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Build Your International CV/Resume. Resources for career growth and CV building in international development, justice and through prayer, peace. At Genetically Modified Essay Examples. Describing your professional experience. Try grouping, or 'clustering', your achievements under keyword headings - transferable skills and prayer, competencies - which are used in Taking a Look Modified the target job or field. Avoid long lists of through prayer, unconnected achievements - find a way to breeding, connect them to power through prayer, well known and ethyl acetat, widely used competencies or areas of expertise. There is prayer, nothing more off-putting then a random list of mary, bullet points. Power Prayer. There are also personal advantages in having a 'long CV' which is for and Dance Essay, your eyes only.

It gives you an opportunity to through prayer, find out postmans creed, who you are professionally without the power through, pressure of and katz theory, completing an prayer, application. Robinson. What have you done? What have you achieved? What have you learned? What have you contributed to? What are your key skills? What do you want to do next? This preparatory thinking is power through, essential in career planning and management. Urban Dictionary. * Many or most applications are 'screened' first for power prayer, keywords and mary poet, basic qualifications which appear in through the job advertisement.

Make sure that these words appear in your application. Remember that useful keywords might appear in Exploring the Relationship Between Fashion and Dance the screening questions as well as the prayer, vacancy announcement. Mary Poet. Before adapting your PHP for an application, study the power through, vacancy announcement and dictionary otaku, note the 10-15 most important keywords which should be included in your PHP and power prayer, cover letter. If you have any experience working in the field, even for a limited period, make sure this is clearly described in your PHP and cover letter. Boundaries. Such experience is increasingly valued in power through prayer the UN and mary, related organisation such as UNICEF, who direct over power through, 85% of their resources to postmans creed, field operations. Work in conflict zones, emergency situations and highly challenged development contexts warrant significant mention in power through your PHP. Also, indicate if you are currently on urban dictionary, any 'stand-by' rosters for through prayer, rapid deployment such as the ethyl acetat, Justice Rapid Response (JRR) roster or a national reserve corps. Mention also any training you have received about working in the field, such as security training or negotiation skills. Through. Most UN activity takes place through programmes or funds with particular mandates to provide technical assistance, humanitarian relief or specialised aid, or a professional service such as legal advice or capacity building.

Project/programme management skills are increasingly valued and sought after. If you have any experience managing or coordinating a project which involved needs assessment, resource planning, budgeting, implementation, and evaluation, make sure that you describe this experience in your PHP. Ethyl Acetat. If you have lots of project experience, choose the ones which are most relevant to the target job and prayer, which have the clearest outcomes. Fund-raising is an increasingly valued area of expertise throughout the non-profit and breeding fallout shelter, civil affairs sector, but especially at the international level where donors play such a major role. Skills in this area, including bid and proposal writing, are increasingly desirable in prayer vacancy announcements. Look out for keywords in vacancies such as 'Donor Relations' and 'Stakeholder Management' and use them to structure achievements in postmans creed your PHP if you have the right experience, however small. Power Through Prayer. All organisations place great value on 'communication skills'. But what do these skills actually mean in Taking a Look Modified Organisms Essay examples practice? In each job there will be particular communication demands. Identifying these in each job might give your PHP an power prayer, edge. All international organisations, from the smallest field office to shelter, the largest UN agency, involve teamwork, usually in through multi-cultural, multi-faith and often multi-disciplinary teams.

Examples of boundaries, successful teamwork and collaboration can prove to be useful additions to your PHP. Through. In practically all jobs, there will be required technology. Breeding Fallout Shelter. This may be a basic set of power, tools such as 'Microsoft Office' or something more technically specific such as analytical or accounting software. Ethyl Acetat. Depending on the job, make your IT knowledge clear in power your PHP and avoid general statements such as 'I have good ICT skills' or 'I am able to learn new technology'. Breeding Shelter. Remember that some specialised software and databases may be custom-made for prayer, organisations, but in otaku reality are similar to power, systems available elsewhere. Ethyl Acetat. For any jobs involving administration and data management, always indicate the software you are familiar with, even if it is not exactly the same as that listed in through the vacancy. Consider creating a cluster under certain jobs in your professional history titled 'Technical Knowledge' if the application form does not give you space to describe your IT skills, as with the UN Inspira. Taking A Look Modified Essay Examples. If you are just setting out on power prayer, your career, make good use of your studies and any projects which involved teamwork and collaboration, especially in fallout shelter an international sphere. Power Through. Give examples of skills which you were able to blumler theory, learn quickly to show your flexibility and through prayer, ability to adapt.

If you have done an internship, focus on postmans creed, the skills and prayer, knowledge you developed through your experience, and blumler and katz theory, mention any positive feedback from supervisors or mentors which highlights particular contributions. The UN and other international organisations are popular employers and receive hundreds of power prayer, thousands of postmans creed, applications for jobs and internships every year. When considering working at the international level, remember that you will always have rivals, including people who are equally - or better - qualified than you. Power Through. This is fallout shelter, a fact of life. Power Prayer. The market for dictionary, UN and IO jobs is potentially the power through prayer, whole world.

As the UN and and katz, IO job market becomes more mobile and power prayer, flexible, with regular upsizing and Exploring the Relationship Between Fashion, downsizing of operations meaning short-term contracts rather than permanent jobs, international careers will become more fluid and less predictable. Maintaining good links with your 'home' country (or countries) may become essential in developing your career. * Most PHP job history sections include separate boxes for through, start/end dates (sometimes including months), names of ethyl acetat, employers and prayer, supervisors, official job titles, salaries etc. Dictionary. Make sure that these boxes are filled in power through prayer and are accurate. Ethyl Acetat. Keep a record offline of the data.

Keep your list of power prayer, references updated (check email addresses and Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms, phone numbers regularly) and through prayer, let your references know that you are applying for jobs.

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Simple Ways to Assess the Writing Skills of prayer Students with Learning Disabilities. Student writing can be evaluated on five product factors: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary. Writing samples also should be assessed across a variety of purposes for writing to give a complete picture of a student's writing performance across different text structures and genres. These simple classroom help in Taking a Look Modified, identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress. Simple ways to assess the writing skills of power students with learning disabilities. A teacher's first responsibility is to breeding fallout shelter, provide opportunities for writing and encouragement for students who attempt to write. A teacher's second responsibility is to power prayer, promote students' success in writing. The teacher does this by carefully monitoring students' writing to breeding, assess strengths and weaknesses, teaching specific skills and strategies in response to student needs, and giving careful feedback that will reinforce newly learned skills and correct recurring problems.

These responsibilities reveal, upon inspection, that assessment is clearly an integral part of good instruction. In their review of the existing research on effective instruction Christenson, Ysseldyke, and Thurlow (1989) found that, in through, addition to other factors, the following conditions were positively correlated to pupil achievement: The degree to which there is an appropriate instructional match between student characteristics and task characteristics (in other words, teachers must assess the student's prior knowledge and current level of skills in order to match them to a task that is relevant and a Look at Genetically Modified, appropriate to their aptitudes); The degree to which the teacher actively monitors students' understanding and progress; and The degree to which student performance is power, evaluated frequently and appropriately (congruent with what is taught). Assessment, therefore, is an essential component of effective instruction. Airasian (1996) identified three types of classroom assessments. The first he called sizing-up assessments, usually done during the first week of school to ethyl acetat, provide the teacher with quick information about the students when beginning their instruction.

The second type, instructional assessments, are used for through the daily tasks of planning instruction, giving feedback, and monitoring student progress. The third type he referred to as official assessments, which are the urban, periodic formal functions of power through assessment for grouping, grading, and reporting. In other words, teachers use assessment for identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction to fit diagnosed needs, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress. Simple curriculum-based methods for assessing written expression can meet all these purposes. Curriculum-based assessment must start with an inspection of the curriculum. Many writing curricula are based on a conceptual model that takes into account process, product, and purpose. This conceptual model, therefore, forms the framework for the simple assessment techniques that follow. Simple ways to mary robinson poet, assess the process. The diagnostic uses of power prayer assessment (determining the reasons for writing problems and the student's instructional needs) are best met by looking at the process of writing, i.e., the steps students go through and strategies they use as they work at writing.

How much planning does the student do before he or she writes? Does she have a strategy for organizing ideas? What seem to be the obstacles to getting thoughts down on paper? How does the student attempt to spell words she does not know? Does the student reread what she has written? Does the student talk about or share her work with others as she is writing it? What kind of changes does the student make to her first draft? In order to make instructionally relevant observations, the observer must work from a conceptual model of what the writing process should be. Shelter! Educators have reached little consensus regarding the number of steps in the writing process.

Writing experts have proposed as few as two (Elbow, 1981) and as many as nine (Frank, 1979). Englert, Raphael, Anderson, Anthony, and power through, Stevens (1991) provided a model of a five-step writing process using the acronym POWER: Plan, Organize, Write, Edit, and Revise. Each step has its own substeps and strategies that become more sophisticated as the students become more mature as writers, accommodating their style to specific text structures and purposes of writing. Assessment of the writing process can be done through observation of poet students as they go through the steps of writing. Having students assess their own writing process is also important for two reasons.

First, self-assessment allows students an opportunity to power through prayer, observe and reflect on their own approach, drawing attention to important steps that may be overlooked. Second, self-assessment following a conceptual model like POWER is a means of Taking at Genetically Modified internalizing an explicit strategy, allowing opportunities for the student to mentally rehearse the strategy steps. Figure 1 is through, a format for both self-observation and teacher observation of the writing process following the POWER strategy. The Relationship Fashion! Similar self-assessments or observation checklists could be constructed for other conceptual models of the power prayer, writing process. ____did the best I could. ____looked in a book. ____asked my partner. ____asked the teacher.

Simple ways to assess the mary, product. An effective writing process should lead to a successful product. Through! A writing product fulfills its communicative intent if it is urban otaku, of appropriate length, is power through prayer, logical and coherent, and breeding, has a readable format. It is a pleasure to read if it is composed of well-constructed sentences and power prayer, a rich variety of words that clearly convey the author's meaning. When various conceptual models of writing are compared side by side (Isaacson, 1984) five product variables seem to urban dictionary otaku, emerge: fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary. Too often teachers focus their attention primarily on surface features of a student's composition related to the mechanical aspects of writing, or conventions. A balanced assessment should look at all five aspects of a student's writing.

The following are simple methods for power assessing each product variable. In some instances quantifiable measures are used; in others, qualitative assessments seem more appropriate. The first writing skill a teacher might assess with a beginning writer is fluency: being able to translate one's thoughts into Taking a Look Modified Essay examples, written words. As concepts of print and fine motor skills develop, the student should become more proficient at through prayer writing down words and sentences into compositions of gradually increasing length. The developmental route of very young writers involves trying to understand what written language is Between Fashion, about as they look at books, become aware of environmental print, and put pencil to prayer, paper (Clay, 1982). Then children try to relate their experiences in writing using invented spelling. Theory! As they begin to power through, construct little stories they explore spelling patterns and ethyl acetat, develop new language patterns. Through Prayer! Clay (1979, 1993) recommends a simple rating scale for emerging writing skills that focuses on language level (from only letters to sentences and paragraphs), message quality, and directional principles (Figure 2). 2. Word (any recognizable word) 3. Word group (any two-word phrase)

4. Ethyl Acetat! Sentence (any simple sentence) 5. Punctuated story (of two or more sentences) 6. Paragraphed story (two themes) 1. He has a concept of signs (uses letters, invents letters, used punctuation. 2. He has a concept that a message is conveyed. 3. A message is copied. 4. Repetitive use of sentence patterns such as Here is power, a 5. Attempts to record own ideas. 6. Successful composition. 1. No evidence of directional knowledge.

2. Part of the directional pattern is known: start top left, move left to right, or return down left. 3. Urban Dictionary! Reversal of the directional pattern (right to left and return down right) 4. Correct directional pattern. 5. Correct directional pattern and spaces between words. 6. Extensive text without any difficulties of arrangement and spacing of through prayer text. A simple curriculum-based measure of fluency is total number of words written during a short writing assignment. When fluency is the focus, misspellings, poor word choice, and faulty punctuation are not considered. Attention is only directed to the student's facility in fallout shelter, translating thoughts into words. A baseline of at least three writing samples should be collected and through prayer, the total number of words counted for blumler and katz each. Power! For the purpose of evaluation, this total can be compared with those of proficient writers of the same age or grade level. However, total words may be used best in monitoring the student's progress, comparing performance with his or her own previous fluency.

A resulting IEP objective might be written like this: After a group prewriting discussion with the teacher, Daniel will write original narrative compositions of robinson [40] words or more. A rough guideline for setting the criterion can be established from research reported by Deno, Mirkin, and Wesson (1984) and Parker and Tindal (1989): If the total number of words is less than 20, aim for doubling it by the end of the school year. If the number of words is between 25 and 30, aim for a 50% increase. If the power, number of words is between 35 and 45, aim for a 25% increase. If the number of words is greater than 50, choose another objective. Content is the second factor to consider in the writing product. Content features include the composition's organization, cohesion, accuracy (in expository writing), and originality (in creative writing). General questions the urban dictionary otaku, classroom teacher can ask regarding a composition's organization include: Is there a good beginning sentence?

Is there a clear ending? Is there a logical sequence of subtopics or events? Cohesion questions include: Does the through, writer stick to the topic? Is it clear what words like it, that, and they refer to? Does the writer use key words that cue the reader to the direction of the urban dictionary, discourse (First , Then , Therefore , On the other hand )? Originality is assessed through questions like: Did the writer attempt humor? Did the writer present a unique point of view? Analytical scales are the best way to lend some objectivity to evaluation of content. Through Prayer! One can choose from a general rating scale, appropriate to almost any writing assignment, or one tailored to a specific genre or text structure. Spandel and Culham (1993) developed an analytical trait scoring guide for six aspects of a Look at Genetically examples writing, three of through which address content: Ideas and content, organization, and voice. (Voice refers to the author's own unique personality, style, and honesty reflected in the writing.) Each of these traits is scored on a five-point scale. For example, organization is scored using the following guidelines: 5 The organization enhances and showcases the central idea or storyline.

The order, structure or presentation of fallout information is prayer, compelling and fallout, moves the reader through the text. 3 The organizational structure is strong enough to move the reader through the text without undue confusion 1 The writing lacks a clear sense of direction. Ideas, details or events seem strung together in a loose or random fashion-or else there is no identifiable internal structure. Through! (Spandel Culham, 1993) To promote agreement between raters, each of the guidelines above is blumler theory, further defined by specific criteria (or rubrics). A rating of prayer 3, for example, requires these attributes:

The paper has a recognizable introduction and conclusion. The introduction may not create a strong sense of Essay anticipation; the conclusion may not tie up all loose ends. Power Prayer! Sequencing is and katz theory, usually logical, but may sometimes be so predictable that the structure takes attention away from the content. Pacing is power, fairly well controlled, though the writer sometimes spurts ahead too quickly or spends too much time on details that do not matter. Transitions often work well; at other times, connections between ideas are fuzzy.

The organization sometimes supports the blumler and katz theory, main point or storyline; at power other times, the reader feels an urge to robinson, slip in a transition or move things around. (Spandel Culham, 1993) A composition that is somewhat better organized than described by the guidelines for power prayer 3 but does not quite fit the descriptors for 5 would receive a rating of breeding shelter 4. Similarly, a rating of 2 falls between the descriptors for 1 and 3. Analytical scoring guidelines such as these are used in many state writing assessments. There are two limitations to scales such as these. First, teachers must spend many hours learning the power through, rubrics and discussing student compositions in ethyl acetat, order to establish any degree of integrater reliability.

Second, these scales may not be sensitive enough to measure growth in students with emerging literacy skills who are unable to achieve a rating above 1 or-at the power, most-2. For many students, writing instruction begins with smaller units of discourse, such as a paragraph. Welch and Link (1992) recommended an informal paragraph assessment that focuses on each of fallout a paragraph's three parts: topic sentence, supporting sentences, and clincher sentence (Figure 3). Each part can receive a point for through prayer its existence, its form (grammatical correctness), and mary robinson poet, its function (relevance to the topic). Both topic sentence and power, clincher sentence can earn only one point for each of the three criteria, but up to three supporting sentences can be scored for existence, form, and function. This scale could be used to evaluate almost any kind of paragraph. Source: Welch, M. Otaku! Link, D.P. (1992) Informal assessment of paragraph composition. Intervention in School and Clinic, 27(3), 145-149. The large cactus you see in through, pictures the desert is saguaro cactus. The Squaro cactus is very painfull if you toutch it. Taking At Genetically Organisms! But it isn't as painful as being stabbed with a knife.

It is against power the law kill saguaros in the desert. I have seen som with about therty arms. Writing instruction for students with special needs also may focus on specific text structures. An example of a structure-specific scale is one that Isaacson (1995) devised for evaluating factual paragraphs written by middle school students (Figure 4). Isaacson's scale reflects the conceptual definition of fact paragraphs taught to Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms examples, the students: (a) A fact paragraph has more than one sentence; (b) The first sentence tells the through, topic; (c) All other sentences are about the ethyl acetat, topic; (d) Sentences tell facts, not opinions; and (e) The most important information is given first. Judgments of power through prayer factual accuracy and fact vs. opinion make the scale specific to factual paragraphs.

1 = Some facts are questionable (content not covered in source material. 2 = All facts seem accurate. 1 = Sufficient information is provided. 1 = Some improvement possible. 2 = Clear, logical order. Harris and Graham (1992) provided another example of a structure-explicit measure for assessing the inclusion and quality of a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay examples eight story elements in power, stories written by students with learning disabilities: introduction of the main character, description of the locale, the time in which the story takes place, a precipitating event (or starter event), the goal formulated by Exploring Fashion and Dance, the character in response to the starter event, action(s) carried out in an attempt to achieve the goal, the ending result, and the final reaction of the main character to the outcome.

Each story element receives a numerical score for its inclusion and quality of development. Through Prayer! The validity of the scale was demonstrated by its correlation with Thematic Maturity scores on the Test of Written Language and holistic ratings of story quality (Graham Harris, 1986). A resulting IEP objective for content might read: Using a story map, John will plan, write, and urban, revise a story which includes a description of the character, setting, problem or goal, two or more events, and prayer, conclusion. (A story map is a planning sheet that prompts students to think about and write down their ideas concerning the a Look at Genetically Modified Essay examples, character, setting, and other components of a good story before they write.) In order to fulfill the communicative function of through writing, the Taking Modified Organisms examples, product must be readable. Writers are expected to follow the standard conventions of written English: correct spelling, punctuation, capitalization, and power through, grammar and legible handwriting. Consequently, even if the message is communicated, readers tend to be negatively predisposed to compositions that are not presentable in their form or appearance. Urban Dictionary! Teachers traditionally have been more strongly influenced by length of through paper, spelling, word usage, and appearance than by appropriateness of content or organization (Charney, 1984; Moran, 1982). Counting correct word sequences is one quantitative method of measuring and monitoring students' use of conventions.

Correct word sequences (CWS) are two adjacent, correctly spelled words that are grammatically acceptable within the context of the phrase (Videen, Deno, Marston, 1982). Capitalization and punctuation also can be considered within the sequence. To calculate the proportion of CWS: Place a caret (^) over every correct sequence between the two words that form the and katz, sequence. Place a large dot between every incorrect sequence. Place dots before and after misspelled words. Example: o my ^ dog o chasd o the ^ ball^. The first sequence is not comprised of two words but marks how the sentence was begun. Through! (Sentence beginning to first word my is marked as an incorrect sequence because the M is not capitalized.) The last sequence is the last word to period, question mark, or other appropriate ending punctuation.

To control for length of composition either (a) time the writing sample for 3 minutes (the student may continue writing after a mark is made indicating the last word written in mary, the 3-minute period) and/or (b) divide the number of CWS by the total number of sequences (correct and incorrect), which gives the proportion of CWS. Proportion of correct word sequences, however, does not in itself pinpoint specific concerns about the student's spelling, punctuation, capitalization, grammar, or handwriting. The diagnostic function of power prayer assessment will only be met if the Taking Modified Essay, teacher also notes the student's strengths and weaknesses as in Figure 5. About Sell My Cow. I go to the Ranch at power through prayer 5:30 in morning. I Ride my Horse with My Dad. get my Cow in the Barn. I Leave My cow and Calf. My DaD gave Shot to Calf. We took My Calf to Downtown. My fReind ride my horse.

My horse is Black. My freind have red horse. But I need my cow to breeding fallout, Born in feB 1st 1992. I am sell my Cow to power, calf for town But I have fun in Ranch in town. But I Like my money Back to for sell my Calf. But I need money Back to me. My Dad Siad no money back now Wait to little to me. Like the other assessments discussed in this article, these methods can be useful for instructional planning. Exploring Fashion! A resulting IEP objective addressing conventions, for prayer example, might read: Using a 4-step editing strategy, Kevin will reread his composition checking for Fashion and Dance correct capitals, punctuation, spelling, and overall appearance, writing a final draft with 2 or less mechanical errors. As discussed previously, a child's early attempts at through prayer writing move from writing single words to writing word groups and sentences (Clay, 1993).

Beginning writers often produce sentences that follow a repeated subject-verb (S-V) or subject-verb-object (S-V-O) pattern. And Katz! The composition in Figure 5 was written by a ten-year-old female deaf student. The beginning of the composition reveals this typical repetitious pattern to a certain degree in its first few sentences: I go I Ride my Horse [I] get my Cow I Leave My cow A more mature writer will vary the sentence pattern and combine short S-V and S-V-O sentences into longer, more complex sentences. Powers and Wilgus (1983) examined three parameters of syntactic maturity: (a) variations in power through prayer, the use of fallout sentence patterns, (b) first expansions (six basic sentence patterns formed by the addition of adverbial phrases, infinitives, and through, object complements, and the formation of simple compound sentences), and (c) transformations that result in relative and subordinate clauses. Mary Robinson! Adapting Power and Wilgus's analysis of patterns suggests a simple schema for through evaluating the syntactic maturity of a student's writing: Fragment : A group of ethyl acetat words that does not make a complete sentence. Examples: His old shirt. Nina and Fred too. Level 1 Repetitious use of a single pattern (simple sentences)

Example: I like my horse. I like my dog. Power! I like my kitty. I like to feed my kitty. Level 2 Use of a variety of simple sentence patterns. Examples: I have a new toy. (S-V-O) It is Exploring the Relationship and Dance, big. (S-Vbe -Adj) It came in the mail. (S-V-PP) Level 3 First expansions: (a) addition of an adverbial or gerund phrase, or (b) the prayer, making of a compound sentence by combining two simple sentences with the word and.

Examples: Our baby sitter sleeps all the time. To go faster, we push it. I ate the cookie and my brother ate the candy bar. Level 4 Complex sentences (transformations in which one sentence is embedded within another as a subordinate clause) Examples: The man wants to live where there is no pollution. Since John was late, we had to start without him.

Seldom does a student write sentences at only one level of syntactic maturity. One determines a syntactic level by analyzing all the sentences in the sample and mary robinson poet, summarizing them according to the type most often used. Occasionally one might characterize a student's syntactic level as being a transitional Level 2/Level 3 or Level 3/Level 4. A resulting IEP objective for syntax might read: Daniel will plan, write, and revise a descriptive paragraph using mature sentences, at least half containing embedded clauses or adverbial phrases. The words used in a student's composition can be evaluated according to the uniqueness or maturity of the words used in the composition. Prayer! Both quantitative and blumler and katz theory, qualitative methods can be used to evaluate vocabulary.

Quantitative methods include calculating the use of through prayer unrepeated words in relation to the total number of words, such as Morris and ethyl acetat, Crump's (1982) corrected type-token ratio. A simpler classroom-based method of prayer looking at vocabulary is to simply make note of words used repetitiously (over-used words) as well as new and mature words the student uses. Example: Over-Used Words: New Mature Words. A resulting IEP objective for a Look at Genetically Essay vocabulary might read: Diana will revise her expository compositions, substituting at least five over-used words (e.g., is) for more interesting action words. Being skilled is not just knowing how to through prayer, perform some action but also knowing when to perform it and adapt it to varied circumstances (Resnick Klopfer, 1989, p. Between And Dance Essay! 4). Through Prayer! Being a skilled writer requires knowing how to employ the writing process across a range of writing tasks and adapt the process to the specific purpose for writing. Instruction often begins with story structures because they represent the genre most familiar to children.

Children also use and depend upon narrative as their principal mode of thinking (Moffett, 1983). Otaku! However, several educators (Hennings, 1982; Sinatra, 1991; Stotsky, 1984) have called for more emphasis on descriptive and expository text structures which relate more closely to real life writing tasks. Different purposes for writing call for different text structures. Through! Writing a story calls for a narrative text structure that includes a character, setting, problem, etc. Writing about one's beliefs calls for a persuasive text structure that includes discussion of the problem, statement of urban dictionary belief, two or three reasons for the belief, facts and examples that support the reasons, etc. Assessment of through writing skills, therefore, should take into account a variety of purposes and fallout, text structures. Purposes and genres to consider include: personal narrative (my trip to the state fair), story narrative, descriptive, explanation of a process (how to give your dog a bath), factual report, letter, compare-contrast (compare the Allegheny Mountains with the Rocky Mountains), and persuasive. Simple curriculum-based assessments can be used to assess the writing process and prayer, products of students with learning disabilities, as well as take into account purpose. The assessments recommended in Taking a Look Modified, this article also adequately fulfill the purposes of assessment as discussed at the beginning of the article: identifying strengths and weaknesses, planning instruction to fit diagnosed needs, evaluating instructional activities, giving feedback, monitoring performance, and reporting progress.

A teacher might use these methods at the beginning of the year to do a quick sizing-up of student instructional needs. The process checklist in Figure 1 gives the teacher important diagnostic information about the strategies a student does or does not use when writing. A quick assessment of product variables from the first two or three writing assignments also gives the teacher important diagnostic information about skill strengths and weaknesses. The teacher then should use the initial assessment to identify instructional targets. Some students, for example, may do pretty well at power through prayer planning their composition, but do little in the way of effective editing. Other students may have creative ideas, but need considerable work on conventions. Some students may do pretty well with writing stories, but need to learn how to write factual paragraphs.

All classroom-based assessment should involve the student. Self-assessment helps students take ownership for their own writing and helps them internalize the strategies they are learning. The teacher's feedback should be given judiciously: generous in the encouragement of ideas and Exploring the Relationship Between Fashion and Dance Essay, improved skills, but cautious in through, correction. Corrective feedback should only the Relationship Fashion Essay focus on those few skill targets that have been addressed in prayer, instruction. Simple classroom-based methods also can be used to monitor student performance and report progress. Figure 6 is an theory, assessment summary sheet that could be used to give a profile of a student's skills across a variety of writing purposes and prayer, genres. Ethyl Acetat! In an assessment portfolio the summary sheet would be accompanied by representative samples of a student's writing with both the through prayer, student's and teacher's evaluations. After an initial assessment of student strengths and weakness across fluency, content, conventions, syntax, and vocabulary, the teacher would not necessarily need to monitor all the Essay, product factors, just those that focus on the student's greatest challenges and priority instructional objectives. In conclusion, on-going assessment of writing is integral to effective teaching of writing. A teacher cannot make an appropriate instructional match between a student's skills and appropriate tasks without assessment. A teacher cannot ensure a student's success and through, make necessary adjustments in instruction without engaging in frequent assessment.

Careful, thorough assessment of a student's writing requires that the teacher have a sound conceptual model of written expression taking into fallout, account process, product, and purpose. Click the References link above to hide these references. Airasian, P. W. (1996). Assessment in the classroom. New York: McGraw-Hill. Charney, D. (1984). The validity of using holistic scoring to evaluate writing: A critical overview. Research in through prayer, the Teaching of English, 18, 65-81. Christenson, S. L., Ysseldyke, J. E., Thurlow, M. L. (1989). Critical instructional factors for students with mild handicaps: An integrative review.

Remedial and Special Education, 10, 21-31. Clay, M. A Look Essay! M. (1979). The early detection of reading difficulties: A diagnostic survey with recovery procedures (2nd ed.). Auckland New Zealand: Heinemann. Clay, M. M. (1982). Learning and teaching writing: A developmental perspective. Language Arts, 59, 65-70. Clay, M. M. (1993). An observation survey of early literacy achievement. Auckland New Zealand: Heinemann.

Deno, S., Mirkin, P. K., Wesson, C. (1984). How to write effective data-based IEPs. Teaching Exceptional Children, 16, 99-104. Elbow, P. (1981). Writing with power: Techniques for mastering the writing process. New York: Oxford University Press. Englert, C. S., Raphael, T. E., Anderson, L. M., Anthony, H. M., Stevens, D. D. (1991).

Making strategies and self-talk visible: Writing instruction in regular and special education classrooms. American Educational Research Journal, 23, 337-372. Frank, M. (1979). If you're trying to teach kids how to power through prayer, write, you've gotta have this book! Nashville, TN: Incentive Publications. Graham, S., Harris, K. (April, 1986). Improving learning disabled students' compositions via story grammar training: A component analysis of self-control strategy training. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the ethyl acetat, American Educational Research Association, San Francisco. Harris, K. R., Graham, S. (1992).

Helping young writers master the craft: Strategy instruction self-regulation in the writing process. Cambridge, MA: Brookline Books. Hennings, D. Power! G. (1982). A writing approach to reading comprehension - schema theory in action. Language Arts, 59, 8-17. Isaacson, S. (1984). Evaluating written expression: Issues of dictionary reliability, validity, and power through, instructional utility. Mary Robinson! Diagnostique, 9, 96-116. Isaacson, S. (February, 1995). A comparison of alternative procedures for evaluating written expression.

Paper presented at the Pacific Coast Research Conference, Laguna Beach, California. Moffett, J. (1983). Power Prayer! Teaching the universe of fallout discourse. Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin. Moran, M. R. (1982). Analytical evaluation of formal written language skills as a diagnostic procedure.

Diagnostique, 8 17-31. Morris, N. T., Crump, D. T. (1982). Syntactic and vocabulary development in power through, the written language of urban dictionary otaku learning-disabled and non-learning-disabled students at four age levels. Learning Disability Quarterly, 5, 163-172. Parker, R., Tindal. G. (1989).

Progress monitoring with direct, objective writing assessment for middle school students in special education (Resource Consultant Training Program Research Report No. Power Through Prayer! 1). Eugene, OR. A Look At Genetically Organisms Essay Examples! University of power prayer Oregon, Special Education Area. Powers, A. R., Wilgus, S. (1983). Linguistic complexity in the written language of hearing-impaired children. Volta Review, 85, 201-210. Resnick, L. A Look At Genetically Organisms Essay Examples! B., Klopfer, L. E. Power Through! (1989). Toward the thinking curriculum: An overview. In L. B. Resnick L. E. Klopfer (Eds.), Toward the thinking curriculum: Current cognitive research (1989 Yearbook of the Association for ethyl acetat Supervision and Curriculum Development).

Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Sinatra, R. (1991). Through! Integrating whole language with the learning of text structure. Journal of Taking Modified Organisms examples Reading, 34, 424-433. Spandel, V., Culham, R. (1993). Analytical trait scoring guide. Portland, OR: Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory. Stotsky, S. (1984). Commentary: A proposal for improving high school students' ability to power, read and write expository prose. Journal of Reading, 28, 4-7. Videen, J., Deno, S., Marston, D. (1982).

Correct word sequences: A valid indicator of proficiency in written expression (Research Report No. 84). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota, Institute for Research in Learning Disabilities. Welch, M., Link, D. P. Urban! (1992). Informal assessment of power through prayer paragraph composition. Intervention in at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay examples, School and Clinic, 27(3), 145-149. Stephen L. Power Prayer! Isaacson Portland State University This article is adapted for fallout shelter LD OnLine from a similar article by Isaacson published in The Volta Review, 1996, Vol. 98, No. 1, pp.

183-199. The note you developed is vital to realize the fact related to power, assess writing. Blumler Theory! My interest is to power, know more about the at Genetically Modified Essay examples, effect of task authenticity on students' writing performance. Besides, what do we mean by when we say writing performance? What are the indicators of this performance? can we say accuracy, fluency appropriateness and complexity? I want to get a clear demarcation. if you are willing please send me your information about the mentioned points via [email protected] Submitted by through prayer, Anonymous (not verified) on July 10, 2013 - 7:08am. realy i learn alot from this article it is very benificial and function i think its very rich resoure for resourse room teachers thank you.

Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on August 12, 2013 - 5:49am. Very explicit and specific. Submitted by Cassie R (not verified) on March 8, 2014 - 5:43am. Find the best apps for building literacy skills. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and discover ways to help. What parents, teachers and child care providers need to know. Watch or listen to our classroom video, author interviews and more.

Real questions from parents and educators, answered by experts. Reading Rockets is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of research-based reading strategies, lessons, and activities designed to help young children learn how to breeding shelter, read and read better. Our reading resources assist parents, teachers, and other educators in helping struggling readers build fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension skills. Copyright 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Research-based teaching strategies. From print awareness to comprehension. K-3 professional development course. Writing samples from real kids pre-K3. More in power through prayer, Teaching Reading: The reasons why some kids struggle with reading. Pinpoint the problem a struggling reader is having and learn how to help.

When your child needs additional teaching, tutoring or special education services. Questions about assessment, comprehension, dyslexia and more. More in Struggling Readers: Meet your favorite authors and illustrators in our video interviews. Create your own booklists from our library of the Relationship Between and Dance 5,000 books! Dozens of carefully selected booklists, for kids 0-12 years old.

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An Analysis on #8220;American Gothic#8221; by Grant Wood Essay. Without atmosphere a painting is nothing. This is a quote by Dutch painter and Etcher. Power Through! There have been several painters who focused on the atmosphere of the locations or spots that they chose to draw on their canvas. However, some of the blumler and katz, painters founded themselves mysteriously involved into the environments of places that they visited. One of those painters is Grand Wood, who painted the American Gothic. Wood made certain atmosphere the bases of his painting and through his unique style of painting impressed everyone who liked good artwork.

As a result, the painting stands amongst the likes of Mona Lisa and other highly famous paintings today. American Gothic by through prayer, Grant Wood. American Gothic by Grant Wood is one of the most famous painting in the history of arts. The Art Gallery of Exploring, Chicago is the place where American Gothic was displayed for through prayer, the very first time and it is the very gallery that still keeps the painting. In search of visiting a fine piece of ethyl acetat, art, in person, I visited the Art Gallery of Chicago. There, along with many other paintings, American Gothic was also displayed for the visitors to see.

Experiencing American Gothic through Computer VS in Person. Prayer! When I visited the gallery 263 and finally looked at the American Gothic painting by myself, I realized the importance of seeing an artwork by ones own eyes instead of looking at in on a computer or in books. The painting made that was oil painted on Beaver Board was 78 x 65.3 cm in size and there was the a Look at Genetically Modified, signature of through, Grant Wood on the lower right corner on the canvas along with the year 1930. Since I was there just to see and analyze the American Gothic, I stayed in front of the painting after other visitors moved towards other paintings. Masterpiece Turned Into Senseless Parodies. As we all know there have been countless parodies of the American Gothic out robinson there, some of which are harmless parodies while many of power prayer, them are totally absurd attempts. After looking at the painting for several minutes I got a bit uncomfortable because I found the two characters (Painters sister and his dentist) a bit creepy. The way the lady is looking at her father, who seems to be a hardworking farmer, and way the farmer is looking at us holding a pitchfork in his hand is what gives the breeding shelter, painting another meaning than just two individuals standing in front of power through, a farmhouse made using Carpet Gothic style. However, creating parody after parody by different people is what I find disrespectful to urban dictionary otaku, the legendary art such as this one.

If you praise something, you should respect it and not make fun of it or use it is a source of humor because I found everything in the American Gothic but humor. Existence of Conflict in Concern with the Expectations of Society Earlier we have discussed themes and roles of the power prayer, artist that conflicted within the expectations of society. If we talk about whether or not the and katz theory, American Gothic had elements that conflicted within the expectations of society, we would have to say yes. For the power through, reason that not everyone sees a particular thing in the same way, various people perceive certain things in different manners. Same is the case with American Gothic as Lunday, in one of her most interesting articles said that; Some perceived the work as a scathing parody of the Midwestone outraged farm wife even threatened to bite off Woods ear. (Lunday, 2012) The Fame and Acceptance Earned By the Artwork. There is a complicit that American Gothic holds within the expectations of society. However, the amount of praise this painting has received completely outweighs the negative remarks or reviews that it received. As Lunday mentions in Taking a Look at Genetically Organisms Essay the very article Honest and through Creepy, Satire and Homage: Grant Wood#8217;s American Gothic: Meanwhile, Gertrude Stein and other critics praised the painting as a cutting small-town satire, the visual equivalent of Taking a Look Modified Organisms examples, Sinclair Lewiss Main Street. Still others saw the power through, painting as honoring the Midwest and its strong values. She furthermore said; During the Great Depression, the masterpiece gave hope to a desperate nation, and it helped shape the notion of the ethyl acetat, Midwest as a land of hard work and honest values. Today, the painting is firmly embedded in power through our cultural vocabulary. (Lunday, 2012) Without Atmosphere a Painting Is Nothing.

It is apparent that Wood believed that the environment of a painting is the most important element of a painting. This particular painting proves this point as the painter chose his dentist and his sister as his subjects just because there was no other model available to mary, pose for the painting in front of the wood farmhouse. Wood took help of his mother in making his paintings as she would agree to become the through, subject for many of poet, Woods paintings. However, while Wood decided to paint the power through, American Gothic, he realized that his mother wont be able to stand in the field for that long while he paints, so he chose his sister instead. Wood chose his dentist and his sister because he couldnt afford to lose the opportunity of ethyl acetat, painting the Carpenter Gothic style farmhouse that he came across while visiting the small town of Eldon in his native Iowa. This reminds me of a quote by Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn, which seems completely fitting to through, what Grant Wood was all about: Without atmosphere a painting is nothing. ? Rembrandt Harmenszoon Van Rijn. Woods imagination was wide-ranging. He foresaw the fame and acceptance that this particular painting will get by analyzing the environs around the wood farmhouse.

When he saw the houses strange yet compelling arched window in blumler and katz theory the Carpenter Gothic style, the through prayer, first thing that came to ethyl acetat, his mind was to find out what sort of people lived there. However, instead of power through prayer, knocking on the door, the painter decided to capture the farmhouse in paint and tease out the story for himself in effort to sort through the Exploring the Relationship Fashion and Dance Essay, puzzle, piece by piece. (Lunday) I imagined American Gothic people with their faces stretched out long to power through, go with this American Gothic house. Grant Wood. American Gothic doesnt fall in the category of Primitive art as the elements it holds are usually found in such paintings and artworks that are related to modernism. Though countless individuals made parodies of American Gothic but actually the real artwork cannot be copied or reproduced to give another painter fame and fortune. Urban! The idea of power prayer, anchoring a painting on the environs of ethyl acetat, a farm field and a farmhouse was the creativity of Grand Wood which cannot be repeated again in the history of arts. However, if one bases his art practices around the quote Without atmosphere a painting is nothing. there would be minor chances that we might see another painting somewhat as good as American Gothic. Through Prayer! University/College: University of Arkansas System.

Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Modified Examples! Date: 3 April 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on An Analysis on power through, #8220;American Gothic#8221; by Grant Wood. for only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample. For Only $13.90/page.

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Cold War and Global Hegemony, 1945-1991. University of Virginia. We are accustomed to prayer, viewing the cold war as a determined and heroic response of the U.S. to communist aggression spearheaded and orchestrated by the Soviet Union. This image was carefully constructed by presidents and their advisers in their memoirs (1). This view also was incorporated in some of the first scholarly works on the cold war, but was then rebutted by a wide variety of theory revisionist historians who blamed officials in power through prayer, Washington as well as those in Moscow for ethyl acetat the origins of the prayer Soviet-American conflict (2). Nonetheless, in the aftermath of the cold war the traditional interpretation reemerged.

John Gaddis, arguably the most eminent historian of the cold war, wrote in the mid-1990s that the Taking at Genetically Modified Essay examples cold war was a struggle of good versus evil, of wise and power through democratic leaders in the West reacting to the crimes and inhumanity of Joseph Stalin, the brutal dictator in the Kremlin (3). This interpretation places the cold war in a traditional framework. It is one way to understand American foreign policy between the end of World War II and a Look Modified Organisms the breakup of the Union of power through Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R.) in Exploring and Dance, 1991. But for quite some time now, historians, political scientists, and economists have been studying the cold war in a much larger global context. They do so because the new documents from the through Soviet Union and its former empire as well as older documents from the U.S. and its allies suggest that Stalin conducted a more complex and inconsistent foreign policy than previously imagined and that U.S. Taking At Genetically Modified! officials initially did not regard Stalin, notwithstanding his crimes and brutality, as an unacceptable partner with whom to collaborate in stabilizing and remaking the postwar world. Most scholars looking at power Soviet documents now agree that Stalin had no master plan to urban dictionary, spread revolution or conquer the world. Through! He was determined to establish a sphere of influence in Taking Modified Organisms examples, eastern Europe where his communist minions would rule. Power Through Prayer! But at urban dictionary the same time, Stalin wanted to get along with his wartime allies in order to control the rebirth of German and Japanese power, which he assumed was inevitable. Consequently, he frequently cautioned communist followers in France, Italy, Greece, and through elsewhere to avoid provocative actions that might frighten or antagonize his wartime allies. Within his own country and his own sphere, he was cruel, evil, almost genocidal, just as Gaddis and other traditional scholars suggest (4). Yet U.S. and British officials were initially eager to work with him.

They rarely dwelled upon his domestic barbarism. Typically, President Harry S Truman wrote his wife, Bess, after his first meeting with Stalin: I like Stalin. He is robinson poet straightforward. Knows what he wants and power through will compromise when he can't get it. Typically, W. Averell Harriman, the U.S. Urban Dictionary Otaku! ambassador to Moscow, remonstrated that If it were possible to power prayer, see him /Stalin/ more frequently, many of our difficulties would be overcome(5). Yet the difficulties were not overcome. American fears grew. To understand them, scholars nowadays examine the global context of postwar American and Soviet diplomacy.

They see the contest between American freedom and Soviet totalitarianism as part of an evolving fabric of international economic and political conditions in the twentieth century. After World War II, they say, U.S. leaders assumed the role of hegemon, or leader, of the international economy and container of Soviet power. A Look Modified Essay! To explain why, scholars examine the operation of the world economy and through the distribution of power in the international system. They look at Taking Modified Organisms examples transnational ideological conflict, the disruption of colonial empires, and the rise of power revolutionary nationalism in Asia and Africa. They explain the mary robinson spread of the cold war from Europe to Asia, Africa, the power Middle East and Latin America by focusing on decolonization, the rise of newly independent states, and the yearnings of peoples everywhere to modernize their countries and breeding enjoy higher standards of living. Yet the capacity of the U.S. to power prayer, assume the roles of hegemon, balancer, and container depended on more than its wealth and strength; the success of the U.S. Ethyl Acetat! also depended on the appeal of its ideology, the vitality of power through its institutions, and the attractiveness of its culture of mass consumptionwhat many scholars nowadays call soft power (6).

At the end of fallout World War II, the U.S. and the Soviet Union emerged as the two strongest nations in the world and as exemplars of competing models of political economy. Power Through! But it was a peculiar bipolarity. The U.S. was incontestably the most powerful nation on the earth. It alone possessed the atomic bomb. Urban Dictionary! It alone possessed a navy that could project power across the power oceans and an air force that could reach across the continents. Urban Dictionary Otaku! The U.S. was also the richest nation in the world. It possessed two-thirds of the world's gold reserves and three-fourths of its invested capital. Power Through Prayer! Its gross national product was three times that of the Soviet Union and five times that of the United Kingdom. Its wealth had grown enormously during the war while the Soviet Union had been devastated by the occupation by Nazi Germany.

Around 27 million inhabitants of the a Look at Genetically Organisms U.S.S.R. died during World War II compared to about 400,000 Americans. The Germans ravished the agricultural economy of Soviet Russia and devastated its mining and transportation infrastructure (7). Compared to the U.S. in 1945, the Soviet Union was weak. Yet it loomed very large not only in the imagination of U.S. officials, but also in power, the minds of political leaders throughout the world. It did not loom large because of Essay fears of Soviet military aggression. Contemporary policymakers knew that Stalin did not want war. They did not expect Soviet troops to march across Europe.

Yet they feared that Stalin would capitalize on power the manifold opportunities of the postwar world: the vacuums of Between power stemming from the defeat of Germany and Japan; the breakup of colonial empires; popular yearnings for postwar social and economic reform; and widespread disillusionment with the functioning of democratic capitalist economies (8). During World War II, the American economy had demonstrated enormous vitality, but many contemporaries wondered whether the world capitalist system could be made to prayer, function effectively in peacetime. And Katz Theory! Its performance during their lifetimes had bred worldwide economic depression, social malaise, political instability, and personal disillusionment. Throughout Europe and Asia, people blamed capitalism for the repetitive cycles of boom and through bust and for military conflagrations that brought ruin and despair. Blumler And Katz Theory! Describing conditions at power through prayer the end of the war, the historian Igor Lukes has written: Many in Czechoslovakia had come to believe that capitalism. had become obsolete. Influential intellectuals saw the world emerging from the ashes of the war in black and white terms: here was Auschwitz and there was Stalingrad. The former was a byproduct of a crisis in poet, capitalist Europe of the 1930s; the latter stood for power through the superiority of socialism (9). Transnational ideological conflict shaped the cold war.

Peoples everywhere yearned for a more secure and better life; they pondered alternative ways of organizing their political and economic affairs. Everywhere, communist parties sought to present themselves as leaders of the resistance against fascism, proponents of socioeconomic reform, and advocates of national self-interest. Their political clout grew quickly as their membership soared, for example, in ethyl acetat, Greece, from 17,000 in 1935 to 70,000 in 1945; in Czechoslovakia, from power, 28,000 in May 1945 to 750,000 in mary poet, September 1945; in Italy, from 5,000 in 1943 to through prayer, 1,700,000 at the end of robinson 1945 (10). For Stalin and his comrades in Moscow, these grassroots developments provided unsurpassed opportunities; for Truman and his advisers in Washington, they inspired fear and gloom. There is complete economic, social and political collapse going on in Central Europe, the extent of through which is blumler and katz theory unparalleled in history, wrote Assistant Secretary of War John McCloy in April 1945 (11). The Soviet Union, of course, was not responsible for these conditions. Danger nonetheless inhered in the capacity of the Kremlin to capitalize on them. The greatest danger to the security of the United States, the CIA concluded in one of its first reports, is the through prayer possibility of economic collapse in Western Europe and the consequent accession to power of Communist elements (12).

Transnational ideological conflict impelled U.S. officials to take action. They knew they had to restore hope that private markets could function effectively to serve the needs of humankind. People had suffered terribly, Assistant Secretary of State Dean G. Acheson told a congressional committee in ethyl acetat, 1945. They demanded land reform, nationalization, and social welfare. Through Prayer! They believed that governments should take action to alleviate their misery. They felt it so deeply, said Acheson, that they will demand that the whole business of state control and state interference shall be pushed further and further (13). Policymakers like Acheson and McCloy, the officials who became known as the theory Wise Men of the cold war, understood the causes for the malfunctioning of the capitalist world economy in the interwar years. They were intent on correcting the fundamental weaknesses and prayer vulnerabilities.

Long before they envisioned a cold war with the Soviet Union, they labored diligently during 1943 and 1944 to design the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank. They urged Congress to reduce U.S. tariffs. Taking A Look Modified Organisms Examples! They wanted the American people to power through prayer, buy more foreign goods. Urban! They knew that foreign nations without sufficient dollars to purchase raw materials and fuel would not be able to recover easily. They realized that governments short of gold and short of dollars would seek to through prayer, hoard their resources, establish quotas, and regulate the free flow of capital. And they knew that these actions in the years between World War I and dictionary World War II had brought about the Great Depression and created the conditions for Nazism, fascism, and totalitarianism to flourish (14). Now, as in through prayer, the year 1920, President Truman declared in early March 1947, we have reached a turning point in urban dictionary, history. National economies have been disrupted by the war. Prayer! The future is ethyl acetat uncertain everywhere. Economic policies are in a state of flux. Power! Governments abroad, the president explained, wanted to regulate trade, save dollars, and promote reconstruction.

This was understandable; it was also perilous. Freedom flourished where power was dispersed. But regimentation, Truman warned, was on the march, everywhere. If not stopped abroad, it would force the U.S. to urban dictionary otaku, curtail freedom at home. In this atmosphere of doubt and hesitation, Truman declared, the decisive factor will be the through type of ethyl acetat leadership that the through prayer United States gives the world. If it did not act decisively, the world capitalist system would flounder, providing yet greater opportunities for Communism to grow and for Soviet strength to accrue. If the U.S. did not exert leadership, freedom would be compromised abroad and a garrison state might develop at home (15). Open markets and free peoples were inextricably interrelated. To win the transnational ideological conflict, U.S. officials had to make the at Genetically Organisms Essay world capitalist system function effectively.

By 1947, they realized the power IMF and the World Bank were too new, too inexperienced, and too poorly funded to accomplish the intended results. The U.S. had to assume the responsibility to provide dollars so that other nations had the means to purchase food and fuel and, eventually, to reduce quotas and curtail exchange restrictions. In June 1947, Secretary of State George C. Mary! Marshall outlined a new approach, saying the U.S. would provide the funds necessary to promote the reconstruction of Europe. Power Prayer! The intent of the Marshall Plan was to provide dollars to likeminded governments in Western Europe so they could continue to grow their economies, employ workers, insure political stability, undercut the appeal of communist parties, and avoid being sucked into an economic orbit dominated by the Soviet Union. U.S. officials wanted European governments to cooperate and pool their resources for Fashion Essay the benefit of their collective well-being and for power through the establishment of a large, integrated market where goods and capital could move freely. Otaku! In order to do this, the U.S. would incur the responsibility to power prayer, make the Fashion and Dance Essay capitalist system operate effectively, at least in prayer, those parts of the globe not dominated by the Soviet Union. The U.S. would become the hegemon, or overseer, of the global economy: it would make loans, provide credits, reduce tariffs, and Exploring the Relationship Fashion and Dance insure currency stability (16). The success of the prayer Marshall Plan depended on the resuscitation of the coal mines and industries of western Germany (17). Taking Essay Examples! Most Europeans feared Germany's revival. Nonetheless, U.S. officials hoped that Stalin would not interfere with efforts to merge the three western zones of Germany, institute currency reform, and power prayer create the Federal Republic of blumler and katz Germany. Marshall Plan aid, in fact, initially was offered to Soviet Russia and power through its allies in eastern Europe.

But Stalin would not tolerate the rebuilding of Germany and its prospective integration into a western bloc. Nor would he allow eastern European governments to be drawn into an evolving economic federation based on the free flow of robinson poet information, capital, and trade. Soviet security would be endangered. Stalin's sphere of influence in eastern Europe would be eroded and his capacity to control the future of German power would be impaired. In late 1947, Stalin cracked down on eastern Europe, encouraged the communist coup in Czechoslovakia, and instigated a new round of through purges (18). Germany's economic revival scared the Between Fashion French as much as it alarmed the Russians.

The French feared that Germany would regain power to act autonomously. Power! The French also were afraid that initiatives to revive Germany might provoke a Soviet attack and culminate in and katz theory, another occupation of France. Through Prayer! French officials remonstrated against otaku American plans and demanded military aid and security guarantees (19). The French and through prayer other wary Europeans had the Taking a Look examples capacity to power through prayer, shape their future. They exacted strategic commitments from the U.S. Ethyl Acetat! The North Atlantic Treaty was signed in 1949 as a result of their fears about Germany as well as their anxieties about Soviet Russia. U.S. strategic commitments and U.S. troops were part of a double containment strategy, containing the uncertain trajectory of the power prayer Federal Republic of Germany as well as the anticipated hostility of the Soviet Union. Dictionary! Hegemonic responsibilities meant power balancing, strategic commitments, and military alliances (20).

Just as western Germany needed to be integrated into a western sphere lest it be sucked into through prayer, a Soviet orbit, so did Japan. U.S. officials worried that their occupation of Japan might fail and a Look Organisms Essay examples that the Japanese might seek to enhance their own interests by looking to the Soviets or the communist Chinese as future economic partners. In 1948, U.S. policymakers turned their attention from power through prayer, reforming Japanese social and political institutions to promoting economic reconstruction. Japan's past economic growth, they knew, depended on links to Manchuria, China, and Korea, areas increasingly slipping into communist hands. Japan needed alternative sources of ethyl acetat raw materials and outlets for through prayer her manufactured goods. Studying the mary poet functioning of the global capitalist economy, America's cold warriors concluded that the industrial core of northeast Asia, Japan, needed to be integrated with its underdeveloped periphery in southeast Asia, much like Western Europe needed to have access to petroleum in the Middle East (21). It was the obligation of the hegemon of the world capitalist economy to through, make sure component units of the urban otaku system could benefit from the operation of the whole.

But, as hegemon, the U.S. also had to be sensitive to power prayer, the worries and a Look at Genetically Organisms responsive to the needs of other countries. In Asia, as in Europe, many peoples feared the revival of the power of former Axis nations. Truman promised them that U.S. troops would remain in Japan, even as Japan regained its autonomy, and that the through U.S. would insure peace in the Pacific, even if it meant a new round of security guarantees, as it did with the Philippines and fallout with Australia and New Zealand (22). Yet, much as American officials hoped to integrate Japan with Southeast Asia, revolutionary nationalist movements in the region made that prospect uncertain. During World War II, popular independence movements arose in French Indochina and the Netherlands East Indies. Nationalist leaders like Ho Chi Minh in Vietnam and Sukarno in Indonesia wanted to gain control over their countries' future (23). Prayer! Decolonization was an embedded feature of the urban dictionary postwar international system, propelled by the defeat of Japan and the weakening of traditional European powers. Decolonization fueled the cold war as it provided opportunities for the expansion of communist influence.

Third World nationalists wanted to develop, industrialize, and modernize their countries. They often found Marxist-Leninist ideology attractive as it blamed their countries' backwardness on capitalist exploitation. At the same time, the Soviet command economy seemed to provide a model for rapid modernization. Stalin's successors, therefore, saw endless opportunities for expanding their influence in the Third World; leaders in Washington perceived dangers (24). As hegemon of the free world economy, U.S. officials felt a responsibility to power through prayer, contain revolutionary nationalism and to integrate core and periphery. The Truman administration prodded the Dutch and the French to make concessions to revolutionary nationalists, but often could not shape the outcomes of colonial struggles.

When the French, for example, refused to acknowledge Ho Chi Minh's republic of Vietnam and established a puppet government under Bao Dai in 1949, the U.S. chose to Taking Modified Organisms, support the through French. Otherwise, Truman and his advisers feared they would alienate their allies in France and permit a key area to gravitate into a communist orbit where it would be amenable to Chinese or Soviet influence. Falling dominos in blumler theory, Southeast Asia would sever the future economic links between this region and Japan, making rehabilitation in the industrial core of northeast Asia all the through prayer more difficult (25). In the late 1950s and 1960s Japan's extraordinary economic recovery, sparked by Taking a Look at Genetically Modified Organisms, the Korean War and power fueled by subsequent exports to robinson poet, North America, defied American assumptions. Power Through Prayer! Yet, by then, American officials had locked the U.S. into a position opposing nationalist movements led by Between and Dance, communists, like Ho Chi Minh. U.S. officials feared that if they allowed a communist triumph in Indochina, America's credibility with other allies and prayer clients would be shattered. Hegemons needed to and katz theory, retain their credibility. Otherwise, key allies, like Western Germany and Japan, might doubt America's will and reorient themselves in the cold war (26). Hegemony and credibility required superior military capabilities. Leaders in Washington and Moscow alike believed that perceptions of their relative power position supported risk-taking on behalf of allies and power prayer clients in Asia and and katz theory Africa.

In the most important U.S. strategy document of the prayer cold war, NSC 68, Paul Nitze wrote that military power was an indispensable backdrop to containment, which he called a policy of calculated and robinson poet gradual coercion. To pursue containment in power prayer, the Third World and erode support for the adversary, the U.S. Fallout! needed to have superior military force (27). Prior to 1949, the power through U.S. had a monopoly of atomic weapons. But after the Soviets tested and a Look Modified Organisms Essay examples developed nuclear weapons of their own, U.S. officials believed they needed to augment their arsenal of prayer strategic weapons. Mary Robinson! Their aim was not only to power through prayer, deter Soviet aggression in the center of Europe, but also to breeding, support the ability of the U.S. to intervene in Third World countries without fear of Soviet countermoves. Nuclear weapons, therefore, produced paradoxical results.

Their enormous power kept the cold war from turning into a hot war between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Leaders on both sides recognized that such a war would be suicidal. But at the same time nuclear weapons encouraged officials in both Washington and Moscow to engage in risk-taking on the periphery, that is, in Asia, Africa, the Middle East, and through the Caribbean because each side thought (and hoped) that the a Look Modified Organisms adversary would not dare to escalate the competition into a nuclear exchange (28). When Ronald Reagan revived the determination of the through U.S. to regain military superiority in the 1980s, he sought to use those military capabilities, not for a preemptive attack against the Soviet Union, but as a backdrop to support U.S. interventions on behalf of anti-communist insurgents from Nicaragua and El Salvador to Afghanistan and Angola. In other words, Reagan viewed superior strategic capabilities as a key to containing communism, preserving credibility, and supporting hegemony (29).

For U.S. officials, waging the shelter cold war required the U.S. to win the transnational ideological struggle and to contain Soviet power. Prayer! To achieve these goals, the U.S. had to be an effective hegemon. This meant that the U.S. had to nurture and lubricate the world economy, build and a Look Organisms Essay coopt western Germany and Japan, establish military alliances and preserve allied cohesion, contain revolutionary nationalism, and power prayer bind the industrial core of Europe and Asia with the Exploring and Dance Essay underdeveloped periphery in the Third World. To be effective, Cold Warriors believed that superior military capabilities were an incalculable asset. They focused much less attention and allocated infinitely fewer resources to disseminating their values and promoting their culture. Yet scholars of the cold war increasingly believe that America's success as a hegemon, its capacity to evoke support for through its leadership, also depended on the habits and institutions of constitutional governance, the resonance of its liberal and Between and Dance humane values, and the appeal of its free market and mass consumption economy (30). For example, see Harry S Truman, Memoirs, Vol I: 1945, Year of power Decisions, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1955); Truman, Memoirs, Vol. Between Fashion And Dance! II: Years of Trial and Hope, 1946-1952, reprint (New York: Signet, 1965, 1956); Dwight D. Eisenhower, Mandate for Change: The White House Years, 1953-1956 (Garden City, NJ: Doubleday, 1963); Dean G. Power Through Prayer! Acheson, Present at the Creation: My Years at the State Department (New York: Norton, 1969); George F. Kennan, Memoirs, 2 vol. paperback ed. (New York: Bantam, 1967-1972). See, for example, Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); for a discussion of the different historiographical approaches, see my essay, The Cold War Over the Cold War, in and katz theory, Gordon Martel, ed., American Foreign Policy Reconsidered, 1890-1993 (London: Routledge, 1994). John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997). For some of the best new scholarship on Stalin, see Simon Sebag Montefiore, Stalin: The Court of the Red Tsar, reprint (New York: Knopf, 2004, 2003); Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945-1949 (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1995); Vojtech Mastny, The Cold War and Soviet Insecurity: The Stalin Years (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996); Eduard Maximilian Mark, Revolution by Degrees: Stalin's National Front Strategy for power through Europe, 1941-1947, Cold War International History Project Working Paper No.

31 (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, 2001); Geoffrey Roberts, Stalin and the Grand Alliance: Public Discourse, Private Dialogues, and the Direction of Soviet Foreign Policy, 1941-1947, Slovo 13 (2001): 1-15. Robert H. Ferrell, ed., Dear Bess: The Letters from Exploring the Relationship Between and Dance, Harry to Bess Truman, 1910-1959 (New York: Norton, 1983), 522; Harriman to Truman, June 8, 1945, Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: The Conference of Berlin: The Potsdam Conference, 1945 (2 vols., Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1960), 1: 61. For soft power, see Joseph S. Nye, Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics (New York: Public Affairs, 2004); Nye, The Paradox of American Power: Why the power through prayer World's Only Superpower Can't Go It Alone (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002). Paul M. Kennedy, The Rise and mary Fall of the Great Powers: Economic Change and Military Conflict From 1500 to 2000 (New York: Random House, 1987), 347-72; R. J. Overy, Russia's War (London: Penguin Books, 1997); Allan M. Power Through Prayer! Winkler, Home Front U.S.A.: America During World War II, 2nd ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 2000). Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992), 1-141. Igor Lukes, The Czech Road to Communism, in Norman M. Naimark and L. IA. Gibianskii, eds., The Establishment of Communist Regimes in Eastern Europe, 1944-1949 (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1997), 29; William I. Hitchcock, The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent, 1945 to Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay, the Present (New York: Anchor Books, 2004), 1-125. Adam Westoby, Communism Since World War II (New York: St. Martin's Press, 1981), 14-5. Power! Memo for the President, by John McCloy, April 26, 1945, box 178, President's Secretary's File, Harry S Truman Presidential Library.

Central Intelligence Agency, Review of the ethyl acetat World Situation As It Relates to the Security of the United States, September 26, 1947, box 203, ibid. Testimony by Dean G. Acheson, March 8, 1945, U.S. Senate, Committee on Banking and Currency, Bretton Woods Agreement Act, 79th Cong., 1 sess. (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945), 1: 35. U.S. Power Prayer! Department of blumler Commerce, The United States in power prayer, the World Economy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1943); Harley A. Notter, Postwar Foreign Policy Preparation, 1939-1945 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1950), 128; Georg Schild, Bretton Woods and Dumbarton Oaks: American Economic and Political Postwar Planning in the Summer of 1944 (New York: St. Martin's, 1995). Urban Otaku! Harry S Truman, Public Papers of the Presidents of the United States, 1947 (Washington, D.C.: U.S.G.P.O., 1963), 167-72; see also his Truman Doctrine speech which followed a few days later, 176-80, and his special message to the Congress on the Marshall Plan, 515-29.

Michael J. Hogan, The Marshall Plan: America, Britain, and the Reconstruction of Western Europe, 1947-1952 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987); David W. Ellwood, Rebuilding Europe: Western Europe, America and Postwar Reconstruction (New York: Longmans, 1992); Thomas W. Zeiler, Free Trade, Free World; The Advent of power GATT (Chapel Hill: University of breeding shelter North Carolina Press, 1999). John Gimbel, The Origins of the Marshall Plan (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976); Carolyn Woods Eisenberg, Drawing the Line: The American Decision to Divide Germany, 1944-1949 (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996). Geoffrey Roberts, Moscow and the Marshall Plan: Politics, Ideology and power through the Onset of the Cold War, 1947, Europe-Asia Studies 46 (December 1994): 1371-86; V. M. Zubok and urban dictionary Konstantin Pleshakov, Inside the Kremlin's Cold War: From Stalin to Khrushchev (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1996), 46-53. William I. Hitchcock, France Restored: Cold War Diplomacy and the Quest for Leadership in Europe, 1944-1954 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1998). Power! Timothy P. Ireland, Creating the Entangling Alliance: The Origins of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1981). Michael Schaller, The American Occupation of Japan: The Origins of the Cold War in Asia (New York: Oxford University Press, 1985); Howard B. Schonberger, Aftermath of War: Americans and the Remaking of Japan, 1945-1952 (Kent, OH: Kent State University Press, 1989); John W. Dower, Embracing Defeat: Japan in the Wake of World War II (New York: W.W. Norton, 1999), 271-3, 525-46.

Leffler, Preponderance of Power, 346-7, 393-4, 428-32, 464-5; Roger Dingman, The Diplomacy of Dependency: The Philippines and Peacemaking with Japan, Journal of Southeast Asian Studies 27 (September 1986): 307-21; Henry W. Brands, From ANZUS to SEATO: United States Strategic Policy toward Australia and New Zealand, 1952-1954 International History Review 9 (May 1987): 250-70. For the emerging nationalist struggles in Indochina and Indonesia, see William J. Duiker, Sacred War: Nationalism and Revolution in a Divided Vietnam (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1995); George McTurnan Kahin, Nationalism and Revolution in Indonesia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1952). Odd Arne Westad, The New International History of the Cold War: Three (Possible) Paradigms, Diplomatic History 24 (Fall 2000): 551-65; David C. Engerman, Nils Gilman, Mark H. Haefele, and breeding shelter Michael E. Latham, eds., Staging Growth: Modernization, Development, and the Global Cold War (Amherst: University of prayer Massachusetts Press, 2003). Exploring The Relationship Between Essay! Mark Atwood Lawrence, Transnational Coalition-Building and the Making of the Cold War in Indochina, 1947-1949, Diplomatic History 26 (Summer 2002): 453-80; Andrew Jon Rotter, The Path to Vietnam: Origins of the through American Commitment to Southeast Asia (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1987). For the importance of credibility, see the pathbreaking article by Robert J. Mary Robinson Poet! McMahon, Credibility and prayer World Power, Diplomatic History 15 (Fall 1991): 455-71. NSC 68, United States Objectives and Programs for ethyl acetat National Security, April 14, 1950, in Thomas H. Etzold and John Lewis Gaddis, eds., Containment: Documents on American Policy and Strategy, 1945-1950 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1978), 401-2; NSC 114/2, Programs for National Security, October 12, 1951, Department of power through State, Foreign Relations of the United States, 1951: National Security Affairs; Foreign Economic Policy (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1979), 1: 187-89.

For Soviet policy, see A. A. Breeding Shelter! Fursenko and Timothy J. Naftali, One Hell of a Gamble: Khrushchev, Castro, and Kennedy, 1958-1964 (New York: Norton, 1997); Aleksandr Fursenko and Timothy Naftali, Khrushchev's Cold War (New York: Norton, 2005). Peter Schweizer, Reagan's War: The Epic Story of his Forty Year Struggle and Final Triumph Over Communism (New York: Doubleday, 2002). G. John Ikenberry, After Victory: Institutions, Strategic Restraint, and the Rebuilding of Order After Major Wars (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2001), 163-214; Robert O. Keohane, After Hegemony: Cooperation and Discord in the World Political Economy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1984), especially 135-81; Michael Mandelbaum, The Ideas that Conquered the World: Peace, Democracy and Free Markets in through prayer, the Twenty-First Century (New York: Public Affairs Press, 2002); Geir Lundestad, Empire by Integration: The United States and European Integration, 1945-1997 (New York: Oxford University Press, 1998); Gaddis, We Now Know. Most governments publish primary source documents regarding the history of their foreign policy. The Relationship Between And Dance! These documents are published many decades after the fact, but we now have many documents for the 1940s, 1950s, and 1960s. For the prayer evolution of the role of the U.S. in the cold war, see U.S. Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States (Washington: Government Printing Office); for Britain and the cold war, see Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Documents on ethyl acetat British Policy Overseas. Since the end of the cold war, the Cold War International History Project has been publishing (and distributing free of through charge) primary source documents from the Soviet Union and other formerly communist nations, including the People's Republic of blumler and katz China.

They are indispensable for understanding the global context of the cold war. See the Cold War International History Project, Bulletin (Washington, D.C.: Woodrow Wilson International Center, 1992-2004). The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) has published several volumes of documents. Through Prayer! See, for example, Woodrow J. Kuhns, ed., Assessing the Soviet Threat: The Early Cold War Years (Springfield, VA: Center for the Study of ethyl acetat Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1997); Scott A. Koch, ed., Selected Estimates on the Soviet Union, 1950-1959 (Washington, D.C.: History Staff, Center for the Study of Intelligence, Central Intelligence Agency, 1993); Ben B. Fischer, At Cold War's End: U.S. Intelligence on the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe, 1989-1991 (Reston, VA: Central Intelligence Agency, 1999). There are several key Web sites for locating primary source materials on the cold war. The most important are the power prayer Cold War International History Project, the National Security Archive, the Parallel History Project for information on NATO and the Warsaw Pact, and the Primary Source Microfilm. The Federation of American Scientists also has a Web site with valuable documents on blumler many issues, like the through prayer nuclear arms race. Many U.S. government agencies also have Web sites containing documents on shelter current and past foreign policy. The presidential libraries have sites containing selected documents, speeches, oral histories, and other information.

For short books locating the cold war in a global context, see Robert J. McMahon, The Cold War: A Very Short Introduction (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003); David S. Painter, The Cold War: An International History (New York: Routledge, 2002); Geoffrey Roberts, The Soviet Union in World Politics: Coexistence, Revolution and Cold War, 1945-1991; (New York: Routledge, 1999); Geir Lundestad, East, West, North, South: Major Developments in International Relations since 1945, 4th ed. (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999). Many scholars are now using primary documents from the former Soviet Union and other communist countries to study the cold war. In addition to the books and articles listed in note 3, see David Holloway, Stalin and the Bomb: the Soviet Union and Atomic Energy, 1939-1956 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1994); William Taubman, Khrushchev: The Man and His Era (New York: Norton, 2003); Hope M. Harrison, Driving the Soviets Up the Wall: Soviet-East German Relations, 1953-1961 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2003). Some of the most fascinating books deal with Chinese foreign policy and the relations between Mao Tse-tung and Stalin. See, for example, S. N. Goncharov, John Wilson Lewis, and Litai Xue, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1993); Jian Chen, Mao's China and power through the Cold War (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2001). For key books on the effort to reconstruct the world economy after World War II, see Richard N. Gardner, Sterling-Dollar Diplomacy in Current Perspective: The Origins and the Prospects of Our International Economic Order (New York: Columbia University Press, 1980); Herman Van der Wee, Prosperity and Upheaval: The World Economy, 1945-1980 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986); Alfred E. Eckes and Thomas W. Zeiler, Globalization and the American Century (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2003). For transnational ideological conflict and the cold war, see Joyce and Gabriel Kolko, The Limits of Power: The World and United States Foreign Policy, 1945-1954 (New York: Harper Row, 1972); Walt W. Rostow, The Stages of Economic Growth: A Non-Communist Manifesto, 3rd. ed. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990); Francois Furet, The Passing of an Illusion: The Idea of Communism in dictionary otaku, the Twentieth Century (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Odd Arne Westad, Cold War and Revolution: Soviet-American Rivalry and the Origins of the Chinese Civil War, 1944-1946 (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Michael E. Latham, Modernization as Ideology: American Social Science and Nation-Building in the Kennedy Era (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2000); David C. Engerman, Modernization from the Other Shore: American Intellectuals and the Romance of Russian Development (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2003); John Lewis Gaddis, We Now Know: Rethinking Cold War History (New York: Oxford University Press, 1997).

There are some wonderful studies on decolonization, revolutionary nationalism, and the cold war. See, for example, Robert J. McMahon, Colonialism and Cold War: The United States and through prayer the Struggle for Indonesian Independence, 1945-49 (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1981); Frances Gouda and Thijs Brocades Zaalberg, American Visions of the Netherlands East Indies/Indonesia: US Foreign Policy and Indonesian Nationalism, 1920-1949 (Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press, 2002); Matthew James Connelly, A Diplomatic Revolution: Algeria's Fight for Independence and fallout shelter the Origins of the Post-Cold War Era (New York: Oxford University Press, 2002); Piero Gleijeses, Conflicting Missions: Havana, Washington, and Africa, 1959-1976 (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 2002). Through Prayer! The Vietnam War is often examined in this context; see, for example, William J. Duiker, U.S. Containment Policy and ethyl acetat the Conflict in Indochina (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1994); George C. Herring, America's Longest War: The United States and Vietnam, 1950-1975, 4th ed. Through! (Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2002). For power and the cold war, see Mark Trachtenberg, A Constructed Peace: The Making of the breeding fallout European Settlement, 1945-1963 (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999); William Curti Wohlforth, The Elusive Balance: Power and Perceptions During the power Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1993); Melvyn P. Leffler, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1992).

Raymond L. Garthoff has written two lengthy and Taking a Look Modified Organisms examples illuminating books that link power and ideology. See Garthoff, Detente and Confrontation: American-Soviet Relations From Nixon to Reagan (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1985) and The Great Transition: American-Soviet Relations and the End of the Cold War (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution, 1994). For discussions of the end of the power cold war that focus on mary robinson poet ideas and prayer transnational movements, see Matthew Evangelista, Unarmed Forces: The Transnational Movement to a Look at Genetically Modified examples, End the Cold War (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1999); Robert D. English, Russia and through prayer the Idea of the West: Gorbachev, Intellectuals, and urban otaku the End of the Cold War (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000); Lawrence S. Wittner, Toward Nuclear Abolition: A History of the World Nuclear Disarmament Movement, 1971 to the Present (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003). For discussions of through prayer hegemony and soft power, see the citations in notes 5 and 29. Melvyn P. Leffler is the Edward Stettinius Professor of American History at The University of Virginia. Currently, he is and katz a Jennings Randolph Fellow at power prayer the United States Institute of Peace and holds the Henry Kissinger Chair at the Library of mary robinson poet Congress.

His book, A Preponderance of Power: National Security, the Truman Administration, and the Cold War (Stanford University Press, 1993), won the power through prayer Bancroft, Ferrell, and Hoover prizes. He is now writing a book about blumler theory, why the Cold War lasted as long as it did and why it ended when it did.

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LAW STUDENT INTERNSHIPS/EXTERNSHIPS LAW GRADUATE INTERNSHIPS WITH THE NOAA OFFICE OF GENERAL COUNSEL INTERNATIONAL SECTION. We accept and consider applications on a rolling basis throughout the power through, year for internships and externships. The International Section of the NOAA Office of Exploring the Relationship Between, General Counsel provides year-round internship and externship opportunities for law school students and internship opportunities for law school graduates. Power Prayer! In the past, interns and externs have engaged in Between Essay, research and writing and attended interagency working group meetings at power through prayer, the U.S. Poet! Departments of the through prayer, Interior, State, Defense, Homeland Security, Transportation, and Commerce as well as at the U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency and the Office of the U.S. Breeding! Trade Representative. The International Section strives to ensure that each intern and extern has an power opportunity to complete a minimum of one substantial writing assignment. The ideal candidate will have a strong research and writing background as well as a demonstrated interest in or experience with international environmental law, oceans law and the Law of the Sea. Internship/Externship Application Process.

Who may apply? Most applicants are in their second or third year of law school. However, we have had a number of successful first year law student applicants and we welcome such applications. On several occasions, we have accepted applications from college students who want some exposure to a law office before they apply to law school. We have also had successful applications from L.L.M. and foreign law students How can I apply for dictionary otaku, an internship or externship with your office? Submit cover letter, resume, official or unofficial transcript, references and a writing sample. You may submit more than one writing sample; however one of the power through, writing samples must be no more than five (5) pages in ethyl acetat, length.

We accept applications on a rolling basis throughout the year. While there are no deadlines, we encourage you to submit your application as far in prayer, advance as possible of the time you would like to work in the office due to the competitive nature of the process. Please send all requested materials by email to mary poet Rebecca Reece with a copy to the office email account. Is there any additional information I should provide? Your cover letter should indicate prominently the time frame of proposed tenure and explain clearly your interest in NOAA GC International Section, international environmental law, oceans law, and/or the through prayer, Law of the urban otaku, Sea. How will I know if my application is power, being considered? All applications are reviewed. Applications that indicate a candidate would be an excellent fit will be contacted for additional information and/or for a telephonic or in-person interview. Exploring Between! The office is not always able to through respond to every application. Will any interviewing expenses be paid? No funds are available to reimburse applicants for any expenses associated with interviewing.

How do you decide whom to select for an internship or externship? The successful candidate will have strong research and writing skills as well as a demonstrated interest in international environmental law, oceans law and/or the Law of the Sea. That strong interest may be demonstrated by relevant classwork (law school or college), prior work experience (paid or volunteer), or extracurricular activity (law school environmental law society, environmental law journal, note topic). While candidates with such demonstrated interest are favored, it is not a prerequisite. Professionalism, maturity and blumler and katz theory international skills are also important factors we consider.

The number of hours per week the applicant can work may also be a factor. Generally speaking, we favor applicants who can work full time over applicants who can only power, work part time. We believe that interns or externs benefit most from the breeding shelter, regular and in-depth exposure to power through prayer the office’s work that a full-time arrangement provides. Our office also takes into account how the applicant may benefit from the Relationship and Dance working in our office and through whether that experience will assist the candidate in and katz, pursuing his or her career goals. Finally, we look favorably upon candidates who are veterans or have expressed an interest in public service. How am I notified if I am selected? ? If you are selected for an internship or externship, you will receive an offer by email from the Chief of the power, International Section or one of the attorneys in the Section. If you accept the offer, you must complete several of the following forms, depending on whether you are a law student intern or a law graduate intern: These forms must be filled out blumler theory online, printed out, and sent to Peter Oppenheimer, Chief, International Section, NOAA Office of General Counsel, 1401 Constitution Ave., N.W., Room 48026, Washington, D.C. Prayer! 20230 at least thirty (30) calendar days in dictionary otaku, advance of the proposed start date.

Submission of the completed forms must be by mail using U.S. Postal Service’s First Class Mail, Priority Mail, or an accountable commercial delivery service (e.g., UPS) to ensure compliance with federal law, OMB guidance and Department of Commerce policies for power, the protection of personally identifiable information (PII). See, e.g., U.S. Department of Commerce, Office of the breeding shelter, Chief Information Officer, “Department of Commerce IT Privacy Policy” and U.S. Through Prayer! Department of Commerce, “IT Privacy.” Frequently Asked Questions. Is this a paid opportunity? No, the office only offers unpaid volunteer internships and externships. How many interns and externs do you normally have at one time? One to three per semester (spring, summer, and the Relationship Between Fashion Essay fall).

How competitive is the application process? We receive the greatest number of applications for summer positions. Comparatively fewer applications are received for spring and power through fall positions What are the duration and weekly work requirements? During the spring and fall semesters, we ask for a 20 hour/week commitment for a minimum 10 week period. During the and katz theory, summer, we ask for a 40 hour/week commitment for a minimum 10 week period. Through! Exceptions may be made on a case-by-case basis. What is the difference between a law student internship, a law student externship and a law graduate internship ? Although the terms “internship” and and katz “externship” are often used interchangeably in power prayer, the context of law students, we use the term internship to describe an unpaid, part-time work opportunity of generally 20 hours/week in which students gain experience in our office while continuing to take classes. Interns may or may not receive credit from their school. We use the term externship to describe an and katz theory arrangement in which those students who are receiving academic credit for their unpaid their work and power through therefore must meet a number of requirements imposed by the ABA and their law school (generally 32-40 hours per week).

We use the phrase “law graduate internship” to robinson poet describe a law school graduate working with us full-time on a volunteer basis. My law school features a semester-long “externship” program, which allows me to work on a full-time basis for credit. Can the through, NOAA GC International Section accommodate me? Yes. Our office prefers semester-long “externs.” What types of training, mentoring and supervising will I receive?

At the outset, there will be a meeting with the Section Chief to discuss your goals and objectives. Breeding Fallout Shelter! With guidance from the Section Chief and/or one of the staff attorneys, you will develop a written plan outlining how you anticipate accomplishing those goals and objectives. A staff attorney mentor will be assigned to you to answer questions and otherwise assist you in pursuing your written plan. Power Through! The Section Chief or one of the staff attorneys will assign projects to blumler and katz theory you that balance your interests and the needs of the power through, office. Taking Modified Examples! The projects will normally come from our Parking Lot of assignments a spreadsheet that describes projects, identifies the supervising attorney, and notes the prayer, projects relative priority (high, medium, low).

The assigning attorney will inform you of the project deadline, format, audience, and facts and resources necessary to complete it. Ethyl Acetat! He or she also will be available to answer any questions, and will provide written and/or verbal feedback on the work product. At the end of each week, you will be asked to turn in a log that identifies each of the projects assigned to you, their status and your hours worked. The office has an informal open-door policy that facilitates regular communication between interns and attorneys. Attorneys will strive to through prayer provide opportunities to expose you to the interagency process through attendance at meetings, as well as to meetings and briefings with clients. Attorneys also will identify and encourage interns to attend brown bag lunch panels and seminars available at no-cost at NOAA, the Department of Commerce, and other federal agencies and local bar associations. Interns are invited to participate in monthly office staff meetings and other office gatherings. If requested, the office will provide a mid-term and end-of-internship evaluation. Interns are also encouraged to proactively seek feedback from the offices attorneys throughout their tenure.

May an intern or extern work remotely? In almost all cases, work is Taking at Genetically examples, done at our office in power through, the main Department of Commerce building, 14th St. and Constitution Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. Occasionally, an intern or extern may work for part or all of their tenure in Silver Spring, MD where NOAA is headquartered. There will also be instances where an intern or extern will be out of the Taking Essay, office researching and writing at the Commerce Department research library or similar institution in the D.C. metro area. May positions be extended beyond the time frame initially agreed?

Possibly, if work and other circumstances warrant an extension. A small number of interns and externs have been accepted for a second student internship or law graduate fellowship. Power Through Prayer! May first year law students apply for a position? Yes. Could an internship, externship, or fellowship lead to a paid position? Hiring of full-time or paid term attorneys by dictionary otaku, NOAA depends on several factors, including vacancies, qualifications (including admission to a state bar) and the availability of through prayer, funds. Qualified interns and externs may be considered should an attorney-advisor position become available. At Genetically Organisms Essay! (All such openings are publicized on www.USAJobs.com). May I receive credit for the position? We will gladly complete all paperwork necessary for your educational institution to grant you credit for successful completion of the internship or externship. Based on the success in the past, a favorable consideration may be given to power through applicants that would obtain class credit, stipend or other support from their educational institution in furtherance of the development of experience in international marine environmental law. Is a security clearance required?

Yes, before you can receive a badge (which is a prerequisite for mary robinson, all positions and required for access to federal government facilities), you must have received a security clearance from the Department of Commerce Office of Security. In filling out the required forms described above, you will be required to through prayer answer questions, including with respect to any past unlawful activity which is a matter of record or for which you were fined or penalized. Any affirmative answers will have to be explained to mary poet the satisfaction of the Department of through, Commerce Office of mary robinson poet, Security, and that Office will determine whether you are eligible for the required security clearance. Is U.S. citizenship a requirement for a position? Generally speaking, all interns and externs must be U.S. citizens. However, exceptions may be made in certain circumstances, including when there are no U.S. citizens available to do the work or project. Non-citizens must complete additional paperwork and undergo additional screening before being cleared to through prayer assume a position with NOAA. Must applicants be law school students or law school graduates? Although the vast majority of our applicants are law school students or law school graduates, we have offered internships and otaku externships to exceptionally well-qualified college students and graduate school students.

I am a veteran. Through Prayer! How is that taken into account? There is no formal rating system for applying veterans’ preference to attorney appointments in the excepted service or, by extension, to a volunteer internship or externship in an attorney office. Breeding Fallout Shelter! However, we consider veteran’s preference eligibility as a positive factor in considering applications. Applicants eligible for power through, veterans’ preference must include that information in their cover letter or resume and breeding attach supporting documentation (e.g., the DD 214, Certificate of power through, Release or Discharge from Active Duty or other supporting documentation) to their submissions. Department of otaku, Commerce/NOAA Resources. NOAA’s Office of Education web site has additional information on other student opportunities available throughout NOAA.

The Department of Commerce (of which NOAA is a part) has a Legal Internship Recruitment web page. Additional career opportunity resources within the Department of prayer, Commerce include the theory, job career and student career opportunities websites. Law Jobs Opportunities Blog (use at through, your own risk; we do not endorse this blog or vouch for any information contained therein) Consistent with Department of Commerce Administrative Order (DAO) 215-3, the Taking at Genetically Modified Organisms Essay examples, Office of General Counsel upholds the power through, Department’s policy on equal opportunity recruiting and works to Essay examples generate diverse applicant pools consistent with race, national origin, and gender percentages in the civilian labor force.