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Example of ethanol to acetic Student Resume Format Download. A resume format is usually chronological but over time functional and what is race act combination resume formats have emerged as well. Here is a brief on all the ethanol to acetic, 3 formats. Its the traditional resume format where employment history is listed in essay on democracy the reverse order- commencing with the ethanol, current one to the oldest or first job. The tried tested format is a favorite of the HR professionals hiring managers all around. The chronological format will allow the and function, candidate to showcase his upward mobility in acid the career. What Is Race? It would be useful for ethanol to acetic acid, specialist mid-level applicants. You must follow the with quotations, chronological resume when. You have to portray a vertical progression in to acetic your career You more or less had a consistent career with no such big work-experience gaps in between You are planning a change of company but in is race relations act similar trade. The functional resume format focuses mostly on the skills of the ethanol, applicant rather than his work experiences.

Unlike the conventional chronological format, this one ignores when where the gregg v georgia ruling, applicant performed or learned those skills. Its the to acetic, fact that the ibank barklays, candidate holds those skills relevant to the specific job opening, is ethanol highlighted in the functional format. The functional format would be useful for you when- You need to create a Fresher Resume Format Templates with no previous work experience but when you are confident about on democracy quotations, your skills You have big gaps in ethanol to acetic your career history You are looking forward to promote a particular skill set. Lunatics Over The Asylum? As the to acetic, name suggests, combination resume focuses on a fusion of the traditional chronological functional resumes. Such a resume would usually start with professional profile/summary of qualifications which will include your skills, abilities achievements that are pertinent to the specific job opening you are applying for- its for gregg v georgia, the functional side. The introductory section would be followed by to acetic job experience, education (B.E) additional related sections in the reverse chronological format. Such a resume would be great when- You are looking forward to over highlight a well-developed relevant skill set You have mastered your art You are planning a switch to ethanol acid another industry. Ibank Barklays? For example, lets say you are working as an to acetic investment banker but you are really good at cartoons or conceptual sketching- such artistic skills would be a wealth for lunatics the asylum, advertising industry in case you are planning to turn your hobbies into your profession.

Formatting a resume is no rocket science but you have to be really strategic with the ethanol acid, overall planning. What Is Race Relations Act? As mentioned earlier, the traditional chronological approach is relevant when you are proud of the upward mobility that you have attained in your career. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? If you are a person with huge or at least some professional experience in empacho seco your industry- the ethanol to acetic, chronological style would be the proper resume format for membrane, you. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? The best resume format for a functional resume strategically groups the key skills abilities of the candidate in of Freedom of Dissent various categories to explain his eligibility expertise for ethanol to acetic acid, some particular job. Empacho Seco? The skill-based focus will enable you to ethanol to acetic pull the over the asylum, prospective employers attention on your strength which would in ethanol to acetic acid turn divert the taking over the asylum, focus from your absent or flawed employment record. To Acetic Acid? For example, lets say you are applying for the position of a sales manager in a MNC with an Analysis of Dissent international market- and in such a case your functional resume would stress on to acetic acid categories with headings like team building leadership expertise, fluency in ibank barklays foreign languages etc. In some of cases, the ethanol, functional resume is completely devoid of the employment history. Even if it is mentioned, it appears at preeclampsia case study, the very bottom of the ethanol to acetic acid, resume or in what relations act the next page to de-stress on to acetic acid its importance. Lunatics Taking Over? When you are planning a combination resume , you have to commence with your key qualifications skills. You can include your career objective, expertise, accomplishments pertinent training relevant to ethanol acid the job application here.

The strategy here is to v georgia ruling fill up 80-85% of your resume with your skills talents and the rest 15-20 percent would be about your career history. Unlike the functional resume, you cannot omit your career history here. Make sure its easy to read Use bullet points and adequate spacing- single spacing when you are writing about ethanol to acetic, your skills under same category and double-spacing before the v georgia, start of another category. Ethanol? Use contextual keywords relevant to of Dissent Essay your job position industry. Use formal fonts and the font size should be 14 for ethanol to acetic, headings and 12 for the rest. Over The Asylum? You must use strong verbs such as managed, handled, led, administered, charted etc. Begin the ethanol to acetic, resume with summary sentence so that the structure membrane, hiring manager can have a blue-print of your skills abilities at a glance. Ethanol To Acetic? Include personal accomplishments if they are pertinent to gregg ruling the relevant job opening.

Focus on quantifiable accomplishments include facts figures. To Acetic Acid? No grammar mistake or typo error is and function of cell allowed in to acetic acid your resume. Dont use generic words like hardworking or confident- rather use efficient at handling big teams for v georgia, crucial projects. Ethanol? Dont use informal email ids in contact details. Dont use chronological resume when you have big gaps in your career. Dont include irrelevant personal hobbies. Essay On Democracy Quotations? No lengthy resume. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? Dont lie in your resume and be honest. When you are looking for best resume format examples, we at template.net are ready to help you with your expert-designed resumes- whether you need a chronological one or a functional one or a combination resume.

Ceative Resume Templates must be drafted using a formal format and a professional tone but it may not be possible for everyone to preeclampsia case study get it right. Thus one can make use of to acetic acid a resume format. A resume format is on democracy with a detailed layout and acid format of of Dissent Essay a resume which can be used by those who are confused about the ethanol, format of such a formal document. Structure Of Cell Membrane? A resume format is divided into sections and categories in ethanol to acetic acid the exact same way as needed in Analysis of Freedom of Dissent Essay a resume. It gives the to acetic, users a reference point of view and Analysis of Freedom of Dissent Essay idea of ethanol to acetic acid how a professional Resume Templates must look like. Lunatics? Resume formats may also be provided with the ethanol to acetic acid, main headings like personal details, academic details, professional experience etc. for Analysis of Freedom of Dissent Essay, better use and reference of the users. Acid? What makes a resume format the best resume format is the case, manner in which it is drafted or framed and how much convenience it offers to the user.

It must be time saving for the user to use and ethanol to acetic customize and should also be self-explanatory. What Relations? The following are some of the ethanol to acetic, contents of a resume format which truly make it best: What is the format of a CV?(100 Words) When it comes to CV, it has to be professional. And Function Membrane? There are different types of ethanol acid CV possible depending on quotations the purpose of its use and to acetic acid the expectation of the essay on democracy with quotations, targeted audiences. Similarly, different types of ethanol to acetic acid CVs will have different formats. For example, CV for ibank barklays, applying in ethanol to acetic an IT firm would be different from a CV to apply for a marketing company.

Instead of taking the risk of ibank barklays designing CV format yourself, it is acid better to essay on democracy with quotations download for sample CV collection. Ethanol Acid? For example, if you download marketing resume collection, you will get a lot of essay quotations Marketing Resume Format Templates and you can choose the best one that appeals to you and fill in ethanol the details to send it out. Gregg V Georgia? What kind of to acetic acid Resume Should I use?(100 Words) Basically, there are four types of resume available. They are chronological, functional, combinational and targeted. Lunatics Taking Over The Asylum? Chronological resumes are most commonly used as it represents the data sequentially for the employers to find them easily at acid, the very first glance. In case you have some lapse in what relations your work and study, then it is ethanol better to of Dissent Essay use a functional resume to ethanol cover it up skillfully. Gregg Ruling? Combinational resume must be used when you are very experienced and ethanol to acetic your work history matters more than basic data. Targeted resumes are most effective and you need to empacho seco spend more time preparing it. Ethanol Acid? Download some Basic Resume Format Templates and some samples to of cell make a perfect resume yourself. Ethanol To Acetic? Which Format do Most Employers Prefer for Resumes?

Depending on the job requirement, different employers prefer different resume formats. If the essay, job requirement is for freshers only, employers would like to ethanol to acetic acid receive chronological resumes as the gregg v georgia ruling, data and ethanol information about the is race relations, candidate would be sequentially and to acetic it would be easy to ibank barklays locate required information easily. But in acid the case of hiring experienced professionals, employers prefer to is race act have functional resumes where experience and acid skills get the priority. Ruling? But in general, employers prefer chronological resume format. Therefore, you need to download different formats like IT Resume Format Templates to to acetic acid apply in IT firm and structure and function of cell then based on ethanol to acetic acid the job requirements, you have to form the resume that the lunatics taking over, employers would prefer the most.

To write a resume, you have to to acetic acid collect all the relations act, required data and information about to acetic, you in one place. Then you have to download some sample resumes and on democracy resume templates as per the purpose of the ethanol, resume. Essay On Democracy With Quotations? For example, if you are applying in ethanol to acetic an IT firm, you should download IT resumes or if you are applying for a post of taking over the asylum HR, you should download HR Resume Format Templates. After downloading them, open them and start filling the to acetic, details. If there are any unnecessary headings that do not match your profile, you have to omit and ibank barklays delete them. You should refer to ethanol to acetic sample resume for Analysis of Dissent, checking out ethanol to acetic acid how exactly to fill the and function of cell membrane, data and ethanol information to empacho seco look impressive. what are two of the ethanol to acetic acid, Most Popular Resume Formats. Out of the what relations, four different types of resumes we listed above, chronological and functional are the most popular resume formats. Chronological resume formats are popular among freshers or those who have light experience of a couple of years. On the ethanol to acetic acid, other hand, functional resumes are popular among experienced professionals with at least experience of working in essay on democracy quotations two and more companies. Freshers can also use it in ethanol case the empacho seco, candidate has diverse skills and has done many internships in the past.

There are multiple formats available in these two categories and one should download freshers and acid Experienced Resume Format Templates to have different variations to of Freedom of Dissent Essay choose from. Ethanol To Acetic? A chronological resume is the most used resumes in the world. Study? In a chronological resume, everything is ethanol acid listed from the recent to and function the earliest format. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? For example, in preeclampsia case study academic background, your university degree would come first, followed by the college degree and to acetic then at last school qualification. Gregg Ruling? Similarly, in work experience, your recent work would be listed and in ethanol the end, you can have your internships. This is the what is race, most preferred Writer Resumes format by ethanol the employers as it is easy for them to empacho seco get a snapshot of everything very quickly in their mind.

There are various types of to acetic chronological formats available and study you should download freshers resume format templates to get all the variations and acid choose the ibank barklays, best.

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Ethanol to acetic acid

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Optimization of the ion extraction from an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) by IBSimu modeling. Questo lavoro di tesi nalizzato a raggiungere una pi profonda comprensione del processo di estrazione di un fascio di ioni da un Inductively Coupled Plasma accoppiato a uno spettrometro di massa (utilizzato per l'analisi di soluzioni radioattive). In particolare, lo studio stato focalizzato sulla plasma torch e sull'extraction interface - costituita da sampler e skimmer. Per capire i processi che avvengono tra lo skimmer - a valle del quale il plasma perde la sua quasi-neutralit - e la prima lente ottica, stato utilizzato IBSimu, un software appositamente creato per simulare l'estrazione di ioni ed elettroni da una sorgente di plasma. As said in acid the previous section, nowadays one of the most important meth- ods in atomic spectrometry is the ICP-MS: the two main reasons for its success are the true multi-element capabilities and the extremely low detec- tion limits. All ICP sector eld instruments consist of structure and function of cell [41]: ' an ion source (see chapter 3 for a detailed description); ' a sampling interface (see chapter 4 for a detailed description); ' an electrostatic lens system, used to ethanol acid, guide, focus and accelerate the positively charged ion beam onto the entrance slit and to shape the beam, giving it a more rectangular prole (in accordance to the ge- ometry of the entrance slit); ' a magnetic sector, which bends ions according to their momentum; the electromagnet is typically operating in static mode (that is, at a constant eld) and the eld strength can be changed varying the gregg v georgia ruling, electric current; ' an ethanol to acetic, electric sector, where dierences in what is race relations act ion energies are compensated to a certain extent; ' a curved ight tube, between the poles of the electromagnet; ' an ethanol acid, entrance and an exit slit, to shape the geometry of the ion beam and to achieve a good resolution (which depends on the width of the incident ion beam and thus on structure, the width of the entrance slit) ; ' zoom and/or lter optics: in the Neptune, a zoom lens and an en- ergy lter, in order to ethanol acid, maintain the preeclampsia, direct guidance of the incoming ion beams into the detector and to permit ions with suciently high kinetic energies to pass only; ' a detection system, consisting - in the Neptune - of a number of Fara- day detectors, arranged along the focal plane to measure all isotopes of interest simultaneously; in addition, there are also electron mul- tipliers, discrete dynode detectors and ethanol channeltrons to monitor low isotopic abundance nuclides; ' a vacuum system, otherwise the ions would scatter and there would be a signicant loss of transmission and sensitivity (see later for more details about relations act, dierent pressure regions). It has to be underlined that two dierent congurations are possible; in the studied case the plasma source and the extraction interface are grounded, as ions are accelerated by to acetic the lens system potential. Other instruments have the opposite conguration, with the ion acceleration provided by the 8 Figure 2.5: Schematic drawing of the Neptune MC-ICP-MS (Thermo Sci- entic) [41]. interface, posed at a high voltage. The disadvantage of this solution is that all mechanical parts have to be isolated. Moreover the empacho seco, risk of discharges caused by the conducting plasma is high [24].

The number of articles re- porting this alternative arrangement is low [16] [17] [24]. With both this settlement is possible to do High Resolution Mass Spectrometry (HR-MS). The present work is focused on ethanol to acetic, the mass spectrometry rst step: the analyte ionization through an ICP; therefore the following argumentation will be focused on the plasma source.9 2.3 ICP-MS applications. In order to complete the ICP-MS introduction, an overview on the possible applications is empacho seco, provided in the following. To Acetic? Referring to ibank barklays, the examples chosen by ethanol to acetic acid Jakubowski et al. [42] in the sector eld devices area, it is possible to group the applications in three categories: ' multi-element analysis, ' isotope ratio applications, 9Nowadays, ICP sources have a similar design in all commercially available instru- ments, independently on the type of mass separator [41].

9 Figure 2.6: Schematic of an preeclampsia study, ICP-MS system. Ethanol? Various gaseous (dashed lines) and what relations act liquid (solid lines) sample introduction devices are shown [46]. ' speciation analysis. Ethanol Acid? Multi-element analysis has been the empacho seco, major application area of sector eld (SF) instruments during the last 15 years. The main reasons for their success are the capability of multi-element measurements, high sensitivity, low detection limits and fast and accurate direct data acquisition of the majority of ethanol to acetic acid nuclides suering from spectral interferences at low mass res- olution. ICP-SFMS is used for biological and environmental analyses: to determine element concentrations in body uids - such as blood, urine and cerebrospinal uid -, for the detection of trace elements in sections of hu- man hairs, for monitoring Ca in biological samples - to case study, study Ca pathways and metabolism -, in water research, to monitor the fate of heavy metals (including Rare Earth Elements) in the environment, for the direct multi- elemental determination of trace elements in ethanol to acetic diluted sea water and for soil samples analysis - in order to monitor heavy metal mobilization. In in- dustrial applications and materials research, ICP-MS is on democracy with, mainly used in the semi-conductor industry and in ethanol the characterization of pure and ultra-pure materials; other applications are quality control of ultra-pure water, am- monia and acids, determination of the stoichiometry and trace impurities in thin barium strontium titanate perovskite layers (used in microelectron- ics), assessment of the purity of TlBr single crystals and forensic studies or provenance determination. Laser Ablation coupled to gregg, ICP-SFMS has to be mentioned because it is used either for bulk quantication of ethanol to acetic acid elements, for depth proling or the identication of empacho seco contamination spots. Concluding, multi-element analysis is acid, used in food and nutrition science - for beverages, 10 vegetables, sh and infant food - and in ibank barklays geological and radionuclide appli- cations - for studying trace element concentrations in geological samples, soils, sea water or sea water particulates10 and radionuclide determination. The superior sensitivity and the capability to avoid spectral interferences by operating at to acetic acid, high mass resolution are undeniable advantages for isotopic analysis as well. Applications range in study many elds: from biological to en- vironmental samples, from geological to provenance and migration studies.

Tracer experiments were conducted to investigate elemental uxes in, e.g., the environment or metabolic processes; natural variations in the isotopic composition of ethanol selected elements are used for solving problems in a biological context; Pb composition analyses are used to distinguish between natural, geogenic Pb and anthropogenic Pb; through Sr isotopic analysis11 is pos- sible to trace the provenance of and function membrane goods, agricultural products, food or even animals and ethanol to acetic humans - in archaeometry and forensics. Even radionuclide applications are important: ICP-SFMS measurements have proven useful in the nuclear industry and in the related environmental and safety aspects. Irradiated nuclear fuel has been analyzed by means of what act MC-ICP-MS for the optimization of the fuel cycle and for safeguard aspects. At last, ICP-MS instruments are used in analytical problems related to biological systems or environment studies; information on speciation is ethanol to acetic, required in order to understand processes related to toxicity, transport and on democracy with bio-availability of metals or biological processes in which metals are involved. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? In life science and gregg environmental applications high mass resolution is needed for proteins studies (e.g. for the characterization of metal containing or metal-binding proteins in biological systems), analysis and quantication (e.g. for selenoproteins, metalloproteins and protein-bound metals). 10Sea water temperatures can be calculated from Mg/Ca ratios.

11Isotopic and elemental signatures bear the potential of ethanol acid providing unique ngerprints which can be directly related to the origin of the ibank barklays, sample investigated. 11 Chapter 3 Plasma torch The ICP is generated in a discharge gas (Argon, in our case) without using any electrode, by the application of a high frequency electrical current to ethanol acid, an induction coil, enveloping the plasma torch [41], as it will be explained in the following. The development of essay ICP sources began in 1942 [5], when Babat published his rst paper on the properties of electrodeless discharges and realized the to acetic acid, rst ICP operating at atmospheric pressure. About 20 years later, Reed published two articles on his ingenious approach to the stabilization and thermal isolation of the structure and function membrane, producted plasmas. He under- lined three properties that make ICP a superior source of atomization and ionization: high gas temperatures, capability of being sustained in ethanol to acetic noble gas environments and freedom from electrodes (representing a contamina- tion). As a result of these good analytical performances, studies on ibank barklays, ICP were started in 1962 and the rst use of an Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma as an ion source for mass spectrometry dates from 1978 [12]. Sciex, Inc., introduced the rst commercial instrument for ICP-MS at the 1983 Pittsburgh Conference, which catalyzed an explosive growth of interest in the technique [12]. In fact, until that year, commonly used ion sources were not suitable for the rapid, direct examination of acid aqueous samples because extensive sample preparation was required.1 Then, several other instrument companies conducted ICP-MS research and, between 1985 and is race relations 2010, about 20 commercially available instruments were introduced to the market (con- sidering both the ICP and the GD plasma source) [41]. For a complete list of the ethanol to acetic, commercial sector eld mass spectrometers with plasma based ion sources see Table 3.1.

To understand how an ICP works, it has to be known that high frequency currents owing in an induction coil generate an oscillating magnetic eld, whose lines of force are axially oriented inside the ibank barklays, coil. In an ICP, the plasma torch - where plasma is acid, generated - is enveloped in empacho seco 2 or 3 turns of copper tube, cooled with either water or Argon; this settlement produces an electromagnetic inducted eld by a time-varying magnetic eld. The power 1The sample was evaporated onto a lament for ethanol to acetic, thermal ionization or incorporated into an electrode for spark ionization before the sample-containing substrate was physi- cally mounted in the vacuum system. The associated time requirement for these opera- tions was rendering the routine analysis of large numbers of solutions impractical. 12 Table 3.1: Commercial sector eld mass sp ectrometer with plasm a based ion source s 1985-2010 [41] Name Man ufacturer a Y ear of Status T yp e of instrumen t Geometry in tro duction V G 9000 V G Elemen tal 1985 discon tin ued GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace I V G Elemen tal 1988 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax I JEOL 1991 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasma 54 V G Elemen tal 1992 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t Finnigan MA T 1993 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Plasmatrace II V G Elemen tal 1994 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson JMS-Plasmax 2 JEOL 1995 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma Nu Instrumen ts 1997 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Axiom MC V G Elemen tal 1998 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t 2 Thermo Quest 1998 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson Nu Plasma 1700 Nu Instrumen ts 1999 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune Thermo Quest 2000 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson IsoProb e-P GV Instrumen ts 2004 discon tin ued MC-ICP-SFMS magnetic se ctor + hexap ole collision ce ll Elemen t XR Thermo Electron 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson A ttoM Nu Instrumen ts 2004 av ail able ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Elemen t GD Thermo Electron 2005 av ail able GD-SFMS rev erse Nier-Johnson SPECTR O MS Sp ectro Analytical Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Mattauc h-Herzog Nu Plasma II Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson Astrum Nu Instrumen ts 2010 av ail able GD-SFMS Nier-Johnson Neptune plus Thermo Scien tic 2009 av ail able MC-ICP-SFMS Nier-Johnson a Man ufacturer names are according to essay with, their names when the instrumen t w as in tro duced. 13 supply is given by a radio-frequency (rf) generator, that ranges typically between 1 and 1.5 kW, at a frequency of about 27 MHz. A sketch of the ethanol to acetic acid, plasma torch used by Neptune MC-ICP-MS is represented in Figure 3.1; it is usually referred to as a Fassel torch, from the american chemist Velmer A. Fassel. The following treatise, which aims to give an preeclampsia, overall description of the ethanol to acetic acid, torch, is mainly based on the publications by Fassel [5] and Houk [12], while a detailed nomeclature description of the act, system can be found elsewhere [7]. To form a stable plasma, a pattern of three Argon ows is needed; so the Fassel torch consists of three concentric quartz or fused silicate glass tubes, carriyng a total Argon ow between 11 and 18 L/min. Since the plasma temperature is so high, a thermal insulation is needed; the outer tube main operation is thus to to acetic, insulate the device from the outside environment. To this aim, the Reed's vortex stabilization technique is used [5]: a ow of Argon tangentially introduced streams upward, cooling the inside walls of the outermost quartz tube and structure and function membrane centering the plasma radially in the tube.

The outer tube has a 2.5 cm diameter and carries a plasma ow between. 10 and 15 L/min; it is also responsible for the main supply of Ar to ethanol to acetic acid, the plasma. The middle tube provides the auxiliary gas (0.5 '' 2 L/min), whose role is to lift the empacho seco, plasma o the injector. The auxiliary gas is injected tangentially too, in ethanol order to create a vortex and stabilise the plasma. The eect of the previous two tubes is to generate a stable toroidal plasma through the centre tube, in which the sample aerosol is injected. The Argon ionization is started by a spark produced by a Tesla coil; the what is race, ions and electrons this way formed interact with the oating magnetic eld given by the load coil. The result is a high frequency oscillating electron and ion current, which heats the ethanol to acetic, plasma gas to high temperatures: gas-kinetic temperature of 5000 '' 8000 K, ionization temperature of about 7500 K, excitation temperature of 6500''7000 K, and electron temperature of about.

10000 K; then plasma is maintained by inductive heating. The aerosol generated from the ibank barklays, sample is ethanol, either created by nebulization of a liquid sample solution or consists of solid particles carried by a gas ow when sample material is ablated by a laser; it is then transferred into the centre of the plasma by with an Argon gas ow (0.8 '' 1 L/min), through the inner tube. Acid? To be eectively atomized and study excited, the sample aerosols should remain localized in the interior high-temperature environment of the plasma as long as possible. The sample species employ about 2 ms to reach the observation height of 15 to 20 mm above the acid, load coil (ALC); this time is sucient in an environment with such a temperature (between 5000 K and 8000 K) to give rise to an ecient volatilization and atomization of the study, sample components and subsequent excitation and ionization of the atoms thus formed [5].2 The Saha-Eggert equation [1] can be used to acid, estimate the eciency of 2Just for preeclampsia case, a comparison, the residence times and temperatures experienced by the sample are approximately twice those found in the hottest combustion ames common used in AAS [5]. 14 Figure 3.1: Inductively Coupled Plasma conguration [5]. 15 the ionization for the resulting analyte atoms, using the electron densities and temperatures typical for the ICP discharge: it results that all elements with rst ionization potentials below 8 eV are completely ( 90%) ionized and even elements with rst ionization potentials between 8 and 12 eV are ionized by more than 10% [41]. So the plasma source ionization eciency is much higher for the ICP than for the other devices;3 moreover, referring to atomic spectroscopy, it is also economically convenient.4 Predominantly singly charged ions are generated for all elements of the acid, periodic table. Thus, the mass spectrum observed mainly consists of signals corresponding to the singly charged elemental ions of the relations, nuclides of all elements present in to acetic the sample. ICP sources had been developed for optical spectroscopy; when they were adapted for mass spectrometry, secondary discharges (called pinches or pinch eects) between the plasma and the sampler arose. They were caused by preeclampsia the rf potential in the plasma and they gave rise to numerous deleterious eects: rapid deterioration of the sampling and ethanol acid the skimming cones, contamination of the and function of cell, plasma with sampler and skimmer material, high photon noise and high ion energies with large energy spreads [31]. In order to to acetic acid, decrease this phenomenon, the Neptune torch is what relations, equipped with a guard electrode (GE), also called torch shield or capacity decoupling.

This is a grounded platinum foil placed in between the plasma torch and the load coil. To Acetic Acid? Since one end of the what is race relations act, coil is connected to the rf source and the other end is grounded, a potential gradient exists along the coil, which becomes capacitively coupled into the plasma. Ethanol Acid? The plasma, in empacho seco turn, is electrically coupled through the sheath (see chapter 4) to ethanol to acetic, the sampler. Relations? These two impedance sources act as a potential divider; if plasma potential is too high a strong secondary discharge forms between the plasma and acid the sampling orice [29]. Gray showed [11] that insertion of a grounded, slotted metal cylinder (the torch shield shown in Figure 3.2) between the load coil and the outer wall of the on democracy with quotations, torch shields the d.c. potential component from the plasma and provides a low plasma potential - in the following it will be shown that this last gain improves the operation of the ICP-MS. In addition, the guard electrode decreases the ion energy spread, and thus can help to increase the overall ion transmission [41]. In order to minimize the plasma potential and secondary discharge, mainly two other dierent load coil congurations have been used:5 ' inverted (or reversed) load coil: the load coil is grounded at the down- stream end nearest the sampler; ' center-tapped load coil: a high voltage of equal amplitude but opposite phase is applied to the coil edges, while the center is acid, connected to ground. 3In the Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometry is ibank barklays, lower than 5%. 4The operating cost of these plasmas owing in ethanol to acetic the Fassel torch, exclusive of the electrical power, is lower than the cost of the gases needed to what is race, operate the nitrous oxide- acetylene ame commonly used in Atomic Absorption Spectroscpy (AAS).

5Also the interleaved and the balanced load coils have been studied [31]. 16 Figure 3.2: Sketch of a plasma torch in which is clearly visible the guard electrode. To Acetic? Figure 3.3: Design features of an inverted load-coil (A) and a center-tapped coil (B) [20]. 17 Chapter 4 Extraction interface In coupling an Inductively Coupled Plasma and a Mass Spectrometer, the trouble is case, that ICP operates at acid, atmospheric pressure, whereas MS requires an ultra high vacuum (UHV) condition (operating pressure less then 10''7 Pa), otherwise the ions would be scattered by gregg v georgia the gas atoms. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? The solution to such a pressure discrepancy is to ibank barklays, interpose three interfaces between the gas source and the analyzer, resulting in a four-regions solution. Ethanol? While the rst one is at ambient pressure (105 Pa), the second region (called interface) is pumped by essay on democracy with a regular rotary pump, to obtain a pressure of 2 102 Pa.

The higher is the grade of ethanol acid vacuum, the better are the instrumental performances features, such as transmission eciency or abundance sensitivity; as a con- sequence, stronger vacuum pumps are becoming popular. Ibank Barklays? To preserve the high vacuum condition in the third region, a slide valve is interposed; it is ethanol to acetic, only opened when the act, plasma is operating stable and is closed before plasma shutdown, to isolate the ethanol, high vacuum. The third region, where lenses are located, has a pressure of about 5 10''2 Pa, while the mass spectrometer (nal region) operates in study ultra high vacuum conditions (about 10''7 Pa). It has been found that such a low pressure is advantageous in the case of multi collector devices [41]; in order to provide this result, the to acetic acid, analyzer is separated from the lens system by a second valve and additional ion getter pumps are required. The development and improvement of the ion sampling interface for ibank barklays, ICP-MS have been crucial aspects of the success of the technique. The rst analytical mass spectrometer for ion sampling from an ICP used a stagnant layer type sampling interface [6] [10]1. Acid? At the end of the what relations, plasma torch, an interface was present to extract a small fraction of plasma with its ions into ethanol to acetic acid, a vacuum system.

This interface was composed by two cones, a sampler and a skimmer. The rst one consisted of a water-cooled copper cone, on whose tip was mounted a molybdenum disk, through whose center was drilled a 50 m diameter orice. Due to this small diameter, an aero- dynamically stagnant layer of gas formed between the two cones, as shown in ibank barklays Figure 4.1. 1This type of pinhole sampler was adopted in the early days from ame and plasma sampling methodology and from the original work of Gray with a d.c. capillary arc plasma [6]. 18 Figure 4.1: Diagram of boundary layer sampling interface for ICP-MS [10]. Since electrons are faster than ions, a space-charge sheath containing an excess of ions builded up around the ethanol, tip of the cone. This stagnant bound- ary layer was in thermal contact with the relatively cool sampler, making the layer temperature intermediate between the plasma one and the sam- pler one. As the boundary layer was extended across the v georgia, sampler tip, ions were extracted only after a large number (about 106) of collisions with the layer. This transport through the boundary layer induced several liabilities: rst of all it was probably facilitating ion-electron recombination, ion neu- tralization at ethanol to acetic, the sampler walls, charge exchange, ion-neutral attachment, nucleation and condensation of solid deposits (mainly due to structure of cell, the formation of involatile metal compounds) and some occurring reactions might have been catalyzed by the metal surface of the orice disk. Secondly, consid- ering the supersonic jet downstream the sampler cone, collisions leading to clustering, ion-electron recombination or charge exchange also occurred. Ethanol Acid? Consequently, sample deposition occurred in the sampling orice - metal oxide and metal hydroxide ions had been observed.

Progressive solid con- densation of sample material both made the extraction eciency of analyte ions gradual decreasing and restricted the useful life of v georgia orices. Even nowa- days the ethanol to acetic, rst components that have to be changed in a mass spectrometer are the sampler and the skimmer cones: their lifetime is limited by the sputtering in gregg ruling the region immediately behind the aperture [8]. Back to ethanol acid, the problem of solid deposition, with this conguration biological uids required a dilution factor of several hundred before analyses of such solutions could be performed for of cell membrane, more than one hour. The consequent deterioration in powers of detection for analyte elements was not acceptable for various ap- plications. Owing to ethanol, the diculties arised with this type of sampling, a new 19 sampling interface has been adopted: the supersonic nozzle and skimmer [10].2 The version of this technique used in our ICP-MS consists of a large sampling orice: with this conguration it is possible to break through the intermediate sheath and to have a continuum gas ow condition. The sheath is ibank barklays, a thin ply around the inner edge of the to acetic, sampling orice; in this ply the charged particles shield the rest of the gas ow from the potential on the sampler (usually grounded). Therefore the extracted ow passes through the sampler as a quasineutral plasma,3 i.e. What Act? with essentially equal densities of ions and ethanol to acetic electrons.4 Cool layers are still present, but they form obliquely around the inside edge of the orice, instead of across its mouth [29]. Consequently the salt deposition and the oxide ion formation are much less severe [10]. So, this conguration provides several advantages: ' a much higher total ow of ions; ' a more representative sample of ions from the plasma; ' greater resistance to empacho seco, plugging from deposited solids.

The improved resistance to erosion and expansion is acid, also because such an essay, orice is made with relatively thick metal near the tip. Figure 4.2 is a scale drawing of continuum sampling interface. The sampler (or nozzle) (A) is a nickel-made cone, in which tip is drilled a 0.8 mm diameter orice with a length of 0.25 mm. Acid? The internal and external sampler angles are 90' and 120', respectively. Coaxially placed, 7 mm downstream the v georgia, sampler, there is the skimmer, made from stainless steel with 50' and 60' internal and external angles, respectively.5 The short distance between the two cones allows a sequential pressure decrease and it could be varied by changing the thickness of the Teon spacer (C). To Acetic Acid? Both the sampler and skimmer are grounded; nevertheless there could be some benets applying a voltage to the skimmer - see section 7. From the work by membrane Hu et al. [22] it results that larger sampling orices could bring higher ion signals: the plot in Figure 4.3 shows how the ethanol, Co and Bi ion count rate increased drilling out the circular aperture progres- sively. Since also the empacho seco, background pressure increased after each drilling, it was necessary to empirically adjust the separation between the sampler and the skimmer to maximize the ion signal. Moreover, a small orice is more subjected to clogging compared to a bigger one: as it can be seen in Figure 4.4 a pressure decreasing in the case of the smaller orice is ethanol to acetic, observed, since it plugs quickly. In conclusion, enlarging the orice could provide a double 2This type of sampling interface have been in use since the preeclampsia study, pioneering work of Kantrowitz and Grey in 1951 [2]. 3The charge density is considered to ethanol, be suciently high as to ensure that the empacho seco, charac- teristic Debye length is small with respect to the dimensions of the interface components - under this condition it's possible to consider the beam as neutral.

4This concept is supported by calculations based on a paper by Axford and Hayhurst. 5Nowadays, dierent skimmer cone designs are available, characterized by dierent transmission eciency [44]. Ethanol? 20 Figure 4.2: Scale drawing of continuum sampling interface for ICP-MS [10]. Empacho Seco? 21 Figure 4.3: Ion count rates as a function of sampler orice diameter [22]. benet: a higher ion signal and an improved tolerance to orice plugging. However it has to be underlined that these studies were conducted with a continuous ow ultrasonic nebulizer, which transported material to the plasma at a rate at least 10 times greater than the one obtained with a con- ventional pneumatic nebulizer. As a consequence, the second improvement would not be relevant in our case. In order to acid, understand the performance of this interface and particu- larly to nd the parameters needed in preeclampsia case the simulations (see section 6.4) the gas ow (in molecules/s) through the ethanol to acetic, sampler can be calculated through equation (4.1) [9] used by Olivares and Houk in ibank barklays their article (dating 1985): U0 = 'f ()NAD 2 0 P0 4 '' mRT0 (4.1) where f() = '' [2/( + 1)](+1)/2(''1) , NA is Avogadro's number, D0 the orice diameter, P0 the ICP pressure, m the mean molecular weight of Argon, R the gas constant, T0 the source gas temperature of the ICP, and ethanol to acetic acid is the specic heat ratio at constant pressure and volume (Cp/Cv) of Argon. 22 Figure 4.4: Normalized interface pressure as a function of time for continu- ous nebulization of 1000 ppm Y at sampling orice [22]. 23 The ow through the skimmer cone is given by the following equation: US = U0 f () DS XS 2 (4.2) where DS is the skimmer diameter and XS the preeclampsia case, skimmer-to-sampler distance. These theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimentally obtained values for an ICP with 10 mg/l Co solution [10].

In a 1988 article, Douglas and French provided another way to ethanol acid, describe the gas expansion through these two orices; in their article the preeclampsia, gas ow across the sampler was given by [47] G0 = 0.445 n0 a0 D 2 0 (4.3) where n0 is the source number density and a0 the ethanol acid, speed of sound in the source: a0 = k T0 m (4.4) (k is the Boltzmann's constant). The equation for the gas ow through the skimmer uses the gas density and empacho seco the ow velocity at the skimmer tip, n(xS) and ethanol v(xS) respectively, and the area of the skimmer orice AS:6 GS = n(xS) v(xS) AS (4.5) These two models (the one by Olivares and and function Houk and the one by Douglas and French) are based on a common assumption: as the ethanol to acetic acid, plasma plume is expanding from act a sonic orice into a region of lower pressure, it produces the development of the free jet shock wave system [4]. As it can be seen in the cross sectional view showed in Figure 4.5, the acid, ow eld consists of a dark core portion, named zone of silence (unaected by the pressure changes along the jet boundary), laterally bounded from a barrel shock and ending with the so called Mach disk (its thickness has been found to be of the ibank barklays, order of magnitude of the mean free path [34]). To Acetic? This phenomenon has been well characterised by Ashkenas and Sherman [3]; they calculated the distance downstream the sampler at ibank barklays, which the Mach disk forms: xM = 0.67D0 p P0/P1 (4.6) where P1 is the interface background pressure. This relationship has been conrmed experimentally by optical measurements of emission excited in the Mach disk [29]. As the gas passes through the sampler, it expands adiabatically into the low pressure region; since the mean free path () is much smaller than the diameter orice, several collisions between fast atoms from the acid, dark core and background atoms occur. Ibank Barklays? This phenomenon causes the formation of the Mach disk and the barrel shock, depicted in Figure 4.5. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? Moreover, through 6The ow velocity is structure membrane, nearly constant at p5kT 0/2m . Ethanol To Acetic? 24 Figure 4.5: Cross sectional view of supersonic expansion behind the sampler [29]. this scattering process, the random thermal motion of atoms in the plasma is converted into directed motion in the zone of silence: the ow velocity can than exceed the local speed of sound and relations the Mach number becomes greater than one (M 1).7 The Mach disk formation is acid, observable analyzing atom velocities and temperatures (showed in Figures 4.6 and 4.7) as a function of gregg distance downstream the to acetic acid, sampler cone. The rapid acceleration and empacho seco cooling of the ethanol to acetic acid, atoms are expected from a supersonic expansion [34] and is represented by the series of point that start about 2 mm downstream the ibank barklays, sampler. At a position of about 10 mm another population of atoms forms: this new population, slow and ethanol hot, is case, given by fast atoms which collide with background atoms and constitutes the to acetic, Mach disk.

In order to essay quotations, nd a numerical result for to acetic, the gas ow through both the sampler and the skimmer using the two models previously shown, some other relations are needed. The Mach number in the plasma is less than one (M 1); as the gas passes through the sampler the ibank barklays, density decreases, the ow speed increases and M increases too. In this region the centerline Mach number for a monoatomic gas - as in this case - is given to a very good approximation by M = 3.26(x/D0) 2/3 '' 0.61(x/D 0) ''2/3 (4.7) where x is the axial distance behind the orice. This means the Mach number reaches 1 at a distance equal to 0.5 orice diameters downstream 7The Mach number is dened as the ethanol, ratio between between the gas ow speed (u) and the local speed of sound (a0). 25 Figure 4.6: Axial velocity dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component [34]. Figure 4.7: Axial temperature dependence downstream from the sampler cone: 4 fast, cold component, slow, hot component [34]. 26 Figure 4.8: Scatter plot of the gas temperature as a function of the essay on democracy, distance from the sampler in the free jet, obtained from equation (4.9). the sampler. Furthermore the gas density and ethanol to acetic acid temperature decrease inside the jet, according to the following equations: n0 n = 1 + M 2 '' 1 2 1/(''1) (4.8) T0 T = 1 + M 2 '' 1 2 (4.9) where n0 and T0 are the gas density and temperature in the source.

Equation (4.8) could be approximated back to the onset of the Mach disk by n(x) = 0.161 n0 (D0/x) 2 (4.10) This relation, that describes the drop in relations intensity of neutral species along the acid, centerline, has been experimentally conrmed by Niu and Houk, when in 1994 they measured electron densities in the interface with a Langmuir probe [27]. Ibank Barklays? The plot in Figure 4.8 represents the temperature drop described by ethanol to acetic equation (4.9); this decrease corresponds to a narrowing of the width of the velocity distribution (Figure 4.9) as the random thermal motion is converted into directed motion with a relatively uniform speed. A combination of all the displayed equations have been used to obtained the empacho seco, results highlighted in Table 4.1. The gas ows have been obtained with two dierent equations and are in good agreement, especially in to acetic correspondence of the sampler cone. In 27 Table. 4.1: Parameters and. constan ts used to calculate the. o w - highligh ted.

skimmer with tw o dieren t mo. Houk [10] Douglas and. h [14] 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v 1 .67 sp ecic heat ratio C p /C v f ( ) 0 .726661 T 0 5000 K gas. temp eratur e D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diamete r m 6 .6 10 23 g relativ e atomic mass P 0 10 5 Pa ICP pressure D sa 0 .8. mm sampler diameter M 39. g/mol relativ e molecular w eigh. t a 0 1317 .97 m/s sp eed. of sound in case study the. source T 0 5000 K gas. temp erature n 0 1 .5 10 18 cm '' 3 source densit y x 7. mm sampler to skimmer distance U 0 5 .4 10 20 atoms/s gas.

o w through the. sampler G 0 5 .6 10 20 atoms/s gas. o w through the. sampler D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diame ter M sk 14 Mac. mm sampler to skimmer distance n sk 3 .0 10 15 cm '' 3 gas. densit y at the. skimmer P i 861 Pa impact pressure at the. skimmer v 1 .6 10 5 cm/s o w velo cit y D sk 0 .8. mm skimmer diameter U S 5 .1 10 18 atoms/s gas.

o w through the. skimmer G S 2 .5 10 18 atoms/s gas. o w through the. skimmer 28 Figure 4.9: Wide velocity distribution in the plasma compared to the nar- rower distribution in the supersonic jet [29]. the region close to the skimmer there is a factor 2 between the two models results; this dierence is negligible since the gas ow probably depends on many other contributions - e.g. the analyte species, the nebulizer gas ow - that can signicantly aect the nal result. Regarding the sampler to ethanol to acetic, skimmer distance, Douglas and French showed that the best arrangement corresponds to having the skimmer tip about. 2/3 of the way back to ibank barklays, the onset of the Mach disk [14] [29]. This result approximately agrees with the ethanol to acetic, one obtained for preeclampsia, the maximum intensity in ethanol the case of a neutral beam from is race act Campargue expansion [29]: XS = 0.125 D0 D0P0 P1 1/3 (4.11) Even if here is referred to as the mean free path inside the ethanol to acetic acid, sampler orice, it has no particular subscript as it is what is race, expected to be nearly equal to the one for the gas outside the sampler in the ICP.

The skimmer protrudes into the zone of silence so that shock waves form behind the skimmer tip o the outside walls of the skimmer, as shown in the sketch in ethanol Figure 4.10. With this conguration, the metal wall of the skimmer where the second shock wave begins is thick enough to conduct away the heat generated and the thin edge of metal at the skimmer tip remains stable. Otherwise, if the skimmer was located after the Mach disk, the sampled gas would be reheated by collisions with background gas in the Mach disk; this process would lead to the formation of a spherical white emitting region. What Is Race Relations? The heat this way producted would be directly transferred to the skimmer tip, too thin to ethanol to acetic acid, properly conduct the heat away; the result would be the melting or the rapid degradation of the empacho seco, skimmer tip [29]. Calculation of the Knudsen number Kn, especially at the skimmer, is also instructive; it is dened as the ratio of the mean free path to the 29 Figure 4.10: Eect of acid dierent sampler-skimmer distances. (a) Skimmer at preeclampsia study, normal position used for analysis. (b) Skimmer outside the zone of silence [29].

30 skimmer diameter DS: Kn = DS (4.12) In the small scale Kn quanties the failure of the Navier-Stokes description: in fact this model corresponds to the collision-dominated transport limit of acid small Knudsen number Kn 1. More specically, in the presence of hy- drodynamic gradients in a homogeneous gas over lenghtscales characterized by Kn 1, the Chapman-Enskog expansion procedure can be applied to the governing kinetic (Boltzmann) equation to show that the gas response can be described by linear-gradient constitutive relations which lead to the Navier-Stokes description [33]. Practically, the lower the what is race relations act, Kn, the smaller the number of collisions is; Kn would have to ethanol to acetic acid, be much less than unity (i.e. DS ) for the beam to expand through the skimmer without collisions. The mean free path can be expressed through the following relation, based on viscosity measurements and kinetic theory arguments [47]: = 16/5 nm q 2'kT m = 16/5 n '' 2'kT m (4.13) where n is the molecular number density, m the particle mass and k the Boltzmann's constant. It is possible to refer to the viscosity coecient both with and . Essay? Niu and Houk report another relation for the Knudsen number: Kn = DS = 1 1.414''nDS (4.14) where ' is the gas kinetic cross section for Ar (4.1 10''15 cm2). Ethanol Acid? The result obtained applying these two relations with the settings previously described are Kn = 0.3 and = 0.2. These values are consistent with several articles [10] [14] [26] [29]. The literature concerning supersonic expansions indicates that in this case two main disturbances are to be expected around the tip [26]: a thin shock in front of the empacho seco, skimmer and ethanol to acetic acid perturbation of the straight line beam ow by collisions of the empacho seco, beam with atoms reected from the skimmer wall. Considering now the gas ow rate calculated for our particular case, the- oretically the total ion current at the base of the ethanol acid, skimmer should be about.

0.4 mA; this result is consistent with several papers: for example, Gillson et al. [15], even if with a slightly dierent setting, calculated an ion current of. 1016 ions/second, corresponding to 1.5 mA. This current has been calculated considering that through the skimmer passes only 2.6% of the central ow of the empacho seco, ICP. Considering the theoretical loss of ethanol to acetic acid analyte ions for Y, Chen and Houk calculated a transmission eciency from the ibank barklays, skimmer to the detector is 0.02%. Ethanol To Acetic? As a consequence, the preeclampsia, overall eciency of an ICP-MS is about. 510''6 ; in other words, theoretically, for every 106 analyte ions in the central channel of the ICP, only to acetic acid ve ions reach the detector. As it will be explained later, this number is preeclampsia case, even lower in the reality. Ethanol Acid? Through a comparison with a three-aperture ICP-MS interface, they deduced that many ions are lost between the gregg ruling, skimmer tip and the ion optics or inside the ion optics itself. So 31 it is to acetic acid, crucial to ibank barklays, understand what happens in this region and how ions are lost. To Acetic? Chapter 6 is aimed to simulate the region where particles y, including the gregg, skimmer and ethanol to acetic the rst lens (named extraction lens), in order to study and characterize the formed beam.

Resuming the work by Gillson et al., they repeated the ion current measurements8 with the same settings for a heavier ion (U+); the structure and function membrane, ux resulted higher. This phenomenon is called instrumental mass discrimination and acid has been deeply investigated (e.g., by Kivel et al. Essay On Democracy? [43]), since it hampers accurate determination of absolute isotope ratios. In general, it consists in having at the spectrometer a stoichiometric composi- tion dierent from the one characterizing the original sample material. It has been reported that, typically, analyzing two isotopes, the heavier has a higher transport eciency: the to acetic acid, dierence is about 10 '' 20% in the case of light elements and ibank barklays down to ethanol to acetic, 1% for heavy elements. Four main factors are at the base of mass discrimination: ' sample introduction and ion generation; ' collisions; ' space charge eect; ' energy-selective ion transmission. The rst and the last one are not studied in the present work, since it is limited to structure of cell membrane, the region dened by the skimmer and ethanol acid the rst ion lens. As the plasma is is race act, quasi-neutral until the starting of the skimmer, it's reason- able to assume that mass discrimination in the interface is mainly caused by collisions.

This hypothesis is consistent with the work by Taylor and Farnsworth [44]: they found the absence of any space charge eect dur- ing the ion transfer from the source to the spectrometer. Moreover, for the present work, collisions have been considered a negligible contribution compared to space charge eect. As a consequence, mass discrimination upstream the skimmer has not been considered; the following investigation is limited to the region downstream the skimmer cone, up to the extraction lens.9 Resuming mass discrimination due to space charge eects, it can be explained by postulating that the ion beam within the skimmer is space charge limited: its density is so high that mutual repulsion will not allow the ethanol to acetic acid, ions to remain tightly focused. Since all ions have the same charge, they are subjected to the same force: as a consequence, lighter ions are de- focused (and then colliding on the skimmer walls) much more readily than heavier ones. More than upstream, the space charge is considerable in what is race relations the region downstream the ethanol to acetic, skimmer. Gregg V Georgia Ruling? In fact, according to the model by Douglas and French [14], plasma is sampled without signicant charge separation.10 8They used a stainless steel collector - situated 1 in. To Acetic? from the structure and function of cell, base at the skimmer - consisting of three concentric rings and a central circular stop.

9Study of mass discrimination after charge separation can be found elsewhere [43]. 10In an alternate model, presented by Chambers et al., it is ethanol to acetic acid, assumed that signicant charge separation occurs between the sampler and ibank barklays the skimmer; therefore the ion current through the ethanol to acetic, skimmer would be signicantly less than that estimated in this work. 32 Behind the membrane, skimmer, where the beam expands, there are three main con- tributions to the loss of the ions: the density decreasing - proportionally to acid, 1/x2 (where x is the distance from the skimmer) - as a consequence of the expansion, the beam spreading and the preferential loss of electrons. This last phenomenon could be explained considering the Debye length D; downstream of the skimmer D is signicant compared to the dimensions of the beam and electrons are lost readily to ibank barklays, the inner wall of the skimmer because their high mobility. Moreover, in this stage, the electrostatic eld penetration from the acid, extraction lens becomes signicant; as a consequence of these two eects, electrons leave a net axial positive space charge [21]. Its signicance can be quantitatively described using the perveance P [28]: P = I V 3/2 (4.15) where I is the total current and V the accelerating potential. P depends only on the geometry of the extractor and on what, the type of the particle [28]. For a singly charged ion beam, space charge is negligible if P 10 ''8 (m ion/me) ''1/2 (4.16) where mion and me are, respectively, the mass of the particle and of the electron. So, for Argon ions, the maximum perveance without signicant space charge eects is 3.710''11. In the proximity of the skimmer P is equal to 1.9 10''7 [28], which exceeds the maximum perveance by acid more than a factor 5000. To obtain a rough estimate for what is race relations act, the maximum electron current (for argon), it is possible to assume the ethanol to acetic, skimmer as a cylinder with diameter.

D and length L:11 Ie,max(A) = 38.6 10 ''6V 3/2 D L 2 (4.17) The ion current is related to the electron one: Iion Ie = r me mion (4.18) therefore Iion,max(A) = 9.04 10 ''7 r z mion V 3/2 D L 2 (4.19) As hinted before, another cause of is race act losing ions is the rarefaction of the beam as it travels farther from the acid, skimmer tip. The Debye length in- creasing, by empacho seco virtue of its inverse square root dependence on the ion density, causes also the ions (not only the electrons) spreading. Ethanol Acid? So, to and function, enhance the transmission eciency, the distance between the skimmer tip and the ion optics has to be minimized. A substantial increase in ion signal was 11The diameter at the base of the skimmer is equal to its length; the average diameter of the skimmer is to acetic, then about L/2 and the ratio D/L is about 0.5. 33 seen when this separation was reduced to 2.4 cm [22]. At this position, the mouth of the rst lens was only 5 mm from the nearest surface of the essay on democracy quotations, skimmer wall. Closer separations were tried, but the voltage output for the rst lens became unstable, because of an electrical discharge between the ion lens and the skimmer wall or due to a high current ow to to acetic acid, the lens. In the Neptune MC-ICP-MS is the thickness of the separation valve limits the smaller distance between the skimmer and the lens.

Table 4.2: Resume of the torch and the extraction interface operating pa- rameters Forward power 1350 W Guard electrode Grounded Gas ows: Cool 14.6 L/min Auxiliary 0.9 L/min Sample 0.8 L/min Make-up 0.3 '' 0.5 L/min Injector Sapphire (narrow bore) Spray chamber APEX HF Cones:12 Sampler Aluminium 0.9 mm Skimmer Aluminium 1.0 mm 12Custom design by structure and function of cell PSI. 34 Chapter 5 IBSimu To simulate what happens during the ethanol, beam extraction from the plasma source, an essay on democracy with, ion optical computer simulation package have been used, IBSimu. This software is designed especially for to acetic acid, the ion source community [40] and it is well suited for our particular aim because it is conceived for ion (both positive and negative) and electron plasma extraction. Its development started at LBNL in 2004 where it was used to design a slit-beam plasma extraction and nanosecond scale chopping for pulsed neutron generator. Later, at the University of quotations Jyvskyl (Finland), Department of Physics (JYFL), the ethanol to acetic acid, code was made modular and suitable for many dierent types of problems. IBSimu has been documented and released with an open source license (it can be downloaded at: http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/) and so it's well suited for use in the scientic community. It is used as a computer library through a C++ interface and it presents several peculiar advantages: ' power and versatility; ' customization and inclusion of new modules; ' automation and batch processing; ' incorporation of code in other software; ' easiness of use (on the main site there are two tutorials http:// ibsimu.sourceforge.net/tutorial.html and the reference manual http://ibsimu.sourceforge.net/manual_1_0_5new_solver/index. html); ' possibility to do the diagnostics from code or with an interactive tool; ' data exporting and visualization. The code is gregg v georgia, capable of ethanol to acetic acid solving electric elds in 1D, 2D (planar or cylin- drical symmetry) or full 3D simulation geometries and structure membrane it can calculate rel- ativistic continuous wave or pulsed particle trajectories taking into account the space charge density. The starting point is the denition of the ge- ometry, where the simulation is done, and the electrodes (including the 35 Figure 5.1: Operational diagram for solving the Poisson problem[40]. grounded interfaces), using a mathematical description. In order to calcu- late the electric potential, the to acetic acid, simulation domain is divided in square meshes with constant step size, which dimension can be specied in the geometry section of the code. So the empacho seco, eld where particles y is discretized: for each cell the Poisson's equation '' 2' = '' 0 (5.1) is solved using nite dierence method (FDM) on the nodes of the mesh.

Then, the electrostatic potential is calculated through a solver, using an iterative approach (described in the following). The nite dierence representation for a vacuum node i is: 'i''1 '' 2'i + 'i+1 h2 = '' i. 0 (5.2) while Neumann (5.3) or Dirichlet (5.4) boundary conditions can be used for boundary nodes. Acid? ''3'i + 4'i+1 '' 'i+2 2h = d' dx (5.3) 'i = 'const (5.4) To achieve smooth electric elds on the solid edges, the edge nodes within the solids are adjusted to virtual potentials using subnode information about the gregg v georgia ruling, geometry: '(x0 '' h) '' ( + )'(x0) + '(x0 + h) 1. 2 ( + )h 2 = '' (x0) 0 (5.5) On the edges of the simulation domain, every solver supports Dirich- let and Neumann (rst and second order approximations) boundary condi- tions. The calculation can also include the generally accepted nonlinear plasma model for positive ion extraction; thermal background electrons of the plasma are modeled analytically in Poisson's equation (5.1) where. = ion '' e0 exp[(U '' Up)/(kTe/e)] and ethanol to acetic acid the plasma potential Up and the electron temperature Te are the model parameters. Ion charge density ion is calculated from ibank barklays beam current density and electron charge density e0 is set to ion at plasma potential. The electric eld (needed for particle 36 trajectories) is obtained by numerical dierentiation and interpolation of potential, using nine closest neighboring mesh nodes.

Then, the code cal- culates the particles trajectory integrating the equations of motion, derived from Lorentz force, with adaptive Runge-Kutta Cash-Karp (fourth and fth order) algorithm. In 2D and with a null magnetic eld: dx dt = vx dy dt = vy dvx dt = ax = q m Ex dvy dt = ay = q m Ey This method has an automatic step-size adjustment for ethanol to acetic acid, required trajec- tory accuracy. The implementation of the essay quotations, Runge-Kutta algorithm is used from the acid, GNU Scientic Library. As the CPU available was multicore and the particle tracer is multithreaded, for gregg v georgia ruling, a high eciency calculation eleven cores were used for ying particles and to acetic acid one for the potential determination. The particle tracer algorithm nds all the meshes the trajectory passes through and deposits the empacho seco, charge of the particle on the four (eight in 3D) surrounding mesh nodes.

The same procedure checks for collisions in the mesh square. The code in Appendix A was the starting point in to acetic my work; to under- stand the quotations, extraction process and to optimize the fundamental parameters (Up and Te), I changed some parts of it, as it will be explained in the next chapter. Hereinafter there is a description of the main operations done by this rst code. After including all libraries needed (most of them have been written by Taneli Kalvas), some denitions are present: the number of iterations, the rst lens acceleration voltage V acc, the ethanol to acetic acid, plasma potential. Up, the electron temperature of the plasma Te, the ruling, number of particles per species n_particles and the kinetic factor Ekin_factor (KF ). The last one is given by the ratio between the kinetic energy KE and the mass m; it is dened in this way in order to be equal for all the particles, regardless of to acetic their mass (in fact they are sent with a given velocity, not energy). To have the empacho seco, kinetic factor in eV/amu it has been used the following equation: KF [ eV/amu] = 1.66 10''8 3.2 v 2 (5.6) where v is in m/s. Following the code, a rst array is dened to list the masses of the simulated ions in ethanol addition to essay with quotations, Argon and another one is for the beam current (in A). To Acetic Acid? In the section Output denitions it is possible to empacho seco, set (through boolean variables) what to print during the compiling and at the end of the 37 code: debug and verbose provide some status information, the ethanol to acetic, GTK plot represents the membrane, trend of both the ethanol, electric potential and space charge error and plotting produces several les (it will be explained in detail later). Before starting the geometry section, the function fname is dened; it is ibank barklays, used in the plotting phase, to acid, print the name of the dierent les produced in it.

Then, in the geometry section, the skimmer, the empacho seco, interface and ethanol acid the ex- traction lens are dened, using a cylindrical simmetry: only the membrane, upper part is ethanol to acetic, described and then, through a mirror function on x axis, the electric eld in the lower part is obtained. In this section the mesh dimension - really important in the next chapter - is empacho seco, also dened. After the insertion in the geometry of the solid objects, boundary conditions are setted: at the edges of x and y (numbers from ethanol 1 to 4) they are of Neumann type, while for the user dened electrode (7 and 8) they are of Dirichlet type. At this point the initialization of the plasma and of the solver takes place: since several nonlinear solvers are available, the rst task was to decide which one was more tting our requirements (see section 6.1). The Argon charge density is calculated and empacho seco the particles are setted to be mirrored along the x axis. Thus it is possible to acid, start the iteration loop.

This is necessary since there are two contributions to the electric potential: the of cell membrane, accelerating voltage (usually. ''2000 V) of the ethanol to acetic, ion lens and the space charge of the ying particles. As this second factor depends on the particles trajectories, which in with quotations turn are determined by the total electric potential, an iterative approach has been adopted. Ethanol To Acetic? The number of iterations can be set in the beginning of the code: const uint n _iter = 21 Then the i index spaces in the range 0 niter in order to structure and function of cell, reach the ethanol, convergence. In the following a brief explanation of the operations executed in every cycle is provided: i = 0 : In the rst iteration the electric potential is calculated taking into account the electrodes contribute only, i.e. for = 0. After computing the electric eld, particles are sent. i = 1 : As particles are now present, space charge is calculated and set as a variable in the plasma model; in gregg v georgia fact, with IBSimu, plasma is to acetic acid, a function of space charge , electron temperature Te and plasma potential Up. V Georgia Ruling? Then electric potential (and subsequently electric eld) is recalculated, now as a function of both electrodes and ying particles. As the charge density only changes passing from the rst to the second iteration, plasma is calculated only in this step; there is no need to to acetic acid, recalculate it in the other steps. For i ' 2: The potential and ibank barklays eld are recalculated and so are the particle trajectories, until both electric potential and space charge converge - i.e. until the dierence for these two parameters between two iteration is nearly zero.

There are dierent function to produce particles, depending on which beam parameters are known: 1. add_2d_beam_with_energy (uint32_t N, double J, double q, double m, double E, double Tp, double Tt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 38 2. add_2d_beam_with_velocity (uint32_t N, double J, double q, dou- ble m, double v, double dvp, double dvt, double x1, double y1, double x2, double y2) 3. Ethanol Acid? add_2d_KV_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, double q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) 4. add_2d_gaussian_beam_with_emittance (uint32_t N, double I, dou- ble q, double m, double a, double b, double e, double Ex, double x0, double y0) where N is the preeclampsia, number of acid particles, J the beam current density (A/m2), q the charge of beam particle (in multiples of e) and m the mass (u). For the ibank barklays, rst two functions, the to acetic acid, beam is dened on a line from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2) and it propagates into ibank barklays, a direction 90' clockwise from the direction of vector pointing from (x1, y1) to (x2, y2); at the beginning the beam prole is uniform. Ethanol? For the rst function E represents the beam energy (in eV ), while Tp and Tt are the parallel and transverse temperature, respectively, in eV. The particle speeds in empacho seco direction i are sampled from a gaussian distribution with standard deviation dvi = p(Ti e/m), where Ti is the beam temper- ature in to acetic acid direction i (eV), e is the electron charge (C) and m is the mass of the ruling, ion (kg). With the third function, particles are own in the positive. x -direction from a starting location (center point) dened by (x0, y0) and the beam spread in the projectional space is made according to KV/hard- edged (Kapchinsky-Vladimirsky) distribution. I represents the to acetic, beam total current (in A) and Ex the starting energy of the beam (in eV). The beam is made to match Twiss parameters (a) and (b) in what is race relations projectional direction (y,y'). Ethanol To Acetic? The rms-emittance of the beam is made to match rms (e). Empacho Seco? After iterating trajectories (through a special object), electric potential and space charge are recorded in the convergence.dat le; at the end of the simulation process this le can be found in ethanol the same folder where the source code is. If setted true in the beginning, it starts the last phase, the plotting one; this is the ibank barklays, list of all the plots produced: ' particle traces in the geometry eld; ' zoom of particle traces in the range 0 '' 1 mm (the zone including the skimmer and to acetic the focus point); ' electric potential as a function of x, usually a curve starting near 0 (the skimmer is and function of cell membrane, grounded but there is the plasma potential contribution) and ending at ''2000 V (the lens voltage); ' a 3D plot representing the to acetic acid, electric potential as a function of x and empacho seco y in the skimmer region; ' emittance at 50 mm, as a function of y and the angle y0, reporting the ethanol acid, values of , , and ; 39 ' charge density (in C/m3) as a function of x; it is maximum at the beginning - at case study, the skimmer tip -, then rapidly drops to zero, with a peak in correspondence to the focus point; ' space charge as a function of x and y in the skimmer region; ' kinetic energies (in eV) of ying particles, in a scatter plot, as a func- tion of particles mass; ' signal intensity, in arbitrary units, for each mass, at 8, 50 and 56 mm; ' beam prole histogram plot at 4 and 50 mm; ' a scatter plot for acid, the beam prole, representing the y value as a func- tion of the particles mass, both at 50 and 56 mm.

40 Chapter 6 Simulation 6.1 Task 1 - solver. The rst task was to nd and compare the dierent available solvers, in order to nd out which one is the of cell membrane, fastest. With this aim, the computing time for 1 and 2 iterations has been determined, using one thread only and considering an Argon beam with 20k particles, a beam current of 1 mA and a mesh size equal to 100 m. The outcome of this comparison is the bar plot in Figure 6.1. As it can be seen, the UMFPACKSolver is the fastest. Moreover this solver can also use multi-thread; this feature makes the UMFPACKSolver the more suitable;1 accordingly, it was used throughout the entire project. Acid? 6.2 Task 2 - computing time vs mesh size.

As explained in the previous chapter, to calculate the electric potential and the charge density, IBSimu divides the simulation domain in small cells, with uniform size: for each cell UMFPACKSolver solves the problem, i.e. Poisson's dierential equation, and returns a value. So the mesh size has a large eect on the quality of the approximation: the smaller the mesh size, the higher the quality of the simulation is (down to ibank barklays, the limit of to acetic acid mesh_size '' 0, representing the exact solution of the problem). The trouble is that it is impossible to decrease the structure of cell, mesh size innitely. The limits are the available memory (with 8967201 nodes - equivalent to a 10 m mesh size - the ethanol to acetic acid, system reports a memory allocation error) and the computing time. In fact, the higher the number of nodes, the longer is the time needed to solve the problem. So it is useful to nd a compromise to structure and function, solve the problem with a good approximation and in a relatively short time. The relation between computation time and mesh size was investigated for mesh sizes in ethanol acid the range of 15 '' 300 m.

In Table 6.1 and Figure 6.2 the data are given and plotted for a 20k particles Argon beam, with a current beam of 20 mA and 41 iterations. 1Twelve threads were available on the computer used. Ruling? 41 Figure 6.1: Computing time for to acetic acid, dierent solvers. Table 6.1: Computing time for dierent mesh sizes mesh (m) no of nodes time (s) 300 10197 77.85 250 14625 97.61 200 22761 131.92 150 40303 163.45 100 90321 259.35 50 359841 619.59 40 561801 853.01 30 997957 1343.57 25 1436481 2021.08 20 2243601 3608.08 15 3987023 8676.87 42 Figure 6.2: Computing time as a function of the is race relations, number of nodes. It seems that the data points plotted have 2 dierent trends: the ethanol acid, rst data can be tted with a root function, then (from the 50 m mesh) the data can be tted with really good approximation through a square function. The functions used to t the two curves are respectively y = a (1 + x) b (Figure 6.3) and y = A + B x + C x2 (Figure 6.4); (6.1) for the rst curve a = 0.32399, b = 0.59039, for the second curve A = 390.06724 , B = 6.03498 10''4 and C = 3.71075 10''10. As the adjusted R2 are, respectively, 0.99772 and 0.99998 these could be considered good ts. As explained before, the ibank barklays, mesh size has an impact on the quality of the results: a too large mesh could lead to a simulation not well representing the reality. In Figures 6.5 and 6.6 beam proles at 50 mm for dierent mesh sizes are plotted; this trend has been used as judging parameter to test the quality of the results. Ethanol Acid? A brief description of the beam prole evolution from the nest mesh to the coarser one is provided, comparing each one with the former. Because 15 m is the smallest mesh size that can be used, the empacho seco, 15 m prole has been taken as the plot which best represents the beam prole.

All the other plots, obtained increasing the mesh size, will be compared to this one. To Acetic Acid? The main task is to reach a good compromise between the beam representation quality and ibank barklays the computing time: it is useful to nd a minimum number of nodes which would guarantee a good nal result to to acetic acid, attain the time optimization. In the membrane, following (through a dierent geometry) the to acetic acid, beam prole was tted with a nonlinear function, taken from the membrane, models 43 Figure 6.3: Fit for the rst six points plotted in Figure 6.2. Figure 6.4: Fit for the second part of the data plotted in Figure 6.2. To Acetic? 44 Figure 6.5: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 15 and 50 m. Figure 6.6: Beam proles for mesh sizes between 100 and 300 m. 45 available in Origin. Before starting the analysis it is essay with quotations, important to underline that every plot is symmetrical due to the applied geometry: the code creates only the ethanol acid, upper half of the simulation eld (i.e. the interfaces and the lens) and then it reects all the elements through a mirror function.

Considering the rst four beam proles (mesh sizes from 15 to 30 m) one can note that there are no meaningful dierences: increasing the mesh size in this range the beam prole is unaected. As there are small dierences, the number of counts could be considered constant: the dierence between the ibank barklays, 15 m and the 30 m plot counts is less than 0.2%. On the contrary, increasing the mesh size to 40 m, considerable dierences appear: even if the ethanol, total number of counts is nearly equal, the ibank barklays, curve clearly shows an ethanol, atypical evolution when approximating to the center. A sharp increase occurs in the very central range: the percentual dierence between the number of counts at 0.25 mm and the one at preeclampsia case study, 0.75 mm is about 22%. Further increasing the mesh size the result becomes more pronounced: the ethanol to acetic, total number of of cell counts decreases (till the dierence with the nest mesh is acid, greater than 31% - for the 300 m mesh) and also the ibank barklays, shape changes. In the 100 m plot there is a very high central peak (the ratio between this peak and ethanol to acetic the 15 m peak is more than 1.5), so the trend is already much dierent. Considering coarser approximations, the outer peaks trend becomes more uniform, while the central one broadens and then splits in two dierent peaks (in the preeclampsia case study, 300 m histogram the ethanol to acetic acid, central counts number is ibank barklays, very low). Acid? In short, large mesh sizes produce unrealistic results and have to be avoided.

In conclusion the best compromise between quality and what is race relations act computing time is represented by the 30 m mesh. As it has been shown before, approxi- mately 22 minutes are requested for this geometry (for a 20k particles Argon beam with a current of ethanol to acetic 20 mA and 41 iterations). Furthermore, the space charge density was calculated (data not shown). With increasing mesh size, almost nothing changes close to the skimmer orice. But a peak between. 0.01 and 0.02 m - where the ibank barklays, beam is focused - decreases when larger mesh sizes, until it disappears at 50 m. The ratios between the peak height for three medium meshes, 30 m, 40 m and ethanol 50 m, and the smaller mesh used are 60%, 48% and 40%, respectively. Looking for a compromise, the former choice of a 30 m mesh size can be considered a good solution.

6.3 Task 3 - full 2D geometry switching. As the 2D mirrored geometry could not be considered a good representation of the simulation area (some troubles arise for particles traveling on the x axis), the third task was to modify the code in order to dene a 2D full geometry. This conguration is not using the mirror function anymore, as the interfaces and the lens are completely dened. Essay Quotations? After the switch to this new geometry, some simulations were run in order to compare the to acetic, new computing time with the former one. Table 6.2 shows the essay on democracy with quotations, time for both geometries. It is important to underline that with the ethanol acid, same mesh size the full geometry has a doubled number of nodes with respect to the mirror 46 Table 6.2: Computing time for 2D mirror and full 2D geometry 2D mirror full 2D mesh (m) no of nodes time (s) no of nodes time (s) time ratio 300 9956 77.85 24889 161.90 2.0 250 14336 97.61 35840 211.69 2.1 200 22400 131.92 56000 292.98 2.1 150 39822 163.45 99556 385.92 2.3 100 89600 259.35 224000 620.14 2.3 50 358400 619.59 896000 1493.79 2.4 40 560000 853.01 1400000 2164.20 2.5 30 995556 1343.57 2488889 4239.65 3.1 25 1433600 2021.08 3584000 7784.64 3.8 one, because the essay on democracy quotations, electrodes and the simulation eld are dened in the lower part too.

These values are referred to to acetic acid, a 20k particles Argon beam, with a beam current of ibank barklays 10 mA and 41 iterations. The last column displays the to acetic acid, ratio between the ibank barklays, time taken by ethanol the full 2D geometry and the 2D mirror. The data ouput was used to evaluate the beam prole for the smaller mesh sizes (50 m, 40 m, 30 m and preeclampsia study 25 m). The dierence between the full 2D and the 2D mirror beam proles gets obvious: they are no more com- pletely symmetrical, because particles are sent randomly. The member func- tion used in acid these rst simulations was add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance(). It adds a 2D beam with dened KV emittance (KV stands for Kapchinsky- Vladimirsky, whose distribution is used for study, the beam spread in the projec- tional space). It becomes clear that the perfect beam symmetry could be achieved only with a large number of particles. Analyzing the number of counts in the two sections (the left and the right one) of ethanol acid each plot, it results that the percentual dierence is less than 1%; moreover the bias is empacho seco, anti correlated to the mesh size: 0.54% for 25 m, 0.45% for ethanol acid, 30 m, 0.27% for. 40 m, 0.09% for 50 m. Essay On Democracy? In order to compare the beam prole obtained with the two dierent geometries, one simulation with a 100k particles Ar- gon beam, with a current of 10 mA and a 30 m mesh size was used. The comparison with the corresponding 2D mirror result is displayed in Figure 6.7.

The dierences can be summarized in acid the following way: rst of all, even if the trend at the edge is similar, the midmost increasing is larger in the full 2D case. Moreover, the number of ibank barklays central counts is much higher in the full 2D case: the ratio between the peak heights is about 1.2 and the percentual dierence of the total number of counts between 2D mirror and full 2D curve is about 19%. This result shows the importance to switch to the new geometry; in fact it clearly proves that the mirror 2D case was aected by to acetic acid some errors in ruling the trajectories calculation for particles in ethanol the center of the beam, the region we are mostly interested in. Finally, some attempts have been done to t the full 2D beam prole 47 Figure 6.7: 2D mirror - full 2D beam prole @ 50 mm comparison. (using the data obtained with the 30 m mesh) with a known distribution: as the Gauss t had a R2 adjusted of only structure and function of cell membrane 0.99134, it has been chosen a Lorentzian t, obtaining a better result (R2 adjusted = 0.9963). This t is displayed in Figure 6.8. Olney, Chen and Douglas [30] measured gas ow proles downstream the acid, skimmer using an preeclampsia, impact pressure probe. It consisted of a small 0.254 mm diameter orice in ethanol a at empacho seco, plate at the end of a 6.35 mm od tube that was connected to a pressure gauge. Acid? The gas ow proles were measured for an interface arrangement with a rst stage pressure (P1) of empacho seco 3.3 Torr and ethanol to acetic acid a sampler-skimmer spacing of 6.4 mm; this interface is similar to that used on commercial ICP-MS systems.

Using French calculations [47], they found the density o the centerline: n(r, ') n0 = B cos 2 '' 2C r r0 ''2 (6.2) where ' is the polar angle between the is race act, centre axis and the point of to acetic acid interest, r0 the orice radius, r the distance of the probe from the source (r2 = x2 p +z 2 p , where zp is the distance of the probe from the centerline) and B and C are, respectively, 0.643 and 1.365 (for Ar). The impact probe was scanned radially across the ibank barklays, beam at acid, 13 mm down- stream the skimmer; Figure 6.9 shows the free jet gas ow prole obtained from impact pressure measurements made at several distances from the centerline. Membrane? Considering the geometry and ethanol acid settings dierences between the case on study and the work by Olney, Chen and Douglas, the beam prole obtained with IBSimu is consistent with the one shown in their work. 48 Figure 6.8: Lorentz t. Figure 6.9: Free jet proles calculated - dotted line - and measured - lled circles; the density eld of equation 6.2 is multiplied by an additional factor. cos' to account for empacho seco, the decrease in the apparent area of the probe (solid angle) viewed from the source orice as the probe moves o-axis [30]. 49 6.4 Task 4 - Up and Te investigation. The optimum mesh size for a mirrored geometry was determined to be 30 m.

Since with a full 2D geometry the number of nodes doubles, some simulations have been done to see if a mesh bigger than 30 m guarantees good results. It has been found that using a 50 m mesh the beam prole does not change; so for the following task, this mesh size has been used. The aim was to analyze the eect of plasma potential (Up) and ethanol to acetic acid electron temperature (Te) on the beam prole. Essay With Quotations? These parameters have been chosen because they dene the plasma itself and they represent the main contribu- tion to the particles trajectories. To Acetic? After few simulations it became clear that it was necessary to change the particle seeding function; we soon realized that add_2d_KV _beam_with_emittance() did not take into account the charge density and it was initializing the empacho seco, plasma potential to a Null value (no dierences were seen varying the plasma potential). However, the beam proles calculated in to acetic the former task were correct, because with such a high current beam the space charge eect was signicant. So, the new used function was add_2d_beam_with_energy(), which adds particles with kinetic energies sampled from a gaussian distribution. Ibank Barklays? Unfortunately, it was not possible with this new function to set a beam current greater than 5 A; for to acetic acid, higher values, particles are grouped in bundles (needless to structure and function of cell membrane, say that this result can not be true). So, with a 100k particles Argon beam, a current of 5 A and 21 iterations (after having checked the con- vergence) some runs have been done with dierent plasma potential values: 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, 5, 8, 10, 15 and 20 V. The outcome beam prole does not have any signicative dierence until 1 V, then, increasing the plasma po- tential, the number of counts and to acetic the peak height decrease. Moreover, above.

10 V all plots are almost identical, both in shape and number of counts; as a consequence it does not make sense to investigate low or high intervals and the study was concentrated on the range 2 '' 10 V. This interval of survey is in a good agreement with the available literature data [13][18][19]. The trend shown in Figure 6.10 is probably due to the space charge eect: it becomes more intense with a higher potential, especially in the center of the beam, where the ibank barklays, number of particles is high. So, increasing. Up, more and ethanol more particles are lost on the skimmer walls; in a calculation for 10 V, this number could be near to 80% of the total number of ruling starting particles. With a low plasma potential value, some particles are colliding on the skimmer wall too, but this number is smaller - with Up = 2 V it is about 40% - because the beam is spreading less than in the case of high Up. Regarding the to acetic, charge density plot, its trend does not change. The only dierence is in of cell the peak corresponding to the focus point: its height halves from 2 to 6 V and then remains constant until 10 V. In conclusion of the ethanol to acetic acid, plasma potential evaluation, one can say that the sharpest beam proles are achieved at lowest potential, in particular at Up = 2 V. A similar study has been conducted for the electron temperature, be- tween 2000 and 8000 K (corresponding to 0.259 and 1.035 eV, respectively, using the equipartition theorem). The number of publications inquiring this 50 Figure 6.10: Beam proles for Te = 5000 K and dierent plasma potentials. topic is considerable [18][26][32][35][36]; the reported values range between. 1000 and 16000 K, depending on many factors (distance from the load coil, radial position, dry or wet plasma, introduced analyte and radio frequency power setting). The results for dierent plasma potentials (summarized in Figures 6.11 and 6.12) show a dierent behaviour. What Is Race? At low Up, increasing the electron temperature results in a rise of ethanol to acetic counts at ibank barklays, the boundaries and a decrease in the center.

Probably due to a greater thermal agitation, the beam prole becomes smoother (this attening is more uniform than the one obtained increasing Up). Ethanol To Acetic? On the contrary, if the potential is high the plot is already at and by relations varying the to acetic, temperature nothing changes. The best solution would be having a sharp peak (like the one obtained for the lower temperature) with a high number of counts (as it happens for high Te). So choosing the is race, best electron temperature is not easy: both 2000 and 8000 K could be considered good solutions. In the charge density plot, increasing the electron temperature, the peak corresponding to the focus point moves slightly toward the skimmer, while its intensity increases and to acetic acid the full width half maximum (FWHM) gets smaller. These changes are small, so they could be neglected. The best conguration would be a focus point far away from the skimmer, in order to minimize the space charge eect. In order to better understand how the plasma potential and the electron temperature aect the simulation and, above all, to nd the combination that gives the best result, three 3D plots have been done, representing the total number of what is race relations counts, the acid, peak height and the FWHM as a function of the gregg ruling, two fundamental parameters. The results are depicted in Figures 6.13 51 Figure 6.11: Beam proles for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. Figure 6.12: Beam proles for Up = 6 V and dierent electron temperatures. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? 52 Figure 6.13: Number of counts as a function of Up and Te. to 6.15.

As evaluated before, it was shown that Up = 2 V is the best plasma potential. Regarding the electron temperature, two dierent values could be good: with Te = 2000 K the peak is narrow (lowest FWHM) and his height is maximum. On the other hand, with Te = 8000 K there is still a good FWHM and ibank barklays the number of counts is increased. The good quality of these two combinations (Up = 2 V - Te = 2000 K and ethanol to acetic acid Up = 2 V - Te = 8000 K) is underlined in the plot represented in Figure 6.16, obtained with a combination between number of counts and FWHM. Preeclampsia Case? From the ethanol acid, literature review it can be postulated that 2000 K is ibank barklays, a too low value for the present case.

In fact the electron temperature in a Fassel torch is around 10000 K and the plasma bulk properties remain unchanged as it proceeds through the sampling orice [19]; the only signicant electron loss at the walls of the sampling plate is conned to distances of the order of to acetic acid one Debye length - 10''2 to 10''3 mm. In conclusion for essay on democracy with, the next simulations the ethanol acid, following values were adopted: Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. 6.5 Task 5 - dierent masses. Once completed the structure, Argon beam simulations, the next step was to intro- duce other particles, to see the particles beam prole. Since the plasma is constituted by Argon, the number of the other masses is so low that their contribution to the electric potential is ethanol, nearly negligible. So, to speed up the simulation, it was convenient to simulate only Argon in gregg ruling the rst runs 53 Figure 6.14: Peak height as a function of Up and Te. Ethanol To Acetic? Figure 6.15: Full width half maximum as a function of Up and Te. 54 Figure 6.16: (number of empacho seco counts)2 / full width half maximum. (to calculate the resulting electric potential) and then, in the last part, all the other particles. This topic will be discussed in acid detail in the next section.

The rst set of simulations was aimed to study how the act, number of counts is aected by the mass of the projectile at dierent potentials. The array of particles used (excluding Ar) was: 1, 5, 10, 20, 30, 50, 60, 80, 100, 140, 180, 220 , 260, 300 amu. 100k particles per species were seeded, with a 50 m mesh, Te = 8000 K and for dierent plasma potentials: 2, 3, 4, 6, 10 V. The signal intensity per species, downstream the lens orice, is given in Figure 6.17. The trend obtained is logarithmic for acid, each potential, even if with in- creasing Up the curves are attening. Empacho Seco? A good t has been found: the curve.

y = a''bln(x+c) always provides R2 adjusted greater than 0.999. Compar- ing the ethanol to acetic, plot in Figure 6.17 with the one obtained at 50 mm (just before the lens orice) and shown in Figure 6.18 clearly indicates that a lot of particles are lost on the lens walls, as the maximum intensity halves. Moreover, the what is race, most intense lost is for acid, low mass particles: considering the intensity ratio between 50 and 56 mm, it passes from 7.57 for quotations, m=1 to 3.87 for m=100 to 2.08 for m=300. Ethanol? This could mean that lower masses are mostly at the boundary of the beam - whilst higher masses are in the centre - or that the essay, spread is higher for ethanol acid, light particles - making the prole nearly at. Structure And Function Of Cell? In the following this particular distribution was studied through the beam prole plots. Considering instead the signal intensity per to acetic species for empacho seco, dierent electron temperatures, the curves are not aected and ethanol the intensity dierence is nearly negligible (see Figure 6.19). Increasing the electron temperature, the 55 Figure 6.17: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for empacho seco, Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials.

Figure 6.18: Signal intensity per mass @ 50 mm for to acetic, Te = 8000 K and dierent plasma potentials. 56 Figure 6.19: Signal intensity per mass @ 56 mm for Up = 2 V and dierent electron temperatures. number of of cell membrane counts also increases, in a non linear way: higher the mass, bigger the ethanol to acetic, dierence from two dierent temperatures is. Nevertheless the gap is quite small: for m=300, the percentual dierence between 5000 and 12000 K (in respect to relations act, the lower Te) is about 6. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? The eect of an electron temperature changing on the number of counts for structure and function membrane, m=300 is shown in Figure 6.20. In order to see in detail how plasma potential and electron temper- atures aect the beam prole, some simulations have been run with the three masses (in addition to Ar) which give an overall view on all possible particles: 1, 150, 300. The result is consistent with the one obtained in case of Argon: it validates 2 V as the best plasma potential and the trend for dierent Te is equivalent to the one showed in ethanol to acetic acid the previous section. As it resulted from signal intensity plots, the number of counts for lower masses is empacho seco, low. Running the same number of particles would make a comparison between beam proles of mass 1 and 300 impossible: the former one would be completely at compared to ethanol to acetic, the other. As the beam prole evolution (changing Up and Te) is the same for mass 40, 150 and 300, it is reasonable to presume this trend is ibank barklays, identical for mass 1. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? The beam prole was studied in detail for dierent electron temperatures (Figure 6.21). As it is shown for m=150, increasing Te, the central peak decreases and empacho seco broadens until 6000 K, then, it starts increasing again. Moreover, while its central width does not change, the boundary number of counts progressively decreases and so the transition from the ethanol to acetic, boundary to the centre becomes sharper (the area under the is race, curve being constant). The only dierence with 57 Figure 6.20: Signal intensity @ 56 mm for m = 300 and dierent electron temperatures.

Figure 6.21: Beam prole @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V, m = 150 and dierent electron temperatures. 58 Figure 6.22: Beam prole @ 50 mm for dierent masses, for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. Ethanol? argon is right in this area: in the analyzed case the boundary number of on democracy counts drops to zero (this feature is ethanol, even more noticeable for what is race relations act, m=300) at about 4 mm from the centre, giving to the prole a more sharp shape. This phenomenon has been more deeply investigated. With a set of ethanol projectile similar to the one used for the rst plots, the beam prole for each species has been represented - for Up = 2 V and. Te = 8000 K. Relations? For low masses it was necessary to run more particles in order to have a good statistics. Especially in this plot the mass discrimination is obvious: most of the low species are lost on the skimmer and lens walls, so their contribute is about one order of acid magnitude smaller for high masses. As observed before the beam prole progressively changes: while Argon (previously studied) can be tted with a lorentzian curve, increasing the mass, the prole loses its tails and acquires a better dened shape.

Starting from m = 160, the boundary number of counts drops to zero; in other words, high masses are well focused. This is an important result, because it means that all these particles will pass through the lens orice. To better visualize the results it was convenient to represent the beam prole ratio between a given mass and mass 120. This value was choosen because its curve is the rst having nearly zero counts at essay on democracy with quotations, the edge. To Acetic Acid? As in the analyzer enters just the central part of the beam, high boundary ratios were not take into account. The plot in Figure 6.23 clearly shows the mass discrimination as a function of atomic mass and radius (radial distance from the study, beam center - dened as 0.02 m). This plot underlines how much sharper the beam proles are for high 59 Figure 6.23: Counts ratio @ 50 mm for Up = 2 V and Te = 8000 K. masses: it is important to notice that the resulting hollow for low masses does not mean the to acetic, total number of case counts in the center is lower than at the boundaries, but just that the number of counts is increasing slower (to the centre) for low than for high masses. 6.6 Task 6 - iteration settings. As anticipated, with many projectiles it is convenient to split the iteration phase in to acetic two parts: in the initial runs only Argon is seeded, while in the last all the other particles (dened in the masses array) are added. In fact the one that contributes more to the total electric potential is Argon, while other particles have a negligible impact on it. Some simulations have been run to answer the following questions: ' With a xed number of iterations, does the beam prole change vary- ing the number of initial and nal iterations' How' Is the empacho seco, computing time aected' ' How many particles are needed to y in the last run(s) in order to have a good compromise between a good beam prole and to acetic a short computing time' ' How many particles are optimal for ibank barklays, the rst runs' The rst comparison was aimed to to acetic acid, see which changes occur when the number of iterations in which all particles are sent vary.

With a xed 60 Figure 6.24: Electric potential dierence as a function of iteration number for the analyzed cases. number of total iterations (25), dierent combinations have been tried: (case 1) 10+15, (case 2) 15+10, (case 3) 23+2, (case 4) 24+1. The rst parameter checked was the electric potential convergence: in Figure 6.24 the electric potential dierence is shown for the considered cases. There are two points that have to be underlined: (i) the y axis has a logarithmic scale - this means that the initial decrease is sharp - and (ii) in case4 the electric potential dierence is essay, not calculated after ying all parti- cles - because in ethanol acid the code the particles are sent after the electrical potential is recalculated. Essay On Democracy With? 2 The increase in acid each curve is due to the addition of other species: considering that the total electric potential is 2000 V, this oper- ation does not signicantly aect the result. To validate this hypothesis, the obtained beam proles have been compared to the one obtained in the rst case.

With 15 + 10 iterations the result is identical (exactly the same number of counts per interval) to the rst one, while case 3 and ruling 4 have some small dierences, even if the ethanol, prole shape remains unchanged. As the com- puting time decreases from 34 (case1) to 29 (case2) to 19 minutes (case4), the conclusion is the following: reducing the number of nal iterations does not signicantly aect the nal result; the dierence is negligible in all cases even for particles with low mass - in which case the total number of counts is low. Membrane? This result has been validated also in the case of 20k particles in to acetic acid the rst runs and 100k in the last one. Then, two simulations with a dierent nal number of particles have been performed: 50k and 100k. Preeclampsia Case Study? For low masses (m=1 in the analyzed 2So case4 represents the convergence for Ar only. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? 61 Figure 6.25: Ratio between the beam prole @ 50 mm with 50k particles and the one obtained with 100k particles, for preeclampsia study, m=1. case) the number of ethanol particles reaching the end of the simulation eld is low and random uctuations aect signicantly the beam prole. As the uctuation amplitude does not change passing from the rst to the second case, the former one represents a coarse approximation (as clearly indicated in Figure 6.25). Increasing the atomic mass the number of counts increases too and the background noise becomes negligible. So it is better to split the following discussion in two cases. For high masses the solution is likewise the prece- dent: running with 50k instead of 100k particles is a good approximation and the advantage is that the simulation time is of cell membrane, reduced - halved in the case of 10 + 15 iterations.

To see how much time is earned running less particles in the last run only, two simulations have been done, with 50k particles at the beginning and 50/100 in the last run. The dierence is about 15%, but is not really signicant as the ethanol to acetic acid, total time needed is around 20 minutes (19 min in essay quotations the rst case and 22 min in the second). To Acetic Acid? The situation is structure of cell membrane, critical for low masses: running few particles in the last run(s) does not provide a good statistics. Therefore, it is convenient to run more particles (in the last run only), even if it takes a bit more time, to have a better statistic. To conclude this study, the last parameter to change was the ethanol to acetic acid, number of particles in the rst runs: 3 the simulation result for 20k particles was compared to the one obtained for 50k - with 100k particles in the last runs 3A variation in the number of Argon particles does not change the total charge density (it is dened as constant); the only quantity changing is the charge density carried by empacho seco each particle. 62 - rstly for 10 + 15 and then for 24 + 1 iterations. Ethanol To Acetic Acid? In both cases there are no dierences between the preeclampsia case, two simulations - for ethanol, the case 10 + 15 iterations every single beam has the same amplitude as in the other case and similarly for 24 + 1 iterations. In the rst case even the computing time does not importantly change, probably because the time needed to seed only Argon is smaller compared to the one for all particles.

On the contrary, the dierence is notable in the second case: instead of 22, just 14 minutes are needed. Anyway, it is important to underline that this is not a general result: sending more species, the time needed for the last iteration will increase, while the time for Argon does not change. So the percentual time earned will decrease with the total number of preeclampsia case species increasing. Anyhow decreasing the number of Argon particles does not aect the beam prole quality, so it can be reduced to 20k. The following list summarizes the settings that optimize both the ethanol acid, results quality and what the computing time: ' number of iterations: 24 + 1; ' number of particles in acid the last run: 100k; ' number of particles in the rst runs: 20k. 6.7 Task 7 - Cadmium. In order to ruling, compare between simulation and experimental results, Cd can be used, with three of its isotopes: 110, 111 and 114. Through this com- parison it is possible to nd out the ethanol to acetic, plasma fundamental parameters that characterize the used instrument. In the empacho seco, following a short experimental description of the ethanol, implantation and measure of ions number is given.

In order to detect the gregg, radial distribution of Cd - this element is acid, used because it shows a signicant radial dependence -, an Aluminium target was placed at the base of the extraction lens. Thus implanted ions should represent the spatially resolved composition of the extracted ion beam. The target is analyzed by Laser Ablation ICP-MS after implantation, performing a line scan from the rim region (A) toward the center of the target (B), as shown in Figure 6.26. The spacing between two adjacent ablation spots (150 m) is sucient to have a high spatial resolution density and, in the same time, to avoid overlapping [43]. Because laser ablation removes material in the range of several hundreds of nanometer per pulse, a complete removal of the im- planted ions is empacho seco, ensured. The calculated ratio 114Cd/111Cd in a single data set from a representative Cd isotope ratio analysis is represented in to acetic acid Figure 6.27, with the corresponding transient signal for 114Cd. Essay With? Since laser ablation provides spatially resolved information on the im- planted matter, a relation between Cadmium signal and ion beam intensity has to be assumed in ethanol to acetic acid order to deduce the ion beam prole. Ibank Barklays? However, the sputtering due to the high Ar-beam current jeopardizes this relation; the 63 Figure 6.26: Sketch of the Al target assembly mounted in ethanol to acetic the Neptune MC- ICP-MS instrument. The dotted line denes the area exposed to the ion beam and structure and function the position of the acid, line scan is given by the black line [43]. Figure 6.27: 114Cd/111Cd isotope ratio (open circles) and signal intensity [43]. 64 Table 6.3: Set of simulation run run number Up (V) Te (K) 1 2 8000 2 3 5000 3 4 10000 4 8 5000 5 2 5000 6 2 10000 signal intensity is high in an annulus around 1 mm from the empacho seco, centre and then decreases when moving toward the ethanol to acetic acid, centre.

This drop coincides with optically observed material defect; at this location the low signal is probably caused by removal of material by sputtering. To plot the ratio 114Cd/111Cd against the distance from the centre, some simulations have been run, with the following conguration set: ' 35 iterations, 20 with Argon only + 15 with all the particles, ' masses array = 110, 111, 114, ' beam current = 5 A, ' mesh size = 50 m, ' dierent plasma potentials (Up) and electron temperature (Te). As explained before, the aim of these simulations was to is race relations act, nd a beam prole as similar as possible to the one shown in Figure 6.27. To reach this achievement, Up and Te were varied in their validity interval. The parameters for each run are summarized in Table 6.3. Beam proles have been plotted; increasing Up the trend becomes at, so Up = 2 V is the setting that resembles the ethanol acid, real value best. Regarding the electron temperature, its contribute is what is race relations, not signicant as the Up is. Since the ratio obtained with the simulation is slightly dierent from the experimental one, identifying the electron temperature real value results more dicult. Ethanol? In Figures 6.28 to 6.30 ratios are given for three values of Te. It seems that the intermediate case - 2 V and 8000 K - is the closer to reality, even if the shape diers for some features.

While the quotations, experimental plot rapidly decreases in the center and ethanol its trend is clear, the empacho seco, simulated one decreases slowly; at ethanol to acetic acid, the edge, it can be seen the ibank barklays, same low point it can be found at 6 mm in Figure 6.27 - even if in ethanol acid Figure 6.29 is at dierent position, 2 mm closer to the center. The trouble is that data processing could give rise to dierent explanations, depending on which bin size is choosen plotting the histogram. Empacho Seco? More accurated and resoluted simulations are necessary in order to make this comparison more precise and reliable. 65 Figure 6.28: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 5000 K. Figure 6.29: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and ethanol Te = 8000 K. 66 Figure 6.30: 114Cd/111Cd ratio for Up = 2 V and Te = 10000 K. 67 Chapter 7 Results and of cell membrane discussion The present work wants only to be a starting point in the understanding of the extraction process: in the future, on one hand more simulations and with dierent softwares can be performed and on the other some im- provements can be applied to ethanol acid, the instrument.

IBSimu already represents a better simulation package compared to SIMION; with the on democracy, latter, taking into account the ethanol to acetic, space charge eects is dicult and really impractical. Nev- ertheless, IBSimu still has a liability: it is impossible to empacho seco, y neutral particles and then simulating the scattering process between neutrals. For this rea- son the group of Kivel is ethanol acid, developing new simulations, both with dsmcFoam1 and with PI-DSMC (Parallel Interactive Direct Simulation Monte Carlo). What Act? Both this programs use the probabilistic (Monte Carlo) simulation to ethanol acid, under- stand the uidodynamics of the case study, free jet expansion. DSMC has been already documented in some articles [38] [39]; the particular implementation of the algorithm is called FENIX. As the solver in ethanol IBSimu, the Monte Carlo al- gorithm models the gregg v georgia, gas ow by ethanol to acetic acid dividing the simulation region into small spatial collision cells, each one smaller in the extent than the local mean free path. Then, each particle is given a random chance to collide with its nearest neighbor in its collision cell, using the collision statistics appropri- ate to the density and temperature in the cell. A more detailed description of the algorithm can be found elsewhere [38] [39]. The aim of the FENIX simulation would be to make a more detailed calculation of the structure, ow in the ICP-MS, not limited to the region downstream the skimmer anymore, but in the whole extraction interface. In this approach the study of the jet ex- pansion reported in chapter 4 is fundamental to make a comparison between simulated and theoretical results and in order to validate the model. This new simulation software is fundamental even for ethanol acid, another reason: applying a modest voltage to the skimmer could improve the transmission eciency.

Usually about 10% of the total number of empacho seco ying particles is lost on the skimmer walls and the trouble is that most of ethanol acid these particles are the lightest. Electrically oating one or both the cones at various potentials could accelerate the ions and therefore reduce this phenomenon. It has been found, with IBSimu, that having the ibank barklays, skimmer at few volts would focus the 1dsmcFoam is part of the open source CFD package OpenFOAM. 68 Figure 7.1: Sketches of the ethanol acid, three used arrangements [23]. beam; the downside of this action stands upstream the skimmer, where ions would see a repulsive force. For this reason simulating the entire extraction interface with DSMC is necessary, in order to understand the beam behav- ior. Hu and empacho seco Houk [23] applied modest DC voltages (+10 to +50 V ) to both the to acetic, sampler and the skimmer or, alternatively, left the sampler oating - i.e., deliberately not connected to ibank barklays, any voltage source or to ground - with the skimmer biased. Three specic arrangements (shown in ethanol gure 7.1) were studied: (a) sampler and skimmer biased together, (b) sampler oated and skimmer biased and what relations act (c) sampler grounded and skimmer biased. The results are depicted in gure 7.2 with Co+ as analyte.2 There is an improvement in each case: by ethanol to acetic a factor of 4 (modestly) by applying the same DC voltages - about 20 V - to both sampler and empacho seco skimmer (A), by a factor 5 of in case C, and by a factor of 6 by oating the to acetic, sampler and applying a DC voltage of 30 '' 40 V to the skimmer. It results that conguration b is the empacho seco, one which gives the higher signal; 2Relative sensitivity refers to ethanol acid, the sensitivity obtained for a given element with one of the new interface arrangements divided by of cell that obtained for the same element with the conventional interface. Acid? 69 Figure 7.2: Relative Co+ sensitivity as a function of biasing voltage [23].

Table 7.1: Molar sensitivities for various elements expressed in terms of atomic concentration [23] molar sensitivity (counts/ (s mM)) interface arrangement Co Rh Ho m/z = 59 m/z = 103 m/z = 165 conventional interface 5.6 107 8.5 107 2.2 108 interface b 3.5 108 3.3 108 3.0 108 in Table 7.1 molar sensitivities for various elements are compared. Another advantage given by this conguration is the reducing of the mass bias: in fact, the sensitivity is improved for Co+ by a much greater factor than is in ibank barklays the case for acid, the heavier Ho+. Essay On Democracy? Even if it seems that the ions have a sucient kinetic energy to ow through the sampling cones, some simulations should been run in to acetic acid order to check what happens upstream the skimmer: applicating a positive potential could repel ions and structure membrane prevent them from passing through the orice. So in this case the simulation eld has to be extended, in order to start the to acetic, beam in correspondence to the sampler. 70 Chapter 8 Conclusions As explained in the introduction, the empacho seco, aim of this work was the optimization of the ion extraction from the ICP.

IBSimu turned out to ethanol to acetic, be a suitable and useful instrument for this purpose, thanks to its versatility and easiness of use. It calculates the comprehensive electrci potential dividing the simula- tion region in small meshes or cells. Once chosen the fastest solver among the many available, the relations act, mesh size has been determined in order to have a good compromise between results quality and to acetic computing time. V Georgia? At the beginning, the code describing the simulation eld was characterized by a 2D mirror geometry; due to acid, some problems, switching to a full geometry came out to case study, be convenient. Acid? Then the main section of the work started: the investigation on is race relations, how the beam prole changes upon varying the plasma main parameters, i.e. the plasma potential and ethanol to acetic the electron temperature. Changing the plasma potential, noticeable dierences were observed in the beam prole only in the range between 2 and 10 V; increasing Up more particles collide on the skimmer wall and then the beam prole decreases in intensity attening. The electron temperature has a less considerable eect and, particularly, its consequence depends on the plasma potential value: if Up is low, increasing. Te the trend attens, while if Up is high nearly nothing changes.

Since the aperture to the mass spectrometer is 4 mm wide, the couple of values. Up = 2V and Te = 8000K has been chosen in order to have a sharp peak with a high number of counts. This result has been obtained ying only Argon ions, but it has then been ratied simulating a beam with many species. And Function Of Cell Membrane? One of the most severe problem in the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry is mass discrimination, that is the preferential lost of the beam particles with a low mass in respect to heavier species. This phenomenon has been characterized and ethanol then the eect of and function of cell a plasma potential and elec- tron temperature variation has been studied in order to see if it determines any advantage. While only small and negligible dierences occur changing. - caricare i tuoi contenuti.

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The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers. As youve probably heard, theres no such thing as only being a writer any more, and while many might not want to handle the business side of things, to ethanol to acetic acid, give ourselves and preeclampsia case, our books the best chance of success, we must. In May 2012, when Becca Puglisi and to acetic, I self-published The Emotion Thesaurus: A Writers Guide to Character Expression , we had quite a few challenges. Living in empacho seco different countries, we needed to create a formal partnership, set up businesses, and figure out how revenue would work. We had to learn publishing and take on marketing and promotion. Neither of acid us had a business or marketing background, so we relied heavily on research and intuition, and act, did our best to to acetic, make the book discoverable. Preeclampsia. (You can read about to acetic our initial marketing plan here.) Our unusual book on showing character emotion created buzz among writers, igniting word of mouth.

Suddenly our lives went from busy to crazy as we tried to keep up with the essay on democracy quotations burst of attention, writing guest posts, teaching workshops, and providing interviews. Books sales continued to strengthen, and we sold foreign rights. A few universities listed the book as required reading, and publishers began approaching us. At this point, Becca and I realized how far the ethanol to acetic acid book could go, but because we were being pulled in so many different directions, we didnt know how to best take advantage of these opportunities. The need for a business plan became our No. 1 focus. Fortunately, my husband is a management consultant who creates plans for many of his clients. With his help, we identified three areas that would help us grow in the year ahead: improving our professional image and ibank barklays, brand credibility : creating a website, presenting at conferences and to acetic acid, hosting workshops providing new product for our audience : writing two new descriptive thesaurus books expanding into the education sector : contacting colleges and ibank barklays, universities to spread awareness of our writing resources.

The roadmap we created allowed us to avoid distractions and focus on what would help us grow. As we near the ethanol to acetic acid end of the year, Becca and I now have a professional website, three writing resource books that have collectively sold nearly 50,000 copies, and gregg ruling, we increased our credibility through speaking engagements, teaching at conferences, and hosting workshops. In the near future we are looking to create awareness of to acetic acid our books at the collegiate level, rounding out our business plan objectives. Since much of our productivity and growth are a direct result of forming a business plan (and sticking to it), I want to empacho seco, share steps you can take to ethanol to acetic acid, create your own. Imagine your year ahead and what you would like to structure and function, accomplish as a writer. What will help you reach your goals, whether its publication, releasing more books, beefing up your online visibility, or honing your craft? Write down everything that you want to accomplish, and dont forget smaller goals, as these are necessary steppingstones to achieving larger ones. Also, choose goals that are within your power to make happen. For example, while you might really want representation, getting an ethanol to acetic, agent is not necessarily something you can attain yourself; the agent decides whom they represent.

However, researching and essay quotations, querying all suitable agents is a goal you can set and meet. Read through your list and look for bigger themes. Are there several goals that fit into a similar area of focus, like platform building or writing improvement? Grab some highlighters and group these together. Then, choose a name or tag line that summarizes each theme or area of focus. Common themes might include. Social networking improvement (platform building and connection) Education (attending workshops, finding a critique partner, improving ones craft, studying the industry, etc.) Publishing (trying for an agent, working towards a traditional contract or self-publishing) Marketing visibility (researching and implementing ads, hiring a publicist, finding ones audience online, soliciting reviews, etc.) Now that your goals are organized into different focus areas (themes), step back and look at ethanol acid, the big picture.

Based on where you are now, which areas are the highest priority? For example, querying agents (publication related) and honing your writing skills (education related) might both be areas youd like to focus on, but if your writing still needs work, it will be a waste of time to what is race relations, query agents immediately. Likewise, if you are winning notable contests and trusted critique partners are hard-pressed to ethanol to acetic, see how you can improve, likely you should make getting your work in front of agents and editors a priority. This step involves soul-searching and honesty. Gregg V Georgia. Sometimes desire (wanting to acid, be published right now, for example) can get in the way of what we actually need (to hone our craft further). To be objective, set emotion aside. Ask yourself hard questions about what your career really needs. If it helps, pretend you are advising a writer friend.

If they were in membrane your shoes, what important things would you suggest they work on acid, to get ahead? Step 4: Pick Two or Three Main Goals. Now comes the hard part: choosing which goals to pursue. Which two areas of gregg v georgia focus did you mark as being the most critical? These two themes (say Education and to acetic, Networking) should be the primary focus of your business plan. Pick specific goals that will help you most in these areas. Once you choose a goal, think about the steps you must take to essay with, achieve it. Ethanol. For example, if your goal is to Build a Platform you might have action items like open a twitter account and build a following , take a class on social networking, and case, join a group blog . For inspiration, look at ethanol, the highlighted lists you made.

Chances are youll find smaller goals listed there that will help you achieve your larger one. Two primary areas of focus or main goals are good for a business plan, but if you have a third area youd like to tackle, list it as a secondary goal. Do the same exercise as above and list out tasks (action items) that must be carried out to gregg v georgia ruling, achieve this goal. When making these decisions, think carefully about your time. We all have roles and ethanol acid, commitments outside of writing, and these things require a lot of energy. Business goals should be achievable, so dont take on more than you can handle. Step 5: Set a Timeline for of cell membrane, Each Goal. Stick to your plan by setting timelines that fit your schedule. Becca and I chose a seasonal timeline, so we knew which goal to pursue at which time of the ethanol acid year. This helped us meet completion dates.

If you are unsure how much time a certain task will require, set a deadline with a fallback date. This way you wont be discouraged if you miss the initial deadline, and youll have a buffer if needed. Step 6: Bring It Together in a One-Page Plan. A visual helps when it comes to following a business plan. By condensing your plan on preeclampsia study, one page, it will force you to to acetic acid, be succinct in what must be accomplished to meet each goal. You can use a spreadsheet or table to do this (Excel, Google spreadsheet, a piece of paper, etc) or download this template. Heres the business plan Becca and preeclampsia, I created for ourselves: When your spreadsheet is filled out, print and display it where you write.

This will remind you of what you should be doing and help you make good use of ethanol to acetic acid your time. Step 7: Commit and Challenge Yourself Daily. Once your plan is complete, stick to it. Is Race Act. When new opportunities come up, see if they fit your plan. Its important to take advantage of potential windfalls, but only acid if they further your goals and you have the what is race time. Before you print your business plan, type this statement in bold at the bottom: Is what Im doing or about to do helping me achieve my goals? Before you commit time and energy to new projects, challenge yourself with this question to evaluate if its worthwhile.

In todays publishing landscape, writers must become master jugglers, wearing many hats. Whether youre published or pre-published, having a business plan is one of the smartest things you can do to ethanol acid, keep yourself on membrane, track, maximize your time, and ethanol to acetic acid, ensure that you reach your milestones. Angela Ackerman is empacho seco, a writing coach, international speaker, and acid, co-author of the bestselling book, The Emotion Thesaurus: A Writers Guide to Character Expression , as well as four others, including the newly minted Urban Setting and Rural Setting Thesaurus duo. Her books are available in five languages, are sourced by US universities, and are used by ibank barklays, novelists, screenwriters, editors, and psychologists around the world. Angela is also the co-founder of the popular site Writers Helping Writers, as well as One Stop for Writers, an innovative online library built to help writers elevate their storytelling.

106 Comments on The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers This is FANTASTIC and just what I needed to see this morning! Great post and I love your books Angela. They continue to help me hone my craft. Thanks so much, Adrienne. I really hope this plan helps you map out your best path forward. Happy writing (and business planning!) [] Angela is at Jane Friedmans blog, sharing a 7-Step Business Plan for Writers, because in this new world of ethanol to acetic acid publishing, it is more important than ever for essay on democracy, writers to engage in [] Yes, this isnt meant to take the to acetic acid place of a full scale planI wanted to share something that both pre-published and published authors could use as a starting point, especially those who might find the idea of ibank barklays a creating a business plan daunting. Unfortunately writers can no longer just write, and so its necessary to become more business-minded (even if this isnt something that comes naturally).

Thanks so much for the comment! Youre welcome #128578; If you ever plan on publishing a blog post about expanding this with the financial aspects, let me know and Id be happy to ethanol, write a guest post about it (Ive written more than one complete business plan in my life, both for myself and others). Sounds goodthanks for offering, Saoirse. I will keep this in mind! #128578; You can contact me at saoirse.omara (at) gmail dot com (just realised that my name isnt clickable lol).

Thanks for sharing ideas for v georgia, a business plan. I need to ethanol to acetic acid, save this one! Happy this will help you Linda. Quotations. #128578; Have a great week! Although I dont need a business plan right now, I want to thank you for The Emotion Thesaurus! I bought if first on ethanol acid, Kindle, then realized Id like to have a paper copy, too. Structure. Its been an immense help when my editor says, More emotion, Eleanor, dig deeper, a refrain I hear often. So, thanks for ethanol, helping me mine my own and my characters emotions! Eleanor Sullivan, Graven Images, A Singular Village Mystery. I am thrilled that The Emotion Thesaurus is helping you! Writing character emotion is v georgia ruling, such a struggle, because we want it to feel authentic, but tend to get trapped in reusing the ethanol to acetic acid same descriptors to show it.

Hopefully the entries in the book offer you a path to spark your brain quickly so you can stay in structure and function membrane the flow and write the scene. Ethanol To Acetic Acid. Thanks for structure of cell, the comment! Awesome suggestions, Angela! Love the chart! And this is a good time of the ethanol year to empacho seco, focus on goals and new beginnings! Sue, it is the perfect time, isnt it?

Now more than ever, being a writer is about being willing to grow and evolve. The good thing is that there is so much content out ethanol there to study, help us find our way. I hope the ethanol chart helps you. #128578; Thank you so much Jane for having me here today. Of Cell Membrane. I just finished watching your Google hangout with CEA, and cant wait for acid, the next installment! Thanks so much for the great summary of the shifting writing landscape. Angela, This is an well-thought-out and on democracy with quotations, doable plan. I love that you included plans to get training where needed as well as being open to traditional and self-publishing. To Acetic Acid. Your post made me remember that I have taken many webinars and workshops over ibank barklays, the years. Before I take another one I need to go back and review all the content on marketing, building a platform, etc. that Ive already gathered. Thank you.

Very happy to acid, help. As writers, we are in constant development, but if we try to focus on everything, or too much on one thing, then we arent making the on democracy with quotations best use of our time. Sometimes sitting down and looking hard at what we want for ourselves, both long term and acid, short term, is on democracy with, a healthy step to moving forward more productively. #128578; Im so happy to hear about all your success, Angela. Ethanol To Acetic. If anyones worked hard and empacho seco, deserves it, you do. (And how nice to be married to a business consultant, right?) Thanks for all the tips. Ethanol Acid. #128578; Haha, Lexa, yes his brain has come in handy, although I appreciate the fact that he hasnt tried to take over and only offers help if I ask. His business world and my publishing world have some overlap, but there are also things that work very differently between the two, so I need to understand my world enough to gregg, know what advice might work, and what will not. Ethanol To Acetic Acid. (And thank youI feel so grateful to have such great supporters like you!) So practical and thoughtful! Makes great sense, and I can implement it immediately. Also use for my other passion, genealogy, and ibank barklays, my goals there as well! I appreciate the clear language and straightforward style in this post as well.

Yes Celia, this business plan can really be used in any area. even ones personal development. #128578; I am happy it will be of use to you. Thanks for the visit. Great post, Angela. I had to giggle because I wrote on to acetic, the exact same topic just yesterday on my blog! And we werent far off in what our advice. Its so important for writers to consider their where they are going with their careersnot just with their books.

They need a good map, and a business plan is just that, with concrete and quantifiable goals broken down into action steps to get them where they want to go. Done correctly, it will help them brand themselves and become successful. And I love your template! Thanks for that. Branding is a big topic. It is probably easier for NF writers than fiction authors to brand themselves.

It grows harder if a person writes in many genres. I know one writer who has 4 pseudonyms plus her own name to cover all the genres she writes in, and so she find it impossible to promote herself. I can see why. Hmmm. This has sparked thoughts for a blog post. Might just use you as an example, if thats okay!

Agreed Nina. To Acetic Acid. After reading this blog I can feel a new post bubbling up. Too bad that I posted yesterday about writers critique groups. Please keep me updated. @ernestosangiacomo:disqus, Since you asked: http://writenonfictionnow.com/4-branding-tips-for-nonfiction-writers-and-authors/. And it does, indeed, feature @angelaackerman:disqus! Read the gregg v georgia ruling previous post to ethanol acid, find my advice on on democracy with, business plans for writers. Ethanol Acid. I have other posts on with, business plans for books. Although its nonfiction based, Ill check it out. Is it really necessary to to acetic acid, lock oneself into preeclampsia case a Genre Box?

My unabashed independent spirit refuses to ethanol acid, comply. Preeclampsia Case. Maybe Ill create a new genre called Story-Telling through Authorship #128578; Thanks for the post Angela. [] is at Jane Friedmans blog, sharing the acid ins and outs of case study creating a business plan. This was a hugely important endeavor for us; [] Thanks for the visit Traci! #128578; Okay, now Ive got some place to start!

Happy to help you Bish! It might seem daunting, but I think this is an exercise everyone should sit down and do. It is good to look forward and see where we want to be, and it also helps us to ethanol acid, evaluate if what weve been doing to this point is working the way we need. Have a great week! A great post! I was doing some of this already, but I love the and function membrane template and to acetic acid, how youve outlined it so clearly! Thats great Mindy! I find having the Plan on of cell, a Page right on acid, my office wall really helps me stay focused. Its a constant reminder of what I should be working towards, and as I tick action items off the list, it gives me a greater sense of accomplishment! Great job, Angela! If only wed had such a succinct explanation of how to write a business plan when we were writing ours.

That wouldve been helpful, lol. Essay Quotations. Thanks for hosting her, Jane! [] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for ethanol to acetic, Writers [] [] Ackermans guest post at gregg, Jane Friedmans site The 7-Step Business Plan. Read the full post for a quick explanation for to acetic, each step summarised below: [] [] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers [] [] at Jane Friedmans blog, Angela Ackerman has written a post, The 7-Step Business Plan for and function of cell, Writers”, which is doable. Ethanol To Acetic Acid. Its a bit like Selznicks building an exchange in case study that [] [] out author Angela Ackermans 7-step business plan for [] post, Angela.

Shared it with my daughter. I chuckled when I saw that. your husband is a business consultant. Writing has become a new form of. family business in my case too. Ethanol. Website design, editing, and marketing.

skills in what act my family have proved enormously beneficial. Jane, as usual, has attracted another helpful, succinct post that lays groundwork for all of us. Thanks Shirley! And yes, being writers means we do seep into other aspects of family life. The kids always bring me their assignments to read and have actually used the ethanol to acetic acid content on my blog to help them write better description (be still my beating heart!). And having a hubby in consulting means a lot of business technique language tends to rub off on empacho seco, me.

Win-win! A veritable resource for a beginner. Your seven points forces the creation of a Big Picture I was also glad to realize that I was already doing some of those practices. Angela and ethanol to acetic, Becca have not only ibank barklays been smart about their business, theyve been generous. Susan Quinns book about to acetic acid indie publishing had great advice about making short term goals, as well as 1 year and 5 year goals. Id never thought that far ahead when it came to publishing! [] The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers by @angelaackerman via @janefriedman [] I truly love this article. Thanks so much for sharing. This will be great for my blog and my writing group.

This is such an excellent, helpful post! It helps me think about all the things I often push away because I dont know enoughthe business part of writing. Im close to the publishing phase of self-publishing a book and this really lays out the business arc of what I need to on democracy quotations, think about. The template brings clarity and focus to to acetic acid, what can be bewildering and overwhelming to a novice writer. Thank you so much for sharing your process. Really great piece. I need to get focused about my writing goals and structure of cell, this is a great start. Also, I love a good template. [] via The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers by Angela Ackerman. [] [] Angela Ackerman (via Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers [] The Emotion Thesaurus is a cool, useful book.

[] need to have a plan of action in place for marketing your book a Book Promotion Plan. The competition is fierce on acid, Amazon and [] [] Ackerman on Jane Friedman The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers Imagine your year ahead and what you would like to accomplish as a writer. Ibank Barklays. What will help [] [] and ethanol, I hope you are all well rested, sober, and ready to tackle 2014. Have you created a simple Business Plan For Writers to help you define areas of ruling development and to keep on track when it comes to to acetic acid, your []

Thank you so much for sharing this. Im coming late to this post, but its very timely for the start of my new year and organizing my writing goals for the year. Empacho Seco. I cant wait to give it a whirl and see where I end up. [] read this excellent article; although not officially part of the to acetic above [] Great info and empacho seco, breaking it down step by step! Thanks Angela.

[] Awesome post: The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers [] [] Angela Ackerman (Jane Friedman) with The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers [] [] need to have a plan of action in place a Book Promotion Plan. The competition is fierce on Amazon and ethanol to acetic, if your book is not [] [] and empacho seco, I are big fans of career planning and have shared our own business plan at Jane Friedmans site in hopes of encouraging others to ethanol to acetic acid, become more structured and [] I just LOVE this, and really appreciate the image of the chart. It saves time rather than having to figure things out from scratch. Seeing what works is SO helpful.

Thank you, ladies! Thank you for sharing. This will be very helpful as I build my business. Hey friends i have a very unique and cool idea for Your. Business.

It helps you to Promote your Business. Ibank Barklays. Make an app for all android and iphones,we. have very unique and interesting app ideas. This app helps you for booking ,showing. something and avail offers to the customers. Acid. You can make your app in just 3. steps at very cheap rates. Thanks for sharing this post. It is very descriptive and very useful advice.

This post helps the people to take the is race relations proper decision of business. To Acetic. Last week I have taken the service from OGS Capital for empacho seco, taking proper business plan. The service of ethanol this company is preeclampsia case study, very high quality and I am very benefitted with its service. [] If were not sure what your priorities should be, Angela Ackerman (of Emotion Thesaurus fame) shared this 7-step plan for brainstorming and figuring out what matters to ethanol to acetic, us. [] [] Learn how to make your business plan here. [] [] The 7-Step Business Plan for Writers [] [] Get the full story at Jane Friedman. [] Daily edition: Receive emails that include the full text of each new post Weekly digest: Receive a Sunday weekly e-mail digest of new blog posts. I have more than 20 years of experience in the book and ibank barklays, magazine publishing industry, with expertise in digital media and the future of authorship. I speak around the world at events such as BookExpo America, Frankfurt Book Fair, and acid, Digital Book World, and have keynoted writing conferences such as The Muse The Marketplace. Read more.

I write and publish The Hot Sheet, the essential industry newsletter for authors.

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10 Free Business Plan Templates for acid Startups. Business plans can seem daunting to someone who has never written one. The business idea itself might be fairly simple to explain, but if you want to apply for a loan, raise investor capital, or simply have a solid, documented direction for your company, you#39;re going to need to write a business plan. Luckily for is race act entrepreneurs, there are templates out there that allow you to plug in all of the information, instead of struggling with formatting and figuring out ethanol what you need to include. There are web-based business plan tools, but you may find it easier to use Microsoft Word and essay with quotations PDF-based templates. Here are 10 free templates you can download and use to create your first business plan. [See Related Story: The Dos and ethanol to acetic Don#39;ts of Writing a Great Business Plan] Bplans.com, known as the authority on business plans, offers a free Word business plan template, complete with instructions and a table of contents.

It also offers standard business plan sections such as executive summary, company summary, products and services, market analysis, strategy, management summary, and financial planning. Once you register, you will be able to download the materials and choose from a wide range of businesses in different industries in which to base your plan. Whether your business is online, service-based, or a food establishment, Bplan#39;s Word business plan templates are comprehensive and are a great option for beginners and new business owners. Gregg Ruling? Entrepreneur.com provides business tools, with a collection of business plans free in PDF, PowerPoint and Word. The templates can be viewed can downloaded through the SeamlessDocs platform. The site includes a template for a variety of specific business types, a business plan model that outlines the different parts of a business plan, and customizable templates that allow users to to acetic acid add their logos and business information. If you need a guide to writing a business plan, Entrepreneur.com also provides a download for that. This step-by-step business plan builder, offered by ibank barklays, Law Depot, covers structure, product marketing, SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats), operations, and details specific to your business in their templates. Once the template is complete, you can download and to acetic acid print. What Relations? The plan builder asks specific questions to help focus your answers and makes your business plan concise and comprehensive.

MOBI, or My Own Business Institute, is part of Santa Clara University#39;s Center for Innovation and ethanol to acetic acid Entrepreneurship. They offer a fifteen-section business plan template, including the business profile, licenses/permits and location, which are available for free download in Word as individual templates, or as a larger all-in-one document. All download are compatible with current and older versions of gregg v georgia ruling Word (2003 and earlier). MOBI also covers topics associated with startups, but also provides information on how to run a business, including employee management, how to handle problems, and ethanol to acetic acid e-commerce. Office Depot#39;s Business Resource Center contains free business plan samples for retailers, manufacturers and ibank barklays service providers. The business tools include downloadable rich text format (RTF) business plan templates, which is Word compatible. Excel business plan financials are also available for manufacturers and service providers, while the retailer business plan template is complete with forecasting and financial tables, but this requires Microsoft Word version 6.0 or later. Catering to businesses owned by acid, women, Oprah.com#39;s free one-page business plan templates can be used by essay, anyone who wants to start a business. The PDF templates come filled in with example information for small consulting businesses, boutique clothing stores and nonprofit organizations, but you can delete that information to be left with a template that works for any business venture. The template has space for information such as vision, mission statement, objectives, strategies and action plans. When you create a free business plan with Rocket Lawyer, you get the advantage of an attorney#39;s advice to make sure your document is ethanol to acetic acid legally sound.

The template is questionnaire-style and what act asks for key information about your business such as founders, structure and to acetic industry, marketing plans, financial projections, etc. Rocket Lawyer not only aims at helping you create a blueprint for empacho seco your business, but also for investors. Your completed document is available for download as a Word document for free with a trial subscription, which can be cancelled during the to acetic one-week trial period at no charge. Ibank Barklays? The document is $10 on its own without a subscription. SCORE is ethanol to acetic a small business resource website that aims to help entrepreneurs launch and on democracy quotations grow small business across the to acetic acid United States. Their collection of business planning tools includes free Word business plan templates for startups and established businesses. They also provide a sales forecasting template, competitive analysis charts to determine your business#39; strengths and weaknesses, and structure and function membrane financial planning templates such as startup expenses, profit and loss projections, and ethanol to acetic acid financial statements. You can then use these business templates to meet with a Score mentor for expert business planning advice.

The Small Business Administration (SBA) offers an online business plan template and guide to help you build your business plan, step by step. Once you create an ibank barklays account, you complete the cover page by filling in your company name, owner name and contact information, and ethanol then upload your logo. There are six business plan sections to choose from (Executive Summary, Company Description, Market Research, Product/Service Line, Marketing and Sales, Financial Projections), and essay on democracy quotations you can save and work on your file anytime you want. Ethanol To Acetic? The $100 Startup#39;s One-Page Business Plan. Empacho Seco? Looking for a no-fuss business plan template that gets straight to ethanol acid the point? The $100 Startup, a New York Times and Wall Street Journal best seller, offers the One-Page Business Plan, a simple form that asks several questions you can quickly answer to get up and running. This free business plan template covers everything from your business overview to case finances, marketing, goals and challenges.

Other resources that The $100 Startup offers include a one-page consulting business plan, one-page marketing plan, product launch guide and more. Additional reporting by Sara Angeles and to acetic acid Marci Martin. Ibank Barklays? Editor#39;s note: If you#39;re looking for acid information to case study help you with business plan services, use the questionnaire below to have our sister site provide you with information from ethanol, a variety of vendors for free. Jennifer Post graduated from Rowan University in 2012 with a Bachelor#39;s Degree in Journalism. Having worked in ibank barklays the food industry, print and ethanol to acetic acid online journalism, and marketing, she is now a freelance contributor for Business News Daily.

When she#39;s not working, you will find her exploring her current town of Cape May, NJ or binge watching Pretty Little Liars for the 700th time.

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Department of Biological Sciences. Aaron P. Mitchell, Department Head. Becki Campanaro, Assistant Department Head for Undergraduate Affairs. Undergraduate Office: Doherty Hall 1321. A major revolution is occurring in the field of biological sciences.

Biology is to acetic acid undergoing unprecedented technological advances in essay with biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, developmental biology, neuroscience and to acetic computational biology. Carnegie Mellon's Department of Biological Sciences is nationally recognized as one of the outstanding departments in empacho seco these areas. Advances in basic research are already being used to solve problems, not only in medicine and public health, but also in areas such as agriculture, forestry, mining, energy, and in industrial and pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. To Acetic! The department provides its students with an education that has both intellectual breadth and depth of exposure to modern research biology. V Georgia Ruling! This education can be used to gain employment immediately after graduation in government, industry or academic research laboratories, or to pursue graduate studies in a variety of areas such as science, medicine, public health, law, or business.

A degree in biological sciences provides excellent preparation for medical school or other graduate programs in the health professions. Ethanol Acid! These students are aided by the Carnegie Mellon Health Professions Program (HPP), an advisory and resource service for gregg v georgia all Carnegie Mellon students who are considering careers in the health care field. (See the HPP section in this catalog or www.cmu.edu/hpp for more information.) The department offers a Bachelor of Science (B.S.) degree in Biological Sciences. This program has a distinctive core curriculum that provides a foundation in to acetic acid biology, chemistry, computer science, mathematics, and physics. Empacho Seco! In addition to the core courses, the ethanol to acetic acid program includes six biology electives, free electives as well as humanities, social science and quotations fine arts electives.

With these electives, students can shape a degree program according to their own interests and to acetic career goals. For students who have an interest in a particular field of biology and wish to empacho seco, have a specialized focus, the ethanol department offers options in biochemistry, biophysics, cell biology, computational biology, developmental biology, genetics, molecular biology and neuroscience that provide the relevant training in empacho seco each area. The options are especially recommended for students who are considering graduate school in ethanol to acetic acid one of these areas. Empacho Seco! The B.S. degrees in Biological Sciences/Neuroscience Track and Neuroscience are available to those students who wish to pursue an in-depth study of neuroscience. In this exciting era that includes the influence of biology and the life sciences on many fields from medicine to law, the in-depth exposure to multiple disciplines provides opportunities for students to prepare for to acetic acid involvement at the forefront of emerging new fields, markets, and policy changes.

The Department of Biological Sciences at Carnegie Mellon is working at these new interfaces through interdisciplinary research and ibank barklays educational programs. Innovative interdisciplinary degrees which are offered by the department include the inter-college B.S. degrees in Computational Biology and Neuroscience as well as the unified B.S. Ethanol To Acetic Acid! degree in Biological Sciences and what is race relations act Psychology. Students also explore interdisciplinary studies through the Science and Humanities Scholars program, or pursue interests at the interface between the arts and sciences through the Bachelor of ethanol, Science and Arts (B.S.A.) degree program combining biological sciences with a discipline in the College of Fine Arts. A stand-alone Bachelor of of cell membrane, Arts (B.A.) degree is available for students who wish to expand their educational training into other fields. Many students choose to ethanol, broaden their education by pursuing minors and additional majors in ruling disciplines throughout the university, not just within the Mellon College of Science. One of the most important features of the Department of Biological Sciences is the opportunity for ethanol acid undergraduate students to interact with faculty. What Relations! Providing a solid foundation to ethanol to acetic, scientific practice is critical; therefore, the essay on democracy with department offers first-year students a variety of inquiry-based, hands-on courses that incorporate a wide range of topics and interests within Biological Sciences. These courses kick-start the transformation of science students to scientists.

We encourage our students to to acetic, get to know their faculty through one of these courses, or through mentored, independent research projects in the faculty laboratories. Our faculty members are prominent research scientists who also teach beginning and advanced courses. The upper level teaching laboratories are located in the same building as the faculty research laboratories and share scientific equipment. We encourage students to make themselves aware of the research areas of the faculty and to develop research projects with faculty. While such research is usually most important in the senior year, it may begin earlier in a student's undergraduate training. The department has an Honors Program in on democracy Research Biology to facilitate a more intensive involvement in research for eligible students. During the past four years, more than 80 percent of the ethanol acid undergraduate biology majors have worked with faculty on their research and, in some cases, have been co-authors of what relations, research papers and have given presentations at ethanol to acetic, national meetings. Since the fall of 2011, the Department of Biological Sciences has offered B.S. degrees in Biological Sciences as well as Computational Biology at Carnegie Mellon University in empacho seco Doha, Qatar. Students enrolled in either of these degree programs will also complete the requirements outlined below.

However, a limited number of required courses for the CMU-Qatar program are offered through a collaboration with the Weill Cornell Medical College in Qatar. For a listing of how the degree requirements are fulfilled for students enrolled in Doha, please consult the CMU-Qatar website (https://www.qatar.cmu.edu/curriculum-bs). Upon graduation recipients of the BS or BA degree in Biological Sciences will: Use the to acetic basic concepts and experimental, computational, and theoretical methods of the core fields of science, mathematics and technology. Gregg V Georgia Ruling! Use foundational knowledge from the natural sciences and mathematics for advanced work in the discipline. Understand and apply the scientific method. Apply disciplinary knowledge toward solving problems.

Use modern methods for finding and sharing current scientific information and primary literature. Convey information including scientific content in written and oral formats within Biological Sciences. To Acetic Acid! Work in multidisciplinary and culturally diverse teams. Demonstrate proper values and ethics within Biological Sciences, the University, and the larger scientific community. The Bachelor of Science (B.S.) in Biological Sciences is built around a core program and elective units as detailed in the following section. 1 Details on structure electives can be found in the Biological Sciences Electives section (see below). 2 15-112 Fundamentals of Programming and Computer Science or 15-110 Principles of Computing can substitute for 02-201 towards the completion of the acid Programming course requirement. 3 33-111 Physics I for Science Students may substitute for 33-121 towards completion of the Physics I requirement.

4 33-112 Physics II for Science Students may substitute for ruling 33-122 towards completion of the Physics II requirement. 5 Students who complete 09-107 with an A grade will be exempted from the requirement to take 09-106 Modern Chemistry II . Minimum number of units required for ethanol to acetic acid degree: 360. MCS Technical Breadth Requirements. Majors entering CMU and majoring in Biological Sciences (or affiliated majors) in the Fall of 2015 or beyond will fulfill the MCS Technical Breadth requirements as follows: Life Sciences: any courses in this category except for the 03-XXX courses (these can be counted as general bio electives towards your degree) Physical Sciences: 09-105 , 09-106 , 33-121 and essay quotations 33-122 Math/CS/Stats: 21-120 and ( 21-122 or 21-124 ) STEM Elective: will be filled by courses above or any STEM course from the approved list. The following specifications apply to Biological Sciences electives: At least 18 units must be at the 03-3xx level or above, exclusive of ethanol, 03-445 and gregg v georgia ruling 03-370 . Up to three interdisciplinary electives may count as biology electives. Up to 18 units of acid, 03-445 Undergraduate Research may count as general biology electives; a maximum of 36 units can count for the minimum units required for relations act graduation. Courses in biology taken through cross-registration or study abroad at another university may count as electives if prior permission is obtained from the Carnegie Mellon Department of Biological Sciences advisor. Interdisciplinary Electives Group. Options for the B.S. in Biological Sciences.

Students who wish to specialize in a particular area of biology can do so through a set of departmentally defined options. A student who completes the required biology electives for any option can have up to ethanol acid, two noted on his or her transcript. Options need not be declared. The elective courses required for case each of the options are listed below. Required Biology Electives: Any ONE of the following courses: Recommended Biology Electives: Required Biology Electives: Recommended Biology Electives:

Required Biology Electives: Any ONE of the ethanol to acetic acid following courses: Computational Biology Option. Required Biology Electives: Any ONE of the following courses: Recommended Biology Electives: Developmental Biology Option. Required Biology Electives: Recommended Biology Electives:

Required Biology Electives: 6 Minimum grade of B in essay on democracy with 03-330 or 03-220 required. Recommended Biology Electives: Molecular Biology Option. Required Biology Electives: Recommended Biology Electives:

Required Biology Electives: Any ONE of the following courses: 7 One of these courses must be completed at the Graduate Level (Complete either 03-762 or 03-763 ). B.S. Biological Sciences/Neuroscience Track. The Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences/Neuroscience Track provides an option for acid those Biological Sciences majors who are interested in an intensive curricular focus in what is race act neuroscience. The requirements of the Track are the to acetic acid same as those listed for the B.S. in Biological Sciences with the following changes to the biological sciences elective requirements: Plus three of the following electives: The Bachelor of empacho seco, Science in Neuroscience is listed in the Intercollege section of this catalog. It is a joint degree program offered between the Mellon College of ethanol to acetic, Science and the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences. Current MCS students interested in pursuing this degree should contact Dr.

Becki Campanaro (DH 1320). More information can also be found on the CMU Neuroscience website. B.S. Biological Sciences and study Psychology. This major is intended to reflect the interdisciplinary nature of current research in the fields of biology and to acetic psychology, as well as the national trend in some professions to seek individuals broadly trained in both the social and natural sciences. Note: Students entering from the Dietrich College of Humanities and Social Sciences will earn a Bachelor of Science in what is race relations Psychology and Biological Sciences. Students in the Mellon College of Science will earn a Bachelor of Science in Biological Sciences and Psychology. Acid! Students in the joint Science and Humanities Scholars (SHS) program can complete the SHS educational core and choose either departmental order for their diploma.

Depending on a student's home college (DC or MCS), General Education (GenEd) requirements will be different. GenEd requirements for DC and MCS are found on their respective Catalog pages. 1 Please see description and requirements for electives under the empacho seco B.S. in Biological Sciences section of this Catalog. 2 MCS students must also complete 33-122 Physics II for ethanol to acetic Biological Sciences Chemistry Students . * Excluding 85-261 Abnormal Psychology. Additional Advanced Elective 9 units. Additional Laboratory or Research Methods 9-12 units. Minimum number of units required for degree: 360.

The Department of Biological Sciences offers a Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) degree that is intended for students who wish to combine their interest in science with their interest(s) in other discipline(s) across campus. The requirements for the B.A. degree are distributed as follows: 8 Please see description and requirements for electives under the B.S. in Biological Sciences section of empacho seco, this Catalog. 9 Students who complete 09-107 with an A grade will be exempted from the requirement to take 09-106 Modern Chemistry II . 10 15-112 Fundamentals of Programming and Computer Science or 15-110 Principles of Computing can substitute for 02-201 towards completion of the Programming course requirement. 11 33-111 Physics I for Science Students can substitute for 33-121 Physics I for Science Students towards completion of the Physics I requirement. 12 33-112 Physics II for Science Students can substitute for 33-122 Physics II for Biological Sciences Chemistry Students towards completion of the Physics II requirement. 360 Minimum number of units required for degree: All university students are eligible to pursue a minor in biological sciences in to acetic conjunction with a major in any other department in the university. A minimum of six biological sciences courses (and two chemistry prerequisites) must be completed to what, fulfill the to acetic minor in biological sciences.

The curriculum includes four required courses and preeclampsia two elective courses as specified below. To Acetic Acid! Units awarded for undergraduate research are not applicable to elective courses. Courses taken in other departments or colleges will be considered on an individual basis. Courses for essay on democracy the Minor in Biological Sciences. 73 Minimum number of units required for ethanol to acetic acid the Minor in Biological Sciences: The curriculum within the Neuroscience minor will allow students from various disciplines to case, gain fundamental knowledge of neuroscience concepts. The interdisciplinary nature of the acid coursework echoes the nature of the field itself; students will select courses from the natural, social, and computer sciences. Neuroscientists not only require foundational knowledge of molecular, cellular, and systems neuroscience, but they should also understand the behavioral significance and appreciate how computational work and imaging techniques can aid in clarifying normal and abnormal functioning of these fundamental processes. Students pursuing the minor in Neuroscience will: Acquire foundational knowledge of the gregg ruling basic biological foundations of the nervous system, from the ethanol cellular through systems levels. Understand the effects of basic neurological function on behavior, including cognition.

Gain an appreciation of the interdisciplinary nature of the field of neuroscience. NOTE: Because the curriculum within this minor may overlap with some degree requirements, no more than 2 courses fulfilling Neuroscience Minor requirements may count towards the empacho seco requirements of a students major or other minor. Minimum units required for Neuroscience minor 63. Three courses, including at least 1 from each of the following categories: * NOTE: 85-213 may be used instead of 85-211 when offered. Students who entered CMU in Fall 2016 and earlier may pursue the to acetic Intercollege Bachelor of Science in Computational Biology joint program between the Mellon College of empacho seco, Sciences and the School of Computer Science. Degree requirements for this program can be found in the 2016-2017 catalog. Acid! Interested students should contact Dr.

Becki Campanaro for more information. Masters Degree in Computational Biology. Students who are interested in more advanced training in this emerging field may want to consider the Master of ibank barklays, Science Program in to acetic acid Computational Biology. For more information about this program, contact the Biological Sciences Graduate Programs Office. Honors Program in Research Biology. The departmental Honors Program offers an empacho seco, opportunity to become extensively involved in research. The program requires students to conduct an independent project and to to acetic, prepare a formal thesis that is essay on democracy written and defended in the senior year. This program does not preclude a student from completing any of the ethanol acid options within the department nor is ibank barklays it the only way in which students can participate in undergraduate research, although it is excellent preparation for graduate studies.

Transfer credit for to acetic acid Modern Biology. Students wishing to transfer credit for 03-121 Modern Biology from another institution must meet the following requirements: The course in preeclampsia study question should have at least an 80% match in topics with 03-121 . Topics in to acetic 03-121 cover the genetic, molecular, cellular, developmental, and evolutionary mechanisms that underlie biological processes and include: Cell theory; Cell chemistry; Cell structure; Function and structure of proteins, DNA, RNA, lipids and carbohydrates; Cell respiration and fermentation; The cell cycle; Cell-cell interactions and communication; Transcription; Translation; RNA processing in Eukaryotes; DNA replication; DNA mutation and repair; Meiosis; Mitosis; and Regulation of quotations, Gene Expression. This information is sometimes available in the course description, but more detail is often found in a course syllabus. The textbook used in the transfer course should be at a comparable level to to acetic, S. Freeman (2010) Biological Science, Vol. On Democracy Quotations! 1 (The Cell, Genetics, and Development), Fourth Edition, Pearson Benjamin Cummings, ISBN 0-321-61347-3.

Introductory level courses that focus on other biology areas (i.e. anatomy, physiology, ecology, evolution, and/or development) will not be accepted for 03-121 credit. These courses may receive credit for a general biology elective. Students should contact their departmental academic advisor for the transfer credit approval process in their college. Each Carnegie Mellon course number begins with a two-digit prefix which designates the department offering the ethanol course (76-xxx courses are offered by the Department of English, etc.). Although each department maintains its own course numbering practices, typically the first digit after the prefix indicates the class level: xx-1xx courses are freshmen-level, xx-2xx courses are sophomore level, etc. Empacho Seco! xx-6xx courses may be either undergraduate senior-level or graduate-level, depending on ethanol to acetic the department. Empacho Seco! xx-7xx courses and higher are graduate-level.

Please consult the Schedule of Classes each semester for course offerings and for any necessary pre-requisites or co-requisites. Missing Course Description - please contact the teaching department. 03-051 Study Abroad Spring. Missing Course Description - please contact the teaching department. 03-101 Biological Sciences First Year Seminars Fall and Spring: 3 units. Various seminars are offered that introduce first-year students to current topics of modern biology. These are mini courses that meet for half a semester.

Topics have included: Proteins in Disease, Genes and ethanol Diseases, Pills and ibank barklays Poisons, Curing Cancer, Organ Transplantation Blood Substitutes, and Prions - Mad Cows and to acetic Englishman. Courses restricted to first year students in the Mellon College of Science. 03-115 Phage Genomics Research Fall: 6 units. This course will provide an introduction to biological investigation through a research project in bacteriophage genomics. Genomics combines experimental and computational approaches for large-scale analysis of the biological information contained in DNA sequences. The ability to analyze the complete DNA of any organism has revolutionized modern genetics and is influencing many areas of ibank barklays, biology and medicine. The most abundant biological entities are bacteriophages (viruses that infect bacteria). Their enormous diversity and number make bacteriophages important models for the study of gene structure, function and ethanol to acetic regulation, population genetics and evolution. In addition they are the source of important tools in relations biotechnology. The research goals of this course will be to identify new bacteriophage species and incorporate them into a comparative genomic study to to acetic, better understand the genetic organization and case evolution of ethanol to acetic acid, these organisms.

While accomplishing these goals students will develop an understanding of the research process, including the ability to essay with, design experiments and interpret novel data. Fall semester: Samples will be collected in the field. From these samples students will identify and purify bacteriophages. The bacteriophages will be characterized structurally by electron microscopy, and their DNA will be purified and sequenced. Spring Semester: The DNA sequences will be analyzed with bioinformatic tools and compared with those of phages isolated at other locations to ethanol to acetic acid, identify genes, their organization, the differences that may characterize different phage groups, and how these have arisen during evolution. Prerequisite: 03-115 03-121 Modern Biology All Semesters: 9 units. This is an quotations, introductory course that provides the basis for further studies in acid biochemistry, cell biology, genetics and molecular biology. This course emphasizes the ibank barklays chemical principles underlying biological processes and cell structures as well as the analysis of genetics and heredity from a molecular perspective.

This is the introductory biology course for all science and non-science majors. This laboratory is designed to to acetic, introduce students to modern concepts in the biological sciences. The experiments illustrate many of the principles covered in 03-121 and empacho seco 03-230. Experimentation using living organisms and/or their tissues, cells or molecules is an essential component of this course. 03-125 Evolution Fall: 9 units.

Evolutionary theory is the unifying principle of biology. A good comprehension of the concepts that underlie this theory is therefore important to properly appreciate and understand any biological process. This course is designed for students intending to continue studies in biology so that they may gain an understanding of the evolutionary framework in ethanol to acetic their more advanced courses, and also non-biology majors who want to extend their knowledge of biology at an introductory level. Essay On Democracy With Quotations! The lectures will include (i) an examination of the acid history and empacho seco development of evolutionary theory, (ii) consideration of ethanol to acetic acid, some of the facts that have established the theory, (iii) an introduction to the concepts of phylogenetics, (iv) discussion of the patterns and ibank barklays mechanism that lead to ethanol, the diversity and origins of the groups of life, (v) an introduction to genetics and population genetic theory, and (vi) discussion of and how this applies to natural selection and speciation. The course will also include some more specialist topics, including evolution of development, sexual selection, evolutionary applications to medicine and conservation biology, and genome evolution. Assessment will be based on several in-class exams and quizzes, homework assignments, a written term paper, and a final exam. 03-126 Cellular Response to the Environment Spring: 4 units. This laboratory course provides a multifaceted view of the cell, with the opportunity for ibank barklays new discovery, through microscopic imaging of ethanol, a cell's response to environmental changes. We will identify yeast gene products that undergo changes in expression or subcellular localization after simple environmental perturbations or drug treatments. Students will be trained in basic molecular biological methods, including recombinant DNA manipulation, and basics of functional genomic resources.

Enrollment is limited to first-year students in MCS. Special permission required. 03-127 How Biological Experiments Work - A Project Course Spring: 9 units. The goal of this course is to provide an understanding of the nuts and bolts of biological experimentation. We will discuss the molecular principles behind the wide variety of experiments that were used to is race relations act, discover how cells work. To Acetic Acid! The first half of the class will be a lecture based discussion of key experimental methods used in biological research. The second half of the class will be dedicated to group projects that create story boards to explain in molecular terms how these experiments work. The story boards will be used by modelers at v georgia ruling, the Pittsburgh Supercomputing Center to generate high-end animations of these experimental processes. This will prepare students for working in research labs and biology courses beyond Modern Biology. Ethanol! This course is limited to first, second, and third year students. Prerequisites: 03-121 or 03-151 03-131 Genes Drugs Diseases Fall: 9 units.

The central goals of this course are to explore the genetic basis of diseases and to explain the molecular basis of action for various drugs used to treat diseases. The first part of the ibank barklays course provides the ethanol to acetic student with sufficient background to understand the biological basis of drug action with emphasis on retroviral inhibitors. Gregg! The usefulness of genetic engineering in ethanol acid the production of empacho seco, proteins for drug discovery is then explored. To Acetic! This is followed by an overview of DNA replication, transcription, and protein synthesis, with an emphasis on the inhibitory action of antibiotics on prokaryotic processes. The fundamental properties of carbohydrates, lipids, and ibank barklays membranes are discussed at a level to acid, develop an understanding of penicillin and the treatment of elevated cholesterol levels. Signaling processes in eukaryotic cells is discussed with reference to cancer treatment and empacho seco pain management. The treatment of disease using antibody, and the treatment of inappropriate immune responses (allergy) is also discussed.

The course ends with a discussion of inheritance and genetic deficiencies that give rise to ethanol to acetic acid, disease. This course will focus on ibank barklays the genetics, cell biology, and developmental biology behind human biology and human disease, as well as the growing opportunities for novel therapeutic options that basic science delivers. This is a topics based course, with topics chosen to cover aspects of human biology and health that students are likely to encounter in their daily lives such as cancer, stem cells, genome sequencing, and ethanol to acetic acid the human microbiota. Membrane! Students will explore these topics from both a basic science and a human health perspective. This course will explore the ethanol to acetic acid biological basis of several neurological and neuropsychiatric diseases, with an on democracy, emphasis on medical diagnostic tools and techniques. Ethanol To Acetic Acid! It will include discussions of the anatomical basis of neurological diseases as well as recent research into understanding the mechanisms of study, disease. This course is intended to broaden students' understanding of how diseases are diagnosed and acid studied. Structure Of Cell Membrane! Students will also learn how basic neurological and psychiatric evaluations are conducted and gain proficiency in these evaluation techniques. We will begin with a discussion of clinical neuroanatomy to ethanol, serve as a basis for understanding brain structures and functional alterations in ruling a variety of developmental, degenerative, neurological, and psychiatric disorders.

Specific diseases covered may vary from ethanol year to year. This course will cover in some depth, the basics of the structure and function of the major biomolecules in the cell, cellular structure and function, genetic replication, transmission and expression of essay quotations, biological information, and cell-cell interactions. While similar core topics will be covered in to acetic acid all sections of Modern Biology, this section will be offered at quotations, an accelerated pace, requiring more independent learning. The extra class time this pacing provides will allow the exploration of the molecular basis of life to to acetic acid, help students integrate and apply the core principles of biology covered in the course. THIS SECTION IS RESERVED FOR INCOMING FIRST-YEAR MCS STUDENTS. This course provides a depth-first approach to empacho seco, understanding neuroscience. We will begin with a clinical focus on neuroanatomy, introducing students to some basic neurological diagnostic techniques. We will then explore the biological basis of neuronal function and link the acid function of is race, individual neurons to a broader context of neural systems. Ethanol To Acetic! This will be done in the context of primary literature.

Students who complete this course will therefore have an understanding of research methods and be prepared to evaluate scientific literature. Is Race! The course will have a strong focus on ethanol acid the biological and structure cellular basis of neuronal excitability and also give students significant, in depth exposure to acid, the function of synapses and their plasticity. Finally, the course will give students an in depth look at sensory and/or motor systems by focusing on one system in particular, rather than providing a broad overview of many different sensory and motor systems. 03-201 Undergraduate Colloquium for Sophomores Fall. The purpose of this seminar series is to gregg, update biology undergraduates about university and departmental functions, seminars, etc. that are pertinent or useful. In addition, research talks by to acetic acid, faculty and undergraduates will be used to introduce students to the research being conducted in v georgia faculty laboratories. Additional topics may include graduate and medical school applications, career options, topics in the press, and important scientific discoveries. 03-202 Undergraduate Colloquium for Sophomores Spring. Missing Course Description - please contact the ethanol to acetic acid teaching department.

03-206 Biomedical Engineering Laboratory Fall and with Spring: 9 units. This laboratory course is designed to provide students with the ability to make measurements on acid and interpret data from living systems. Study! The experimental modules reinforce concepts from 42-101 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering and expose students to four areas of biomedical engineering: biomedical signal and image processing, biomaterials, biomechanics, and cellular and molecular biotechnology. Several cross-cutting modules are included as well. The course includes weekly lectures to complement the acid experimental component. Prerequisites: 42-101 Introduction to Biomedical Engineering and 03-121 Modern Biology. V Georgia! Priority for enrollment will be given to students who have declared the Additional Major in ethanol Biomedical Engineering. Notes: This course number is v georgia reserved for students registered with the HPP program that, are CIT majors. If you require a biology lab for pre-health admissions requirements, please contact Dr.

Conrad Zapanta and Dr. Maggie Braun (in the same email) for permission to register for 03-206 instead of 42-203. Priority for enrollment will be given to ethanol to acetic acid, students who have declared the Additional Major in Biomedical Engineering. Prerequisites: (03-151 or 03-121) and 42-101 03-210 Independent Study Fall and Spring. Students will read papers from the original literature under the direction of empacho seco, a faculty member. Ethanol To Acetic! Students will be required to demonstrate mastery of the readings by discussions with the sponsoring faculty member, oral presentations, or writing of one or more papers summarizing and extending the membrane information in acid the readings.

If appropriate, students may write a program(s) to empacho seco, satisfy this last requirement. A student may take this course only once. This is to acetic a mini format course. Special permission required. 03-220 Genetics Fall: 9 units. The mechanisms of transmission of inherited traits in viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants and essay quotations animals are discussed. Molecular mechanisms of gene expression and gene regulation are analyzed. Recombinant DNA and its applications in genetic analysis, biotechnology, forensics, agriculture, medicine, and the pharmaceutical industry are presented.

Special topics in human genetics are considered, such as the genetics of cancer. Principles and methods for the study of developmental genetics, population genetics and complex traits are also introduced. Prerequisites: 03-151 or 03-121 03-230 Intro to Mammalian Physiology Spring: 9 units. This course will survey the major organ systems, with an emphasis on cellular physiology and biochemistry. Current ideas of research and scientific controversy will also be presented. This course is intended to broaden students' exposure to cellular processes in the context of complex organ systems. 03-231 Biochemistry I Spring: 9 units. This course provides an introduction to to acetic, molecules and processes found in relations living systems.

Amino acids, sugars, lipids and nucleotides and ethanol their corresponding higher structures, the structure proteins, polysaccharides, membranes and nucleic acids are studied. Ethanol! Kinetics and mechanisms of enzymes as well as elementary metabolic cycles and the energetics of biological systems are discussed. 03-232 Biochemistry I Spring: 9 units. This course provides an introduction to the application of biochemistry to biotechnology. The functional properties of amino acids, nucleotides, lipids, and sugars are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the study structural and thermodynamic aspects of the organization of these molecules into higher-order structures, such as proteins, nucleic acids, and membranes.

The kinetics and thermodynamics of protein-ligand interactions are discussed for non-cooperative, cooperative, and allosteric binding events. Ethanol Acid! The use of gregg ruling, mechanistic and kinetic information in enzyme characterization and drug discovery are discussed. Ethanol To Acetic Acid! Topics pertinent to biotechnology include: antibody production and use, energy production in biochemical systems, expression of recombinant proteins, and methods of protein purification and characterization. The course is an alternate to 03-231. 03-250 Introduction to Computational Biology Spring: 12 units. This class provides a general introduction to computational tools for biology.

The course is divided into two modules, which may be taken individually as courses 03-251/02-251 and 03-252/02-252. Module 1 covers computational molecular biology/genomics. Structure Of Cell Membrane! It examines important sources of biological data, how they are archived and made available to researchers, and to acetic what computational tools are available to use them effectively in v georgia research. In the process, it covers basic concepts in statistics, mathematics, and computer science needed to effectively use these resources and understand their results. Specific topics covered include sequence data, searching and alignment, structural data, genome sequencing, genome analysis, genetic variation, gene and acid protein expression, and biological networks and pathways. And Function! Module 2 covers computational cell biology, including biological modeling and image analysis. Ethanol To Acetic! It includes homeworks requiring use or modification of and function, Matlab scripts. The modeling component includes computer models of population dynamics, biochemical kinetics, cell pathways, neuron behavior, and stochastic simulations.

The imaging component includes basics of machine vision, morphological image analysis, image classification and acid image-derived models. Membrane! Lectures and examinations are joint with 02-250 but recitations are separate. Recitations for ethanol to acetic acid this course are intended primarily for biological sciences or biomedical engineering majors at the undergraduate or graduate level who have had little or no prior experience with computer science or programming. Students may not take both 03-250/02-250 and either 03-251/02-251 or 03-252/02-252 for essay on democracy credit. Acid! Prerequisite: 03-121 or permission of the instructors. 03-251 Introduction to empacho seco, Computational Molecular Biology Spring: 6 units. This class provides a general introduction to computational tools for biology with specific emphasis on molecular biology and ethanol genomics. Along with 03-252, it makes up one half of the full Introduction to Computational Biology, 03-250, although either half can be taken individually.

03-251 will examine important sources of biological data, how they are archived and made available to researchers, and what computational tools are available to use them effectively in research. In the gregg ruling process, it will cover basic concepts in statistics, mathematics, and acid computer science needed to effectively use these resources and understand their results. Gregg V Georgia! Specific topics to be covered include sequence data, searching and alignment, structural data, genome sequencing, genome analysis, genetic variation, gene and protein expression, and biological networks and pathways. Lectures and examinations are joint with 02-251 but recitations are separate. Recitations for this course are intended primarily for biological sciences or biomedical engineering majors at the undergraduate or graduate level who have had little or no prior experience with computer science or programming. Ethanol! Students may not take both 03-251/02-251 and case 03-250/02-250 for credit.

Prerequisite: 03-121 or permission of the instructor. Prerequisites: 03-121 or 03-151 03-252 Introduction to Computational Cell Biology Spring: 6 units. This course presents an overview of important modeling and image analysis applications of computers to solve problems in cell biology. Along with 03-251, it makes up one half of the full Introduction to Computational Biology, 03-250, although either half can be taken individually. Major topics covered are computer models of population dynamics, biochemical kinetics, cell pathways, neuron behavior, and stochastic simulations. The imaging component includes basics of machine vision, morphological image analysis, image classification and image-derived models. It includes homeworks requiring use or modification of Matlab scripts. Lectures and examinations are joint with 02-252 but recitations are separate. Recitations for this course are intended primarily for biological sciences or biomedical engineering majors at the undergraduate or graduate level who have had little or no prior experience with computer science or programming. Students may not take both 03-252/02-252 and ethanol to acetic 03-250/02-250 for credit.

Prerequisite: 03-121 or permission of the instructor. Prerequisites: 03-121 or 03-151 03-301 Undergraduate Colloquium for Juniors Fall. The purpose of v georgia ruling, this seminar series is to update biology undergraduates about university and departmental functions, seminars, etc. that are pertinent or useful. In addition, research talks by faculty and undergraduates will be used to introduce students to ethanol to acetic acid, the research being conducted in faculty laboratories. Additional topics may include graduate and medical school applications, career options, topics in the press, and important scientific discoveries.

03-302 Undergraduate Colloquium for Juniors Spring. Missing Course Description - please contact the teaching department. 03-320 Cell Biology Fall: 9 units. This course provides descriptive information and mechanistic detail concerning key cellular processes in six areas: membrane function, protein targeting, signaling, cytoskeleton, cell division, and cell interaction. An attempt is made to introduce the methodology that was used to ibank barklays, obtain this information and to discuss how our understanding of these processes relates to the treatment of human disease. Prerequisites: (03-120 or 03-121 or 03-151) and to acetic acid (03-232 or 03-233 or 03-231) This course will introduce central concepts of evolutionary theory, e.g. drift, selection, phylogenetics and an introduction into case, how genomes are sequenced, assembled and annoted. This will require a basic undertsanding of genetics. Course topics will then unify these two areas of biology to ethanol to acetic acid, examine process by which genomes evolve and how this in structure of cell membrane turn has lead to the diversity of animal pheonotypes. This will include discussion of how genomes control embryonic development, how gene regulation has evolved (focusing on cis regulatory evolution and ethanol acid non-coding RNA regulatory evolution) and the concept of gene regulatory network evolution.

Concepts and specific examples will come through lectures, selected readings from advanced texts and primary literature. Prerequisites: 03-231 or 03-232 03-327 Phylogenetics Intermittent: 9 units. An advanced introduction to on democracy with quotations, theory and practice of phylogenetic analysis (evolutionary tree reconstruction), with a focus on molecular evolution. Basic concepts will be introduced in the context of a historical survey of phylogeny reconstruction. A comprehensive introduction to phylogenetic methods will be presented, including data selection, multiple sequence alignment, character state data versus distance matrices, sequence evolution models, and the four major approaches to phylogeny reconstruction: Parsimony, Distance matrix, Maximum likelihood, and ethanol to acetic Bayesian analysis. Sources of error and methods for assessing the reliability of phylogenetic inference will be discussed. We will cover additional topics as time allows, such as phylogenetic hypothesis testing, genome scale approaches, the interface between phylogenetics and population genetics, gene tree reconciliation, horizontal gene transfer, and phylogenetic networks. Course Website: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ durand/Phylogenetics/ 03-330 Genetics Intermittent: 9 units. The mechanisms of transmission of preeclampsia case, inherited traits in viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants and acid animals are discussed. Molecular mechanisms of gene expression and gene regulation are analyzed.

Recombinant DNA and its applications in genetic analysis, biotechnology, forensics, agriculture, medicine, and the pharmaceutical industry are presented. Special topics in human genetics are considered, such as the genetics of cancer. Ibank Barklays! Principles and methods for the study of developmental genetics, population genetics and complex traits are also introduced. Prerequisites: 03-151 or 03-121 03-342 Introduction to Biological Laboratory Practices Fall: 1 unit. This course is designed for to acetic acid students in the BS in Computational Biology degree program. It is a required co-requisite for 03-343, Experimental Genetics and Molecular Biology and is designed to be an introduction to basic laboratory practices. The course will introduce biological and chemical safety training and basic laboratory practices. Techniques of solution preparation and empacho seco titration, pipetting, UV/VIS spectroscopy, and quantitation of biological compounds will be covered.

03-343 Experimental Techniques in Molecular Biology Fall: 12 units. This laboratory course is ethanol acid designed to teach experimental methods of modern biology. Experiments in microbial genetics, molecular biology and eukaryotic genetics are performed. What Is Race Relations! Emphasis is placed on understanding and applying the biological principles of each experiment. This course is ethanol to acetic designed to be taken during the junior year and is intended to prepare students for gregg v georgia ruling undergraduate research. To Acetic Acid! Experimentation using living organisms and/or their tissues, cells or molecules is an essential component of this course. This course is study designed to be taken as a sequel to 03-343.

Experiments cover a variety of methods for investigating the structure and function of biological molecules. To Acetic! Experimental methods with proteins, enzyme kinetics, lipids, spectroscopy, and isolation and quantization of biological molecules are covered. During several experiments, students design their own projects. Is Race! Experimentation using living organisms and/or their tissues, cells or molecules is an essential component of ethanol, this course. 03-345 Experimental Cell and Developmental Biology Spring: 12 units. This laboratory is on democracy with designed to teach concepts and experimental methods in cell and developmental biology. Students work with a variety of ethanol acid, organisms to examine how cells traverse development from what rapidly dividing, undifferentiated cells, through cell commitment and the establishment of spatial and temporal patterns of gene expression, to the specific characteristics and responses of terminally differentiated cells. The course makes extensive use of video microscopy with phase contrast, DIC and fluorescence microscopes. Biochemical, immunological and molecular biological techniques are used to probe the molecules and processes of cells undergoing development. Experimentation using living organisms and/or their tissues, cells or molecules is an essential component of this course.

03-346 Experimental Neuroscience Intermittent: 12 units. This laboratory is designed to teach concepts and experimental methods in neurobiology. Students work with a variety of organisms to to acetic, study the anatomy, function, and essay development of the nervous system. Immunological, molecular, biochemical, and ethanol acid ballistic labeling techniques are used to gregg v georgia, examine the gene expression and structure in the mature and to acetic acid developing nervous system. Students study the function of neurons through neurophysiological techniques in ibank barklays invertebrates and computer simulation. This course makes extensive use of video microscopy and phase contrast, DIC, and fluorescence microscopes. Prerequisites: (03-320 or 03-240) and ethanol acid 03-362 and 03-343 03-350 Developmental Biology Spring: 9 units. How does a complex, multicellular organism arise from a single cell? How do cells with identical genomes acquire distinctive properties? What are the medical consequences of abnormal embryonic development?

How does regeneration occur? How has evolution modified developmental programs to produce different body plans? These are some of the central questions in the field of developmental biology. This course serves as an introduction to current concepts and ibank barklays experimental approaches in this rapidly advancing field. Ethanol Acid! Topics in the course include genomics, differential gene expression, cell signaling, cell movements, tissue morphogenesis, stem cells, human development, and regeneration. The course examines the genes and signaling pathways that control development and the role that mis-regulation of these pathways plays in case study human disease. Prerequisites: 03-320 or 03-240. 03-355 Stem Cell Engineering Spring: 9 units.

This course is offered only at CMU's campus in Qatar. This course covers the progress of stem cell research and to acetic acid its application to tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. The students will learn about the different types of structure, stem cells, the biochemical stimuli that are responsible for regulating stem cell differentiation and techniques involved in the culture of stem cells. This subject will also highlight the development of various biomaterials that are used as biological substitutes in regenerative therapy. Current and emergent stem cell technologies in selected applications of tissue engineering in bone, skin and vascular tissues will be emphasized. The course will be delivered through problem-based learning where students are expected to participate in discussions, perform literature search, present their findings through presentations and written reports on selected topics.

The class is ethanol acid designed for undergraduates with a strong interest in stem cell biology and empacho seco tissue engineering, and acid the desire to actively contribute to discussions in v georgia ruling the class. 03-362 Cellular Neuroscience Fall: 9 units. Modern neuroscience is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to understand the ethanol to acetic acid function of the ibank barklays brain and nervous system. This course provides a comprehensive survey of cellular and molecular neuroscience ranging from molecules to simple neural circuits. Topics covered will include the properties of biological membranes, the electrical properties of neurons, neural communication and synaptic transmission, mechanisms of brain plasticity and the analysis of simple neural circuits. In addition to providing information the ethanol acid lectures will describe how discoveries were made and empacho seco will develop students' abilities to design experiments and interpret data. Prerequisites: 03-320 or 03-240 or 42-202 or 85-219 or 03-161 03-363 Systems Neuroscience Spring: 9 units. Modern neuroscience is an ethanol to acetic, interdisciplinary field that seeks to understand the ibank barklays function of the brain and nervous system. To Acetic! This course provides a comprehensive survey of ibank barklays, systems neuroscience, a rapidly growing scientific field that seeks to ethanol, link the structure and function of brain circuitry to perception and behavior. This course will explore brain systems through a combination of classical, Nobel prize-winning data and cutting edge primary literature.

Topics will include sensory systems, motor function, animal behavior and human behavior in health and disease. Lectures will provide fundamental information as well as a detailed understanding of experimental designs that enabled discoveries. Finally, students will learn to interpret and critique the diverse and multimodal data that drives systems neuroscience. Prerequisites: 42-202 or 85-219 or 03-161 or 03-240 or 03-320 03-364 Developmental Neuroscience Fall: 9 units. This course examines the principles that govern the developmental assembly of empacho seco, a complex nervous system. Topics range from the earliest steps of induction of neural tissue and birth of neurons to ethanol acid, the plasticity within developing circuits and empacho seco the development of behavior. By the end of this course students should be able to describe the major steps in neural development and to interpret key experiments using vertebrate and invertebrate models have helped to to acetic, elucidate these steps. Membrane! This course is taught on the University of Pittsburgh campus by faculty from Carnegie Mellon and Pitt. Prerequisites: 03-363 or 03-362 or 03-240. 03-365 Neural Correlates of Learning and Memory Spring: 9 units.

This course will examine the ethanol acid biological substrates of learning, memory, and behavioral adaptation. The focus will be on ruling addressing how neural circuits change during new skill acquisition and adapt to variations in the environment. An introduction to experience-dependent changes in to acetic acid neural structure and function, in addition to behavioral learning paradigms, will be provided. Then we will consider the ways in which specific changes in relations act biological substrates give rise to the emergent properties that drive behavioral adaptation, followed by in depth coverage of deciphering which biological substrates constitute a lasting memory trace. Finally, the concept of age-dependent learning will be examined.

Concepts and specific examples will come through reading of primary literature and ethanol to acetic acid selected readings from advanced texts. Prerequisites: 03-320 or 03-161 or 85-219 or 03-240. 03-366 Biochemistry of the Brain Fall: 9 units. This course is designed to give students a comprehensive understanding of the and function membrane major neurotransmitter systems in ethanol to acetic acid the brain. Membrane! Students will explore qualitative and quantitative approaches to understanding how various neurotransmitters function as well as how they are modulated by endogenous and exogenous agents. The qualitative exploration will include basic principles of to acetic acid, neural communication, signal transduction and second messenger systems, main classes of neurotransmitters, and preeclampsia case study the effects of medications and drugs of abuse. Quantitatively, we will explore the kinetics of neurotransmitter binding, affinity of different receptors for their neurotransmitters, and apply concepts of competitive, uncompetitive, and mixed inhibition to understanding the acid effects of exogenous agonists and antagonists on these receptors. Students will learn how these qualitative and quantitative biochemical processes affect the endocrine system, neuroinflammatory responses, addictive behaviors, and neurotoxic or degenerative conditions.

Course Website: http://www.cmu.edu/bio/undergrad/courses/index.html 03-370 Principles of Biotechnology Spring: 9 units. This course is intended to provide an ibank barklays, introduction to a set of core areas important for understanding and managing biotechnology business. Ethanol To Acetic Acid! Essentially, the focus of the course will be the basics of the case study biotechnology entrepreneurial process and a deep background on biotechnology enabled products. The objective is to provide the background for management-level personnel to make decisions based on ethanol knowledge of on democracy, contemporary biotechnologies and the legal and to acetic acid regulatory environment. Because it is impossible to be comprehensive with regard to all applications, the ibank barklays goal is to provide students with sufficient familiarity with current biotechnology and with a framework for assessing bio-related business questions that they may encounter in ethanol to acetic the future through a combination of independent research, assessment of opportunities and pitfalls, and historical comparisons. What Is Race Act! NOTE: This course CANNOT be counted towards the advanced biology electives for any major or minor in Biological Sciences. 03-380 Virology Fall: 9 units. The concepts and methods of virology are covered, with emphasis on animal viruses, within the framework of cell biology, genetics, molecular biology, immunology, pathology, and epidemiology. The strategies that a wide variety of different DNA and RNA viruses, including some new and emerging ones, use to replicate and express their genomes during infection of host cells will be examined in some detail. The effects that viruses inflict on these cells will also be examined, as will some of the host cell responses generated by such virus-cell interactions, including interferon induction, the antiviral response generated by interferon, and oncogenic transformation.

In addition, anoverview of ethanol to acetic, procedures used for prevention and treatment of empacho seco, viral diseases via vaccinesand antiviral drugs, respectively, will be presented, as will a brief discussion of viroids and prions, and the characteristics of these agents which distinguish them from viruses. 03-390 Molecular and Cellular Immunology Spring: 9 units. This course offers the student a comprehensive view of modern immunology at the molecular and cellular level. To Acetic Acid! The first half of the course presents the fundamentals of immunology, beginning with innate immunity, followed by a discussion of the ibank barklays structure and function of important molecules in the immune system, such as antibodies, major histocompatibility antigens, complement, and the T-cell receptor. Ethanol To Acetic Acid! This portion of the course is concluded with a discussion of the gregg v georgia ruling development and function of the cellular immune response. The second half of the acid course is focused on applied immunology and discusses hypersensitivity, autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies, tumor immunology, infectious disease, and transplantation immunology. What Is Race Relations! Presentations at the end of the course provide an opportunity for the student to ethanol to acetic, explore additional topics in v georgia ruling contemporary immunology. Prerequisites: (03-232 or 03-231) and (03-320 or 03-240) 03-391 Microbiology Spring: 9 units. The course provides introductory level microbial science and molecular biology that is aimed for to acetic acid students from all disciplines of case, natural science. It covers microbiology, genetics, genomics, as well as bacterial, fungal, and protozoan pathogenesis.

Topics include: the human microbiome, genome sequencing, gene transfer across species, virulence, and drug resistance. Prerequisites: 03-231 or 03-232 03-392 Microbiology Laboratory Intermittent: 6 units. This is an upper level biology course for ethanol to acetic acid students who have taken or are currently taking the Microbiology course and are interested in what relations laboratory experience in microbiology. It is designed with the recommendations of the ethanol to acetic American Society for Microbiology for a student laboratory course in mind in order to what is race act, introduce the student to a broad spectrum of techniques in microbiology. You will learn the skills needed to perform experiments that help to differentiate various types of microbes, examine antimicrobial and acid antibiotic sensitivity and resistance, and begin to explore microbial diversity.

Finally, you will develop an understanding of the theory behind the techniques you use and will be given the opportunity to further develop your skills in the process of experimental design. THIS COURSE WILL BE OFFERED EVERY OTHER SPRING, BEGINNING IN THE SPRING 2017 (NOT offered spring 2016). 03-401 Undergraduate Colloquium for Seniors Fall. The purpose of this seminar series is to empacho seco, update biology undergraduates about university and departmental functions, seminars, etc. that are pertinent or useful. In addition, research talks by faculty and undergraduates will be used to introduce students to the research being conducted in faculty laboratories. Additional topics may include graduate and ethanol to acetic medical school applications, career options, topics in on democracy with quotations the press, and important scientific discoveries. 03-402 Undergraduate Colloquium for ethanol Seniors Spring. Missing Course Description - please contact the teaching department. 03-409 Special Topics Intermittent: 9 units. Note: This class is available only on the Qatar campus.

This course covers the progress of stem cell research and its application to tissue engineering and regenerative therapy. This is an advanced Biology elective. The students will learn about the different types of stem cells, the biochemical stimuli that are responsible for regulating stem cell differentiation and case techniques involved in ethanol the culture of ibank barklays, stem cells. This subject will also highlight the development of various biomaterials that are used as biological substitutes in regenerative therapy. Ethanol To Acetic! Current and emergent stem cell technologies in selected applications of tissue engineering in bone, skin and v georgia vascular tissues will be emphasized.

The course will be delivered through problem-based learning where students are expected to participate in discussions, perform literature search, present their findings through presentations and written reports on selected topics. The class is designed for upper undergraduates with a strong interest in stem cell biology, and to acetic acid the desire to empacho seco, actively contribute to discussions in the class. 03-410 Special Topics in Biological Sciences Fall and Spring: 4.5 units. Special Topics in Biological Sciences. Topics will vary depending on the semester and instructor. Please read the individual section descriptions for more information. Genome Editing Biotechnology Description: This course will introduce students to the revolution in ethanol to acetic genome editing biotechnology based on preeclampsia the CRISPR bacterial immune system. Specific topics include CRISPR moving parts, discovery and diversity of CRISPR systems, CRISPR implementation in mammals, and to acetic other mammalian genetic engineering systems. We will view these topics in the context of human genetic diseases and the use of structure and function, mouse genetics for disease research. We will consider ethical challenges including triparental embryos and CRISPR patent rights.

Prerequisites: 03-121 or 03-151 or 03-709 03-411 Topics in Research Fall. During the year students attend and submit brief summaries of weekly seminars given by acid, outside speakers or members of the Biology Department on current research topics in ibank barklays modern biology; some seminars outside of the department may be substituted. 03-412 Topics in Research Spring. During the year students attend and submit brief summaries of weekly seminars given by ethanol to acetic, outside speakers or members of the Biology Department on current research topics in modern biology. Some seminars outside of the department may be substituted. 03-428 Genome Editing Biotechnology Fall: 4.5 units.

How can we create genetically engineered cells, animals, plants, and even humans? This course will focus on the technologies that enable genome modification, with an emphasis on the recently developed CRISPR-Cas9 system. What Relations! Specific topics will include an introduction to to acetic, CRISPR technology and its history; DNA double strand break repair; Off target effects; Gene regulator CRISPRs; Alternate technologies; Ethics of essay quotations, modifying our genomes; Applications - cell screening; Applications - organism engineering; Applications - anti-HIV and to acetic immunotherapy; Overview of Gene therapy. Prerequisites: 03-151 or 03-121 or 03-709 03-435 Cancer Biology Fall: 9 units. Cancer affects roughly 1 in 3 people worldwide, and originates from both hereditary as well as environmental causes. Its prevalence makes it practically inescapable. Its of great relevance from both scientific and sociocultural perspectives. This course aims to examine various hallmarks of the biology of cancer while exploring novel concepts that challenge our understanding of cell biology. From the perspective of empacho seco, a cancer cell, we will learn about to acetic, basic concepts of cell division, DNA replication, cell signaling, cell cycle control, cell metabolism, the regulation of gene expression in gregg v georgia human cells, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, mutations, the process of metastasis, cancer diagnosis, cancer treatments and ethical questions surrounding treating patients, the epidemiology of cancer including prevalence and historical trends in diagnosis, as well as social impacts of a cancer diagnosis.

Students will also explore the primary literature and scientific review articles to better understand research and acid methods of investigation into the cellular and molecular processes of tumorigenesis. This course will include interactive lectures, guest speakers, and in class discussion exercises aimed at building class participation and ruling association, as well as confidence in public speaking about the sciences. Given the to acetic acid well-documented link between stress and cancer, there will also be a small component aimed at making students aware of health and wellness, such as reducing stress and anxiety. Prerequisites: 03-330 or 03-220 03-439 Introduction to Biophysics Fall: 9 units. This intermediate level course is primarily offered to ibank barklays, Physics and Biology undergrads (junior/senior) and provides a modern view of molecular and cellular biology as seen from the perspective of physics, and quantified through the analytical tools of physics. This course will not review experimental biophysical techniques (which are covered, e.g., in 03-871). Rather, physicists will learn what sets bio apart from the remainder of the physics world and how the apparent dilemma that the existence of life represents to classical thermodynamics is reconciled. They also will learn the ethanol acid nomenclature used in molecular biology. In turn, biologists will obtain (a glimpse of) what quantitative tools can achieve beyond the mere collecting and archiving of facts in a universe of ibank barklays, observations: By devising models, non-obvious quantitative predictions are derived which can be experimentally tested and may lead to threads that connect vastly different, apparently unrelated phenomena. One major goal is ethanol acid then to merge the two areas, physics and preeclampsia case biology, in a unified perspective.

The structure and expression of ethanol acid, eukaryotic genes are discussed, focusing on model systems from a variety of organisms including yeast, flies, worms, mice, humans, and plants. Topics discussed include (1) genomics, proteomics, and functional proteomics and (2) control of gene expression at the level of transcription of mRNA from and function of cell membrane DNA, splicing of pre-mRNA, export of spliced mRNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, and translation of mRNA. Prerequisites: 03-220 Min. grade B or 03-330 Min. grade B. Students may investigate research problems under the supervision of members of the faculty. To Acetic! Permission of a faculty advisor required. 03-451 Advanced Developmental Biology and empacho seco Human Health Fall: 9 units. This course will examine current research in developmental biology, focusing on areas that have important biomedical implications. To Acetic! The course will examine stem cell biology, cellular reprogramming, cell signaling pathways, tissue morphogenesis, and genetic/developmental mechanisms of birth defects and human diseases. Emphasis will be placed on ibank barklays the critical reading of acid, recent, original research papers and classroom discussion, with supporting lectures by faculty. 03-511 Computational Molecular Biology and study Genomics Fall: 9 units. An advanced introduction to computational molecular biology, using an applied algorithms approach.

The first part of the course will cover established algorithmic methods, including pairwise sequence alignment and dynamic programming, multiple sequence alignment, fast database search heuristics, hidden Markov models for molecular motifs and phylogeny reconstruction. The second part of the course will explore emerging computational problems driven by the newest genomic research. Course work includes four to six problem sets, one midterm and to acetic acid final exam. Course Website: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ durand/03-711/ 03-512 Computational Methods for Biological Modeling and Simulation Fall: 9 units. This course covers a variety of computational methods important for modeling and simulation of biological systems. Case Study! It is intended for graduates and advanced undergraduates with either biological or computational backgrounds who are interested in developing computer models and simulations of biological systems. The course will emphasize practical algorithms and algorithm design methods drawn from various disciplines of computer science and applied mathematics that are useful in biological applications. The general topics covered will be models for optimization problems, simulation and sampling, and acid parameter tuning.

Course work will include problems sets with significant programming components and independent or group final projects. Prerequisites: (03-121 or 03-151) and 15-122 03-534 Biological Imaging and Fluorescence Spectroscopy Fall: 9 units. Fluorescence detection is a powerful technology that is the basis of most biomedical imaging, high speed flow cytometry, cell sorting, DNA sequencing, gene expression arrays, diagnostics and drug discovery. It is not surprising, then, that it is the and function membrane basis of many commercial technology organizations with billions of dollars in sales. It is almost impossible to turn the page of ethanol to acetic, a biomedical journal without seeing multicolor images acquired with powerful microscopes and fluorescent probes of cell structure and function.

The sensitivity of fluorescence detection is so high that single biological molecules can be monitored as they function in living cells. This course covers principles and applications of optical methods in the study of structure and function in biological systems. Topics to be covered include: absorption and gregg ruling fluorescence spectroscopy; interaction of light with biological molecules, cells, and systems; design of fluorescent probes and optical biosensor molecules; genetically expressible optical probes; photochemistry; optics and image formation; transmitted-light and acid fluorescence microscope systems; laser-based systems; scanning microscopes; electronic detectors and cameras: image processing; multi-mode imaging systems; microscopy of living cells; and the optical detection of v georgia, membrane potential, molecular assembly, transcription, enzyme activity, and the action of molecular motors. This course is particularly aimed at students in science and engineering interested in gaining in-depth knowledge of modern light microscopy. 03-545 Honors Research Spring: 9 units. This semester of research consists primarily of research and ethanol acid preparation of an acceptable written thesis. Oral presentation and defense of the thesis research will be required.

This course ordinarily will be taken in the second semester of the act senior year. Permission of the research advisor required. Prerequisite: 03-445 03-601 Computational Biology Internship All Semesters. This course allows a student to gain computational biology experience in a real-world setting. Internships vary widely in to acetic acid scope, but common to all is the chance to practice computational biology skills acquired in the classroom. Typically, students seek and secure their own internships. 03-620 Techniques in Electron Microscopy Spring: 9 units.

This course is is race designed to teach basic methods in transmission electron microscopy to graduate and undergraduate students. Sophomores with an ethanol acid, interest in electron microscopy are encouraged to enroll, and will have the option and opportunity to ibank barklays, utilize their skills in various laboratories during their junior or senior year. The course will be offered once each year, during the spring semester. Course enrollment will be limited to 4-6 students. To Acetic Acid! Preferential enrollment will be given to empacho seco, graduate students and undergraduate students who have demonstrated a need for this technique in their research. The class will include one hour of lecture and 4 hours of laboratory each week (some additional laboratory time outside of the scheduled laboratory time is required). Acid! Students will learn basic methods in specimen preparation for both transmission and scanning electron microscopy (fixation, embedding and and function of cell ultramicrotomy, drying and metal coating) and acid will be trained in the operation of both the Hitachi 7100 and 2460N electron microscopes. Lectures and case study laboratories during the last few weeks of the semester will introduce the students to acid, special techniques (e.g. immunoelectron microscopy , cryoultramicrotomy, freeze substitution, variable pressure SEM, etc.) and will allow them to work with samples from their own research.

Experimentation using living organisms and/or their tissues, cells or molecules is an essential component of this course. 03-700 MS Thesis Research All Semesters. A student enrolled in this course conducts an independent investigation on and function of cell membrane a project in a faculty advisor's lab. The project is selected from ethanol a major area of research study with the advice and approval of the faculty advisor. This course is required of students who are enrolled in the Master of Science program and wish to write and what relations act defend a thesis. 03-709 Applied Cell and Molecular Biology Fall: 12 units.

The purpose of this course is to review key cellular and molecular phenomenon in biological pathways with strong emphasis on latest experimental techniques used in applications including but not limited to disease diagnosis, therapeutics, large-scale genomic and proteomic analysis. Knowledge gained from ethanol this course will be both conceptual and analytical. Essay On Democracy With! Students will periodically write extensive research reports on select topics and ethanol acid give oral presentations on a select few, while critically analyzing primary literature. 03-711 Computational Molecular Biology and Genomics Fall: 12 units. An advanced introduction to computational molecular biology, using an applied algorithms approach. The first part of the course will cover established algorithmic methods, including pairwise sequence alignment and dynamic programming, multiple sequence alignment, fast database search heuristics, hidden Markov models for molecular motifs and relations phylogeny reconstruction. The second part of the course will explore emerging computational problems driven by ethanol to acetic, the newest genomic research. Course work includes four to six problem sets, one midterm and final exam. Course Website: http://www.cs.cmu.edu/ durand/03-711/ 03-712 Computational Methods for Biological Modeling and Simulation Spring: 12 units. This course covers a variety of computational methods important for modeling and simulation of gregg ruling, biological systems. Ethanol! It is intended for with graduates and advanced undergraduates with either biological or computational backgrounds who are interested in developing computer models and simulations of biological systems.

The course will emphasize practical algorithms and algorithm design methods drawn from various disciplines of computer science and applied mathematics that are useful in biological applications. The general topics covered will be models for optimization problems, simulation and sampling, and parameter tuning. Course work will include problems sets with significant programming components and independent or group final projects. Prerequisites: 02-201 or 15-110 or 15-112 or 02-613 03-713 Bioinformatics Data Integration Practicum Spring: 6 units. This course provides a hands-on, self-directed experience dealing with biological data and integrating it to produce software and analyses that are of use to biologists.

Data are taken from a variety of sources, including academic research labs, large scale public genomics projects and to acetic acid data from private industry partners. Students will be given a project and asked to empacho seco, design a solution using a combination of existing tools and their own developed software. 03-726 Evolution of Regulatory Genomics Fall: 6 units. This course in will examine the ethanol to acetic processes by which genomes evolve and preeclampsia how this genetic variation leads to phenotypic diversity. An introduction to gene regulation, how the ethanol acid genome controls development, comparisons of development and the phenotypic diversity in animals will be provided.

Then we will consider ways in which genomes evolve, followed by in depth coverage of how gene regulation has evolved (focusing on cis regulatory evolution and essay on democracy non-coding RNA regulatory evolution). Finally the concept of gene regulatory network control of development and understanding evolution as change in these networks will be examined. Ethanol Acid! Concepts and specific examples will come through reading of primary literature and selected readings from advanced texts. Grading will be based on written assignments from readings of ruling, literature, participation in ethanol to acetic class discussion, and two in class exams. The graduate level course (03-726) will in addition require a term paper based on thorough and relations critical reading of primary literature focused on one of the general topics presented in the course. 03-727 Phylogenetics Intermittent: 12 units. An advanced introduction to theory and practice of to acetic acid, phylogenetic analysis (evolutionary tree reconstruction), with a focus on molecular evolution. Basic concepts will be introduced in the context of a historical survey of phylogeny reconstruction. A comprehensive introduction to phylogenetic methods will be presented, including data selection, multiple sequence alignment, character state data versus distance matrices, sequence evolution models, and the four major approaches to phylogeny reconstruction: Parsimony, Distance matrix, Maximum likelihood, and empacho seco Bayesian analysis.

Sources of error and methods for assessing the reliability of phylogenetic inference will be discussed. We will cover additional topics as time allows, such as phylogenetic hypothesis testing, genome scale approaches, the interface between phylogenetics and population genetics, gene tree reconciliation, horizontal gene transfer, and phylogenetic networks. Course work will include readings from textbooks and seminal articles from the primary literature, problem sets, a final exam and possibly in class exams. Students in ethanol 03-727 will also carry out a major data analysis project, intended to familiarize the student with the practical application of principles taught in class. A short paper summarizing the results of this project will be required.

durand/Phylogenetics/ 03-728 Genome Editing Biotechnology Fall: 6 units. How can we create genetically engineered cells, animals, plants, and essay on democracy quotations even humans? This course will focus on the technologies that enable genome modification, with an emphasis on the recently developed CRISPR-Cas9 system. Specific topics will include an introduction to CRISPR technology and its history; DNA double strand break repair; Off target effects; Gene regulator CRISPRs; Alternate technologies; Ethics of modifying our genomes; Applications - cell screening; Applications - organism engineering; Applications - anti-HIV and immunotherapy; Overview of ethanol to acetic acid, Gene therapy. Student in-class presentations will cover late-breaking topics and specific areas of student interest.

03-730 Advanced Genetics Spring: 12 units. This course considers selected current topics in ruling genetics at an advanced level. Ethanol To Acetic! Emphasis is on classroom discussion of research papers. Topics change yearly. V Georgia Ruling! Recent topics have included nucleocytoplasmic trafficking of RNA in ethanol acid yeast, genome imprinting in mammals, genetics of learning and memory in Drosophila, and viral genomics. Prerequisites: (03-330 Min. grade B or 03-220 Min. V Georgia! grade B) and to acetic (03-442 or 03-742) 03-740 Advanced Biochemistry Spring: 12 units. This is a special topics course in which selected topics in biochemistry will be analyzed in depth with emphasis on class discussion of papers from the recent research literature. Topics change yearly. Gregg! Recent topics have included single molecule analysis of catalysis and ethanol conformational changes; intrinsically disordered proteins; cooperative interactions of aspartate transcarbamoylase; and the mechanism of what is race relations, ribosomal protein synthesis. 03-741 Advanced Cell Biology Spring: 12 units.

This course covers fourteen topics in which significant recent advances or controversies have been reported. For each topic there is a background lecture by ethanol to acetic, the instructor, student presentations of the relevant primary research articles and a general class discussion. Example topics are: extracellular matrix control of normal and cancer cell cycles, force generating mechanisms in trans-membrane protein translocation, signal transduction control of empacho seco, cell motility, and a molecular mechanism for membrane fusion. 03-742 Molecular Biology Fall: 12 units. The structure and expression of eukaryotic genes are discussed, focusing on model systems from acid a variety of empacho seco, organisms including yeast, flies, worms, mice, humans, and ethanol to acetic plants. Topics discussed include (1) genomics, proteomics, and functional proteomics and preeclampsia study (2) control of gene expression at to acetic, the level of transcription of mRNA from DNA, splicing of pre-mRNA, export of spliced mRNA from the ibank barklays nucleus to the cytoplasm, and translation of mRNA.

Prerequisites: 03-220 Min. grade B or 03-330 Min. grade B. 03-744 Membrane Trafficking Spring: 9 units. While the focus of this course is to ethanol to acetic, analyze membrane/protein traffic along both the biosynthetic and endocyctic pathways, our general goal is to teach students how to read and interpret the literature. In particular, we emphasize the conclusions and discuss their validity. The course is updated each year to preeclampsia case, include topics in which new and interesting developments have occurred. Emphasis is placed on how membrane traffic is regulated and where applicable how it is disrupted or subverted during disease processes. The course is of general interest to students, fellows, and faculty interested in cell biology, immunology, neurobiology, pharmacology and virology. Prerequisites: 03-320 or 03-240.

03-745 Core Course in Biochemistry Fall: 6 units. This course is designed to provide first year doctoral students in the Department of Biological Sciences with a broad foundation in biochemistry and biophysical techniques. Topics include protein structure, enzymology, and methods to characterize protein structure and function. Students will be evaluated throughout the course, and with a final exam. 03-746 Core Course in to acetic acid Cell Biology Fall: 6 units.

This course is designed to provide first year doctoral students in the Department of Biological Sciences with a broad foundation in cell biology. Topics include, but are not limited to, intracellular trafficking, signal transduction, the empacho seco cytoskeleton, the cell cycle, and cell-cell interactions. This is a lecture-based course and will include some discussion of the primary literature. Ethanol Acid! Students will be evaluated weekly, and v georgia ruling with a final exam. Enrollment requires instructor permission. 03-747 Proposal Preparation and Peer Review Fall: 4 units. The concise and clear presentation of an experimental research plan is an essential skill for research scientists. This mini course is designed to introduce 2nd year students to the structure and preparation of a structured research proposal as well as formalize instruction in professional standards in research ethics, CV preparation, and scientific writing and data presentation. Course material is taken from ethanol to acetic acid actual grant proposals and previous years' qualifying exam proposals, as well as primary research publications and faculty grant proposals.

The course is highly interactive, and students are required to participate in review of each others' work throughout the duration of the course. Coursework is expected to form the relations act basis of the Ph.D. qualifying exam proposal in the winter of the acid second year. 03-748 Scientific Speaking and Peer Review Fall: 3 units. Effective public presentation of scientific data is an important skill for every scientist. This interactive course will provide students with specific guidelines on organizing, preparing, and delivering an effective and engaging scientific talk. What Is Race! The topics covered include data organization, choice of content based on audience, PowerPoint and graphic design, charts and graphs representation, use of ethanol to acetic acid, animation, fonts and color schemes, body language, overcoming stage-fear, and compensation for accents. The course is designed for third year graduate students.

Students will present their upcoming Journal Club talk a week or two before in class, and structure of cell receive formal review from a panel comprising of other students in the class, departmental multimedia designer, and the instructor. Further, each talk will be video recorded, and students will use the recording for self-critique and ethanol acid further input from the instructor. Each students Journal Club talk will then be recorded to provide a benchmark for the final talk incorporating the structure and function of cell critiques provided. Students are required to participate in review of each others work throughout the duration of the course, and will therefore actively learn the ethanol elements of an effective presentation. 03-750 Graduate Seminar Fall and Spring: 1 unit. Each semester, all Department of Biological Sciences graduate students are required to register for empacho seco and attend the weekly departmental Research Seminar (03-750; 1 unit). Ethanol To Acetic Acid! Graduate students are strongly urged to meet the speakers to broaden their knowledge of cutting-edge biological science, to ibank barklays, discuss career paths and ethanol to acetic acid strategies and to make useful contacts; the faculty host can arrange group meetings for interested students. 03-751 Advanced Developmental Biology and Human Health Fall: 12 units. This course will examine current research in developmental biology, focusing on areas that have important biomedical implications. The course will examine stem cell biology, cellular reprogramming, cell signaling pathways, tissue morphogenesis, and empacho seco genetic/developmental mechanisms of birth defects and human diseases. Emphasis will be placed on the critical reading of to acetic, recent, original research papers and classroom discussion, with supporting lectures by faculty.

03-755 Graduate Research Seminar Fall and Spring: 3 units. Each semester, all Departmental of what relations act, Biological Sciences graduate students are required to register for and attend the weekly departmental Journal Club (Graduate Research Seminar 03-755; 3 units) during which students and to acetic acid faculty members give 25-minute presentations. Of Cell Membrane! Second-year students present a research paper or topic from the literature, and more senior students present their research results; typically, graduate students give four Journal Club presentations during their time in the department. Each succeeding year those students who speak at the Departmental Retreat or who are graduating by May of their fifth year are not required to present at Journal Club that year. 03-762 Advanced Cellular Neuroscience Fall: 12 units. This course is an introductory graduate course in cellular neuroscience. As such it will assume little or no background but will rapidly progress to discussions of papers from the primarily literature. Ethanol! The structure of the course will be about half lectures and half discussions of new and classic papers from the primary literature. These discussions will be substantially led by ibank barklays, students in the course.

Topics covered will include ion channels and excitability, synaptic transmission and plasticity, molecular understanding of brain disease and cell biology of neurons. Assessment will be based on class participation, including performance on in-class presentations and a writing assignment. 03-763 Advanced Systems Neuroscience Spring: 12 units. This course is a graduate version of 03-363. Students will attend the same lectures as the students in to acetic acid 03-363, plus an additional once weekly meeting. In this meeting, topics covered in preeclampsia the lectures will be addressed in greater depth, often through discussions of papers from the primary literature. Students will read and be expected to have an in depth understanding of several classic papers from the literature as well as current papers that illustrate cutting edge approaches to systems neuroscience or important new concepts. Use of animals as research model systems will also be discussed. Performance in this portion of the class will be assessed by supplemental exam questions as well as by additional homework assignments. Prerequisites: 03-762 or 03-362 or 03-151 or 03-121 03-765 Advanced Neural Correlates of acid, Learning and Memory Spring: 12 units. This course will examine the gregg biological substrates of learning, memory, and to acetic acid behavioral adaptation.

The focus will be on addressing how neural circuits change during new skill acquisition and adapt to variations in the environment. What! An introduction to ethanol, experience-dependent changes in neural structure and function, in addition to behavioral learning paradigms, will be provided. Then we will consider the ways in which specific changes in biological substrates give rise to gregg v georgia ruling, the emergent properties that drive behavioral adaptation, followed by in depth coverage of deciphering which biological substrates constitute a lasting memory trace. Finally, the concept of age-dependent learning will be examined. Concepts and to acetic specific examples will come through reading of primary literature and selected readings from advanced texts. 03-770 Principles of Biotechnology Spring: 12 units. This course is gregg v georgia intended to provide an introduction to a set of core areas important for understanding and managing biotechnology business. Essentially, the focus of the course will be the basics of the biotechnology entrepreneurial process and a deep background on biotechnology enabled products. The objective is to ethanol acid, provide the background for management-level personnel to make decisions based on knowledge of contemporary biotechnologies and the legal and regulatory environment. Because it is impossible to be comprehensive with regard to all applications, the what act goal is to provide students with sufficient familiarity with current biotechnology and ethanol to acetic with a framework for assessing bio-related business questions that they may encounter in the future through a combination of independent research, assessment of opportunities and pitfalls, and historical comparisons. NOTE: This course CANNOT count towards the ibank barklays advanced electives required for majors or minors in Biological Sciences.

03-791 Advanced Microbiology Spring: 12 units. This course will use both lectures and current research literature in the area of Microbiology and Infectious Diseases to introduce such topics as prokaryotic cytoskeletal functions, the human microbiome and its impact, metabolic engineering, transposon mutagenesis for gene function elucidation, synthetic genome construction and applications, pathogenicity islands, functional and expression-based identification of pathogenicity determinants, horizontal gene transfer, regulatory RNAs, biofilm formation quorum sensing, and antimicrobial drug development. 03-871 Structural Biophysics Fall: 12 units. The physical properties of acid, biological macromolecules and the methods used to essay, analyze their structure and function are discussed. Ethanol To Acetic! Topics covered include: protein architecture and ibank barklays folding; nucleic acid structures and ethanol acid energetics; structure determination by gregg ruling, X-ray crystallography and NMR; biological spectroscopy with emphasis on absorption, fluorescence, and NMR spectroscopies; other methods to characterize proteins and protein-ligand interactions, such as mass spectrometry, calorimetry, and ethanol to acetic acid surface plasmon resonance. Sufficient detail is given to allow the student to critically evaluate the current literature.

03-900 Doctoral Thesis Research All Semesters. Doctoral Thesis Research consists of an independent investigation on a project selected from ibank barklays a major area of research study with the advice and approval of the faculty advisor. ALISON L. BARTH, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 2002. MOHAMED BOUAOUINA, Assistant Teaching Professor, Carnegie Mellon-Qatar Ph.D.,Carnegie Mellon, 2013. DANIEL BRASIER, Assistant Teaching Professor Ph.D., University of California, San Diego; Carnegie Mellon, 2012. MAGGIE BRAUN, Associate Teaching Professor and Associate Dean of Undergraduate Affairs for MCS Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Carnegie Mellon, 2008.

MARCEL BRUCHEZ, Associate Professor in Biological Sciences and acid Chemistry, Associate Director of MBIC Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. AMY L. BURKERT, Teaching Professor and Vice Provost for Education Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 1997. BECKI M. CAMPANARO, Assistant Teaching Professor and Assistant Department Head for and function of cell membrane Undergraduate Affairs Ph.D., Arizona State University; Carnegie Mellon, 2015. CLAIRE CHEETHAM, Assistant Research Professor Ph.D., Kings College London; Carnegie Mellon, 2015. JASON M. D'ANTONIO, Assistant Teaching Professor and Director of the ethanol acid Health Professions Program Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine; Carnegie Mellon, 2013. CARRIE B. DOONAN, Teaching Professor and is race Director of Undergraduate Laboratories Ph.D., University of Connecticut; Carnegie Mellon, 1993. EMILY DRILL, Assistant Teaching Professor Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Carnegie Mellon, 2012. M. Ethanol! DANNIE DURAND, Associate Professor Ph.D., Columbia University; Carnegie Mellon, 2000. CHARLES A. On Democracy With Quotations! ETTENSOHN, Professor Ph.D., Yale University; Carnegie Mellon, 1987. ARYN GITTIS, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of California, San Diego; Carnegie Mellon, 2012.

DAVID D. HACKNEY, Professor Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 1978. N. LUISA HILLER, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Northwestern University Medical School; Carnegie Mellon, 2012. VERONICA F. HINMAN, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of Queensland; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. CHIEN HO, Professor and Director of NMR Center of Pittsburgh Ph.D., Yale University; Carnegie Mellon, 1979. JEFFREY O. HOLLINGER, Professor of Biological Sciences and Biomedical Engineering Ph.D., D.D.S., University of Maryland; Carnegie Mellon, 2000. KENNETH HOVIS, Associate Teaching Professor and Assistant Dean for Educational Initiatives for MCS Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 2011. VALENTIN ILYIN, Associate Teaching Professor of Computational Biology at CMU-Qatar Ph.D.,Carnegie Mellon, 2012.

JONATHAN W. JARVIK, Associate Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of ethanol to acetic, Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1978. SANDRA KUHLMAN, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Univeristy of Kentucky; Carnegie Mellon, 2012. FREDERICK LANNI, Associate Professor Ph.D., Harvard University; Carnegie Mellon, 1982. CHRISTINA H. LEE, Associate Professor Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco; Carnegie Mellon, 2000. ADAM D. Essay On Democracy With! LINSTEDT, Professor Ph.D., University of California, San Francisco; Carnegie Mellon, 1995.

A. JAVIER LOPEZ, Associate Professor Ph.D., Duke University; Carnegie Mellon, 1989. BROOKE M. MCCARTNEY, Associate Professor Ph.D., Duke University; Carnegie Mellon, 2003. C. JOEL MCMANUS, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Wisconsin-Madison; Carnegie Mellon, 2011. JONATHAN S. MINDEN, Professor Ph.D., Albert Einstein College of Medicine; Carnegie Mellon, 1990. AARON P. MITCHELL, Department Head and Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 2008. ROBERT F. Acid! MURPHY, Professor of Biological Sciences and Department Head of Computational Biology Ph.D., California Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 1983.

GORDON S. RULE, Professor and gregg v georgia Associate Dean for Research, Carnegie Mellon-Qatar Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 1996. RUSSELL S. SCHWARTZ, Professor Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 2002. SHOBA SUBRAMANIAN, Assistant Teaching Professor Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 2011. JOSEPH P. SUHAN, Lecturer M.A., Hofstra University; Carnegie Mellon, 1989. ANNETTE VINCENT, Assistant Teaching Professor, Carnegie Mellon-Qatar Ph.D., National University of Singapore; Carnegie Mellon, 2012. LINDA VISOMIRSKI-ROBIC, Lecturer Ph.D., Case Western Reserve University; Carnegie Mellon, 2003. ALAN S. WAGGONER, Professor and Director of MBIC Ph.D., University of Oregon; Carnegie Mellon, 1999. JOHN L. WOOLFORD JR., Professor and Co-Director of ethanol acid, CNAST Ph.D., Duke University; Carnegie Mellon, 1979. ERIC YTTRI, Assistant Professor Ph.D., Washington University in St.

Louis; Carnegie Mellon, 2017. YONGXIN ZHAO, Assistant Professor Ph.D., University of Alberta; Carnegie Mellon, 2017. BRUCE A. ARMITAGE, Professor of empacho seco, Chemistry and Co-Director of CNAST Ph.D., University of ethanol, Arizona; Carnegie Mellon, 1997. ZIV BAR-JOSEPH, Associate Professor of Computer Science and Machine Learning Ph.D., Massachusetts Institute of Technology; Carnegie Mellon, 2003. PHIL G. CAMPBELL, Research Professor at the Institute for Complex Engineering Systems Ph.D., Pennsylvania State University; Carnegie Mellon, 1999. PHILLIP COMPEAU, Assistant Teaching Professor Ph.D., University of California-San Diego; Carnegie Mellon, 2015. KRIS DAHL, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. WILLIAM F. EDDY, Professor of Statistics Ph.D., Yale University; Carnegie Mellon, 1976. ALEX EVILEVITCH, Associate Professor of Physics Ph.D., Lund University; Carnegie Mellon, 2009. T.D.

JACOBSEN, Assistant Director and Principal Research Scientist at the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation Ph.D., Washington State University; Carnegie Mellon, 1979. ROBERT W. KIGER, Distinguished Service Professor and Botany Professor and the History of Science Director and Principal Research Scientist for the Hunt Institute for Botanical Documentation Ph.D., University of Maryland; Carnegie Mellon, 1974. CHRISTOPHER J. LANGMEAD, Associate Professor of Computer Science Ph.D., Dartmouth College; Carnegie Mellon, 2004. PHILIP R. LEDUC, Professor of Mechanical Engineering Ph.D., The Johns Hopkins University; Carnegie Mellon, 2002. CARL R. Preeclampsia! OLSON, Professor of the CNBC Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 1996. ANDREAS R PFENNING, Assistant Professor of Computational Biology Ph.D., Duke University ; Carnegie Mellon, 2016.

FREDERICK H. UTECH, Principal Research Scientist at the Hunt Institute for ethanol to acetic Botanical Documentation Ph.D., Washington University; Carnegie Mellon, 1977. ERIC P. XING, Associate Professor of Computer Science, Language Technologies Institute, and Machine Learning Ph.D., University of California, Berkeley; Carnegie Mellon, 2004. GE YANG, Assistant Professor of Biomedical Engineering and the Lane Center for Computational Biology Ph.D., University of Minnesota, Twin Cities; Carnegie Mellon, 2010. JON W. JOHNSON, Professor of Neuroscience at the University of membrane, Pittsburgh Ph.D., Stanford University; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. KARL KANDLER, Professor of Otolaryngology and Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh Ph.D., University of Tubingen, Germany; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. CYNTHIA LANCE-JONES, Associate Professor of Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh Ph.D., University of Massachusetts; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. CYNTHIA M. MORTON, Associate Curator and Head of Botany at the Carnegie Museum of Natural History Ph.D., New York Botanical Garden/CUNY; Carnegie Mellon, 2002.

PETER L. STRICK, Co-Director of CNBC and Distinguished Professor of acid, Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh Ph.D., University of Pennsylvania; Carnegie Mellon, 2000. D. LANSING TAYLOR, President and Chief Executive Officer of Cellumen, Inc. Ph.D., State University of New York at Albany; Carnegie Mellon, 1982. EDDA THIELS, Assistant Professor of Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh Ph.D., Indiana University; Carnegie Mellon, 2006. GEORGE S. ZUBENKO, Professor of Psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh Ph.D., Carnegie Mellon University; Carnegie Mellon, 1984. PETER B. BERGET, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Minnesota; Carnegie Mellon, 1986. ERIC W. GROTZINGER, Teaching Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Carnegie Mellon, 1979. LINDA R. KAUFFMAN, Teaching Professor, Emeritus Ph.D., University of Pittsburgh; Carnegie Mellon, 1977. WILLIAM R. MCCLURE, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of Wisconsin; Carnegie Mellon, 1981. JOHN F. NAGLE, Professor of Biological Sciences and Physics Ph.D., Yale University; Carnegie Mellon, 1967. JAMES F. WILLIAMS, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., University of empacho seco, Toronto; Carnegie Mellon, 1976. C. ROY WORTHINGTON, Professor Emeritus Ph.D., Adelaide University; Carnegie Mellon, 1969.

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