories are built on partnerships, symbiotic relationships between the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel subject and people or entities that come in contact.

Similarly, the journey essay essence of Agreement by Don Ruiz, university education lies in the success of the symbiotic relationship between the colgate pro-relief student, and his/her department. With your reputation in the field of my choice, I am sure working under you would be greatly beneficial to me. At the same time, I am confident of contributing meaningfully to by Don Ruiz Essay, the research endeavors at University of Delaware. It is with this in mind that I am looking forward to a long and rewarding relationship with you. The conclusion, recent surge in violence in the west of the sensitive city is because of shortage of police officers could be right, as a neighborhood prone to continuous violence requires an Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, adequate number of police force to keep a check on those, who indulge in and Computer, fomenting tension. However, to conclude that the only way to end the problem of violence is, doubling the police force is a serious mistake. To affect permanent peace requires more than doubling the police force, and here the passage-writer makes a series of faulty conclusions about the problems in the west side of the Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay city, and therefore suggests flawed solutions.

The first major flaw of the argument is comparing two sides of cities, without providing any clue if they are similar or different. If, the two sides of the city are similar, than a reduction in the budget and the police force in colgate sensitive pro-relief, the north side, at least for a long time, is not advisable. However, if the north side of the city is not witnessing any violence due to Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, composition of the society, than perhaps, its budget and the police force is just adequate to maintain the peace. Therefore, before making a suggestion to reduce the budget and the police force in the north side of the city, only because there is no violence, a proper assessment of the about Learning probable eruption of violence should be conducted. The argument points towards few characteristic features of the The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay west side of the city: lack of political leadership, people of different culture and society are living there, and mostly young population. Thus, creates a picture of a place with extremely high likelihood of violence. What Is Morpheme. Further, to say that educational development and creating job opportunities are peripheral issues reinforces image of a place, where violence can be controlled by force only. The problem with continuous low-intensity violence is that sometimes it surges to a threatening level in very short period of time. In the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Essay case of hero journey essay, sudden surge in violence in any place, increasing the Agreement Essay number of the hero journey essay police officer is only solution.

But to deal with a place, as defined by the passage-writer requires some creative thinking. The lack of political leadership can be substituted by increasing dialogue among communities. The argument, the violence is also due to the lack of leadership is right. Had there been communities’ leaders available at The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz, the time of need, violence might not have surged to a threatening level. Thus, the city mayor should take steps to encourage dialogue among people of different culture and different faith. The mostly young population- the word, “young” is misleading, as it hides the actual age composition the society. However, if the word young refers to age group of 15 to 30, than the city mayor is right to journey, focus on educational development and creating job opportunities- as idle youths often take to crime and violence.

Sometimes, a problem requires multiple solutions; similar is the case of the violence. The argument errs to Agreement Essay, focus on powers in the, only one aspect of the violence that is lack of enough police officers. The city mayor has to look into various aspects of a problem. Thus, the city mayor is right to focus on educational development and creating job opportunities. The Fifth By Don. However, the mayor should take steps to increase dialogues among different communities, as only trust among communities ensures lasting peace. Get the best-selling MBA Book that the journey Top B-School Admission Officers are praising.

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A Biographical Source on Phaiax and Alkibiades? Please download to view. A Biographical Source on Ruiz Essay Phaiax and Alkibiades? The Classical Quarterly http://journals.cambridge.org/CAQ Additional services for The Classical Quarterly: Email alerts: Click here Subscriptions: Click here Commercial reprints: Click here Terms of Digital Evidence and Computer Crime Essay, use : Click here A Biographical Source on Phaiax and The Fifth Essay, Alkibiades? A. R. Burn The Classical Quarterly / Volume 4 / Issue 3-4 / December 1954, pp 138 - 142 DOI: 10.1017/S0009838800007990, Published online: 11 February 2009 Link to this article: http://journals.cambridge.org/ abstract_S0009838800007990 How to cite this article: A. Colgate Sensitive Pro-relief! R. Burn (1954). A Biographical Source on Phaiax and Agreement Miguel Essay, Alkibiades?. The Classical Quarterly, 4, pp 138-142 doi:10.1017/S0009838800007990 Request Permissions : Click here Downloaded from http://journals.cambridge.org/CAQ, IP address: 66.77.17.54 on 03 Feb 2014 A BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCE ON PHAIAX AND ALKIBIADES? ([Andokides] IV and Plutarch's Alkibiades.) i . AUTHORSHIP OF THE SPEECH No recent scholar has ever seriously maintained the genuineness of [Andokides] Oration IV, Against Alkibiades. Against it, one need cite no more than Blass, Attische Beredsamkeit (1868), pp. Essay About! 325-31; Jebb, Attic Orators (1876), vol. i, PP- 1 a n ( i n o w more recently Raubitschek's learned and interesting article in T.A.P.A., vol. By Don! lxxix (1948), pp. Essay And Its Fateful Pilgrims! 191-210. The speech is quite 'out of character' for Andokides, who was certainly far too young ever to have been in danger of ostrakism as an The Fifth Agreement Miguel Essay alternative victim to Nikias or Alkibiades; and there is no reasonable doubt that its 'dramatic date' is early in 415, and its ostensible speaker Phaiax, the clever young orator of Essay, Aristophanes' Knights (1377 ff.), ambassador to Sicily in 422 (Thk.

5. 4-5; cf. Agreement Miguel! our speech A§ 42, which adds Macedonia and Epeiros) and butt of Eupolis on divers occasions (Plut. Alk. Hero Essay! 13, Athenaios 3. 106b). These conclusions, however, leave open certain other material questions, especially that of the real date of the Ruiz, composition, on which in turn depends the Essay about Learning, question how far it can be legitimately used as an historical or biographical source. Much of its biographical information, as the reader cannot fail to notice, is by Don Ruiz Essay, given also in Plutarch's Alkibiades, usually in less detail. What, then, is the relation between the two ? Is the oration, as Jebb thought, drawing on the Lifea??the work of 'a late rhetorician, who . . . had read in Plutarch all the implied powers in the, scandalous stories relating to Alkibiades'? Or is Agreement by Don Miguel, Plutarch, as Blass thought, drawing on the oration ? This would be a serious matter for implied powers in the constitution, Plutarch's reputa- tion, for the speech contains some palpable and major historical 'howlers'. Or is a third solution more likely? Raubitschek suggests the The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz, exciting possibility that the speech is genuine Phaiax, or at least was accepted as such by is morpheme, so good and early a scholar as T h e o p h r a s t o s , dvSpl ^t,XrjKOu KCU loTopiKai nap' OVTIVOVV TWV i.oa6u)v (P lut . Alk. 10).

There are, however, great difficulties in by Don Ruiz, the way of the supposition that it can have been produced within living memory of the events of Digital Crime, 417-415; so that if it was taken seriously by Theophrastos, and The Fifth Agreement by Don Essay, so may even have given rise to the story of and its Pilgrims, Phaiax' part in the great fiasco of the last ostrakophoria, then it is a very weak link in Ruiz Essay, our chain of evidence on that event. Digital Crime Essay! Scholars must form their own judgement as to whether this composition reads like a genuine political speech; personally I feel sure that it is a school composition; but apart from such essentially subjective stylistic judgements, there are other arguments, which it may be worth while to recapitulate before going farther, against the view that the oration can even be early enough to have been used by Theophrastos. 2. THE CASE AGAINST AN EARLY DATE FOR THE SPEECH What looks like (and in my opinion is) our rhetorician's most conspicuous howler is, as it happens, that which can be most easily explained away. The reference to Hipponikos, the father of Kallias and Agreement by Don, son of the earlier Kallias, A. R. BURN 139 as 'having fallen when commanding at Delion' (A§ 13) looks like a simple lapse of memory, resulting from Digital Evidence and Computer Essay a confusion of Thk. 3. 91, where Hipponikos does command an expedition into that corner of Boiotia, with the account of Hippokrates' campaign and death in 424, Thk. 4. 77, 89 ff., 101. There is Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz, no hint in Thk.

4 that any other general was sharing the command at essay Deliona?? no rpiros avros, for example;a??indeed, the phrase in 77, 6 ' / . . . . rov . Aujfio- oOevr) npoavecneiXe, sounds as if Hippokrates, like his uncle Perikles before him on some occasions, had been placed in chief command over the whole com- bined operation. Nevertheless, it cannot be proved that Hipponikos was not also a general at Delion, and also killed there; and he certainly did die some time between his strategia in 426 and the date of his daughter's marriage to Alkibiades. He was dead before 422-1, when Eupolis, in The Parasites, satirized his son's 'wasting of his substance' on sophists (see the learned discussion in Athenaios 5. 218). More serious is the chronological difficulty that Alkibiades is said in The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz, A§ 13 to have had a child by a captive woman from Melos. Melos did not fall till about midwinter 416-415, and the 'dramatic date' of the oration is before the colgate, debates on Sicily in spring, 415. Commentators have pointed out that the woman might have been captured early in the attack on the island; but that attack was no surprise operation, and the words of The Fifth by Don Essay, our text, Tr/jia/xevo? yvvaiKa TCDI' alxpaXw- rtuv, sound rather as if she was bought in the general auction. It really seems much more likely that both these difficulties arise simply from mistakesa?? mistakes such as would be inconceivable at the ostensible date of speaking, but could be very easily made by a later student who has read up the period in books. This, which is the traditional view of the oration, is further supported by the remarkable prescience shown by the writer, if he did write in 415, in predicting the terrible disasters which Alkibiades, if not suppressed, will bring upon Evidence and Computer Crime, Athens (A§ 24), and by Don Miguel, still more in the words 'you will find out journey essay how much the allies hate you, when' (orav, not lav irore or the like)a??'when we become in- volved in The Fifth Miguel Ruiz, a naval war with Sparta'.

This, in colgate pro-relief, the spring of 415! I cannot feel that Raubitschek has really disposed of these difficulties; and when he main- tains that 'one is Agreement Miguel Ruiz, surprised that the author . . . if he really knew what happened after the spring of 415, did not refer more specifically to' Alkibiades' later misdeeds (op. cit., p. Powers Constitution! 202), one feels inclined to ask what more the author could possibly have added without abandoning his dramatic date altogether. If, however, the oration is really, as most scholars have believed, a rhetorical school composition by an author who had read up the period in books, but who lived himself long after his 'dramatic date', then the question is The Fifth by Don Miguel Essay, reopened, in what relation it stands to colgate sensitive, Plutarch's biography, which contains, sometimes with differences of detail, so many of the same stories ? Did the rhetorician draw upon Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, Plutarch, as Jebb suggested (in which case the implied powers in the, oration is of no further interest to historians), or did Plutarch use the Agreement Miguel Essay, oration? Or must we disagree both with Jebb and with Blass, and seek a third solution ? 3. Essay! THE EVIDENCE OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PLUTARCH'S LIFE AND THE SPEECH Comparison of The Fifth Agreement Miguel, these two works shows at once that in certain sectionsa??those, namely, which deal with Alkibiades' arrogant bearing and behaviour as a young mana??there is a close connexion between them. It can scarcely be merely 140 A BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCE ON PHAIAX AND ALKIBIADES? a matter of drawing upon Essay about Learning, a common fund of stories, as may be seen from a comparison of three pairs of The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, passages, viz.

A. [Andok.], A§A§ 13-15, cf. Plut. chap. 8. B. a?? , A§A§ 17, 20, 22, cf. Plut. chap. 16 (middle section). C. a?? , A§A§ 25-30, cf. Plut. chap. 12. It will be noticed, moreover, that in the oration the intermediate sections, 16, 18-19, 2r 2 3. 2 4 J a r e taken up by implied powers constitution, rhetorical complaints and comments on The Fifth the stories; that is to say, this whole portion of the oration, containing all the correspondences with Plutarch, is continuous. In Plutarch, however, the order differs internally.

The group of The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful, stories which I have called B (the Painter, the Agreement by Don, Choregos, the Melian Woman) comes after C (Alkibiades at Olympia); while Plutarch also lays under contribution other evidence, such as that of colgate, Euripides and The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, of Isokrates On the Chariot. In A (Alkibiades' marriage), also, the same details occur, but in Essay about Meaningful Learning, slightly different order: in the oration, (a) the dowry, (b) the infidelity of Alkibiades, (c) Hipparete's attempt to obtain a divorce, and (d) Kallias' arrangement to make over his property to the State in default of heirs male; while in Plutarch the order is a, d, b, c. But these differences are perhaps less striking than the general resemblances in order; for the order is not strictly chronological, and The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz, even if they are drawing from sensitive a common source, the two authors are under no obligation to follow the same order as he. By Don Essay! Yet, while the order in A, which is mainly chronological, does differ in one detail, the order of the items in both B and C, two groups each of three items, is in each case the same, though any other would have done as well. The three stories recounted with indignant comments in Digital Evidence Crime Essay, [Andokides], A§A§ 17-24, are briefly mentioned, in the same order, by Plutarch in chap. 12; and the assist- ance rendered to Alkibiades at The Fifth Miguel Olympia by Ephesos, Chios, and Lesbos is recorded in the same order and with the same details in the two versions of C. There are only Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Pilgrims, six possible orders in which three items can be listed, and there- fore the odds against one such coincidence would be only five to one; but the odds against The Fifth Miguel Essay, two such coincidences in succession are one in six squared, i.e. 35 to 1, and this, therefore, is the measure of the odds against the connexion between these sections of our two texts being only pro-relief, a matter of drawing upon a common fund of stories. The Fifth Ruiz Essay! Is the connexion, then, a matter of one writer using the other ? And if so, who wrote first ? 4. HYPOTHESIS (i): DID THE WRITER OF THE SPEECH USE PLUTARCH? Against this view (Jebb's) we must set the fact that the rhetorician's versions of the stories are not only fullera??that, clearly, is in general the result merely of rhetorical padding and efforts to make the case look as black as possiblea??but contain certain positive, factual details, which are not in Plutarch, and do not look like mere embroidery or 'variations on a theme'. Agatharchos the painter, whom Plutarch describes as, in Evidence Crime Essay, the end, 'dismissed with a reward', is described in the oration as 'making his escape as though from the court of Persia', TOVS vXaKas XaBwv uxnrep trapa fSaoiXetas ' (A§ I7)a??an 'iron curtain' touch that looks genuine and earlya??and then as threatened by his young kidnapper for The Fifth, not finishing the job!

The story of the rival choregos is Essay about Meaningful Learning, given not only Agreement by Don, with indig- nant comment but with such circumstantial details as that the contest was L, and as to implied in the constitution, how the law stood about the employment of non-Athenian A. R. BURN 141 artistsa??which is just the sort of The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Essay, issue on which a quarrel would break out. In the account of proceedings at Olympia the Essay, 'magnificent tent' supplied by Ephesos in The Fifth by Don Essay, Plutarch's version becomes a 'Persian tent' in the oration; and pro-relief, one is at once reminded of the fifth-century Greek interest in Persian marquees, attested by Miguel Essay, the story that Perikles' Odeion was modelled on one (Plut. Perikles 13). Again, the story of implied in the, Alkibiades' use of the civic gold plate, which Plutarch gives separately from the The Fifth by Don Ruiz Essay, account of his doings at Olympia, appears in the oration in the likely and convincing context of his Olympic victory dinner- party (A§29). Jebb's view of the relation, then, on careful scrutiny, appears improbable. 5. HYPOTHESIS (ii): DID PLUTARCH USE THE ORATION? The view that Plutarch used the oration, whether directly, as believed by Blass (with reservations) and implied powers in the, others, or through an intermediary (Raubitschek, pp. 208-10, suggests Theophrastos) is, at least at first sight, more convincing.

It does seem possible that Plutarch even mentions this speech (chap. 13); though if so, there is something wrong with the received text: (^eperai 8e KO.1 Xoyos ns KCLT' MA/a/JiaSou KCLI s ioTivri TTOXXOVS), for the object to The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, which Lesbos contributed at Olympia; whereas the oration has only the general and colourless word av 6. HYPOTHESIS (iii): A COMMON SOURCE I conclude, therefore, that the middle portion of the oration shows definite signs of relationship to colgate pro-relief, corresponding portions of Plutarch, but not that either author was drawing from the other. There remains only the hypothesis that they were drawing from a common source. This source may very well have been Theophrastos, the 'great collector of Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, gossip' whom, as Raubitschek points out, Plutarch names both in this part of his Alkibiades and also, on the very subject of Phaiax and the last ostrakophoria, in his Nikias, chap. 13. What! (The matter for which Plutarch cites him by name in his Alkibiades is the pains that his hero took over his oratory, and there is no mystery about why our rhetori- cian omits that; it was too creditable.) Theophrastos was a favourite source of Plutarch, who quotes him at least fourteen times in the Lives and fifteen times in the Moralia. Other possible fourth-century authors are less likely; Theo- pompos, for example, is quoted by name only four times in The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel, the Lives other than 1 Here one must add that there is no Diomedes may well have died in the mean- serious difficulty about the discrepancy of time, and Tisias may have been his heir, or a the names, Diomedes here but Tisias in partner with him in Meaningful Learning, the original expensive Isokrates' speech. That speech was written enterprise, for delivery some 20 years after the event; 142 A BIOGRAPHICAL SOURCE ON PHAIAX AND ALKIBIADES? that of Demosthenes, for which he was a principal source. Ephoros, named nine times in the Lives, is less improbable, but there is no trace of the group of stories which we have been discussing among his fairly voluminous fragments. Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay! That this oration, a school composition as it seems, should have drawn upon Theophrastos is still consistent with the fact of its having got, though wrongly, into the canon of Andokides' speeches early enough to about Meaningful, be cited as his by late Greek writers: by The Fifth by Don Miguel Ruiz, Harpokration twice; possibly by Plutarch himself (see above, section 5); and certainly by the author of the is morpheme, Lives of the Ten Attic Orators.

Athenaios also quotes a few words from it (9. 408c: rots xPvaA°is XA?Pvl. ftiois KCLI 9viuarr)piois (A§ 29)); but he refers to by Don Miguel, them as from 'Lysias, Against Alkibiades', probably by a slip of the pen. This firm establishment of the oration as canonic in the Graeco-Roman period would be consistent with the supposition that somebody had succeeded in selling it, like only too many other pseudepigrapha, to the Alexandrian Library. Hero! To sum up, then, the pseudo-Phaiax (rather than pseudo-Andokides), what- ever his date, certainly did not read up his subject merely out of Plutarch; it is possible that his work deceived and was used by Plutarch, but more probable that he and Plutarch had a common source. The Fifth Agreement By Don Essay! He had read up his fifth-century history, and may be used, with reserve, as a source for the few details about Alkibiades and Digital Evidence and Computer Essay, about Phaiax, which he alone gives us, but he reveals by one or two lapses that his work is certainly not that of The Fifth Miguel Ruiz Essay, a genuine fifth-century politi- cian, nor even that of a school-rhetorician of the decades immediately after 415.

His evidence on the date of the last ostrakophoria is therefore not entirely negligible (cf. A. G. Evidence Essay! Woodhead in Hesperia, xviii, 1949); but in The Fifth Miguel Ruiz, view of his 'howlers' on Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines and its Fateful Pilgrims other matters, we could wish for Agreement by Don Ruiz Essay, better. University of Glasgow A. R. BURN.

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essay introductory The purpose of this brief essay is to serve as an introduction both to the column itself and to The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz, the slide collection on this website. Links have been provided to selected images, with the intent of both illustrating the text and giving the reader a taste of about Meaningful quality and diversity of the The Fifth, images available. Marcus Ulpius Traianus, Roman Emperor AD 98-117 Trajan was born in Essay Meaningful, about the year AD 53 in The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel, Spain, the son of a Consul and Doctrines thus a member of a noble Roman family. He showed such prowess in public and military service that he was chosen by Nerva to be his successor on the Imperial throne.

Trajan was formally adopted in The Fifth Agreement, AD 98 by Nerva, who then promptly died and left the not-so-young man (he was likely about 45) emperor. What Is Morpheme. Only three years later Trajan embarked on Miguel Essay the first of what were to be two great and difficult wars against the Dacians, fairly highly civilized Germanic 'barbarians' who lived across the Danube in the area of modern Romania. The Dacians were led by the intelligent and skilful Decebalus, who made the war hard for the Romans. Nonetheless, Trajan and his army were victorious, and he returned to Rome the next year to celebrate a fine triumph and to receive the award of the title Dacicus. All was not well on what is morpheme the Danube, however, and Trajan returned to Dacia in 105. Trajan's motives are not clear - and indeed, they are not above suspicion, for he was rumoured to be hungry for military glory. Nonetheless, the result of this new campaign was unambiguous: this time Dacia was not only defeated but also incorporated into the Roman Empire as a new province. Trajan embarked on further conquests later in his reign, but it was for the Dacian wars and his subsequent grand building projects in the Eternal City that he is most remembered - and The Fifth Miguel Ruiz rightly so. Trajan returned to Rome with a vast quantity of booty, which he proceeded to journey, spend in grand style.

He was praised by The Fifth Miguel, the Romans of his time for his building of roads and aqueducts, but the crowning glory of Trajan's Rome was not built of brick or basalt, but out of coloured, polished marble, bronze, and gold. These were the materials of Evidence and Computer Trajan's new Forum, a massive building project which dwarfed all the earlier Imperial Fora. From the earliest days of the city, the hub of Roman business, politics, and ceremony had been the Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, Forum Romanum. Located at the base of the Palatine hill just south of the capital, the Forum Romanum was embellished over the years with temples, places of meeting and business, and various honours to famous citizens. Here, politicians debated, citizens met, talked, and voted, priests made sacrifices, and triumphant generals rode through on their way to the Capitol. On special occasions, gladiators even fought to the death while spectators looked on from temporary wooden stands. By the time of Caesar, however, the old forum was no longer large enough to handle all the business which needed to be transacted. Evidence And Computer Crime Essay. Some of these activities were moved elsewhere: for example, new facilities for voting were constructed on the Campus Martius, removing a major political function of the old Forum. The other approach to this problem of space was to construct supplementary venues nearby. Agreement Ruiz. Caesar, Augustus, and Nerva each built new fora to implied constitution, the north east of the old Forum, but still linked to it and to The Fifth Agreement Ruiz, each other by doors and passageways.

Domitian is said to have started construction on a fourth imperial forum, but work on Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines Fateful this ceased at his death. Thus, it was left to Trajan to fill the need for yet more forum space. Trajan did more, however, than simply provide more space for the public business of Rome; he constructed at the same time a monument to himself and to the glory of the Empire. The two main elements of the new Forum of Trajan were an open piazza and a basilica, and both were astonishingly large. The entire Forum of Nerva would have fit within the basilica, and The Fifth Miguel Ruiz Essay the piazza, its open area alone measuring more than 80m in width and 120m in length, was large enough to Meaningful, hold almost the entire Forum of Augustus. This piazza, the heart of the Forum, was paved with imported marbles and surrounded by a colonnade. Agreement By Don Miguel Essay. Atop this colonnade were inscriptions stating that the whole complex had been built using the spoils of war taken by essay, the emperor. The Fifth By Don. One of the colgate sensitive, functions of this massive open space was to provide a setting for The Fifth Agreement by Don Ruiz public business and ceremony. For example, the successor of Trajan, Hadrian, performed in it a great ceremony of and Computer Essay burning debt records. Later, during a time of dire military need, the emperor Marcus Aurelius used it as a venue for a great auction of the imperial possessions. Another function was to provide a display area in which to exhibit honours to great Romans.

Naturally, the greatest honour went to The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, Trajan himself, who was immortalised by a great equestrian statue, cast in bronze, gilded, and placed atop a pedestal in the centre of the piazza. The size of this statue was so great that it defied replication by any later rulers. When the emperor Constantius visited the Forum of Trajan in the 4th century, he declared somewhat rashly that he would order a copy of this horse to be made. One of his companions, a Persian prince named Ormisda, replied wittily that first the about Meaningful, emperor should build a new stable, if he could, so that the proposed new steed might roam as freely as the by Don, one they saw before them. The base of this statue has recently been discovered in the centre of the in the, Forum piazza, and its measurements give us an idea of the size of the horse which Constantius desired to copy: the horse and rider together (not including the base) may have been as much as 12 metres tall. Miguel Essay. By comparison, the famous equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, which now stands on the Capitol, is only about one third as large. Beyond the eastern end of the piazza was a multi-level market, in which spices and other luxuries were sold. The solid brickwork of Evidence and Computer Crime this structure has proven so enduring that, except for the column, it is Agreement by Don Essay today the best preserved element of the forum complex. The north end of the piazza was dominated by the basilica.

Its huge interior space (120m by 55m) was covered by a timber and tile roof supported on a forest of massive columns, and was enlarged by the provision of apses at each end. Its decoration was sumptuous. The walls and floor were clad in what, marble, and the roof was covered with bronze tiles thickly gilded. This sheltered yet extremely imposing space would have provided a suitable setting for public business, especially important trials. The dual apses, unusual for a Roman basilica, may have been added to double the space available for such affairs. When finally sated with the sights of the grand piazza, exhausted by the bustle of the The Fifth Agreement, market, and overwhelmed by the fervent pleading of the advocates in the basilica, a visitor could exit the north side of the basilica and enter a much different environment. Walking out through the last row of Essay imposing columns, our visitor would emerge into a small courtyard on the other side of the basilica. This courtyard was flanked to the west and east by two libraries, one for Latin and Miguel Essay one for Greek texts. It is not certain what lay to the north. A temple to the divine Trajan has been suggested, but no remains of such a building have been found in this area. However, a visitora's attention would be immediately drawn to the imposing monument which stood in the centre of the court: the column of Trajan.

The column of Trajan was a unique monument. It consisted of a 100-foot tall marble column set atop a massive rectangular base, topped by a gilded statue of the emperor himself. Columnar monuments, albeit smaller in scale, were not new to the Romans; there were three things, however, which made this monument particularly novel: the chamber carved in its base to house Trajan's ashes, the spiral staircase which wound upwards within its otherwise solid marble shaft to a viewing platform at its top, and, most of Essay about Meaningful Learning all, the continuous sculpted frieze which decorates the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, exterior of the column. These carvings depict the events of both Dacian wars, with an apparent accuracy of detail that has led some scholars to speculate that they were modelled on a war commentary written by Trajan himself. The Ambiguity Fateful Pilgrims. The wars are shown as a series of vignettes or scenes which each illustrate specific events. The scenes cover the entire range of Roman military activity, from fighting to Agreement by Don Ruiz, collecting food, from marching to building. They also show many details of the and its Fateful Pilgrims, land the Romans passed through - and of the enemies they fought. The figures in the carvings (over 2,000 appear) are executed at about 2/3 life size, and are so finely detailed that they cannot be fully appreciated from the ground.

This exquisite detail has, in fact, presented modern scholars with a problem in understanding just how an ancient Roman would have experienced the column. The first thing a visitor to the Column of Trajan would see would be the Agreement by Don Miguel Essay, base, covered with detailed carvings representing spoils of war captured from the Dacians. Digital Crime. The carvings which cover the Column itself, though easily accessible to us today through photographs and casts, would have been very difficult, if not impossible, for an ancient Roman spectator to appreciate in full. From ground level, only the lowest spirals are visible in detail. To make matters more difficult, the small size of the court in which the column was placed would not have allowed people to step very far back from the monument, increasing the difficulty of viewing the The Fifth Ruiz, upper spirals. Is Morpheme. It has been proposed that the roofs of the The Fifth Miguel Ruiz Essay, two flanking libraries could have been used as viewing platforms (the height of these may have been about equivalent to the current street level from which visitors now peer at the column). Even if this was the colgate sensitive pro-relief, case, however, it would have only Agreement Miguel Essay, allowed the spectator to view a few more spirals and it would have been impossible to follow the circular narrative of the relief.

This of course raises the Doctrines and its, question of why such great pains were taken to cover the entire surface of the Column with such detailed relief if could not have been appreciated in full. There are some possible explanations, including the argument that any Roman observer would have been familiar with the story which the relief narrates and would not have needed to The Fifth Agreement, see all the scenes in detail to understand the monument, but no explanation is implied constitution wholly satisfying. What is clear, however, is that the Romans were well aware of this problem with visibility: when the Miguel Essay, Column of Marcus Aurelius was carved about 70 years later, its designers increased the height of the Digital Crime, spiral band and cut much deeper into the stone to make the figures easier to see. However, it must be remembered that the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Essay, relief is journey essay not all that there is to the Column of Trajan. The sculpture, while doubtless as impressive to the ancient viewer as to The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz, the modern one, was not the only 'interface' through which a visitor was meant to experience the column. The second crucial aspect of the Column of Trajan, and one which is unfortunately seldom experienced by modern visitors, is the combination of Essay and its Fateful spiral stairway and by Don viewing platform. Even to a modern visitor, accustomed to powers in the, office towers and glass elevators, the The Fifth by Don Essay, experience of climbing the column's stairs and viewing Rome from 120 feet in the air is quite impressive; for the ancient Roman, living before the age of the skyscraper and also at a time when the Forum of Trajan was intact, the effect would doubtless have been even greater. The staircase itself is carved and finished so precisely that one could think it a modern addition.

The spiral of the stair itself serves to thoroughly disorient an ascending visitor. The windows, one every quarter turn, were the only source of light and are placed at such a height that it is impossible to see anything but sky. The whole experience of climbing the column, then, involves a long, twisting ascent, punctuated by about Meaningful, bright rectangles of The Fifth Agreement Essay light and culminating finally in a sudden 'epiphany' as the climber emerges into the bright light of day on the viewing platform. Hero Journey. The first thing our visitor would see would be the newly constructed Markets of Trajan, cut into the slope of the Quirinal hill. Turning to the right, our visitor would be able to gaze along the The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel, length of Trajan's Forum all the way down to the Colosseum (view from in the constitution, top) This view would have been dominated by The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, the massive roof of the colgate sensitive pro-relief, Basilica Ulpia, with its gilded bronze tiles blazing in the sun. Another quarter turn would face the visitor to the Capitol, and a further turn to complete the circuit would provide a view out over by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, the Campus Martius. How might the Doctrines and its Fateful, impact of The Fifth Miguel Ruiz such an experience have compared with standing on what the ground, craning one's neck while squinting at the spiral relief carvings? (View from bottom) Conceivably, the ascent and Miguel Ruiz resulting view may have been thought of by journey essay, the column's designers as a more important device for experiencing the column than the carvings themselves. The construction and finishing of Trajan's column was a monumental task.

At Luna (near Cararra in northern Italy) workers quarried the Miguel, components of the column: eight solid marble blocks for the base, twenty massive marble drums measuring three and a half meters in diameter for the column shaft and capital. These were shipped down the coast and up the River Tiber, and then dragged to the construction site near the Capitol. What. Once the base had been assembled, work on the column drums could begin. Each drum likely arrived in a roughly cylindrical shape from the quarry; prior to putting each in place, it would have been necessary to make them into the final desired shape and to cut the internal stairway. This task would have required precise measuring and very careful carving. As each drum was lifted into The Fifth Ruiz Essay, place, it was secured to the one below by metal dowels fitted into the upper and lower faces of the drums and secured with lead. The lead was poured in via a channel cut into the upper face of the what, lower drum; it was these channels which medieval scavengers used to guide them to the metal dowels, leaving large pits hacked into the surface of the Column at various places along the drum joins.

When was the Miguel Ruiz, spiral relief itself carved?[footnote 1] This question has been much debated, but evidence from the reliefs themselves seems to indicate that the column drums were carved after they had been put in place, and perhaps carving actually began before all the hero essay, drums had been raised. The Fifth Ruiz. The carving appears to have started from the bottom and proceeded left to right up the shaft in a spiral. This spiral, it seems, was not marked out carefully in advance but rather was improvised as the carving proceeded. Is Morpheme. The top border of the spiral was generally not defined as the frieze was carved, but was left to be formed by the ground line of the spiral as it wrapped around and up the The Fifth Agreement by Don, column. Essay The Ambiguity Doctrines Fateful. Often, objects from the lower spiral can be seen jutting into the groundline of the spiral above, which is often dramatically adjusted to avoid interfering with the scene below. Sometimes it seems that the carving of the reliefs got ahead of the The Fifth Miguel Essay, carving and about Meaningful assembly of the drums. This is indicated by Ruiz Essay, cases where the upper border of a spiral follows along the upper edge of a drum, while the lower border continues to rise. The construction site must have been a scene of hectic activity. The height of the spiral varies greatly, from about 0.8 m to slightly over 1.5 m. Hero Essay. One might think that the sculptors would have made the upper spirals greater in height to make the images easier to Agreement Miguel Ruiz Essay, see, but this was not the pro-relief, case.

In fact, the Agreement, spiral maintains approximately the same width (1.1-1.2m) between the 1st and the 13th turn, then gets narrower as it proceeds up the column, shrinking to Meaningful, its narrowest at the 19th spiral, and then only on the last two drums widens to its greatest size. A possible explanation for this phenomenon is The Fifth Agreement Miguel that the sculptors were not sure just how much space they were going to Digital Evidence Crime Essay, have to fit in all their scenes. This makes even more sense if the column was assembled while the sculpture was in progress: only when the The Fifth Agreement, final drums were placed on top of the what, column were the sculptors finally sure of how much space they had. Indeed, they appear to The Fifth Agreement, have realized that they had more space than they thought - thus the greater height of the final spirals. The sculptors, however, had methods of dealing with this problem of uncertain space. Many of their scenes could be compressed or extended as need be to make best use of the available area. A good example is the adlocutio scene, which consists generally of Trajan on a podium flanked by his officers and addressing the troops assembled below. If little space was available for such a scene, the colgate, assembled soldiery could be tightly packed into The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz, an L shape before the podium; if more space was available, or if more space needed to be filled, the soldiers could be spread out.

Details such as this, taken into consideration with the varying height of the spiral, suggest that the sculptors did not have the benefit of a detailed mockup or cartoon to guide them in their work. How did the carvers and Essay Doctrines Fateful sculptors actually execute their work? The roughest work would have been done with large, heavy picks, hacking away chunks of marble to form the drums into roughly the desired shape. Agreement By Don Miguel. Then hand-held chisels would have been used, first large ones, including a point chisel (a carving tool with a single point), and then finer tools such as tooth chisels (with multiple small points). Pro-relief. In some cases, particularly at edges and angles, a flat chisel (with a sharp straight blade at its end) was used to bring the stone to The Fifth Ruiz Essay, a fine, accurate finish. What. No evidence of point chisel marks remains on the column, but traces of the marks left by tooth and by Don Miguel Ruiz flat chisels can be seen inside the pro-relief, column. The exterior of the column is even more finely finished. There are no traces of either the point or tooth chisel left anywhere on the sculpted frieze, although we know from The Fifth Agreement Miguel Ruiz, examples of unfinished Roman carvings that these tools were used to Evidence and Computer Crime Essay, rough out the carved images. Instead, the surface shows the marks of even finer tools, mainly flat and round-headed chisels, scrapers (a fine-toothed tool used to scrape away stone), and rasps -this image needs rotation. It seems that these tools were essentially the The Fifth Miguel, same as the hand tools still used by modern sculptors.

Sometimes figures were outlined with a channelling tool (a chisel with a flat, narrow blade), apparently to make them stand out better from the background. No part of the frieze was ever brought to a polished finish, but every preserved portion of the original surface shows some sort of tool mark. Sensitive Pro-relief. The years have taken their toll on the surface of the column's carvings. The original surface, where it is preserved, appears as dark brownish-gray areas. In these areas the detail is sharp and tool marks are preserved. Other areas of the column have had this original surface stripped off by weathering and pollution, and appear greyish-white, granular, and have fuzzy details. The difference between these two types of surface is The Fifth Agreement by Don Miguel Ruiz very clear on the stone. (See View of contrasting surfaces). The column's frieze was not fully complete once the carving had been finished, however. Provisions were made in what, many places for metal attachments to by Don Miguel Essay, be added, mainly tools and weapons held by soldiers, and small holes were drilled into many hands for these miniature implements to be inserted. It seems, however, that this process was rather haphazardly executed. The original carvers gave some soldiers weapons and tools carved in stone, but left the hands of others empty, apparently awaiting metal attachments.

In the end, however, not all of these hands were filled and many of the Doctrines and its Pilgrims, column's figures were left working or fighting with invisible weapons. Some scenes even have some carved weapons, some hands empty but drilled for metal attachments, and some hands left entirely empty, without even holes provided. It is often thought that the Agreement Miguel, reliefs of Trajan's column were once painted, and that this painting would have helped make them easier to see. However, there appears to journey essay, be no trace of any paint anywhere on the column, and The Fifth Ruiz it also may be doubted whether the addition of bright paint to such small, detailed reliefs would have made them any easier to what, make out. Some Further Reading on Trajan's Column and its Sculpture. C. Cichorius, Die Reliefs der Trajanssäule , Berlin 1896, 1900. The first full photographic coverage of the column, using photos of the plaster casts, and the source for the standard scene numbering. P.J.E. Davies, The Politics of Perpetuation.

Trajana's Column and the Art of Commemoration, American Journal of Archaeology 101 (1997), pp. The Fifth Agreement Essay. 41-46. Discusses the in the, important funerary aspects of the column. F. Lepper and S. Frere, Trajan's Column , Gloucester 1988. A reprint of Cichorius' photos with an extensive commentary in English. P.M.

Monti, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1980. A short work but with some good detail shots and a useful (if sometimes innacurate) set of line drawings. J.E. Packer, The Forum of Trajan in Rome: A Study of the Monuments , Berkeley and Los Angeles 1997. A comprehensive study of the forum complex, with extensive plans, drawings, photos, and Miguel full-colour reconstructions based on meticulous research into all aspects of the journey essay, complexa's architecture and adornment. I. Richmond, Trajan's Army on Trajan's Column , London 1982 (reprint of article published in Agreement Ruiz Essay, 1935 in the Papers of the British School at Rome) A comprehensive study of all aspects of the Roman army as seen on the column, well illustrated. Along with this should be read J.C.

Coulston's article The Value of Trajan's Column as a Source of Military Equipment in Roman Military Equipment: The Sources of Evidence (British Archaeological Reports International Series 476, 1989), pages 31-44, which raises a number of important caveats for anyone studying the column from a military perspective. P. Rockwell, Prelimary Study of the Carving Techniques on the Column of Trajan, pp. 101-111 in Marmi Antichi (Studi Miscellanei 26, 1985). Ibid., The Art of Stoneworking: a Reference Guide , Cambridge 1993. L. Rossi, Trajan's Column and the Dacian Wars , translated by J.M.C.

Toynbee, London 1971. An examination of the Roman army and its Dacian campaign as depicted on the column. Although he likely reads too much into constitution, certain details (see the Agreement Miguel, warnings of what Coulston, in the reference given above), Rossi provides a very handy narrative survey of the column's relief, illustrated with small photographic sections of the frieze. S. Settis, A. By Don Miguel. La Regina, G. Agosti, and V. Implied Powers. Farinella, La Colonna Traiana , Rome 1988. Colour photos of the entire column, with more detail visible than on the Cichorius plates but flatter looking in by Don Miguel Ruiz Essay, relief. http://www.artsednet.getty.edu/ArtsEdNet/Exhibitions/Trajan/index.html An excellent site focussed on the Getty Museum's project to create a computer model of the Forum of Trajan. Many images in video format are available, which help to give an impression of what the forum might have looked like in Roman times.

http://www.traiano.com/inglese/testi_html/home.htm The official Italian excavation site for Fateful Pilgrims current work in the forum of Trajan. The Fifth Agreement By Don Miguel Ruiz Essay. The June 1999 excavation news contains a report on the discovery of the base of the equestrian statue of colgate sensitive pro-relief Trajan. For the following I am greatly indebted to Peter Rockwell for many discussions on the various theories and for much clarification on The Fifth Agreement Essay (and some first hand experience of) the practicalities of marble carving.