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– Start a vocabulary book – you probably have one if you’re learning a foreign language, so why not have one for what, your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and use it to collect new words and their meanings. The act of writing down the definition will help you remember it, and liaqat you could include an the chrysalids fringes, example of how the word is used to increase your chances of memorising it for liaqat ali khan, use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on particular themes; you could have a general section, and then further parts of the Knowing Period notebook could be dedicated to ali khan words of use in Benefits Essay history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of ali khan, improving your vocabulary is to increase precision and reduce waffle. Put the new words you’ve learned to fringes good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of liaqat ali khan, including a minimum number of implied powers, new ones in each essay you write. This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: don’t use big words just for the sake of liaqat ali khan, it.
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East of England – There are an estimated 28,100 employees in the regional workforce, in just over 3,340 companies. There is a total requirement of 9,960 employees needed in the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: welding skills; Computer Aided Design (CAD); tool setting; fabrication; Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM); Material Requirement Planning (MRP11); assembly line/production robotics; manufacturing; and toolmakers. Liaqat! 51% of the workforce is employed as sheet metal workers. The largest industries in terms of employment are mechanical equipment, electronics and metal products. Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Peterborough, Huntingdonshire, South Cambridgeshire, Luton and Basildon. London – There are an estimated 12,700 employees in the regional workforce, in just over 2,030 companies.
There is the chrysalids fringes a total requirement of 8,700 employees needed in the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: Computer Aided Design (CAD); Material Requirement Planning (MRP11); CNC machine operation; tool setting; fabrication; metal workers; toolmakers; carpentry/woodwork; and machine operator (unspecified). 47% of the liaqat ali khan, workforce is employed as sheet metal workers. The largest industries in Benefits of a Motivated terms of employment are mechanical equipment, electronics and metal products. Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Barking and liaqat, Dagenham, Hillingdon, Ealing and Hounslow. North East – There are an estimated 22,700 employees in the regional workforce, in 1,180 companies.
There is a total requirement of 4,875 employees needed in of a Motivated Essay the region between 2007 and liaqat, 2014. Skills gaps in ethical issues examples the region include: metal workers; Computer Aided Design (CAD); Materials requirement Planning (MRP11); welding skills; and craft skills. 56% of the workforce is employed as sheet metal workers. The largest industries in terms of employment are mechanical equipment, metal products and liaqat, automotive. Engineering employment is the chrysalids fringes geographically concentrated around Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead, Sunderland and Sedgefield. North West – There are an liaqat ali khan, estimated 44,300 employees in the regional workforce, in 3,700 companies. There is a total requirement of 13,595 employees needed in the chrysalids fringes the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: CNC machine operation; technical drawing; welding skills; general engineering skills; moulding skills; fabrication; metal workers; and grinding.
49% of the workforce is employed as sheet metal workers. The largest industries in terms of employment are metal products, mechanical equipment and aerospace. Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Fylde, Knowsley, Crewe and Nantwich, Stockport, Oldham and Preston. South East – There are an liaqat, estimated 33,000 employees in issues in nursing examples the regional workforce, in just over 4,300 companies. There is a total requirement of 10,120 employees needed in liaqat ali khan the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: Computer Aided Design (CAD); welding skills; assembly line/production robotics; fabrication; Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM); Computer Aided Engineering (CAE); Materials Requirement Planning (MRP); Materials Requirement Planning (MRP11); Statistical Process Control (SPC); tool setting; craft skills; general machining; metal workers; precision engineering; and foundry skills. 46% of the implied powers, workforce is employed as sheet metal workers.
Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around West Berkshire, Basingstoke and Deane, Milton Keynes, Eastleigh, Portsmouth, Crawley and Medway. South West – There are an ali khan, estimated 31,400 employees in of a the regional workforce, in just under 2,870 companies. There is a total requirement of liaqat ali khan, 7,460 employees needed in the region between 2007 and Knowing the Lower, Middle and Upper Essay, 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: CNC machine operation; Computer Aided Design (CAD); Computer Aided Engineering (CAE); Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM); Materials Requirement Planning (MRP11); tool setting; welding skills; general engineering skills; fabrication; and precision engineering. 47% of the workforce is employed as sheet metal workers. The largest industries in terms of liaqat ali khan, employment are mechanical equipment, electronics and metal products. Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Tewkesbury, Cheltenham, Stroud, South Gloucestershire, Bristol, Swindon, South Somerset, Poole and Plymouth. West Midlands – There are an estimated 86,300 employees in the regional workforce, in 5,850 companies. The Chrysalids! There is a total requirement of 15,730 employees needed in the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: CNC machine operation; fabrication; Computer Aided Design (CAD); assembly line/production robotics; welding skills; general engineering skills; general machining; Materials Requirement Planning (MRP11); Statistical Process Control (SPC); tool setting; moulding skills; metal workers; grinding; plating; and pattern making.
67% of the workforce is employed as metal making and treating process operatives. The largest industries in terms of liaqat, employment are metal products, mechanical equipment and automotive. Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Birmingham, Sandwell, Walsall, Coventry, Dudley and Telford and Wrekin. Yorkshire and the Humber – There are an estimated 57,900 employees in ethical issues the regional workforce, in 3,580 companies. There is ali khan a total requirement of 13,595 employees needed in the region between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: CNC machine operation; Materials Requirement Planning (MRP11); general engineering skills; metal workers; Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM); assembly line/production robotics; tool setting; moulding skills; and manufacturing. 72% of the workforce is employed as metal making and treating process operatives. Fringes! The largest industries in terms of ali khan, employment are metal products, mechanical equipment and automotive. Engineering employment is ethical issues examples geographically concentrated around Sheffield, Leeds, Bradford, Kirklees, Rotherham and Kingston upon Hull.
Northern Ireland – There are an estimated 8,800 employees in liaqat ali khan the metals workforce. There is a total requirement of Food Americans, 500 employees needed per year between 2005 and 2014. 39% of the workforce is employed in the welding trades. Skills gaps include: welding; CNC machine operations; mechanical engineering skills; metalworking; and electrical engineering skills. The largest industries in terms of employment are electrical and electronics industry and the metals industry. Scotland – There are an estimated 28,500 employees in ali khan the workforce, in just over 2,000 companies. There is a total requirement of 7,140 employees needed between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: CNC machine operation; Materials Requirement Planning (MRP11); metal workers; Computer Aided design (CAD); Computer Aided Manufacture (CAM); Computer Aided Engineering (CAE); Statistical Process Control (SPC); assembly line/production robotics; tool setting; general engineering skills; craft skills; fabrication; mechanical engineering; and turners. 62% of the workforce is employed as smiths and forge workers. Issues Examples! The largest industries in liaqat terms of ethical in nursing examples, employment are electronics, metal products and mechanical equipment.
Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around the City of Glasgow, Fife, South Lanarkshire, the City of Aberdeen, North Lanarkshire and West Lothian. Wales – There are an ali khan, estimated 30,000 employees in the workforce, in just under 1,450 companies. There is a total requirement of 4,350 employees needed between 2007 and 2014. Skills gaps in the region include: Computer Aided design (CAD); fabrication; CNC machine operation; welding skills; general engineering skills; general machining; precision engineering; and machine operator (unspecified). 75% of the workforce is employed as metal making and treating process operatives. The largest industries in terms of employment are automotive, basic metals, mechanical equipment and aerospace. Motivated! Engineering employment is geographically concentrated around Flintshire, Neath Port Talbot, Newport, Rhondda, Cynon and Taff, Bridgend and Wrexham. [N.B. Ali Khan! Data derived from Annual Business Inquiry, 2007, Census, 2001, and Northern Ireland Census of Employment, 2007.] Originally from national careers service.
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essay on ww1 women About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous. And its results were profound.
The war was a global conflict. Liaqat Ali Khan? Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by ethical issues in nursing examples, the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August.
German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later. The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of liaqat ali khan, war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the Americans fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to liaqat ali khan recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount.
The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and submit to the tyranny of events. The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. Benefits Essay? The Germans feared the consequences to liaqat ali khan themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and Knowing Period Essay, only reliable ally, to be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the ali khan threat to their prestige and authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to ethical issues defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. Liaqat Ali Khan? France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. This it was imperative to defend. Fast Is Killing Americans Examples? The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for ali khan, a decade.
All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Middle And Upper Paleolithic Essay? Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of expansion did not end in ali khan August 1914. Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on 3 August.
In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on of companies Austria-Hungary in pursuit of liaqat ali khan, territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and reliance, sealed that pugnacious country's fate. Serbia was overrun. The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive.
Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by liaqat ali khan, two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and oil did much to keep Germany in the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into a world war. Britain was the world's greatest imperial power. What Are The Implied? The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas.
They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at liaqat ali khan, war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and Knowing the Lower, Period, with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Liaqat Ali Khan? Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into ethical examples, conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and ali khan, cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. The American declaration of war on Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in the history of the Benefits of a Motivated United States but also in that of Europe and ali khan, the world, bringing to an end half a millennium of European domination and ushering in 'the American century'. The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and ethical examples, Belgium the French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications.
Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the ali khan war in and Upper Paleolithic Essay the west lasted until November 1914. This witnessed Germany's attempt to defeat France through an enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat.
France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the ruin of his plans and ali khan, order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the Knowing and Upper Paleolithic Period Essay 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the ali khan events of powers, 1914 did not result in a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. It was free to retreat to positions of liaqat ali khan, tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the ethical issues examples skill and ingenuity of ali khan, German military engineering.
Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. Reliance Group? These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the second phase of the liaqat ali khan war in the west. This lasted from Paleolithic Period Essay, November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and liaqat, Belgian territory. In Nursing Examples? During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the liaqat Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement. Little ground was gained.
No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the group Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. For much of the rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better. Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the liaqat ali khan German line. During the battles of the Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and Motivated Staff, the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to ali khan the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the Motivated Staff war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to liaqat ali khan achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics.
They enjoyed spectacular success. The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of Amiens and later to Benefits of a Staff the north in front of liaqat, Ypres. No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the are the German army a severe blow. Liaqat Ali Khan? For the rest of the war in Fast Food Americans the west the liaqat Germans were in retreat.
On the Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the what Germans and their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia. Here the distances involved were very great. Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. Liaqat Ali Khan? This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the is Killing Americans examples Russians had been driven out of liaqat ali khan, Poland, Lithuania, and Courland.
Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Motivated, Brest-Litovsk. These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to ali khan Austria. Fast Americans Essay? Austria had a disastrous war. Ali Khan? Italian entry into the war compelled the Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for Austrian strength. Benefits Essay? Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to liaqat the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions.
By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out Food Essay of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in ali khan the east it is far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in ethical examples the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of liaqat, Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.
In southern Europe the Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization. Of Companies? On 24 October 1918 Italian and liaqat ali khan, British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Knowing Middle Period? Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into surrender. In the Balkans the Serbs fought the ali khan Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Motivated Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Liaqat? It struggled to Food have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in liaqat the autumn of 1918.
In the Middle East British armies fought the Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Issues Examples? Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and ali khan, disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on what powers the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916. Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in ali khan Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to command British forces in Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa.
Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and are the, South African forces by the spring of liaqat ali khan, 1915. In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over Benefits of a Motivated Staff Essay, 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in liaqat ali khan the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of reliance group, these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in ali khan the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to the chrysalids unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on the Allied side.
The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence. Short-term military needs often forced the ali khan great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. Americans Examples? The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the ali khan political ends. Hopes of a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of power'. Rationality went out of season.
War aims were obscured. Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in the chrysalids fringes defence of the rights of small nations. By 1918 the liaqat British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of Arab nationalism and the Lower, Middle Paleolithic Period, promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency. Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to be short. This was because they also expected it to be brutal and costly, in liaqat both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences.
The war which gave the lie to issues in nursing examples these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians. Ali Khan? Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. These wars were both short. They were also instrumental. In 1914 the reliance of companies Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors.
They aimed to fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west. Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of ali khan, its allies without winning smashing victories of group of companies, total annihilation. His bloody attempt to ali khan win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to Knowing the Lower, Middle Period recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for ali khan, knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning. Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east.
The possibility of ethical, a diplomatic solution to this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. The German high command decided that the best form of liaqat, defence was attack. They would avoid a war on two fronts by fringes, knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the ali khan slowest military mobilization was Russia. The French army would be in ethical issues the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and liaqat ali khan, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for of a Essay, error, no allowance for the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable.
The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. Liaqat? This was maintained by group, the enduring power of the liaqat ali khan German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'. The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. Benefits Of A Motivated Essay? It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and liaqat ali khan, NCOs. As a result it was well trained and well led. It had the political power to command the of companies resources of Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of ali khan, Europe meant that it could operate on interior lines of communication in a European war. The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.
The superior speed of the locomotive over and Upper Paleolithic Period, the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the liaqat ali khan war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Fast Food Americans Essay Examples? This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the ali khan inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. The second was Great Britain.
German government rested on the tortured personality of the Benefits of a Staff Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in liaqat ali khan Germany. When the Kaiser proved incapable of Benefits of a Motivated Staff, coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective. Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence.
This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to liaqat develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'. Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice.
Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the the chrysalids fringes Austrians submit to German strategic direction. Liaqat Ali Khan? By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely. The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out of a Motivated Staff even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. They had in the past and they would again in liaqat the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to implied powers defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built.
British entry into the war dramatically shifted the ali khan economic balance in favour of the Allies. Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of it British owned. Issues Examples? London was the world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war. From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of Belgium. At its closest point the German line was less than 40 miles from Paris.
A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. Liaqat? During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the Benefits Motivated Staff Germans. This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the liaqat ali khan Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind.
For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and powers, one which has appalled them ever since. British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in warfare envisaged a largely naval war. Liaqat? A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to what powers break the stranglehold Germany would lose the war.
If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to ali khan help the French. Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the issues war they envisaged. The branch of the ali khan British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Knowing the Lower, Paleolithic Period Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the ali khan few European political and military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on reliance 5 August 1914.
He doubted whether the liaqat ali khan French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to the chrysalids fringes raise a mass citizen army. There was an overwhelming popular response to his call to arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the liaqat ali khan German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. Group Of Companies? They would win the liaqat war and decide the peace. For the ethical in nursing examples British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the ali khan British Empire. What Are The Implied? This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only liaqat ali khan that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the of companies dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed.
By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German. But the obligations of the French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to liaqat ali khan acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the war. What Are The Implied Powers? The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the liaqat Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.
The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and Motivated Staff Essay, be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Liaqat? Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on the Western Front. They looked to use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to the chrysalids fringes do this were inhibited by the need to liaqat ali khan keep France in the war.
This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on group of companies the Western Front. Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Allied political and military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to ali khan stretch the German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. Benefits Of A Motivated? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front.
The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure. But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Ali Khan? Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the war, especially the war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the lives of Benefits Motivated Staff, their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs.
The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in liaqat 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on the land and provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to be fed and kept in the field for years at a time.
Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Group? Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one.
The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. Liaqat Ali Khan? The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to Essay offer a human solution to the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of ali khan, huge losses. As a result the the chrysalids fringes opening battles of the liaqat war were closer in conception and execution to those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into fringes, battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense.
The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by the limitations of the liaqat technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience. Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out the chrysalids of the open and into the ground.
Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and ali khan, lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Are The Powers? Communication for liaqat ali khan, most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires. These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and Benefits of a Motivated Essay, infantry commanders were rarely in liaqat voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. Are The Powers? As a result the coordination of infantry and artillery was very difficult and liaqat, often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate.
The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. Reliance Group? It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of liaqat ali khan, flash-spotting and Knowing the Lower, and Upper Period Essay, sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting. The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to the battlefield. Liaqat? Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours.
Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. The Chrysalids? All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved. Poison gas shells became available for the first time in ali khan large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault.
Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the group cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to which this destructive instrument were put also changed. Liaqat? In 1915, 1916, and for reliance group of companies, much of ali khan, 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers. It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. Americans Examples? These were often enough, as during the liaqat ali khan first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke.
The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity. Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of the chrysalids fringes, victory. This represented a revolution in ali khan the conduct of group, war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into the German front-line trenches. The solution was to deepen the trench system and limit the number of infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. Liaqat? The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the reliance front line.
From the autumn of 1916 the ali khan Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult. A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in shell-holes, difficult to detect from the Middle and Upper Paleolithic air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by the bulk of the German infantry and artillery. This system allowed the Germans to survive against liaqat, an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on the Western Front throughout 1917 and to issues in nursing examples inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and speed. In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and liaqat ali khan, much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.
Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by group of companies, the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of soldiers alone. Liaqat Ali Khan? It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. This, in turn, depended on the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Knowing the Lower, Period, Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into a demand for liaqat ali khan, more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food. Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany.
They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and ethical issues in nursing, 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the liaqat ali khan war. Fast Food Is Killing Americans Essay? Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. Liaqat? (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and of companies, West Africa and ali khan, a further 200,000 labourers. And of Paleolithic Period Essay, course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of liaqat ali khan, 150,000 a month in of a Staff 1918. Truly the liaqat ali khan new world had come in to redress the balance of the Middle Paleolithic Period old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies. In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916).
The grip of the liaqat ali khan skilled trade unions on industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and development were given a proper place in Fast Food Americans industrial strategy. Liaqat? Prodigies of production were achieved. On 10 March 1915, at what, the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands.
Not only did the French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the best in Europe and liaqat, provided some of the Food Americans Essay examples leading aircraft of the war, including the liaqat ali khan Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor. All sides tried to explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Motivated Essay? One of the major threats to this was the equality of access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain.
Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of ali khan, North and of companies, South America and Australasia. Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. The degree of active resistance to the war was low in ali khan most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of the chrysalids fringes, this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in liaqat ali khan Britain, and Knowing the Lower, Middle Period, arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for social advances at home. And in liaqat ali khan the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the in nursing map of Europe and the Middle East.
Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed. They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of liaqat, European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at its birth with the stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and issues examples, loathing of liaqat, Germany. Ethical In Nursing? Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice. This provided fertile soil for liaqat ali khan, Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924.
The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the the Lower, Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire. They were also forced to accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for liaqat ali khan, twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed.
The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and fringes, pretension to superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded. From The Oxford Illustrated History of liaqat ali khan, Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997.
Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.