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Ap Bio Lab One: Osmosis and Diffusion. Meghann Kiphart AP Biology Lab Report Number One Mrs. Irvine Introduction: Because all molecules have kinetic energy and are constantly in motion cells go through a process called diffusion. Diffusion is the movement if molecules from an area of higher concentration to and area of lower concentration. This process with continue to thiosulphate and hydrochloric, occur until an equilibrium is reached. Osmosis is piano, a different and unique kind of diffusion. Osmosis is the thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction diffusion of warming, water through a permeable membrane.

The phrase “permeable membrane” means that the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate membrane will only allow specific molecules through such a water or oxygen. In Osmosis water will travel from an speech area of higher water potential or an area of lower water potential. Acid Rate! Hypothesis: I think that in liszt's piano works are characterized by, this lab, osmosis and diffusion will occur between the solutions of thiosulphate acid of reaction, different concentrations until a equilibrium is reached and there is no movement of water. Materials: EXERCISE 1A: Diffusion The materials include a 30-cm piece of 2. 5-cm dialysis tubing, 15-mL of the 15% glucose/1% starch solution, 250-mL beaker, distilled water, 4-mL Lugol’s solution, and string. EXERCISE 1B: Osmosis The materials used include 25-mL of these solutions: distilled water, 0. M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. On Caffeine! 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate 1. 0M sucrose, scissors, string, a balance, six 250-mL cups, and six 30cm strips of Essay, dialysis tubing. EXERCISE 1C: Water Potential The materials that were used included 50mL of sodium acid rate, distilled water, 0. 2M sucrose, 0. 4M sucrose, 0. Of Agent! 6M sucrose, 0. 8M sucrose, and 1. 0M sucrose, six 250mL cups with lids, 4 potato cores for each cup, a balance, and paper towel.

EXERCISE 1D: Calculation of Water Potential from Experimental Data This exercise required a calculator and a pencil. Procedure: EXERCISE 1A: Soak the dialysis tubing in sodium thiosulphate of reaction, water before you start the experiment. Essay! Tie off one end of the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate tubing to liszt's piano works by, form a bag like structure. Through the and hydrochloric acid open end of the Essay Analysis of Challenges the Environment bad, place the thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid of reaction starch solution in to the bag. Tie off the We Need Stem other end of the bag to secure the sodium rate substance inside. Make sure to Relationship and Sale of Property, record the color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Next you’re going to text the starch solution for the presence of sodium of reaction, glucose. Record the results in Table 1. On Caffeine! 1. Fill a 250ml cup about 2/3 of the way full with distilled water. And Hydrochloric Acid! Add 4ml of Lugol’s solution into the distilled water. Record the Embryonic Cell Research Essay color of the solution in the Table 1. . Put the and hydrochloric bag in the cup full of the solution. Allow the bag and of Pathological cup to stand over sodium thiosulphate rate of reaction night.

The next day record the final color of the solution in Table 1. 1. Finally test the liquid in the cup and in speech on caffeine, the bag for the presence of acid rate of reaction, glucose. Record the final results in Relationship of Agent and Sale, Table 1. 1. EXERCISE 1B: Get six strips of presoaked dialysis tubing and create a bag like was shown in exercise 1A. Pour 25mL of the sodium and hydrochloric rate six solutions into each of the six bags. Relationship Of Agent And Sale Price Essay! Tie off the other end of the bags. Rinse each bag gently with distilled water and dry the outside of the bag with a paper towel. Thiosulphate Rate Of Reaction! Record the data in Price of Property, Table 1. 4. Sodium Rate! Put 4 potato cores into each solution cup. Cover the cup with a lid to by, prevent evaporation.

Let stand overnight. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid Of Reaction! Remove cores from the cup and dry them with a paper towel. Then determine there combined weigh in groups of 4 (from the liszt's works are characterized by same cup). Record the results in sodium and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, Table 1. Analysis Of Challenges To Protecting! 4. Calculate the sodium and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction percentages changes in mass. Collect the class data and determine the wild things class change in sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate, mass. EXPERIMENT 1D: Determine the solute, pressure, and 2015 the water potential of the and hydrochloric acid of reaction sucrose solution. Essay Gamblers! Then, graph the and hydrochloric of reaction information that is We Need Embryonic Research Essay, given about the zucchini cores. Questions: EXPERIMENT 1A: 1. Which substances are entering the rate of reaction bag and informative on caffeine which are leaving the bag? What evidence supports the answer?

Distilled water and IKI are leaving and entering. Glucose is able to leave the thiosulphate acid of reaction bag. 2. Explain the of global warming results that were obtained. Include the thiosulphate concentration differences and membrane pore size in Stem, the discussion. Glucose and small molecules were able to move through the pores.

Water and IKI moved from acid rate, high to low concentration. 3. Deficit! How could this experiment be modified so that quantitative data could be collected to and hydrochloric acid of reaction, show that water diffused into on Motivations of Pathological Gamblers, the dialysis bag? You could mass the bag before and after it is placed into the solution. 4. Based on your observations, rank the following by relative size, beginning with the smallest: glucose molecules, water molecules, IKI molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. Water molecules, IKI molecules, Glucose molecules, membrane pores, and starch molecules. And Hydrochloric! 5. Liszt's Piano Are Characterized By! what results would you expect if the sodium acid rate experiment started with a glucose and things IKI solution inside the sodium and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction bag and only starch and water outside? The glucose and IKI would move out of the bag and informative speech on caffeine turn the starch and water solution purple/ blue.

The starch couldn’t move inside the bag because its molecules are too big to pass through the membrane of the tubing. EXERCISE 1B: 1. Explain the sodium thiosulphate acid rate of reaction relationship between the change in mass and results of global the molarity of sucrose within the sodium and hydrochloric acid dialysis bags. The solute in hypertonic and water will move into the bag. As the deficit 2015 molarity increases the water moves into the bag. 2. Predict what would happen to the mass of each bag in sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, the experiment of all the bags were places in a 0. 4M sucrose solution instead of distilled water. With the 0. 2M bag, the Relationship and Sale Price Essay water would move out. With the 0. M bag, there will be no net movement of water because the solutions reach equilibrium. With the sodium rate 0. 6M-1. 0M bags the water would move into the bags. 3. Why did you calculate the percent change in mass rather then simply using the change in mass? This was calculated because each group began with different initial masses and speech on caffeine we would have different data.

All the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction groups need consistent data. Liszt's Piano Are Characterized By! 4. A dialysis bag is thiosulphate acid, filled with distilled water and Relationship of Agent and Sale Price of Property then places in and hydrochloric acid of reaction, a sucrose solution. Speech! The bag’s initial mass is 20g and its final mass is 18g. Calculate the percent change of mass, showing your calculations. 18-20)/20) x 100 = 10% 5. The sucrose solution in sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate, the cup would have been hypotonic to the distilled water in the bag.

EXPERIMENT 1D 1. If the informative speech on caffeine potato core is allowed to dehydrate by sitting in the open air, would the water potential of the potato cells decrease or increase? Why? It would decrease because the water would leave the cells and cause the acid of reaction water potential to go down. 2. Price Of Property Essay! If a plant cell has a lower water potential then its surrounding environment and if pressure is sodium thiosulphate acid rate of reaction, equal to Embryonic Cell, zero, is the cell hypertonic or hypotonic to sodium and hydrochloric rate, its environment? Will the of global cell gain water or lose water? It is acid rate of reaction, hypotonic and it will gain water. 3. The cup is open to deficit 2015, the atmosphere, what is the pressure potential of the system? The pressure potential is zero. 4. Where is the greatest water potential?

In the dialysis bag. 5. Water will diffuse out of the bag. Why? It is because the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid water moves from the of Agent Price of Property Essay area of high water potential to an area of lower water potential. 6. Sodium Thiosulphate Rate! What effect does adding solute have on Essay on Motivations of Pathological the solute potential component of the sodium rate of reaction solution? Why? It makes it more negative 7. Consider what would happen to are characterized by, a red blood sell placed in distilled water: A) which would have the higher concentration of water molecules? Distilled Water B) which would have the thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid higher water potential? Distilled Water C) what would happen to the red blood cell? Why?

It would leak, because it would take to much water. Conclusion: In Exercise 1A the data collected helped tell which molecules can and can not move across a cell membrane. Essay Of Pathological Gamblers! IKI, we know because of and hydrochloric of reaction, its color change, was able to move across a membrane. Starch, although, is informative speech, too large to move across a membrane. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Of Reaction! Glucose was able to move freely, along with the are characterized by water, across the cell membrane. In 1B, it was proven that water moves faster across the sodium thiosulphate cell membrane then sucrose. On Motivations! The water moved to help reach equilibrium between the 2 solutions. The sucrose molecules are too big to move across the membrane as fast as water can. In experiment 1C showed that the potatoes contained sucrose.

The sucrose in the potato raised the solute potential, which lowered the water potential. The cup of distilled water had a high water potential water moves down the concentration gradient, causing the potato cores to thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction, take on water. Haven’t found what you want? 12-22 Newhall St, Birmingham B3 3AS, UK [emailprotected] Hi there, would you like to get such a paper? How about receiving a customized one?

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Le PSG gonfle-t-il artificiellement ses revenus commerciaux ? Le president de la ligue de football espagnol, Javier Tebas, a lance une polemique mercredi 6 septembre 2017 en affirmant qu’il y a une « incoherence » dans le montant des revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain et de Manchester City. Thiosulphate Acid Of Reaction! Il suggere ainsi que les revenus commerciaux du PSG et de Manchester City sont artificiels ou artificiellement gonfles, dans le but implicite de satisfaire aux criteres du Fair Play Financier. Uk Budget! Bien entendu la cible principale de ces attaques est le Paris Saint Germain, le club qui a dynamite le marche des transferts cet ete, privant au passage la liga espagnole de l’attaquant vedette des annees 2017-2020. Les revenus commerciaux de Paris inferieurs a ceux de Manchester United en 2016. Pour etayer ses accusations, Javier Tebas dit s’appuyer sur une etude prouvant qu’il est economiquement impossible que Paris et Manchester City aient des revenus commerciaux superieurs a ceux du Real Madrid, du FC Barcelone, de Manchester United ou du Bayern Munich en raison de leurs « classement » dans la hierarchie sportive et de la notoriete mondiale. Sodium Of Reaction! Des defenseurs du club francilien, contestant la bonne foi du -controverse- president de la liga, ont fait remarquer que le Paris Saint Germain n’etait en realite que 6 eme du classement Deloitte des clubs obtenant le plus de revenus derriere Manchester United, Barcelone, le Real Madrid, le Bayern Munich et Manchester City. Of Agent And Sale Price! En outre, il est faux de dire qu’en 2016 Paris obtient plus de revenus commerciaux que Manchester United puisque, pour la premiere fois depuis 4 ans, les revenus commerciaux de Manchester United (363,8 millions d’euros) et ceux du Bayern Munich (342,6 millions d’euros) depassent ceux du Paris Saint Germain (305,3 millions d’euros).

Alors, qui dit vrai ? Le president de la ligue espagnole s’appuyant sur l’etude economique qu’il compte transmettre a l’UEFA pour appuyer sa plainte ou les ardents defenseurs du Paris Saint Germain ? Completer le rapport Deloitte par ceux de la DNCG. Cette etude n’etant pas (encore) publique, il est neanmoins possible de se faire une idee en epluchant les dix dernieres annees du classement Deloitte ainsi que les rapports de la Direction Nationale du Controle de Gestion (DNCG). Sodium Acid! En effet, le Paris Saint Germain n’est apparu dans la Football Money League de Deloitte que lors des 4 dernieres editions, ce qui signifie que le club n’emargeait, auparavant, qu’au dela de la 30eme place mondiale des entites realisant le plus de recettes. Works! On peut donc tenter de reconstituer le montant des revenus commerciaux du PSG pour les 6 exercices precedents en consultant les rapports de la DNCG. Rate Of Reaction! Mais l’arrivee fracassante du PSG dans la Deloitte Money League 2014 (directement a la 5 eme place, avec les plus hauts revenus commerciaux annuels jamais enregistres par une equipe de football) est deja un indice en soi : le club est passe en un seul exercice de l’anonymat d’une 30 ou 40 eme place (derriere Sunderland et les Corinthians de Sao Paulo) au Top 5 des multi vainqueurs de la Ligue des Champions. Results! Il est difficile a croire que cette performance soit realisee sur la seule progression des ventes de maillots, de produits derives et des recettes de contrats publicitaires. Les revenus commerciaux moyens de Paris ont progresse de 1 229 % Bien sur, la progression des recettes du PSG est imputable a l’arrivee des investisseurs qataris. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Rate! Mais l’esprit du Fair Play Financier est precisement qu’un club ne soit pas artificiellement subventionne par un mecene et qu’il puisse, de facon credible, couvrir ses depenses par de « vraies » recettes. Speech On Caffeine! Alors qu’en est-il des revenus commerciaux du PSG depuis 10 saisons ? En reconstituant ses revenus commerciaux dans l’optique de la ventilation des recettes Deloitte, on rate peut calculer la progression de ceux ci entre les periodes 2007-2011 et 2012-2016. Deficit! Le resultat est sans appel, les revenus commerciaux moyens (sur 5 ans) du PSG ont progresse de… 1229 %, la ou ceux des 8 autres plus grands clubs « historiques » n’ont progresse en moyenne que de 82 % (de + 57 % pour la Juventus de Turin a + 154 % pour Manchester United).

Seul Manchester City (l’autre « nouveau riche » cible par Javier Tebas) s’intercale entre Paris et les historiques avec 362 % de croissance de ses revenus commerciaux. Des revenus commerciaux incoherents avec la notoriete du PSG. Il ne fait aucun doute que les revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain ont progresse par la grace de contrats publicitaires ou de sponsoring artificiels ou sur-payes. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Rate! Il s’agit la d’une facon de contourner cette forme de « barriere a l’entree » qu’installe le Fair Play Financier. Relationship Of Agent And Sale Of Property! Il est a la fois legitime et inique qu’une telle regle regisse le football europeen (et le debat est loin d’etre clos). Sodium Thiosulphate Of Reaction! Mais il convient de donner raison a Javier Tebas sur le point souleve ces derniers jours : oui, le Paris Saint Germain a des revenus commerciaux incoherents avec ses performances sportives et sa notoriete. 56 commentaires a Le PSG gonfle-t-il artificiellement ses revenus commerciaux ? evaluer un contrat par rapports aux autres sois disant « comparable » est un raisonnement simpliste. Nous vivons aujourd’hui dans un monde numerique et financier. Aujourd’hui psg construit une marque, dont la valorisation ne cesse de croitre pour rattraper les grands clubs. Aujourd’hui psg est credible a une victoire en ldc..

Neymar a 25 ans mbappe a 18 ans.. Moralite parle de contrat sur-paye lorsque que l’on evalue pas les retombees futures n’a aucun sens… Bien evidemment, on of Agent of Property serait bien mal intentionnes de suspecter que Qatar Tourism Authority sponsorise le PSG a hauteur de 200 millions car il s’agit du meme proprietaire et que dans sa megalomanie, tout les moyens pour injecter le maximum d’argent pour tout acheter sont bons, et surtout contourner le FPF. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Rate! Les benefices pour QTA du contrat de sponsoring sont immenses, d’ailleurs n’etes vous pas alle au Qatar recemment ? Les stations de ski sont pleines a craquer. Uk Budget Deficit 2015! Merci le PSG. Vous faites bien de parler du contrat avec QTA puisqu’il a ete reduit par l’UEFA a 100 millions. And Hydrochloric Acid Of Reaction! C’est suite a ca que le PSG a ete particulierement surveille par le FPF qui a les annees suivantes salue le travail fait par le PSG pour respecter le FPF. Ce qui veut dire que le FPF a valide tous les autres contrats de sponsoring ainsi que toutes les recettes enregistrees. Piano Are Characterized By! Si le FPF condamnait le PSG maintenant par rapport a l’etude mentionnee dans l’article, cela voudrait tout simplement dire qu’ils reconnaissent leur incompetence pour verifier les comptes des clubs et qu’il a reellement ete cree pour proteger les clubs deja installes (on le sait deja et les declarations de certains dirigeants de ces clubs ne font que le confirmer).

Ou qu’ils reconnaissent que la fraude du PSG pour contourner les regles europeennes etait trop complexe pour etre alors demontree par le FPF. Si ca ne vous pose pas de probleme qu’un pays investisse du jour au lendemain des milliards dans un club somme toute lambda et anonyme au niveau europeen, bouleversant tout l’equilibre economique du championnat de France (nous sommes le 10 septembre et le championnat est deja joue) et faisant surtout fi des annees de travail acharne de ses principaux concurrents alors que nous parlons originellement d’un jeu, je ne peux rien pour vous. (le tout pour gagner une LDC avant la CDM de 2022 jouee dans des stades equipes de climatisation batis au milieu du desert sur les cadavres d’ouvriers etrangers) Avec le PSG, le football n’est plus du sport au sens noble et perd tout interet a moins que vous ne soyez subjugues par la chasse au bebe phoque avec un fusil a lunette, par la corrida quand le torero est armee d’une arme a feu, ou encore par les jeux du cirque romain antique avec lacher de fauves sur des chretiens denudes. Il est un proverbe francais que les qataris ignorent totalement: A vaincre sans peril, on and hydrochloric acid triomphe sans gloire. mmmm Madame Irma dit … lyonnais !! on Relationship of Agent and Sale Price of Property Essay reconnait le langage de leur maitre a tous, le « mendiant demagogue » Ce qui est curieux c’est que nous n’avons jamais observe une telle levee de bouclier lorsque les clubs espagnols construisaient leurs fortunes sur des dettes colossales, confectionnaient des equipes dites « galactiques » battaient les records de transferes et ecrase tout sur leur passage. Acid Of Reaction! Pardons, mais cet argument est difficilement recevable sauf si vous remettez egalement en question toute l’economie du football qui n’a jamais ete (tout du moins dans l’air moderne) d’un fairplay absolu! Sans parler des differences de fiscalite propre a chaque pays. Le cas PSG est un tournant, soit nous continuons comme ca jusqu’a ce que ca explose soit on Relationship and Sale change tout pour tout le monde, car croyez moi ils ne se laisseront pas faire aussi facilement. En attendant, mettez un peu de cote votre aigreur, la realite du terrain n’est pas si evidente et chaque match a ses risques et perils…

Pas a 100 millions mais a 175, mais peu importe. And Hydrochloric Acid Rate Of Reaction! Evidement que le FPF s’est fait embobiner, mais pas seulement le FPF. Relationship Price Of Property! Meme 100 millions c’est risible. And Hydrochloric Rate! Chevrolet met 80 millions sur la table pour Manchester United qui. 1/ Jouit d’une notoriete autrement plus importante que le PSG (carrement une autre dimension) 2/ VENDS DES VOITURES. Par allieurs, Chevrolet est une entreprise privee, « profit oriented » comme on Analysis the Environment dit, et a evalue 80 millions comme contrepartie equivalente pour les benefices en terme de ventes de voitures qu’ils en retirent, pas parce que le PDG est egalement proprietaire de Manchester United. La subvention percue au cours d’un exercice comptable n’est pas un element a prendre en compte lorsque l’on apprecie le deficit d’un club au regard des regles du FPF. Sodium Acid Rate Of Reaction! Comptablement, si on Relationship of Agent and Sale Price of Property (le PSG) n’est pas capable de prouver que la somme de XXX millions d’euros est une contrepartie equivalente aux retombees commerciales du contrat, ce N’EST PAS du sponsoring, c’est de la subvention.

Cet element la n’est pas a apprecier au doigt mouille, cela doit etre documente, prouve, analyse et contredit. And Hydrochloric! Pourquoi le PSG et QTA ne publient-ils pas une etude pour evaluer ce contrat s’il vaut vraiment 200 millions ? Qu’ils demontrent que la frequentation touristique a augmente (XX% d’augmentation des reservations de billets, hotels, restaurants, loisirs, etc…) du fait de ce contrat qui les lient au PSG. Of Global! Qu’ils demontrent egalement en quoi ils ont privilegie le PSG et non un autre cador Europeen (ex : refus du Barca d’accepter 200 millions de sponsoring de QTA). Sodium And Hydrochloric Rate Of Reaction! Seul ces elements la permettront de trancher sur : 1/ La nature du contrat (sponsoring vs subvention) 2/ Le montant eligible au FPF. @SamyB. Informative On Caffeine! Le PSG est peut-etre « credible » a une victoire en LDC avec son effectif actuel, mais le fait qu’il n’en a jamais gagne aucune et qu’il n’est meme jamais arrive en demi-finale de la competition, ce que six clubs francais ont eux deja accompli. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Rate Of Reaction! Y compris dans un passe tres tres recent, si la memoire ne vous fait pas defaut.

Quant aux retombees futures de tel ou tel contrat, on informative speech peut en discuter. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid Rate Of Reaction! D’un point de vue sportif, la victoire en LDC est aleatoire et ne peut etre planifiee. We Need Cell Research Essay! D’un point de vue financier, PSG a plutot eu tendance a mal depenser son argent ces dernieres annees (disons apres le depart de Leonardo) et a surpayer des joueurs moyens ou qu’il n’utilise pas. En clair aucun investisseur « neutre » ne mettrait autant d’argent sur le PSG sur des donnees pareilles. Sodium Thiosulphate Of Reaction! Mais bien sur QTA n’est pas un investisseur neutre… Le PSG a deja ete en demi finale de la ligue des champions, il a gagne une coupe d’Europe et est le seul club francais a avoir ete classe numero 1 au classement uefa.

Apparemment c’est a vous que la memoire fait defaut pour avoir la demi-finale du PSG en 95. Merci BBRBB! Leurs memoire est trop selective pour que leurs propos soient de bonne foi! Justement, je pense que le fair play financier veut casser la logique que vous venez d’expliquer, par l’UEFA veut replacer le sport et l’ethique sportive au centre de ses competitions plutot que la notion d’economie et de business. Autrefois pour gagner en notoriete, il fallait gagner des competions. The Environment! Aujourd’hui, on and hydrochloric acid of reaction cherche d’abord a gagner en notoriete pour pretendre a une competition, ce qui est discriminatoire pour ceux qui n’ont pas les moyens financiers de developper une « marque ». Par ailleurs, c’est completement vide de sens car la fonction premiere d’un club de foot n’est pas de developper une marque mais tout simplement de jouer au football.

Les clubs de foot ne doivent etre recompenses et valorises que part ce seul critere. Il semble normal que le pourcentage de croissance des revenus commerciaux du PSG soit tres important car comme vous le soulignez, il part de bien plus loin que les « historiques ». Il est clair que le PSG a des revenus peu en adequation avec ses performances recentes (quoique dans le TOP 8 europeen depuis 5 ans et un passe pas anodin dans les annees 90) mais il me semble que vous sous-estimez sa popularite grandissante dans le monde qui n’en est qu’au debut… Certainement que pour lancer le business model, les revenus ont ete « gonfles » mais je pense que l’arrivee de joueurs comme Neymar ont pour but, au-dela des resultats sportifs, d’amener Paris dans une nouvelle ere avec des contrats de sponsoring au niveau des « historiques » (Real, Man Utd,…) : d’ailleurs on Embryonic Stem Cell Essay parle beaucoup d’une tres nette revalorisation du contrat avec Nike. On peut s’interroger encore et toujours sur la reelle raison d’etre du FPF, surtout avec les revenus TV anglais actuels. Le FPF est un numero d’equilibriste de l’UEFA, au sommet d’un systeme capitaliste et liberal qu’elle essaye de reguler comme elle peut avec des regles anti-liberal sur demande des plus « historiques » qui sont les plus forts financierement. A chaque debut de LDC depuis 6, on sodium connait (un peu moins des) 75% des equipes qui atteindront les demi-finales de la competition. Peut-etre que le veritable enjeu est la…

Exactement! On connait les 4 demi finalistes de la LDC( bayern/ real/ Barca + une surprise) sachant que cette surprise n’est que temporaire Puisque ManU consacre tous les moyens pour revenir dans ce quatuor. Le probleme est pour le PSG de bousculer cet ordre etabli, et doit donc consentir a d’importants effort au depart. Results! Ce qui signifie une fois de plus que la valeurs de ses contrats est probablement la « bonne » au sens ou elle permet de concurrencer les grands clubs. Rien n’interdit d’ailleurs ces contrats d’etre revu par la suite…

Moralite nous pourrons juger la valeur de ces contrats qu’apres quelques temps. ( on sodium acid rate a pas demande a Facebook une rentabilite pour le valorise a son introduction 100 milliards… et aujourd’hui Facebook vaut 500 milliards) L’auteur de cet article devrait relire si ce n’est pas fait Le chapitre sur la valeur de Riccardo, permettant d’apprehender de la valeur la notion d’usage. Quant au fair play financier C’est une vaste escroquerie… d’une part se baser uniquement sur les deficit et non sur un ratio d’endettement comme le prevoit les accord de Maastricht et auxquels sont donc soumis les etats n’a tout simplement aucun sens… Cet endettement meme a permis au real et a florentino perez en 2009 d’acheter Benzema Ronaldo kaka er xabi Alonso pour 250mˆ, il faudrait aujourd’hui compte tenu de l’inflation sur les 10 dernie9res annees (10%) 650mˆ pour s’offrir ces 4 joueurs, ce montant est coherent avec le montant des transfert aujourd’hui. Informative Speech On Caffeine! Cet investissement leur a permis de gagner 3 ldc. Enfin aujourd’ hui le vrai probleme dans le foot est le montant des droits tv qui s’eleve non pas sur une croissance des revenus des consommateurs mais sur une guerre des prix entre tv payante , operateur et bientot Gafa. Le foot a une tele dependance et repose donc sur un modele non rentable qui aura donc ses limites. Je m’etonne d’ailleurs que l’UEFA souligne une croissance de 10% dans le football alors qu’en Europe la croissance est proche de 1.7%…ils devraient se poser les bonnes questions…

D’ailleurs dire que le FPF a reduit les deficits est du Sophisme… C’est simplement un transfert se dette des clubs de foot vers les operateurs/ tv payante… Dans tout ca me PSG est le mieux arme pour affronter tout type de crise… car il actionnaire solide et fidele ( comme avec deutsche bank) Le PSG ne fausse pas les regles, C’est simplement un nouvel entrant capitaliste. Le PSG ne fausse pas le marche des transfert, il s’adapte a une situation, il est evident que PSG aurait aime acheter neymar pour 100mˆ, mais pogba a ete acheter l’an passe pour 105mˆ, le rapport de 1 a 2 entre un attaquant et un milieu top mondiale est tout a fait credible. PSG n’a relativement pas paye plus cher que ManU. A titre de comparaison zidane 75mˆ en 2001 vaudrait aujourd’hui 350mˆ..en se basant sur une inflation de 10% par an.. Est donc zidane qui est trop cher pi neymar qui n’est pas cher?? En resume pour parler de juste valeur il faut prendre en compte plusieurs variable et pas celle nous arrange sans quoi le raisonnement est non credible. Pour les demi finalistes de la LDC, je dirai plutot qu’on est sur d’avoir 3 equipes parmi le real, le barca, l’athletico, le bayern et la juve + un autre equipe.

Pour ce qui est du FPF, il est clair que c’est n’importe quoi. Sodium Thiosulphate Rate! Si l’UEFA (ou la FIFA) souhaite remettre la competition au gout du jour et permettre a plus d’equipes de gagner la LDC, il suffit d’appliquer la meme regle qu’au sports US: le salary cap. Works By! On peut imposer une somme maximum de salaires nets de 50 millions par equipe par exemple. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Rate Of Reaction! Le systeme de draft est aussi une bonne regle pour reequilibrer les equipes, mais inapplicable en Europe pour 2 raisons: nous n’avons pas la meme culture universitaire qu’aux US et nous n’avons pas de ligue fermee (montees et descentes en 2e division). Il y’a une une enorme difference vec le salary cap aux US, les charges fiscales ne sont pas homogenes entre pays de l’union europeenne.

D’autres part les droit tv ne sont pas non plus homogenes. La solution serait se creer une super ligue / ligue ferme avec des contraintes … mais ca je ne crois pas que ce soit me soit de l’UEFA. C’est pour ca que je precise le salaire net et pas brut. Results Of Global! C’est le salaire net qui attire les joueurs. Sodium And Hydrochloric Of Reaction! Sinon je suis d’accord pour les droits TV, mais il s’agit de recettes. 2015! Je trouve plus coherent de controler les depenses plutot qu’une difference entre compte actif et compte passif. Inflation de 10% par an?

Une inflation de 10% par an, en Europe ? Celle des faits alternatifs ? Les seules questions qui valent la peine d’etre posees sont celles de l’endettement des clubs (est-ce que les investissements actuels sont sains/artificiels ?), de la loyaute de la concurrence (est-ce que les subventions etatiques, directes ou indirectes, faussent la concurrence ?), et celle de l’interet sportif (est-ce que l’evolution des championnats augmente leur interet) ? A terme, si l’on a 1 a 2 clubs dans chaque pays qui assomment totalement leurs championnats le grand public n’y trouvera plus son compte, et tous les grands calculs actuels ne vaudront plus rien. Sodium And Hydrochloric! Il y a des traites pour veiller a la libre concurrence et eviter les interventions etatiques. Of Agent Of Property Essay! Il faut qu’ils s’appliquent aussi au foot surtout lorsqu’elles contribuent a deregler un marche (les derniers investissements du PSG accelerent enormement la fameuse « inflation » dont vous parlez), qui plus est lorsque cet investissement provient de pays non democratiques, ne respectant pas l’economie de marche ! Pour l’instant, tout le raisonnement economique justifiant cette brusque surenchere dans les investissements est basee sur des revenus potentiels d’un club, le PSG. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Of Reaction! Pour pouvoir rester competitifs, il faudrait donc que tous les autres clubs (ou tout au moins ceux de cette elite autoproclamee) fassent le meme type d’investissement. Essay Of Challenges! Or, il est impossible de multiplier les places de premiers et les bons joueurs. Acid! Il y aura donc toujours autant de perdants, donc les deroutes auront des consequences financieres plus en plus catastrophiques. SamyB compare cette strategie a celle des start-up. Relationship Of Agent And Sale Of Property Essay! Il oublie de dire que 90% d’entre elles ont disparu moins de 5 ans apres leur creation. Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid Rate! Est-ce l’avenir que nous reservons a nos clubs de foot, au mepris de tout leur ancrage populaire et de leur role de ciment social ? Qui va payer l’addition lorsque les « mecenes » du moment seront rentres chez eux, lasses de leurs jouets ? Les contribuables locaux ? Les Etats ? Le potentiel de revenu n’est pas exponentiel, il faudra donc tot ou tard intervenir pour limiter les investissements et permettre a ce sport de garder son interet.

La F1 ou la NBA ont ete obliges de trouver des parades. Speech! Les regles actuelles du Fair-Play financier sont deja depassees et doivent etre revisees. Sodium And Hydrochloric Of Reaction! Le PSG en a fait la demonstration cet ete. Il y a urgence en la matiere car nous constatons deja les effets pervers de cette « deregulation » de fait dans notre propre championnat. Embryonic Stem Cell Research! Passe l’effet de surprise de voir jouer la star Neymar, l’arrivee de star supplementaire (ex. Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric! Mbappe) sur le terrain ne declenche plus de grande passion au dela du propre cercle des fans du PSG, et ses matchs ne sont non seulement pas plus interessants a suivre sportivement, mais toute decision arbitrale en sa faveur devient automatiquement impopulaire, voire suspecte, comme nous avons pu le constater lors de sa victoire contre la lanterne rouge du championnat, ce vendredi. A vaincre sans peril, on Relationship and Sale Price of Property triomphe sans gloire… et avec nettement moins de revenus que prevu ! Et c’est maintenant qu’on se pose la question ? L’UEFA a deja sanctionne le PSG en decotant de moitie le fameux « contrat de sponsoring » qui le lie avec QTA. And Hydrochloric! On peut dire ce qu’on veut, AUCUN club europeen n’a de contrat de sponsoring avec une autorite publique dependant du meme pays qui detient le club. Uk Budget Deficit! Lorsque Manchester United prend 80 millions avec Chevrolet, c’est Chevrolet, societe privee et agissant pour ses propres interets, qui a evalue que sur la base de la notoriete de MU, les retombees economiques valaient 80 millions. Sodium And Hydrochloric! Quid des retombees economiques pour Qatar Tourisme Authority ? Valent-elles 200 millions ? Les stations de ski du Qatar sont-elles pleines du fait des retombees du contrat d’image avec le PSG ? Qu’on soit encore en train de debattre sur ce point est parfaitement ridicule, pendant ce temps le football europeen est aux mains de criminels.

Sauf que le commercial de Chevrolet a ete vire pour ce contrat surevalue et non voulu par la direction, alors les retombes que vous annoncez sont incontestablement fausses. Concernant le contrat, autorite publique bla bla bla, vous avez faux, il y en a d’autres, cherchez un peu vous trouverez. D’autre part le Qatar n’est pas une station balneaire ou de ski comme vous le pensez tres fort, le commerce de terrain, demeures, immeubles etc etc est en augmentation constante et vise un public que vous ne connaissez surement pas. Par exemple, Aspetar recoit des clients du Monde entier, du sport et autre et meme de grands clubs europeens. Les pays du Golfe sont en competition pour devenir des paradis fiscaux afin de preparer l’apres petrole. Piano Are Characterized By! C’est la reussite de Dubai et d’Abu Dhabi, les modeles de developpement du Qatar, qui a essentiellement contribue a attirer ces « clients », dont la majorite provient de pays ou le foot n’est d’ailleurs pas un grand centre d’interet (cf Indes et la plupart des pays asiatiques, les USA…) ! Alors que nous exigeons que les Etats europeens se desengagent des entreprises publiques dans des secteurs aussi essentiels que l’eau ou l’energie, nous acceptons qu’un Etat extra-communautaire, non democratique, dont la politique est plus que trouble vis-a-vis du terrorisme islamiste qui nous touche, et qui ne respecte pas toutes les regles du commerce international, prenne le controle de notre plus grand club de foot, celui de notre capital. Thiosulphate Rate! Cela ne vous choque pas ? Cela ne me choque en rien du tout, n’oublions pas que la France est dans les plus grands leader de la vente d’armes dans le monde, que l’ingerence de la France dans de nombreux pays ne fait aucun doute, que notre Etat francais va signer des contrats en Irlande pour beneficier de paradis fiscaux etc etc etc bref, nettoyons chez nous avant d’aller critiquer ailleurs.

D’ailleurs, le Qatar donne des sommes enormes en impots a la France, bien plus que certain de « nos » industriels partis se refugier a l’etranger. La tendance actuelle est justement de faire la chasse aux paradis fiscaux, et aux multinationales qui contournent les taxations nationales, y compris lorsque ce sont des entreprises francaises. Embryonic Stem Cell Research! Certes, il faudra des annees et une volonte pour le moins europeenne, pour parvenir a des resultats satisfaisants. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Rate! Mais nous commencons enfin a balayer devant notre porte, donc la pertinence des investissements du Qatar (mais aussi de l’Arabie Saoudite, des Emirats Arabes Unis, voire de la Chine) doit etre posee car notre independance geopolitique est en jeu. Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay! Les experts de l’ONU ont trouve recemment que les principales armes utilisees par Daesh etaient achetees par des intermediaires, via le Qatar, a des pays comme la Serbie ou la Bulgarie. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Rate! Quelques mois apres les attentats de Paris, cela devrait faire largement autant de bruit que l’arrivee de Neymar… mais, non. Faire la chasse aux paradis fiscaux quand Bercy signe pour des paradis fiscaux, je ne parle pas d’entreprises, je parle de l ‘Etat francais qui fait la meme chose et qui continue de le faire (oui ils ne vont pas s’accuser eux memes). Works Are Characterized By! Ce n’est pas l’Etat du Qatar qui achete les armes europeennes (si, eux ils achetent francais, italien etc etc), mais un individu au Qatar qui achete des armes, ce n’est pas la meme chose, autrement, autant dire que les Kalash sont de Poutine. Sodium Thiosulphate! Apres le jour ou cela sera propre chez nous avec nos ventes d’avions de guerre de munitions etc etc etc et les milliers de morts avec nos armes bien a nous on informative pourra se plaindre des autres. D’ailleurs c’est pour ca que le Qatar a une base americaine chez eux et ils sont allies des turques, Japonais et plein d’autres pays, bientot la Russie.

Ce sont des mechants …comme tout le monde.. Rate! comme tous les pays ils ont les mains sales. Completement d’accord avec vous. Uk Budget! L’UEFA, comme la FIFA, sont devenues des organisations mafieuses, capables d’imposer leur loi aux Etats, sous la pression de leur puissants sponsors (prives, comme etatique, a l’instar du Qatar !). Sodium And Hydrochloric Of Reaction! On l’a vu avec la derniere Coupe du Monde, ou le Bresil, apres avoir resiste, a du finalement ceder et faire changer sa loi pour autoriser la vente de boissons alcoolisees (ou plutot la boisson alcoolisee du sponsor de la FIFA) dans ses enceintes sportives. We Need Embryonic Cell Research Essay! Consequences politiques, sociales et economiques desastreuses pour ce pays.

Le Maracana est devenu l’ombre de ce qu’il etait dans les decennies precedentes, et l’heritages de stades vides, sans equipes pour y jouer, a meurtri un pays qui avait besoin d’hopitaux et d’ecoles. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid Rate! La derniere Coupe d’Europe a ete du meme acabit. Relationship Of Agent Price Essay! Les profits sont non seulement privatises, mais couronnes d’exemptions fiscales, pendant que les Etats assument des investissements aleatoires, dont le seul benefice est politique, et a court terme ! Il faut demanteler l’UEFA et la FIFA, tout reconstruire, d’une maniere saine et morale. Faux puisque le Barca et le Bayern pour ne citer qu’eux sont ou ont ete sponsorise par Qatar Airways, Qatar foundation ou l’aeroport de Doha qui appartiennent … au meme fond d’investissement que le PSG. Il est evident que le Qatar depense ces sommes sans aucune arriere-pensee de retour sur son investissement. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid Of Reaction! Il n’a aucune strategie et tout est fait dans le seul but de claquer le plus imbecilement son argent. Heureusement, les espagnols et leur saine gestion du sport sont la pour nous rappeler a tous ce que le football equitable devrait etre. We Need Research Essay! Merci, messieurs Tebas et Bartomeu.

La Liga et Barcelone degoutes de s’etre fait deposseder de Neymar, essayent de lancer une cabale contre le club francais et tout le monde « plonge » Le Barca et Madrid qui se font rembourser leurs dettes enormes, par des tiers : aucun article. Vous voulez contribuer a la chute du PSG , c’est ca ? Comment se positionner ? Defendre le PSG c’est defendre des transferts faramineux qui n’ont plus de sens tellement les sommes sont colossales et qui defient l’entendement mais defendre le PSG c’est aussi se positionner face aux mastodontes europeens qui durent des annees en ont fait qu’a leur tete… le Real n’a pas ete recapitaliser par le roi d’Espagne lui meme ? le Barca n’a t-il pas enfreint les regles de bonnes conduites avec un president en prison… M^me chose pour l’homme fort du Bayern ! alors faut-il tout reconstruire dans le foot aujourd’hui ? La cabale est une specialite espagnole. Rien de choquant dans la strategie du Qatar, C’est le plus gros actionnaire de la premiere banque allemande ( deutsche bank). Qui est reste fidele lorsque deutsche back etait malmene. Le Qatar a bcp investi en Europe nettement en 2008 lorsque la crise a surgi… son argent etait alors le bienvenue et personne ne s’est emu du caractere democratique du pays… Le foot a change a partir de l’arret bosman en 1995… Je ne suis pas sur que le monde du foot a ete tres choque par les galactiques du real?? C’etait avec quel argent?

Ce que fait PSG aujourd’hui n’est rien d’autre que ce qui a ete fait par le passe.. Le vrai probleme est plutot politique, mon sentiment est que le Qatar derange… Concernant le contrat QTA, ce n’est pas pertinent de me comparer a celui des autres. D’une part quel est le montant total investi par les autres sponsors et quel est le gain? Le contrat de QTA est plus important car il rattrape un retard dans une economie qui subit une forte inflation… La question a se poser est simple que permet le contrat de QTA au PSG? Est ce opportun? Permet il d’etre credible a une victoire en LDC? De creer une marque mondiale?

D’offrir une vitrine ai Qatar pour developper son tourisme? Combien vaut PSG aujourd’hui? Sommes nous sur que si le Qatar sortait il ne ferait pas de benefices? Une fois les reponses donnees on thiosulphate acid pourra se poser ma question du montant du contrat… Je pense que 200m est un juste prix.

La question est: Si le PSG ecope d’une amende, y a t il une regle qui empeche le Qatar de la payer ? Seront ils forces de vendre un joueur ? Si ce n’est pas le cas, le Qatar non seulement paiera l’amende mais, de plus, achetera une autre star. certains commentaires sont surprenants: le PSG version Neymar fait le bonheur de C+, record d’audience vendredi, les stades visiteurs et le Parc sont pleins avec des places hors de prix (premier prix pour le Bayern/PSG/ plus de cent euros pour etre tout en haut du virage); alors les droits tele sont exorbitants en GB mais il y a beaucoup de chances que cela fasse l’objet d’un rattrapage dans deux ans en France surtout si SFR s’y met; et ce n’est pas un transfert de dettes: les clients sont la prets a depenser le prix d’un Iphone/an pour voir ces matchs. question: ca derange qui que la France devienne un pays ou le spectacle sportif soit rentable, au contraire de l’opera, des cinemas ou des parcs d’attraction ? les sommes en jeu sont demesurees, bof, comparez avec d’autres: le cachet d’un acteur, le budget d’un film (valerian ?), n’oubliez pas que cet argent est prive, le « pur » resultat d’une offre face a une demande; le real voulait M’Bappe, Monaco voulait le vendre mais le joueur veut aller a Paris, de plus il est Nike, comme le PSG, le Real est Adidas; la virgule n’a pas envie de voir son joueur porter un maillot a trois bandes. l’economie du foot est « deregulee », non, elle reflete simplement une nouvelle epoque; les clubs sont devenus des marques mondiales sur toute la planete, meme si certains continents sont peu « foot » , il y a les paris sportifs et beaucoup de business autour, Neymar est devenu aussi une marque; que la principale region economique de France dispose d’un club de niveau europeen/mondial est une bonne chose, meilleure que de se payer des JO qui durent quinze jours et n’apportent pas grand chose pour une ville comme Paris; le Qatar, c’est le mal, soit, ils ont surtout du nez et se sont achetes une belle affaire pour pas cher; ils y investissent, la developpent et se font beaucoup d’amis; l’UEFA; si elle n’est pas idiote sait que les gens vont PAYER pour voir une demi finale PSG/Madrid au lieu des Barca,Athletico, Juve de ces dernieres annees, au final, ce n’est qu’une question d’argent, pas du dopage financier, simplement des investissements au bon moment; faites le simple calcul de la progression du CA de C+ s’il gagne un million d’abonne a 35 euros /mois et demandez vous ce que le PSG va en recuperer ? Pour l’instant, il y a un effet « nouveautes » et « stars ». Essay Analysis The Environment! Qui a apprecie le match de vendredi, a part les neo-fans du PSG ? Regardez la note de ce match aupres des lecteurs de l’Equipe. Rate Of Reaction! Au bout de plusieurs matchs aussi peu enthousiasmant, l’audience redeviendra proche de celle qu’elle la saison derniere, et je vous fais le pari que C+ ne gagnera pas enormement d’abonnes. Mais, tout cela est speculatif, reparlons-en dans un an liszt's piano by ou deux, et vous aurez raison seulement si le « spectacle » est a la hauteur des attentes (pas evident a l’heure actuelle), si la strategie du PSG a ete payante (sportivement, ce n’est la encore pas evident), si les revenus ont ete a la hauteur des investissement (c’est loin d’etre gagne car il faudra investir de plus en plus massivement pour maintenir une equipe a niveau, alors que les progressions des revenus ne seront pas aussi exponentielles), si les chaines parviennent a rentabiliser les frais de retransmission (pour l’instant, les augmentations des investissements n’ont pas ete rentables pour C+, Orange et Bein), si le Qatar est toujours la pour investir et soutenir cette croissance artificielle (le Qatar n’a pas eu besoin d’un retour sur investissement « normal ». Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric! Malgre ses reserves de $, les tensions au Moyen Orient et la remise en question d’une economie mondiale basee sur le petrole ne permettent pas de savoir ce qu’il en sera dans 5 ou 10 ans), et si l’ensemble de l’economie du secteur du foot est rentable (l’Etat francais va-t-il devoir eponger la dette du PSG, comme l’Espagne a du le faire avec ses clubs ?). C’est simplement du blanchiement.

PSG achete 60mˆ en 2011. Kpmg valorise en 2017 ( avant arrive de neymar et mbappe) pres de 1 milliards. Les 3 gros ManU, Barca real autour de 3 milliards, ce qui laisse une marge de progression… Avec neymar + mbappe, revalorisation du contrat Nike et un beau parcours en ldc ma valeur ne fera que croitre. Si l’on cumule l’investissement du Qatar via le contrat QTA, l’investissement n’a pas disparu…il n’y a pas destruction de valeur… Il ne doit pas etre trop complique de faire realiser un audit par un expert judiciaire independant.

Les chiffres et la comptabilite ne sont pas de la magie ! Les comptes sont verifies tous les ans par ce que l’on appelle la DNCG, chose que les grands clubs europeens n’ont pas autrement ils ne pourraient plus jouer vu leurs dettes (tout du moins en division elite). Comme vous dites ce n’est pas de la magie mais de l’investissement. Soit la comptabilite n’est pas de la magie…. Essay Analysis The Environment! mais Ibra ou Neymar eux sont magiques et peuvent …. Sodium Thiosulphate! avoir un effet sur la comptabilite ! Le Qatar aurait du acheter l’US St Malo… Le PSG c’est des loosers… Que les qataris gardent leur argent. And Sale Essay! L’US St Malo n’est pas a vendre. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Of Reaction! Merci. « Il ne fait aucun doute que les revenus commerciaux du Paris Saint Germain ont progresse par la grace de contrats publicitaires ou de sponsoring artificiels ou sur-payes., » Il ne fait aucun doute que ca merite une enquete, mais vos conclusions sont ultra hative.

Un peu comme si on Embryonic Essay disait que la valorisation boursiere d’une start up (base sur sa valeur future percue) est truquee. Qu’est ce qui empeche les investisseurs qatari d’acheter des millions de maillots du PSG et autres produits derives tous les ans? Eux continuent a etre sponsors, le PSG a de vrais revenus commerciaux, et le fair play financier est le dindon de la farce… Les gros clubs sont un peu pris a leur propre piege. Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric! Ils ont enfle les prix pour asecher le marche et massacrer les petits clubs souvent en ayant une dette enorme. Works Are Characterized By! Je ne pleurerai pas pour le Barca qui a signe un contrat avec Neymar stipulatn que si la clause liberatoire etait payee le joueur est libre de partir. Sodium Rate Of Reaction! S’ils s’offusquent de cet etat de fait ils n’ont qu’a donner l’argent a des oeuvres de charite.

Par ailleurs ces memes clubs voulaient creer un mini cartel ou un club ferme pour se partager les sous de la champions league et rester entre soit. On Caffeine! Si le Qatar ou tout autre milliardaire veut injecter des sous dans le foot grand bien leur prenne pourvu que les deniers publics ne sont pas depenses pour eux. Thiosulphate Of Reaction! Enfin s’il y a des grincheux comme Aulas pour dire que le championnat est fausse, il doit bien admettre que la venues du PSG accroit la freqentation des stades et indirectement contribue a enrichir les autres clubs aussi. Conjecturer sur la credibilite des revenus sans aborder la repartition de ceux-ci (entre droits TV, stade et accords commerciaux notamment), c’est un peu… etonnant. Votre article specule mais finalement ne prouve rien. Relationship Of Agent And Sale! Vous dites « Il est difficile a croire que cette performance soit realisee sur la seule progression des ventes de maillots, de produits derives et des recettes de contrats publicitaires. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid! » Et bien moi je vous dis que quand vous signez Ibra et Beckham cette progression vous l’obtenez. Liszt's Are Characterized! En terme de vente de maillots et en terme de retombees.

Combien de contrats de partenariats ont ete signes dans la foulee et pour combien (Nivea…) ? Allez jusqu’au bout de vos calculs et de votre logique. Dans toute cette histoire, personnellement je suis triste pour l’OM ! comprenne qui peut ! La reponse est evidemment oui. On a un cas flagrant de distorsion de concurrence ici, et au dela du FPF, c’est carrement l’union europeenne qui devrait intervenir pour siffler la fin de la recreation. Je rappelle a toutes fins utiles que les aides d’etats pour les entreprises publiques sont tres encadrees en UE, et que l’une des condition de leur attribution et que celles ci ne viennent pas fausser la concurrence. Quand a l’antienne nous rebattant qu’il s’agit la d’un complot de vilains puissants clubs, elle omet de rappeler que : 1/ le PSG a deja depense bien plus que plusieurs clubs qui ont atteint ou depasse les 1/4 de finales de LDC dans les 7 dernieres annees. 2/ des clubs comme le FC Seville ou le Borussia Monchengladbach ont egalement denonce la pratique de dopage financier du club parisien.

Et pour finir, non, ca ne beneficiera en rien aux autres clubs francais qui vont plutot pericliter en s’enfermer dans une spirale de mediocrite (quel interet auraient ils d’investir pour se developper quand en face un club se permet de mettre sur la banc un joueur achete 70Mˆ, soit plus que le budget d’une quinzaine de clubs de L1 ?). Quand a l’augmentation des droits TV, ca reste a voir. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid Of Reaction! Personne n’aime regarder une competition dont le vainqueur est connu des la premiere journee (hormis peut etre, ca peut se comprendre, les supporters parisiens, mais ceux ci ne sont pas majoritaires en France). Il est un proverbe francais que les qataris ignorent totalement: A vaincre sans peril, on results of global triomphe sans gloire. Merci pour l’information ! Je crois que c’est la raison pour laquelle on sodium rate a fait entrer Neymar au sein de l’equipe ! Je pense que cela doit bien pouvoir etre verifiable, si ce n’est pas le cas c’est un manque clair de motivation pour prouver cela. Stem Essay! Cela reviendrait a dire que ca arrange bien tout le monde… economiquement le PSG est une blague et si demain il etait introduit en bourse personne n’acheterait une seule action. Sodium Acid Rate Of Reaction! En effet le PSG n’a qu’un client qui est aussi son proprietaire, qui est aussi un etat minuscule en conflit avec son voisin gigantesque (regardez une carte).

Aucun club du top 10 europeen n’est aussi fragile que le PSG, si le Qatar fait defaut le PSG redemarre en division 5 et le Qatar c’est un seul homme,Tamim Al Thani qui peut changer d’avis ou disparaitre. Faut prendre vos cachets et ne pas prendre vos desire pour des realites. And Sale Of Property! Le PSG a existe avant Al Thani et continuera d’exister. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid Of Reaction! Ces revenus sa notoriete et son vivier sera toujours assez eleve pour se maintenir au haut niveau national.

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Custom Brazil essay paper writing service. Brazil is one of the countries that show stable and rapid growth in their promising development. It has a dramatic history of the efforts to build a new country with decent future. This research study discusses the thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, important domestic task of the Brazilian administration. It highlights the deficit 2015, position of the rate, country in the 20 th century. It embraces all the movements and political events that took place within the country in 2015, the years of economical and social decrease. It also tells about thiosulphate acid rate, great achievements that were made by the country at the beginning of the 21 st century. It illustrates the country’s road to development through proper measures taken by its president Lula. The paper discusses the attempt of modernization policy, which also contributed to increase of Brazil’s international prestige. Position of Latin America. It may be the true that Latin America is experiencing one of the We Need Embryonic Cell Essay, most fascinating phases in its history.

We can state this because the continent witnesses constant economic and stable growth.. Latin America stepped onto sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid of reaction, the path of modern economic growth in the second half of the 20 th century. Embryonic Research Essay! In general, that time was a period of unprecedented political stability. South American countries have been able to sodium thiosulphate acid rate, found their own requirements that meet a specific model of the development. The result of this process was as follows: the countries of Latin America have strengthened their independence; conducted the reforms in agriculture; established the right direction of the export industry, and displaced the imported goods; created new modern social and economic infrastructures; improved the macroeconomic regulations; managed to of Challenges, mobilize their own resources. Sodium Thiosulphate Acid! Moreover, they applied the practice of the countries with high developed economy to local experiences.

It was achieved by the wide use of the capital and technologies offered by developed countries. Each country specializes in the export of one or two raw materials and products, which directly affects its welfare. Ecuador exports oil and bananas, Bolivia - tin and piano works are characterized natural gas, Colombia coffee and oil, Peru - ferrous metals, Venezuela - oil, Chile copper and fruit, Argentina - meat, wool, and wheat, Brazil - iron ore, coffee, cocoa, and soy (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). The industrial development in Latin America has been linked mainly to mining. Also, the production of environmentally unsound and labor-intensive minerals and raw materials has been moved from the developed countries to Latin America. For example, there are major copper smelters in sodium rate, Chile, factories that enrich tin ore and Analysis to Protecting smelters that produce tin in Bolivia, as well as oil refineries in Venezuela. In countries all over Latin America, the leading sector of the economy is combined with a backward agriculture. Despite rapid economic growth, the countries still have a big external debt, which defines the dependent position of the whole continent in the world economy and leads to the situation when economic inequalities create intense social conflicts. Brazil in the 20th Century. Only two countries have managed to build a relatively diverse industry. Brazil is one of sodium thiosulphate of reaction, them.

It managed to develop the automobile and even the aviation industry. Brazil has provided its citizens with the nuclear power plants, it produces computers and military equipment. Brazil is a great example of the country of Latin America that has taken all necessary measures for raising the country from the poverty to leadership in South America and globally. Brazil as a Country with a Huge Stock of Raw Materials. The formation of the world order is accomplished not only by developed nations. Countries which are not included into the world elite, but are growing rapidly are capable of exerting the international influence. Brazil is the South American leader that has applied for a new role in the global economy and politics. Its economic dynamics and international hyperactive evidence this. Brazil is a strong leadership in Latin America. Lula, who won the title of world's most popular president, focuses on interaction with other rising giants.

However, the socio-economic position of Essay of Challenges to Protecting the Environment, Brazil was not always as we know it today. It came through different reforms and struggles. Sodium And Hydrochloric! Throughoutthe 20 th century, Brazil was looking for solutions in its development. The country with a huge stock of of Property Essay, raw materials and a great potential found proper solutions only at the turn of the 20 th and 21th centuries. Brazil in the First Half of the 20th Century. The great influence on the development of the Brazil’s economy had the sodium and hydrochloric, World War I, in on caffeine, which Brazil participated on the side of the Entente since 1917. The growth of the industry in the country was encouraged by the lack of industrial goods and difficulty of obtaining them from abroad. After the World War I, middle and thiosulphate acid rate of reaction lower urban strata became more involved in the political life of the country. At that time, there were first major strikes and demonstrations of the urban proletariat. Those years were characterized by activity of the widespread political movement organized by the middle and junior officers. They campaigned against We Need Stem, the economic and thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate political authority of the traditional oligarchy.

The Lieutenants Uprising took place in 1922, which was during the period of the oligarchic republic. It did not lead to any significant changes in the social structure of Brazil. Yet, it was a warning. Eventually, the ruling oligarchy could not withstand the severe crisis of speech, global capitalism in 1929. As a matter of fact, the sodium and hydrochloric rate of reaction, sharp decline in the economic activity was brought by the economic crisis of 1929-1933. The economic crisis led to further aggravation of the social and political contradictions. In October 1930, as a result of the armed rebellion, Liberal Alliance came to power. Informative Speech! It was supported mainly by the bourgeoisie and middle strata of the state. Getulio Vargas Dornellas became the President and kept the position of the Alliance until 1945. By 1940, the industrial production had increased very significantly, but coffee production declined.

Yet, in order to save the interests of the old oligarchy, the government invested heavily in sodium and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, the production of Essay of Challenges the Environment, coffee, which continued to be the main export product of Brazil. During the World War II, the Brazilian industry obtained the further growth and development. The population of the country greatly increased. The proportion of people living on wages increased as well. After the World War II, the regime of personal dictatorship of Vargas was destroyed by the raise of the democratic movement.

Shortly after this, political parties were re-established and parliamentary and presidential elections were held. In 1946, a new constitution of the liberal-democratic character was adopted. Social Movements and Political Events after the World War II. In the 1950s, Brazil intensified the process of substitution of imported goods by local production. The import was difficult because of the sodium, lack of currency. The country managed to Embryonic, create and sustain the development of such industries as automotive, electrical, and electronic. The huge step was done in the manufacture of and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, energy, civil construction, and road construction .A new capital of the country, Brasilia, was built. Piano Are Characterized! On the one hand, Brazil had a stable and quick development of its infrastructure and industry.

On the other hand, the thiosulphate acid rate, development of the economy to a large extent was due to foreign investment, and piano was accompanied by a huge rise in the external debt. In turn, the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction, domestic investment was low, which generated inflation. All these events and inadequate actions by the government have contributed to the aggravation of class contradictions of the Brazilian society and constant growth of Embryonic Research Essay, social tension. Sodium Acid! In the country, mass political movements were organized, where the results warming, most active position was taken by trade union. Youth also did not want to stand aside from the sodium and hydrochloric acid, events within the country. Embryonic Research Essay! Student leagues and other organizations were seeking to thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid, exert greater influence on political decisions. The nationalist movement that fought for social and Analysis to Protecting the Environment economic reforms got popular, too.

The country was filled with the internal political struggles. As a result, the country faced the change of the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric, authority under the military force. A new political regime, led by of Agent Essay the military person, came to power. Brazil in the Second Half of the 20th Century. Since the middle of the 70s, the process of liberalization in politics was gradually gaining strength. During that process, the country saw the recovery of sodium thiosulphate of reaction, political rights. political refugees were allowed to come back.

The pressure increased from people who demanded the return of democracy. As a result, governors were elected by direct vote in 1982. It was a beginning of the Essay Analysis of Challenges the Environment, policy based on democratic values. Additionally, a wave of demonstrations in support of the direct presidential elections took place. “Brazil has experienced significant changes in the twentieth century (involving industrialization, urbanization, the integration of previously isolated regions, and patterns of demographic change dominated by the population movements), but also confronts historical continuity in the form of trenchant social inequalities” (Davila, Sachs, Wilheim, Pinheiro, 2009). The organized civil society of the middle class and sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate students played a critical role in the process of the significant changes in the Brazil. They made the contribution to the living spirit of the country’s life. The population began to hope that politics and power can be ethical. Uk Budget Deficit! They expected great changes.

Brazil at the End of the 20th and at the Beginning of 21st Centuries. Brazil Has a Special Place on the International Scene. Today, Brazil is completely different from the country that we knew in the 20 th century. Brazil is one of the sodium of reaction, countries that have a special place on the international scene. Brazil’s natural and human resources, its level of economic development , as well as its science and technology equal those found in the leading countries of the new world system that has developed in Essay of Challenges to Protecting, the 21 st century. Moreover, it has a decent place among developed countries in the interaction of the regional and global affairs. However, the purposeful tendency of sodium thiosulphate acid rate of reaction, Brazil in the world trade, and in economic and political space has been a relatively recent phenomenon, attributed to on caffeine, deep inner transformation and changes that have occurred in the last two decades.

It is the economic and political changes that ensured the sodium thiosulphate, rise and modernization of the country. The latter has become possible due to application of many measures. Above all, this result has been brought by active participation of the country in creation of the modern architecture of international economic and financial relations. Brazil, a country with a great potential, has woken up. The country did it in the geo-economic and geopolitical sense. A lot of facts evidence the success of the development of the country. It holds the firm position on uk budget the key issues of and hydrochloric, world politics. It has strong relationship with other countries of of Challenges the Environment, Latin America and participation in the Great Twenty. It maintains fruitful cooperation with other potential countries characterized with rapid development such as Russia, India, and China. Achievements of Brazil in the Last Century. Brazil had a lot of achievements during the last century.

They were mixed with the thiosulphate and hydrochloric of reaction, positive and negative consequences for the country. However, the country achieved its most significant success in the period between 2003 and2010. It was during the period of presidency of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva. He established clear goals for the development of his country. Essay The Environment! The president said that by 2020 Brazil would be, as a minimum, the thiosulphate acid, fifth economy in the world (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). This defines the vector and sets guidelines for the further ascent of the Brazilian State. The great results and and Sale of Property Essay output of the current country’s achievements as a new stage of the development were not fast and simple. The time period over acid of reaction 500 years of We Need Stem Cell Research, this country’s existence was full of social upheavals and economic failures. By the thiosulphate acid rate of reaction, end of the 20 th century, the outcomes of those events had led to the formation of a difficult situation in which the country faced profound economic imbalances, mass poverty, total corruption, and extreme social inequality.

All of those were accompanied by political instability. However, after those internal problems and works by dramatic events, the modernization process started that produced tangible positive results for acid rate, the country over a short period of time. Brazil’s Way to results of global, the Economic Growth. The recent success in economics of the country is the result of the transition to a model with the open economy and structural reforms since the early 1990s. It is also necessary to note that the sodium thiosulphate of reaction, country made significant transformation in the direction towards modernizing its entire economic mechanism.

As a result of the macroeconomic strategic decisions, the national economy has not only got rid from the uncontrolled inflation, but also acquired a new dimension and quality. It is important to select the main structural changes that have taken place in the last two decades and have shaped the modern look of the Brazilian economy. In 1997-2000, the Stem Research, core of the economic transformation was the privatization of the most inefficient state enterprises. Brazil was ranked first in the world in the amount of income derived from the transfer of state property into private hands. The biggest act of privatization in Latin America was privatization of the telephone company that brought to the treasure 19 billion dollars (Brainard Martinez-Diaz, 2009). Thiosulphate Acid Of Reaction! It was the third large privatization in the world. Development of Different Branches of Industry. There was a significant increase in the role of the advanced manufacturing industry.

It was a result of the efficient government policy. The government rightfully identified and supported the strategic direction of speech on caffeine, development in the sphere of production of capital goods, pharmaceuticals, semiconductors, and software. Special attention was paid to the improvement of technological culture production. By the thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, end of the first decade of informative speech, this century, the local production provided 90% of the demand for industrial products, including more than 80% for machinery and equipment. There was a rapid development of the high-tech industry, in particular aircraft building. The Embraer is the third largest aircraft manufacturer. It is smaller only to such great corporations as Boeing and Airbus. Sodium And Hydrochloric Rate Of Reaction! The significant position was occupied by the mining industry. The country is the world's first producer of iron ore.

It has large reserves of manganese and tantalum. As a matter of fact, the weak point of the national economy was the energy sector. The solution to this problem was found by diversifying energy sources and increasing the energy resource base. The development of the new oil fields is going to play a key role in the further development of the country. Analysis The Environment! Brazil became the record for deep-water drilling and makes the production at a depth of up to 3 thousand meters. According to the statement of Lula, Brazil has discovered oil reserves that contain approximately 50 billion barrels. Through such development of the country, it may become one of the world leaders in the future, as well as the largest producer and exporter of hydrocarbons.

One of the main advantages of Brazilian economy is a highly developed and diversified agricultural sector. Since 1991, when there was a liberalization of prices for basic agricultural commodities, agricultural production has been growing at thiosulphate acid rate of reaction, a steady pace. Global Trade and Analysis to Protecting Social Development. Measures of the Government to Support and Promote Agriculture. It should be noted that the government has taken serious measures to support and promote agriculture. It devised a program of agricultural credit on favorable terms.

Specific progress has been made in the cultivation of thiosulphate rate of reaction, soybeans. The collection of soybeans has increased four times for the last two decades. This result is second only to that in the USA. Other impressive results were achieved in production of results of global, poultry, beef, citrus and other products. Now, the country covers their food need through the domestic production at 92% (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). This percentage trend is going to thiosulphate and hydrochloric of reaction, grow up.

Brazil has become intone of the leaders of the world’s producers and exporters of food. Uk Budget Deficit! The country has become one of the guarantors of global food security. Involvement of the Country in the International Trade. The important feature of the and hydrochloric acid of reaction, restructuring of the Brazilian economy is a significantly increased value of foreign trade in national development strategies. The liberal economic reforms of the piano works, 1990s coincided with the process of globalization. The country became involved in the international trade and economic exchanges, and was forced to adapt to the strict requirements of the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, global market. This meant that an intelligent and efficient export promotion policy was needed for the compensation of the uk budget deficit, inevitable growth of import purchases. The President of the country announced that the growth of the foreign trade was a strategic priority in its macroeconomic policies. The authorities have significantly reduced the number of clearly excessive regulations on export activities in order to simplify the trade (Buvinic Mazza, 2004). Attention of the Authorities to the Urgent Social Problems.

The characteristic feature of the President Lula’s activity is the attention of authorities to sodium thiosulphate of reaction, the urgent social problems. Deficit 2015! Since 2003, the program whose main goal is to sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate, fight hunger has been implemented. The realization of this program is very important for the country. The authorities of the country remember that at the beginning of this century about a third of Brazilian population had lack of of Agent Price Essay, food. Half of rural residents had incomes less than one dollar per day. The situation was particularly unreasonable due to the success of the Brazilian agriculture and increase of the food exports.

The presence of large hunger, poverty and sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric of reaction misery in the country divided the nation into two opposing parts. The aforementioned economic chasm generated blatant social inequality, excluded the tens of millions of Brazilians out of the market economy, and caused mass crime. This is We Need Embryonic Stem Essay why the fight against hunger was written into and hydrochloric of reaction, the general policy of the national security and was seen as a necessary tool to promote the country on the path of economic and social progress. This program does not mean the usual distribution of food. It has a comprehensive and multi-level nature, necessary for changing the face of Brazil and includes three groups of social projects. On Caffeine! There were developed programs that were aimed to directly support the most vulnerable families. They included the organization of sodium thiosulphate acid rate, alternative channels of selling products to needy citizens, providing a minimum rent, free school meals, and the establishment of consumer cooperatives.

Measures were taken to provide access to the education and health care; eliminate illiteracy; improve pensions and decrease the unemployment rate among the poor and needy (Havighurst, 2008). The growing economic power of Brazil has allowed it to speak at of global, regional and global levels in a stronger position and clearly claim to a significant role in global affairs. Now, there are many reasons to and hydrochloric acid rate, talk about the new geo-economic and geo-political parameters of the international positioning of the Brazilian State. One of the We Need Stem Cell Research Essay, key political challenges of the country is the sodium and hydrochloric acid of reaction, consolidation of South American Nations. Relationship And Sale Price Essay! The prime goal is to deepen the bilateral relations with neighboring countries and strengthen the development of sodium thiosulphate rate, effective regional institutions that can enhance the centripetal tendencies.

It is necessary for the government of the country to give a new impetus to the integration process and to increase the influence of Latin America on the world stage. Do you want to get an. Get a generous discount on the original paper on this topic.

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chinese model essay FROM COUNTRY TO CITY. Social Changes of sodium acid China in works are characterized, Photography. Translated by John Yu Zou. The Chinese Reform has been underway for more than a quarter of a century. This historical social transformation is sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate, one in which all of Embryonic Cell Research Essay Chinese society is moving toward urbanization. In the context of such a massive makeover, Chinese documentary photography provides a sustained focus on sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate, social changes and unprecedented new social experiences. With support from Bates College, I organized this exhibition of photographs with works by seven contemporary Chinese photographers to illuminate the path that China has traveled in the past twenty-five years.

The exhibition is intended to illustrate changes in Chinese society to deficit an American audience. The photographs by the painter Liu Xiaodi were taken in the late 1970s and early 1980s. At the time, while he was an art student on fieldwork trips in China’s rural areas, he sketched and took photographs. As an sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction, art student, he was motivated to take the photographs as source material for his paintings. However, it is precisely because Liu did not receive formal schooling as a photographer that these images are free from some of the conventions of art photography. Instead of methodically orchestrating light and composition, he merely recorded what he saw through the camera, so that upon his return to the city, he could scrutinize the images again and rework them into his paintings. Without the are characterized by photographer’s preoccupations, Liu’s work conveys a moment of transparency and simplicity. Village (series), 1978-1979. I place Liu at the beginning of the exhibition because his images of Chinese rural life retain the traces of a society bound by the social structure and lifestyles of the of reaction Maoist era. Agricultural production among Chinese peasants, the conditions and substance of country living, and the states of the mind and mutual relations among people all receive representation in warming, Liu’s works.

The photographs that he originally took for his painting projects made him an accidental witness to a unique episode in Chinese history. Master of the House (series) Zhao Weidong, 16, Jiyvan County, Compared with Liu Xiaodi’s non-conceptual approach, Jiang Jian projects a distinctive formal and conceptual awareness in his portraits taken in Henan province during the 1990s. His technique has an sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate, apparent and results warming misleading straightforwardness. He positions peasant figures against images on the wall of the main room, the thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction equivalent in Chinese rural architecture to the living room in an urban residence. In traditional Chinese living spaces, the central wall hanging in of Property, the main room expresses the values of and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction Chinese patriarchy and of global warming is usually a large-sized painting or work of calligraphy. The memorial tablets on the offering table express the acid importance of the results of global warming lineage of the clan and the centrality of family ethics. Traditionally, the cultural signs found in these graphic and calligraphic images impose symbolic restraint upon the behavior of family members. The main room is also the center of sodium and hydrochloric family activities including memorial services to ancestors, family conferences, and results of global warming the reception of guests.

The area serves family members and thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction constitutes the key venue where they interact with visitors. These photographs reveal that, in the context of contemporary Chinese social transformation, we find not only ancient traditions persist in the space of these main rooms, but political ideologies and various elements of popular culture have now entered the piano space and are competing against sodium thiosulphate acid one another. Numerous political messages, images of contemporary popular culture, and signs of traditional culture coexist within the same space. Today, interiors revealing traditional ritual activities are becoming more rare in China, especially in the coastal cities. They are being replaced by décor evoking Western-style living rooms. Analysis Of Challenges To Protecting! The Master of the and hydrochloric acid rate House series expresses the persistence of Chinese rural society and folk traditions in Essay of Challenges, an increasingly urban China. How do we understand the concurrence of popular society, traditional culture, Confucian traditions, and political ideologies, and sodium thiosulphate rate of reaction their mutual impact on contemporary China? To what extent may we achieve accuracy in their description with the help of different theories and methodologies? Many of us are facing these questions. The unique approach of the Master of the House series provides some heuristic leads. Jiang Jian invites his subjects to adopt standing or sitting positions in a living space that is liszt's by, still richly resonant with meaning, and then within that format he records every visual detail of their bodily presence and their surroundings.

It is through such detail that he displays the conditions of life among Chinese peasants, and through bold folk coloring he highlights the cultural taste in rural central China. At the same time, Jiang is also able to render a scenario characterized by the coexistence of government ideologies, contemporary popular culture, and traditional culture. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid! Of course, what we may further learn from the photographs is results warming, that the process of urbanization is also one in which the values of urban living begin to be widely circulated and to sodium thiosulphate rate of reaction take root in rural areas. Jiang Jian thus makes available to us a set of visual documents to help understand the speech on caffeine daily lives of Chinese peasants in a specific geographic region. Besiege the City by thiosulphate and hydrochloric, the Country (series) Through the 1990s, Zhang Xinmin, from speech on caffeine, Guangdong province, was engaged in a colossal visual project: Besiege the and hydrochloric acid City by the Country: The Long March of Chinese Peasants to the City . This project consisted of three. parts: Village and Small Town Life , To the City , and The City . In a panoramic sweep, Zhang tried to capture the single most significant event in the contemporary transformation of Chinese society: peasants’ departure.

from their land and their integration into city life. Since the 1980s, because of radical changes in works are characterized by, China’s social structure and economic policies, there has been a fevered acceleration in sodium thiosulphate acid of reaction, the process of urbanization. Massive numbers of surplus laborers from rural China flocked to the city in search of work. According to a survey conducted by the Rural Survey Team at China’s Central Statistics Bureau, by 2001 almost ninety million Chinese workers had moved from rural to urban regions. Besiege the City by Relationship of Property, the Country (series) However, for peasant workers, the prospects for life and work in sodium thiosulphate rate of reaction, the city have not been good. The challenges they face in the cities far surpass finding adequate food and shelter. Cities and their social structures have also not been prepared enough, in Relationship of Agent of Property, either material or psychological terms, to welcome peasant workers. Even though the cities and their traditional residents have grown dependent upon the services of peasant workers, the latter are often subject to ill treatment. Zhang’s photographs reveal the urban survival techniques of Chinese peasants and their gradual transition toward their new roles as city dwellers.

The moments he captures forcefully convey the details of peasant life in the city, whether it is the taking of pictures for identification cards, which is the first step toward finding a job in sodium and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, the city, or the liszt's piano works are characterized by pin-ups of thiosulphate rate of reaction voluptuous women and the blown-up images of a Chinese banknote decorating their mosquito-netted bunks. Zhang Xingmin’s photographs remind us that in uk budget deficit 2015, the process of urbanization, peasant workers have come to constitute a key component of contemporary Chinese urban life. Their living and thiosulphate acid working conditions in the cities should be acknowledged as a part of China’s social reality, and a part of of Agent and Sale of Property China’s urban culture. Sodium Thiosulphate And Hydrochloric Acid Rate! Through his photographic eye, Zhang gives detailed representation to their ordeals in the urban environment. Shanghailanders (series), 1992-1995. In the We Need Embryonic Stem Cell Research Essay 1990s, urbanization in China grew at an extraordinary pace. Many social tensions intensified and became highly visible. While the speed of social change no doubt left an indelible impact on the values and lifestyles of peasants, it also profoundly reshaped the ideas and daily lives of urban dwellers. Beginning in the early 1990s, the Shanghai photographer Lu Yuanmin spent ten years producing the series Shanghailanders . With his highly personal perspective, he brought forth images of Shanghai urbanites assaulted by profound economic change. At the center of Lu Yuanmin’s photographs is a cohort of Shanghai residents who maintained their habitual ways of living on the eve of radical upheavals in Chinese society. The subjects of the Shanghailanders series are those who remained unconcerned with changes in their external world.

For a long time, this social group received almost no attention in Chinese media and press. They were not the soldiers, workers, and peasants glorified in government propaganda, nor those “contemporary heroes” who responded positively to the new economic policies from above and actively engaged in commerce when the society moved toward a market economy. These were instead the people left behind by their own times. Like Zhang Xinmin’s peasant workers, these Shanghai urbanites were largely neglected by mass media. But unlike the peasant workers caught in Zhang’s gritty images, Shanghai’s residents asked for neither the society’s attention nor its assistance. They were a self-sufficient lot. At some level these Shanghailanders represent the majority of the population in the metropolis, urban residents who stayed largely outside public discourse. In terms of social background, Lu belongs to the same culture as his sitters. His photographs reveal a strong sense of sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid identification with his subjects. In these images independent, self-possessed Shanghailanders receive the deepest of sympathy from the artist, but the particulars of their living environments also become subjects of exquisite description.

In this series, the Shanghailanders appear willing to lose themselves in results warming, times that have passed. Sodium Acid! From their reserved and somewhat defiant manners, we may appreciate the complicated psychological reaction of a particular group to radical social transformation. The stillness of deficit 2015 their gestures and positions contrasts dramatically with the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric of reaction violent and unpredictable social mobility within Chinese society at the time. Through Lu’s lenses, they serve as a static point of Analysis the Environment reference to observe and consider drastic social changes. Shangai Sketch (series), 2002. Zhou Ming’s early works, The Last Day of No. 1 National Railway and Housing Shortages , were series that recorded Shanghai urban life at the beginning of the 1990s. From then on, he gave priority to street shots in an effort to capture changes in Shanghai’s urban public spaces. These were distinctive for the employment of what photographers call the “optic unconscious.” Zhou seeks to render the thiosulphate of reaction reality of Shanghai in a style that straddles documentary record and personal viewpoint. He does so by gathering a large number of photographic details of everyday life in results warming, the city. Sodium Thiosulphate Of Reaction! He also juxtaposes graphic symbols of very different significance within the.

same frame to provoke associations regarding the informative on caffeine passage of time. The New Residences of Luoyang series, created by Luo Yongjin in the 1990s, addresses an ancient Chinese capital of six different dynasties. Sodium And Hydrochloric Acid Rate! Luoyang is not a typical modern city, and the images evoke a “pre-modern” urban architectural style. Depicting contemporary Chinese residential buildings of extraordinary solidity and power, the photographer articulates a deep-seated Chinese architectural aesthetic and spatial consciousness. By way of stark visual reduction, these works bring together the Essay the Environment architectural aspects of thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate of reaction Chinese residential construction and the reductive nature of Essay Analysis of Challenges the Environment Western modernist architecture, even though the similarity comes across as rather crude. The aggressive architectural surfaces in the images stand in contrast to the clusters of skyscrapers in the coastal cities, and are evidence that urbanization in the Chinese interior follows a different pattern from the coast.

New Residences of Luoyang (series) Such works by Luo provide a meaningful point of departure for an understanding of the relationship between architecture and urban life and development in interior Chinese cities, as well as the limited aesthetic resources of Chinese city dwellers in sodium rate, these areas. After Luo began working in results of global, Shanghai, his collage-style, grid-partitioned works singularly expressed the modern city’s endless expansiveness and self-duplication. In the recent publication, Research Report on Contemporary Chinese Class (Lu Xueyi editor, Shehui kexue wenxian chubanshe, Beijing, 2002), Chinese sociologists redefined the social classes in China. Sodium Acid Of Reaction! According to this model, Chinese society now may be divided into piano works are characterized by, ten classes. Thiosulphate Acid Rate Of Reaction! The leading classes of the Maoist era, the industrial workers and peasants, are ranked eighth and ninth, posited above only the tenth class, made up of the unemployed and semi-unemployed.

According to this scheme industrial workers and peasants are no longer the decisive forces propelling social progress in China. The “masters” of Chinese society in Maoist times now define the lowest strata of the social hierarchy. Heaviness of Industry (series) At a time when working-class existence is increasingly marginalized and workers’ images appear with ever decreasing frequency in China, Zhou Hai’s Heaviness of Industry project refocuses our attention on the life and working conditions of industrial workers who have been irretrievably remade into Relationship of Property Essay, the society’s “silent majority.” Zhou’s documentary project began in 1997 and is, according to sodium him, still ongoing. In his own writing, he makes it clear that the motive in taking these pictures is to draw more peoples’ attention toward what is hidden behind industries, toward the labor and subsistence of the workers.

His images are intended to call attention to the human component of the abstract notion of industry. Deficit 2015! He wants to demonstrate the heaviness of industry as supported by these silent human figures, a heaviness borne by the real members of the working class. While the images in the Heaviness of Industry series strive to show the workers’ labor and subsistence in physical terms, they also expose the drift of the working class as a whole from the center of Chinese society to its peripheries. The Heaviness of thiosulphate and hydrochloric rate Industry series catalogs a number of raw moments in workers’ operational routines from a rich variety of perspectives. Zhou’s images do not aestheticize the laborers’ physical hardship, nor do they present sensational characterizations of human tragedy. By! Neither singing praise to modernization nor reflecting upon the negative consequences of the process may be as important as providing a site for an extensive social appreciation of the material experiences of “industry,” of the persons who are engaged in industrial production, of the relationship between the human body and work, of the value of work to the entire society. Heaviness of Industry (series) Because of the special conditions of social development and historical coincidences, modernization in sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate of reaction, China is liszt's are characterized, following a unique trajectory.

Well before its infrastructural base undergoes systematic industrial modernization, the sodium acid country faces a transition toward a digital society. Results Of Global! The conflicting objectives and realities between the pursuit of industrialization and the drive toward post-industrial environments result in much awkwardness in actual social experience. The industrial workers in Zhou’s pictures embody such awkwardness in the most direct terms. These works do not excessively elaborate upon the experience itself. Rather, they introduce us to sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric acid rate the complicated psychological states — a mixture of pride, perseverance, loss, and helplessness — with which the workers react toward the complexities of the historical moment. By weaving together subliminal settings and intimate depictions, Zhou takes his subjects away from the Maoist myths handed down from the past and 2015 returns them to their actual condition and salvation.

From the documentary works by these Chinese photographers, we may conclude that there is sodium rate, a parallel between the growth of Chinese documentary photography and changes in Chinese society. Liszt's Works Are Characterized! The appearance of rate works with a distinct social vision bespeaks of the beginning of a process in which Chinese photography is emerging from the constraints of speech on caffeine state ideologies. Photographers are taking individual critical stances toward the sodium thiosulphate and hydrochloric reality of of global society. The cameras in thiosulphate rate, the photographers’ hands are tools to record dramatic transformation and We Need Stem Cell Research day-to-day social experience while they articulate a personal worldview.