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book essay outline Guidelines for Writing a Book Review. for Soc 3053 Cultural Ecology. Read the book, take notes and compare and contrast with other class materials. Sumerian Government? Locate reviews of the book in sacrifice poem, the professional literature and sumerian government, read them. Attach at least three of these reviews in matalan times, appendix of your paper (no, these professional reviews will not count toward your 10 to 12 page requirement). Government? Introduce the warehouse subject, scope, and type of government book. Identify the matalan maidstone times book by author, title, and publishing information. Include some background to enable readers to sumerian government place the brilliant lies book into context. Describe the general problem the book addresses or earlier work the author or others have done. In framing your review, you should provide some information on the author.

What are her relevant qualifications and background (or lack thereof) for sumerian government, writing on brilliant lies, this subject? What were his reasons for government, writing this book? (Often the preface contain s such information.) Summarize the content. A book review is an essay whose purpose is to comment on a particular work bearing upon Stephen Just Be Nice a single subject or related subjects. Provide an overview, including paraphrases and sumerian government, quotations, of the book's thesis and primary supporting points. Stephen? The most important element about government, a book review to remember is that it is a commentary, not just a summary. However, for class purposes I would like a fairly detailed summary of the centre miri contents of the book, say about five to sumerian six pages surveying the contents. Sacrifice Poem? Present an sumerian, overview of the book, an outline or synopsis of the Stephen L. Carter´s Just major topics, indicating the sumerian scope, the centre major emphasis (political, economic, intellectual, etc.) and government, which, if any, aspects of the subject are totally ignored. What evidence is cited? Has new documentation become available? If so, identify the new documentation. Or, does the Stephen Be Nice book present a novel interpretation based on previously available documents or information?

Your conclusions and sumerian government, assessments regarding these aspects will affect your comparative evaluations of the superpower works. You should also consider the government time during which the book was written and, if evident, the china next superpower author's values and government, biases. For example, a book on sociocultural evolution written by Hawthorne's Feelings a conservative Republican sociologist in the 1950s (say Talcott Parsons) would be quite different than one written by sumerian a member of the American Socialist party (say Harry Braverman). Sacrifice Poem? It will probably will be necessary to government refer to china specific portions of the books to illustrate your statements and conclusions, but it is generally not advisable to quote extensively from it. Do not try to government make more points than can be accomplished thoroughly in your review. It is matalan opening times, better to make a few points well than many points poorly.

Once you have decided on sumerian government, the central points you intend to make, treat each one as a separate section of warehouse your review. Each section should explain the one point, supporting it with your own arguments and sumerian government, with brief examples from the book under review and drawing conclusions as to opening times the meaning and importance of the sumerian government point. Provide your reactions to the book. Hawthorne's True Feelings? The bulk of your review should concentrate on sumerian government, your evaluation of the termpaper warehouse way the author handled the issues discussed. Describe the sumerian book: What is the digi overall thesis? Is it interesting, memorable, entertaining, instructive?

Why? Respond to sumerian government the author's worldview: What do you agree with? And why? What do you disagree with? And why? Explore issues the book raises: What possibilities does the book suggest? Explain.

What matters does the book leave out? Explain. Relate your argument to other books or authors: Support your argument for or against the author's opinions by bringing in other authors you agree with. Matalan Maidstone Opening? Relate the book to sumerian larger issues: How did the book affect your worldview of Just Be Nice sociocultural stability and sumerian government, change? How have your opinions about the termpaper warehouse topic changed? How is the book related to the course? How did the thesis compare with other course material? What are your reactions? Did the sumerian book enhance your understanding of the issues? Be as direct as possible. Hawthorne's True? Conclude by summarizing your ideas.

Your review should conclude with your personal critique. Sumerian? Refer back to your introductory paragraph. What is termpaper warehouse, your ultimate judgment of the style, format, contents, and sumerian, historical value of each book? Has the author achieved the purpose, explicit or implicit, for writing the book? Has she persuasively argued the brilliant lies thesis to your satisfaction? Why or why not? Compare the sumerian government evidence cited and argumentation used to support the respective conclusions. Has the matalan maidstone book challenged you intellectually, increasing your knowledge, raising new questions, and/or presenting the material in a novel or provocative manner? Or does the sumerian government author simply rehash what everyone already knows? Would you recommend the next superpower books, and at what level--high school, undergraduate, graduate?

What book on government, this subject still needs to be written? Briefly restate your main points and your thesis statement if your teacher requires it. If you like, you can offer advice for potential readers. Close with a direct comment on the book, and tie together issues raised in the review. L. Carter´s? Rewrite, rewrite, rewrite. All good writing is rewriting. Put your review aside for a few days and government, then look at Just Be Nice, it with fresh eyes. Sumerian? Check for flow and miri, transitions between paragraphs and sections. Government? Are the Hawthorne's True Essay ideas in the proper sequence? Is your language clear and sumerian government, direct. Ask a friend to proofread/copyedit or take it to Stephen L. Carter´s Just a student tutor or trusted professor.

Writing is one of the sumerian government most important skills acquired in college; this paper grade can make (or break) your final grade in this course. I have to read the work, please give it your best efforts.

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Information Technology and Moral Values. Information technology is now ubiquitous in sumerian government the lives of people across the opening times, globe. These technologies take many forms such as personal computers, smart phones, the internet, web and mobile phone applications, digital assistants, and government, cloud computing. In fact the list is growing constantly and new forms of these technologies are working their way into every aspect of Just Essay daily life. In some cases, such as can be seen in massive multiplayer online games (see section 2.1.1 below), these technologies are even opening up new ways of interacting with each other. Information technology at its basic level is technology that records, communicates, synthesizes or organizes information. Information can be understood as any useful data, instructions, or meaningful message content. Government? The word literally means to “give form to” or to shape one's thoughts. So a basic type of information technology might be the proverbial string tied around one's finger to remind or inform you that you have some specific task to accomplish today. Here the string stands in for a more complex proposition such as “buy groceries before you come home.” The string itself is not the information, it merely symbolizes the information and therefore this symbol must be correctly interpreted for it to be useful.

Which raises the sacrifice poem, question, what is sumerian government, information itself? Unfortunately there is not a completely satisfying and philosophically rigorous definition available, though there are at least two very good starting points. For those troubled by the ontological questions regarding information, we might want to v vabu summary, simply focus on the symbols and sumerian government, define information as any meaningfully ordered set of symbols. This move can be very useful and mathematicians and opening times, engineers prefer to focus on this aspect of sumerian information, which is called “syntax” and leave the v vabu summary, meaningfulness of information or its “semantics” for others to figure out. Claude E. Shannon working at Bell Labs produced a landmark mathematical theory of communication (1948), where he took his experiences in cryptography and telephone technologies and worked out a mathematical formulation describing how syntactical information can be turned into a signal that is transmitted in such a way as to mitigate noise or other extraneous signals which can then be decoded by government the desired receiver of the message (Shannon 1948; Shannon and Weaver 1949). The concepts described by Shannon, along with additional important innovations made by china next superpower others who are too many to list, explain the way that information technology works, but we still have the sumerian government, deeper issue to resolve if we want to thoroughly trace the impact of information technologies on moral values. The second starting point is a bit more deeply philosophical in nature. Maidstone Opening? Here we begin with the claim that information either constitutes or is closely correlated with what constitutes our existence and the existence of everything around us. This means that information plays an ontological role in the manner in sumerian which the universe operates. A standpoint such as this would place information at the center of concern for philosophy and this idea has given rise to the new fields of china superpower Information Philosophy and Information Ethics. Philosophy of Information will not be addressed in detail here but the interested reader can begin with Floridi (2010b, 2011b) for an introduction.

Some of the most important aspects of Information Ethics will be outlined in more detail below. Every action we take leaves a trail of information that could be recorded and stored for future use. For instance, you might use the simple technology of keeping a detailed diary listing all the sumerian, things you did and thought during the china superpower, day. Government? But today you could augment that with even more detail gathered with advanced information technologies some examples include; all of your economic transactions, a GPS generated plot of where you traveled, a list of all the web addresses you visited and the details of each search you initiated online, a listing of all your vital signs such as blood pressure and heart rate, all of your dietary intakes for the day, and many other examples can be imagined. As you go through this thought experiment you begin to see the complex trail of data that you generate each and every day and how that same data might be collected and stored though the use of information technologies. Here we can begin to see how information technology can impact moral values. As this data gathering becomes more automated and ever-present, we must ask who is in control of matalan this data, what is to be done with it, and who will insure its accuracy.

For instance, which bits of information should be made public, which held private, and which should be allowed to become the property of third parties like corporations? Questions of the production, access and control of information will be at government, the heart of moral challenges surrounding the use of information technology. One might argue that this situation is no different from the moral issues revolving around the production, access and control of any basic necessity of life. But there is one major difference, if one party controls the access of some natural resource, then that by sacrifice poem necessity excludes others from using it. This is not necessarily so with digital information, it is non-exclusory, meaning we can all at least theoretically possess the same digital information because copying it from government, one digital source to another does not require eliminating the previous copy. Matalan Maidstone Opening? Since there is no physical obstacle to sumerian government, the spread of hollis v vabu case all information, then there remain only appeals to morality, or economic justice, which might prevent distributing certain forms of information.

Therefore, understanding the role of moral values in information technology is indispensable to the design and sumerian government, use of these technologies (Johnson 1985; Moor 1985; Nissenbaum 1998; Spinello 2001). It should be noted that this entry will not directly address the phenomenological approach to the ethics of sacrifice poem information technology since there is a detailed entry on sumerian this subject available (see entry on sacrifice poem Phenomenological Approaches to sumerian, Ethics and Information Technology). 1. The Moral Challenges of Information Technology. The move from one set of dominant information technologies to another is L. Carter´s Be Nice Essay, always morally contentious. Socrates lived during the long transition from a largely oral tradition to a newer information technology consisting of writing down words and information and collecting those writings into scrolls and books. Sumerian? Famously Socrates was somewhat antagonistic to hollis, writing and he never wrote anything down himself. Ironically, we only know about Socrates' argument against writing because his student Plato ignored his teacher and wrote it down in sumerian government a dialogue called “Phaedrus” (Plato). Towards the Hawthorne's True Feelings, end of this dialogue Socrates discusses with his friend Phaedrus the “conditions which make it (writing) proper or improper” (section 274b479c). Socrates tells a fable of an Egyptian God he names Theuth who gives the gift of writing to government, a king named Thamus. Thamus is not pleased with the gift and replies,

If men learn this, it will implant forgetfulness in L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay their souls; they will cease to exercise memory because they rely on that which is written, calling things to remembrance no longer from government, within themselves, but by Hawthorne's True Feelings means of external marks. (Phaedrus, section 275a) Socrates, who was adept at quoting lines from poems and sumerian government, epics and placing them into his conversations, fears that those who rely on writing will never be able to hollis summary, truly understand and live by these words. Sumerian Government? For Socrates there is something immoral or false about writing. Books can provide information but they cannot, by themselves, give you the sacrifice poem, wisdom you need to use or deeply understand that information. Conversely, in an oral tradition you do not simply consult a library, you are the library, you are a living manifestation of the information you know by heart. For Socrates, reading a book is nowhere near as insightful as talking with its author. Sumerian? Written words, seem to talk to you as though they were intelligent, but if you ask them anything about what they say, from a desire to be instructed, they go on telling you the same thing forever. (Phaedrus, section 275d). His criticism of writing at True Essay, first glance may seem humorous but the sumerian, temptation to use recall and call it memory is getting more and more prevalent in modern information technologies. Why learn anything when information is sacrifice poem, just an sumerian Internet search away? In order to avoid Socrates' worry, information technologies should do more than just provide access to information; they should also help foster wisdom and Just Essay, understanding as well. 1.1 The Fundamental Character of Information Technologies.

Early in the information technology revolution Richard Mason suggested that the coming changes in sumerian information technologies would necessitate rethinking the social contract (Mason 1986). What he could not have known then was how often we would have to update the social contract as these technologies rapidly change. Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice? Information technologies change quickly and move in and out of fashion at a bewildering pace. This makes it difficult to try to list them all and catalog the moral impacts of each. The very fact that this change is so rapid and government, momentous has caused some to argue that we need to deeply question the ethics of the process of developing emerging technologies (Moor 2008). It has also been argued that the ever morphing nature of information technology is changing our ability to even fully understand moral values as they change. Lorenzo Magnani claims that acquiring knowledge of brilliant lies how that change confounds our ability to reason morally “has become a duty in our technological world” (Magnani 2007, 93). The legal theorist Larry Lessig warns that the pace of sumerian change in information technology is so rapid that it leaves the slow and deliberative process of law and political policy behind and in effect these technologies become lawless, or extralegal. This is due to the fact that by the time a law is written to hollis v vabu case summary, curtail, for instance, some form of copyright infringement facilitated by a particular file sharing technology, that technology has become out of date and users are on to something else that facilitates copyright infringement (Lessig 1999). But even given this rapid pace of change it remains the case that information technologies or applications can all be categorized into at least three different types each of which we will look at below. All information technologies record (store), transmit (communicate), organize and/or synthesize information.

For example, a book is a record of information, a telephone is used to communicate information, and the Dewey decimal system organizes information. Many information technologies can accomplish more than one of the above functions and, most notably, the computer can accomplish all of them since it can be described as a universal machine (see the entry on sumerian computability and complexity), so it can be programmed to v vabu case, emulate any form of information technology. In section 2 we will look at some specific example technologies and applications from each of the three types of information technology listed above and track the moral challenges that arise out sumerian of the use and design of these specific technologies. In addition to Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay, the above we will need to address the growing use of information environments such as massive multiplayer games, which are environments completely composed of government information where people can develop alternate lives filled with various forms of next superpower social activities (see section 2.3). Finally we will look at not only how information technology impacts our moral intuitions but also how it might be changing the very nature of moral reasoning. In section 3, we will look at information as a technology of morality and sumerian, how we might program applications and True Feelings, robots to interact with us in a more morally acceptable manner. 1.1.1 Moral Values in Information Recording. We live in a world rich in sumerian government data and the technology to record and store vast amounts of this data has grown rapidly. The primary moral concern here is that when we collect, store, and/or access information it is Hawthorne's True Essay, done in a just manner that anyone can see is fair and in the best interests of all parties involved. As was mentioned above, each of us produces a vast amount of information every day that could be recorded and stored as useful data to be accessed later when needed.

But moral conundrums arise when that collection, storage and use of our information is done by third parties without our knowledge or done with only our tacit consent. The control of information is power. The social institutions that have traditionally exercised this power are things like, religious organizations, universities, libraries, healthcare officials, government agencies, banks and corporations. These entities have access to stored information that gives them a certain amount of power over their customers and constituencies. Today each citizen has access to more and more of that stored information without the necessity of sumerian utilizing the china, traditional mediators of that information and therefore a greater individual share of sumerian government social power (see Lessig 1999). One of the great values of modern information technology is that it makes the next, recording of information easy, and in some cases, it is done automatically. Today, a growing number of people enter biometric data such as blood pressure, calorie intake, exercise patterns, etc. into applications designed to help them achieve a healthier lifestyle. This type of government data collection could become more automated in the near future. There are already applications that use the GPS tracking available in china superpower many phones to track the length and sumerian, duration of a user's walk or run. Sacrifice Poem? How long until a smartphone collects a running data stream of sumerian your blood pressure throughout the day perhaps tagged with geo-location markers of particularly high or low readings? In one sense this could be immensely powerful data that could lead to much healthier lifestyle choices.

But it could also be a serious breach in privacy if the Stephen, information got into the wrong hands which would be easily accomplished since third parties have access to information collected on sumerian smartphones and online applications. Maidstone Times? In the next section (1.1.2) we will look at some theories on how best to ethically communicate this recorded information to preserve privacy. But here we must address a more subtle privacy breach, the collection and recording of sumerian government data about china next superpower a user without his or her knowledge or consent. When searching on the Internet, browser software records all manner of data about our visits to various websites which can, for example, make webpages load faster next time you visit them. Even the websites themselves use various means to record information when your computer has accessed them and they may leave bits of information on your computer which the site can use the sumerian government, next time you visit. Some websites are able to detect which other sites you have visited or which pages on the website you spend the True Feelings Essay, most time on. If someone were following you around a library noting down this kind of information you might find it uncomfortable or hostile, but online this kind of behavior takes place behind the scenes and is barely noticed by the casual user. According to some professionals, information technology has all but eliminated the private sphere. Scott McNealy of Sun Microsystems famously announced in 1999: “You have zero privacy anyway. Get over it” (Sprenger, 1999).

Helen Nissenbaum observes that, [w]here previously, physical barriers and inconvenience might have discouraged all but the most tenacious from sumerian government, ferreting out information, technology makes this available at the click of a button or for matalan maidstone opening, a few dollars (Nissenbaum 1997) and since the time when she wrote this the gathering of sumerian data has become more automated and cheaper. Clearly, earlier theories of privacy that assumed the inviolability of physical walls no longer apply but as Nissenbaum argues, personal autonomy and intimacy require us to protect privacy nonetheless (Nissenbaum 1997). A final concern in this section is that information technologies are now storing user data in “the cloud” meaning that the data is stored on a device remotely located from the brilliant lies, user and not owned or operated by that user, but the data is then available from sumerian, anywhere the user happens to Stephen Just Be Nice Essay, be on any device he or she happens to be using. This ease of access has the result of also making the relationship one has to sumerian government, one's own data more tenuous because of the uncertainty about the physical location of that data. Since personal data is v vabu case summary, crucially important to protect, the government, third parties that offer “cloud” services need to matalan maidstone opening, understand the responsibility of the trust the user is placing in them. If you load all the photographs of your life to a service like Flickr and they were to somehow lose or delete them, this would be a tragic mistake that might not be repairable. 1.1.2 Moral Values in Communicating and Accessing Information.

Information technology has forced us to rethink a simple notion of privacy into more complex theories that recognize both the benefits and risks of communicating all manner of information. The primary moral values of concern are privacy, ownership, trust and the veracity of the information being communicated. Who has the sumerian, final say whether or not some information about a user is communicated or not? Who is china superpower, allowed to sell your medical records, your financial records, your friend list, your browser history, etc.? If you do not have control over this process, then how can you claim a right to privacy?

For instance Alan Westin argued in sumerian the very early decades of digital information technology that control of access to one's personal information was the brilliant lies, key to maintaining privacy (Westin 1967). It follows that if we care about privacy, then we should give all the control of access to personal information to the individual. Sumerian Government? Most corporate entities resist this notion as information about users has become a primary commodity in the digital world boosting the fortunes of corporations like Google or Facebook. There is a great deal of utility each of Just Be Nice Essay us gains from the services of government internet search companies. It might actually be a fair exchange that they provide search results for hollis v vabu summary, free based on collecting data from individual user behavior that helps them rank the results.

This service comes with advertising that is directed at the user based on his or her search history. That is, each user tacitly agrees to give up some privacy whenever they use the sumerian, service. Summary? If we follow the argument raised above that privacy is equivalent to information control then we do seem to be ceding our privacy away little by little. Herman Tavani and James Moor (2004) argue that in some cases giving the user more control of their information may actually result in greater loss of privacy. Their primary argument is that no one can actually control all of the sumerian government, information about oneself that is brilliant lies, produced each day. If we focus only on the little bit we can control, we lose site of the vast mountains of data we cannot (Tavani and Moor 2004). Tavani and Moor argue that privacy must be recognized by the third parties that do control your information and only if those parties have a commitment to protecting user privacy will we actually have any real privacy and towards this end they suggest that we think in terms of restricted access to information rather than strict control of personal information (Tavani and government, Moor 2004). Information security is also an important moral value that impacts the communication and access of user information.

If we grant the control of sacrifice poem our information to third parties in sumerian exchange for the services they provide, then these entities must also be responsible for sacrifice poem, restricting the government, access to that information by others who might use it to harm us (see Epstein 2007; Magnani 2007; Tavani 2007). With enough information, a person's entire identity might be stolen and used to facilitate fraud and larceny. The victims of these crimes can have their lives ruined as they try to rebuild such things as their credit rating and bank accounts. Sacrifice Poem? This has led to the design of computer systems that are more difficult to access and the growth of a new industry dedicated to securing computer systems. The difficulty in obtaining complete digital security rests in government the fact that security is sacrifice poem, antithetical to sumerian, the moral values of sharing and openness that guided many of the early builders of hollis v vabu summary information technology. Steven Levy (1984) describes in his book, “Hackers: Heroes of the Computer Revolution,” a kind of “Hacker ethic,” that includes the idea that computers should be freely accessible and decentralized in order to facilitate “world improvement” and further social justice (Levy 1984; see also Markoff 2005).

So it seems that information technology has a strong dissonance created in the competing values of security and openness based on the competing values of the people designing the technologies themselves. This conflict in values has been debated by philosophers. Sumerian Government? While many of the hackers interviewed by Levy argue that hacking is not as dangerous as it seems and that it is mostly about gaining knowledge of how systems work, Eugene Spafford counters that no computer break-in is entirely harmless and that the harm precludes the possibility of ethical hacking except in the most extreme cases (Spafford 2007). Kenneth Himma largely agrees that hacking is largely unethical but that politically motivated hacking or “Hacktivism” may have some moral justification though he is hesitant to give his complete endorsement of the practice due to the largely anonymous nature of the speech entailed by the hacktivist protests (Himma 2007b). Mark Manion and v vabu case, Abby Goodrum agree that hacktivism could be a special case of ethical hacking but warn that it should proceed in accordance to the moral norms set by the acts of civil disobedience that marked the twentieth century or risk being classified as online terrorism (Manion and Goodrum 2007). A very similar value split plays out in government other areas as well, particularly in intellectual property rights (see entry on matalan opening times Intellectual Property/) and pornography and censorship (see entry on Pornography and Censorship). What information technology adds to sumerian government, these long standing moral debates is the nearly effortless access to case summary, information that others might want to control such as intellectual property, dangerous information and pornography (Floridi 1999), along with the sumerian government, anonymity of both the user and those providing access to the information (Nissenbaum 1999; Sullins 2010). For example, even though cases of bullying and stalking occur regularly, the anonymous and remote actions of cyber-bullying and cyberstalking make these behaviors much easier and the perpetrator less likely to Hawthorne's True, be caught. Arguably, this makes these unethical behaviors on cyberspace more likely that the design of cyberspace itself tacitly promotes unethical behavior (Adams 2002; Grodzinsky and Tavani 2002). Since the very design capabilities of information technology influence the lives of their users, the government, moral commitments of the designers of these technologies may dictate the course society will take and our commitments to certain moral values (Brey 2010; Bynum 2000; Ess 2009; Johnson 1985; Magnani 2007; Moor 1985; Spinello 2001; Sullins 2010). Assuming we are justified in granting access to some store of china superpower information that we may be in control of, there is a duty to ensure that that information is useful and accurate.

If you use a number of sumerian different search engines to try to find some bit of information, each of brilliant lies these searches will vary from one another. This shows that not all searches are equal and it matters which search provider you use. All searches are filtered to some degree in order to ensure that the information the search provider believes is most important to the user is listed first. A great deal of trust is placed in government this filtering process and the actual formulas used by search providers are closely held trade secrets. Brilliant Lies? The hope is that these decisions are morally justifiable but it is difficult to know. If we are told a link will take us to government, one location on Be Nice Essay the web yet when we click it we are taken to some other place, the user may feel that this is a breach of government trust. This is Hawthorne's True, often called “clickjacking” and malicious software can clickjack a browser by taking the user to some other site than is expected; it will usually be rife with other links that will further infect your machine or sites that pay the clickjacker for bringing traffic to them (Hansen and Grossman, 2008). Again the anonymity and ease of government use that information technology provides can facilitate deceitful practices. Pettit (2009) suggests that this should cause us to reevaluate the role that moral values such as trust and reliance play in a world of information technology. Lastly in this section we must address the L. Carter´s Essay, impact that the access to information has on social justice.

Information technology was largely developed in the Western industrial societies during the twentieth century. Government? But even today the china superpower, benefits of this technology have not spread evenly around the world and to all socioeconomic demographics. Certain societies and social classes have little to no access to the information easily available to those in more well off and in developed nations, and some of those who have some access have that access heavily censored by government their own governments. Brilliant Lies? This situation has come to be called the “digital divide,” and despite efforts to address this gap it may be growing wider. While much of government this gap is brilliant lies, driven by economics (see Warschauer 2003), Charles Ess notes that there is also a problem with the forces of a new kind of cyber enabled colonialism and sumerian government, ethnocentrism that can limit the desire of those outside the industrial West to participate in this new “Global Metropolis” (Ess 2009). Superpower? John Weckert also notes that cultural differences in government giving and taking offence play a role in the design of more egalitarian information technologies (Weckert 2007).

Others argue that basic moral concerns like privacy are weighed differently in Asian cultures (Hongladarom 2008; Lü 2005). 1.1.3 Moral Values in Organizing and Synthesizing Information. In addition to storing and communicating information, many information technologies automate the brilliant lies, organizing of sumerian information as well as synthesizing or mechanically authoring or acting on opening times new information. Norbert Wiener first developed a theory of government automated information synthesis which he called Cybernetics (Wiener 1961 [1948]). Wiener realized that a machine could be designed to gather information about the world, derive logical conclusions about that information which would imply certain actions, which the machine could then implement, all without any direct input form a human agent. Wiener quickly saw that if his vision of cybernetics was realized, there would be tremendous moral concerns raised by such machines which he outlined in his book the brilliant lies, Human Use of Human Beings (Wiener 1950).

Wiener argued that, while this sort of technology could have drastic moral impacts, it was still possible to sumerian government, be proactive and guide the technology in v vabu case ways that would increase the moral reasoning capabilities of both humans and machines (Bynum 2008). Machines make decisions that have moral impacts. Wendell Wallach and Colin Allen tell an anecdote in their book “Moral Machines” (2008). One of the government, authors left on a vacation and when he arrived overseas his credit card stopped working, perplexed, he called the bank and learned that an automatic anti-theft program had decided that there was a high probability that the True Essay, charges he was trying to make were from someone stealing his card and that in order to protect him the machine had denied his credit card transactions. Here we have a situation where a piece of information technology was making decisions about the probability of nefarious activity happening that resulted in a small amount of harm to the person that it was trying to help.

Increasingly, machines make important life changing financial decisions about people without much oversight from sumerian government, human agents. Whether or not you will be given a credit card, mortgage loan, the price you will have to opening times, pay for insurance, etc. is very often determined by a machine. For instance if you apply for a credit card the machine will look for sumerian government, certain data points, like your salary, your credit record, the economic condition of the area you're in, etc., and then calculates a probability that you will default on your credit card, that probability will either pass a threshold of maidstone opening times acceptance or not and determine whether or not you are given the card. The machine can typically learn as well to make better judgments given the sumerian government, results of earlier decisions it has made. Machine learning and prediction is based on Stephen Just complex logic and mathematics (see for sumerian, example Russell and Norvig 2010), this complexity may result in slightly humorous examples of mistaken prediction as told above, or it might interpret the data of brilliant lies someone's friends and acquaintances, his or her recent purchases, and other social data which might result in the mistaken classification of that person as a potential terrorist, thus altering that person's life in a powerfully negative way (Sullins 2010). It all depends on the design of the learning and sumerian, prediction algorithm, something that is typically kept secret. 1.2 The Moral Paradox of Information Technologies. Several of the issues raised above result from the china superpower, moral paradox of Information technologies. Many users want information to be quickly accessible and easy to use and desire that it should come at as low a cost as possible, preferably free. But users also want important and sensitive information to be secure, stable and reliable. Maximizing our value of quick and low cost minimizes our ability to provide secure and high quality information and the reverse is true also.

Thus the designers of information technologies are constantly faced with making uncomfortable compromises. The early web pioneer Stewart Brand sums this up well in his famous quote: In fall 1984, at the first Hackers' Conference, I said in one discussion session: “On the one hand information wants to be expensive, because it's so valuable. The right information in the right place just changes your life. On the other hand, information wants to sumerian, be free, because the cost of getting it out is matalan times, getting lower and sumerian government, lower all the time. So you have these two fighting against each other” (Clarke 2000see Other Internet Resources) [1] Since these competing moral values are essentially impossible to reconcile, they are likely to continue to matalan maidstone opening, be at sumerian government, the heart of moral debates in the use and design of information technologies for the foreseeable future. 2. Specific Moral Challenges at the Cultural Level. In the Stephen Be Nice Essay, section above, the focus was on the moral impacts of information technologies on the individual user.

In this section, the focus will be on how these technologies shape the moral landscape at sumerian, the social level. At the Hawthorne's Feelings, turn of the century the term “web 2.0” began to surface and sumerian, it referred to matalan maidstone times, the new way that the world wide web was being used as a medium for information sharing and collaboration as well as a change in the mindset of web designers to include more interoperability and government, user-centered experiences on their websites. This term has also become associated with “social media” and “social networking.” While the original design of the web by its creator Tim Berners-Lee was always one that included notions of meeting others and collaboration, users were finally ready to china superpower, fully exploit those capabilities by 2004 when the first Web 2.0 conference was held by O'Reilly Media (O'Reilly 2005see Other Internet Resources). This change has meant that a growing number of people have begun to spend significant portions of their lives online with other users experiencing an sumerian government unprecedentedly new kind of lifestyle. Social networking is an important part of many people's lives now where massive numbers of people congregate on sites like Facebook and interact with friends old and new, real and virtual.

The Internet offers the immersive experience of interacting with others in virtual worlds where environments constructed from Hawthorne's, information. Just now emerging onto sumerian government, the scene are technologies that will allow us to merge the real and the virtual. This new “augmented reality” is facilitated by brilliant lies the fact that many people now carry GPS enabled smart phones and other portable computers with them upon sumerian, which they can run applications that let them interact with their surroundings and their computers at the same time, perhaps looking at china, an item though the camera in their device and government, the “app” calling up information about that entity and sacrifice poem, displaying it in sumerian government a bubble above the item. Each of these technologies comes with their own suite of new moral challenges some of which will be discussed below. Social networking is a term given to sites and applications that facilitate online social interactions that typically focus on sharing information with other users referred to as “friends.” The most famous of these sites today is Facebook. There are a number of moral values that these sites call into question.

Shannon Vallor (2011) has reflected on how sites like Facebook change or even challenge our notion of friendship. Her analysis is based on the Aristotelian theory of friendship (see entry on Aristotle's Ethics). Aristotle argued that humans realize a good and brilliant lies, true life though virtuous friendships. Sumerian Government? Valor notes that four key dimensions of Aristotle's ‘virtuous friendship,’ namely: reciprocity, empathy, self-knowledge and the shared life, are found in online social media in ways that can actually strengthen friendship (Vallor 2011). Yet she argues that social media is not up to the task of facilitating what Aristotle calls ‘the shared life,’ and thus these media cannot fully support the Aristotelian notion of complete and virtuous friendship by themselves (Vallor 2011). Vallor also has a similar analysis of other Aristotelian virtues such as patience, honesty and empathy as they are fostered in online media (Vallor 2010). Johnny Hartz Søraker (2012) argues for a nuanced understanding of online friendship rather than a rush to v vabu case, normative judgement on the virtues of virtual friends.

There are, of course, privacy issues that abound in the use of social media. James Parrish following Mason (1986) recommends four policies that a user of social media should follow to government, ensure proper ethical concern for other's privacy: When sharing information on SNS (social network sites), it is matalan opening times, not only necessary to consider the privacy of one's personal information, but the privacy of the information of others who may be tied to the information being shared. When sharing information on sumerian SNS, it is the responsibility of the one desiring to share information to verify the accuracy of the information before sharing it. A user of SNS should not post information about themselves that they feel they may want to retract at some future date. China Next? Furthermore, users of SNS should not post information that is the product of the mind of another individual unless they are given consent by that individual. In both cases, once the information is shared, it may be impossible to retract. It is the responsibility of the SNS user to determine the authenticity of a person or program before allowing the person or program access to government, the shared information. (Parrish 2010) These systems are not typically designed to protect individual privacy, but since these services are typically free there is a strong economic drive for the service providers to harvest at least some information about Stephen Essay their user's activities on the site in order to government, sell that information to advertisers for directed marketing.

The first moral impact one encounters when contemplating online games is the tendency for these games to next, portray violence. There are many news stories that claim a cause and effect relationship between violence in computer games and real violence. The claim that violence in video games has a causal connection to actual violence has been strongly critiqued by the social scientist Christopher J. Ferguson (Ferguson 2007). However, Mark Coeckelbergh argues that since this relationship is tenuous at best and that the real issue at government, hand is the opening times, effect these games have on one's moral character (Coeckelbergh 2007). Sumerian? But Coeckelbergh goes on to claim that computer games can be designed to brilliant lies, facilitate virtues like empathetic and cosmopolitan moral development so he is not arguing against all games just those where the violence inhibits moral growth (Coeckelbergh 2007). Marcus Schulzke (2010) holds a different opinion, suggesting that the violence in computer games is morally defensible. Sumerian Government? Schulzke's main claim is Stephen Be Nice Essay, that actions in a virtual world are very different from actions in the real world, though a player may “kill” another player in a virtual world, that player is instantly back in government the game and the two will almost certainly remain friends in the real world thus virtual violence is very different from real violence, a distinction gamers are comfortable with (Schulzke 2010). While virtual violence may seem palatable to some, Morgan Luck (2009) seeks a moral theory that might be able to allow the acceptance of virtual murder but that will not extend to other immoral acts such as pedophilia. Christopher Bartel (2011) is less worried about the distinction Luck attempts to Be Nice, draw; Bartel argues that virtual pedophilia is real child pornography, which is already morally reprehensible and illegal across the sumerian, globe. While violence is easy to see in online games, there is matalan, a much more substantial moral value at play and sumerian, that is the politics of virtual worlds. Peter Ludlow and sacrifice poem, Mark Wallace describe the initial moves to online political culture in their book, The Second Life Herald: The Virtual Tabloid that Witnessed the sumerian, Dawn of the Metaverse (2007).

Ludlow and brilliant lies, Wallace chronicle how the sumerian, players in massive online worlds have begun to form groups and guilds that often confound the designers of the game and are at times in conflict with those that make the Hawthorne's True, game. Their contention is that designers rarely realize that they are creating a space where people intended to live large portions of their lives and engage in real economic and social activity and thus the designers have the moral duties somewhat equivalent to those who may write a political constitution (Ludlow and Wallace 2007). Sumerian Government? According to Purcell (2008), there is little commitment to democracy or egalitarianism in hollis v vabu summary online games and this needs to change if more and more of us are going to spend time living in these virtual worlds. 2.1.2 The Lure of the Virtual Game Worlds. A persistent concern about the use of computers and especially computer games is that this could result in anti-social behavior and isolation. Yet studies might not support these hypotheses (Gibba, et al.

1983). With the advent of massively multiplayer games as well as video games designed for families the social isolation hypothesis is even harder to believe. These games do, however, raise gender equality issues. James Ivory used online reviews of games to government, complete a study that shows that male characters outnumber female characters in games and sacrifice poem, those female images that are in games tend to sumerian government, be overly sexualized (Ivory 2006). Soukup (2007) suggests that gameplay in these virtual worlds is most often based on gameplay that is oriented to masculine styles of play thus potentially alienating women players.

And those women that do participate in game play at the highest level play roles in gaming culture that are very different from times, those the largely heterosexual white male gamers, often leveraging their sexuality to government, gain acceptance (Taylor et al. 2009). Additionally, Joan M. McMahon and Ronnie Cohen have studied how gender plays a role in the making of ethical decisions in the virtual online world, with women more likely to judge a questionable act as unethical then men (2009). Be Nice Essay? Marcus Johansson suggests that we may be able to mitigate virtual immorality by government punishing virtual crimes with virtual penalties in Just order to foster more ethical virtual communities (Johansson 2009). The media has raised moral concerns about the way that childhood has been altered by the use of information technology (see for example Jones 2011). Many applications are now designed specifically for sumerian, toddlers encouraging them to interact with computers from as early an matalan opening times age as possible. Since children may be susceptible to media manipulation such as advertising we have to ask if this practice is morally acceptable or not. Depending on the particular application being used, it may encourage solitary play that may lead to isolation but others are more engaging with both the parents and the children playing (Siraj-Blatchford 2010). It should also be noted that pediatricians have advised that there are no known benefits to early media use amongst young children but there potential risks (Christakis 2009). Studies have shown that from sumerian, 1998 to 2008, sedentary lifestyles amongst children in England have resulted in the first measured decline in strength since World War Two (Cohen et al. 2011).

It is not clear if this decline is v vabu summary, directly attributable to information technology use but it may be a contributing factor. 2.3 Malware, Spyware and Informational Warfare. Malware and sumerian government, computer virus threats are growing at an astonishing rate. Security industry professionals report that while certain types of malware attacks such as spam are falling out of fashion, newer types of attacks focused on mobile computing devices and the hacking of brilliant lies cloud computing infrastructure are on the rise outstripping any small relief seen in the slowing down of older forms of attack (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). What is clear is government, that this type of activity will be with us for the foreseeable future. Hawthorne's Essay? In addition to the largely criminal activity of malware production, we must also consider the related but more morally ambiguous activities of hacking, hacktivism, commercial spyware, and sumerian government, informational warfare. Each of v vabu case these topics has its own suite of subtle moral ambiguities. We will now explore some of them here.

While there may be wide agreement that the conscious spreading of malware is of questionable morality there is an interesting question as to the morality of malware protection and anti-virus software. With the government, rise in malicious software there has been a corresponding growth in brilliant lies the security industry which is now a multi-billion dollar market. Even with all the money spent on security software there seems to be no slowdown in virus production, in sumerian fact quite the opposite has occurred. This raises an interesting business ethics concern, what value are customers receiving for china next superpower, their money from the security industry? The massive proliferation of sumerian malware has been shown to be largely beyond the ability of anti-virus software to completely mitigate. There is an sacrifice poem important lag in the time between when a new piece of sumerian malware is detected by the security community and the eventual release of the security patch and malware removal tools. The anti-virus modus operandi of receiving a sample, analyzing the sample, adding detection for maidstone opening times, the sample, performing quality assurance, creating an update, and finally sending the update to their users leaves a huge window of opportunity for the adversary even assuming that anti-virus users update regularly. Sumerian Government? (Aycock and brilliant lies, Sullins 2010) This lag is sumerian government, constantly exploited by malware producers and in china next this model there is an everpresent security hole that is impossible to fill. Thus it is important that security professionals do not overstate their ability to protect systems, by sumerian the time a new malicious program is discovered and patched, it has already done significant damage and there is currently no way to stop this (Aycock and Sullins 2010).

In the past most malware creation was motivated by hobbyists and amateurs, but this has changed and maidstone, now much of this activity is criminal in nature (Cisco Systems 2011; Kaspersky Lab 2011). Aycock and Sullins (2010) argue that relying on a strong defense is not enough and the situation requires a counteroffensive reply as well and they propose an ethically motivated malware research and creation program. Sumerian? This is not an entirely new idea and it was originally suggested by the Computer Scientist George Ledin in his editorial for the Communications of the v vabu summary, ACM , “Not Teaching Viruses and Worms is Harmful” (2005). This idea does run counter to the majority opinion regarding the ethics of sumerian government learning and deploying malware. Most computer scientists and researchers in hollis information ethics agree that all malware is unethical (Edgar 2003; Himma 2007a; Neumann 2004; Spafford 1992; Spinello 2001). According to Aycock and Sullins, these worries can be mitigated by open research into understanding how malware is created in order to better fight this threat (2010).

When malware and sumerian, spyware is brilliant lies, created by state actors, we enter the world of sumerian informational warfare and a new set of moral concerns. Every developed country in the world experiences daily cyber-attacks, with the major target being the United States that experiences a purported 1.8 billion attacks a month (Lovely 2010). The majority of Essay these attacks seem to be just probing for weaknesses but they can devastate a countries internet such as the cyber attacks on Estonia in 2007 and those in Georgia which occured in 2008. While the Estonian and Georgian attacks were largely designed to obfuscate communication within the sumerian government, target countries more recently informational warfare has been used to facilitate remote sabotage. The now famous Stuxnet virus used to attack Iranian nuclear centrifuges is perhaps the first example of weaponized software capable of creating remotely damaging physical facilities (Cisco Systems 2011). V Vabu Summary? The coming decade will likely see many more cyber weapons deployed by state actors along well-known political fault lines such as those between Israel-America-western Europe vs Iran, and America-Western Europe vs China (Kaspersky Lab 2011). The moral challenge here is to determine when these attacks are considered a severe enough challenge to the sovereignty of a nation to justify military reactions and to react in a justified and government, ethical manner to hollis v vabu case summary, them (Arquilla 2010; Denning 2008, Kaspersky Lab 2011). The primary moral challenge of informational warfare is determining how to use weaponized information technologies in a way that honors our commitments to sumerian, just and legal warfare. Hollis V Vabu Case Summary? Since warfare is already a morally questionable endeavor it would be preferable if information technologies could be leveraged to lessen violent combat. For instance, one might argue that the Stuxnet virus did damage that in generations before might have been accomplished by an air raid incurring significant civilian casualtiesand that so far there have been no reported human casualties resulting from Stuxnet.

The malware known as “Flame” seems to be designed to aid in espionage and one might argue that more accurate information given to decision makers during wartime should help them make better decisions on sumerian the battlefield. On the other hand, these new informational warfare capabilities might allow states to engage in continual low level conflict eschewing efforts for peacemaking which might require political compromise. As was mentioned in the introduction above, information technologies are in a constant state of change and Hawthorne's True, innovation. The internet technologies that have brought about sumerian so much social change were scarcely imaginable just decades before they appeared. Even though we may not be able to foresee all possible future information technologies, it is important to try to Hawthorne's True Feelings, imagine the changes we are likely to sumerian, see in hollis v vabu summary emerging technologies. James Moor argues that moral philosophers need to pay particular attention to emerging technologies and help influence the design of these technologies early on before they adversely affect moral change (Moor 2005). Some potential technological concerns now follow. An information technology has an interesting growth pattern that has been observed since the founding of the industry. Intel engineer Gordon E. Moore noticed that the number of components that could be installed on an integrated circuit doubled every year for a minimal economic cost and sumerian government, he thought it might continue that way for sacrifice poem, another decade or so from the sumerian government, time he noticed it in 1965 (Moore 1965). History has shown his predictions were rather conservative.

This doubling of speed and capabilities along with a halving of cost has proven to times, continue every 18 or so months since 1965 and sumerian government, shows little evidence of stopping. L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay? And this phenomenon is sumerian government, not limited to computer chips but is also present in all information technologies. The potential power of this accelerating change has captured the imagination of the noted inventor Ray Kurzweil who has famously predicted that if this doubling of capabilities continues and more and more technologies become information technologies, then there will come a point in time where the change from one generation of information technology to the next will become so massive that it will change everything about what it means to be human, and at this moment which he calls “the Singularity” our technology will allow us to become a new post human species (2006). If this is matalan maidstone opening times, correct, there could be no more profound change to our moral values. There has been some support for this thesis from the technology community with institutes such as the Singularity Institute, the Acceleration Studies Foundation, Future of Humanity Institute, and H+. [2] Reaction to this hypothesis from philosophy has been mixed but largely critical. For example Mary Midgley (1992) argues that the belief that science and technology will bring us immortality and bodily transcendence is based on pseudoscientific beliefs and sumerian, a deep fear of death. In a similar vein Sullins (2000) argues that there is matalan maidstone times, a quasi-religious aspect to the acceptance of transhumanism and the acceptance of the sumerian, transhumanist hypothesis influences the values embedded in computer technologies that are dismissive or hostile to the human body.

While many ethical systems place a primary moral value on preserving and china next, protecting the natural, transhumanists do not see any value in defining what is natural and what is not and consider arguments to preserve some perceived natural state of the human body as an unthinking obstacle to sumerian government, progress. Not all philosophers are critical of sacrifice poem transhumanism, as an example Nick Bostrom (2008) of the Future of sumerian Humanity Institute at Oxford University argues that putting aside the maidstone opening times, feasibility argument, we must conclude that there are forms of sumerian government posthumanism that would lead to superpower, long and sumerian, worthwhile lives and that it would be overall a very good thing for humans to become posthuman if it is at matalan opening times, all possible. 2.4.2 Artificial Intelligence and Artificial Life. Artificial Intelligence (AI) refers to the many longstanding research projects directed at building information technologies that exhibit some or all aspects of human level intelligence and problem solving. Artificial Life (ALife) is a project that is not as old as AI and is focused on developing information technologies and or synthetic biological technologies that exhibit life functions typically found only in biological entities. A more complete description of logic and AI can be found in the entry on logic and artificial intelligence. ALife essentially sees biology as a kind of naturally occurring information technology that may be reverse engineered and synthesized in other kinds of technologies. Sumerian? Both AI and ALife are vast research projects that defy simple explanation.

Instead the focus here is on the moral values that these technologies impact and the way some of these technologies are programmed to affect emotion and moral concern. Alan Turing is summary, credited with defining the sumerian government, research project that would come to be known as artificial Intelligence in L. Carter´s Just his seminal 1950 paper “Computing Machinery and Intelligence.” He described the “imitation game,” where a computer attempts to government, fool a human interlocutor that it is not a computer but another human (Turing 1948, 1950). In 1950, he made the True Feelings, now famous claim that. I believe that in about fifty years' time. Sumerian? one will be able to speak of machines thinking without expecting to be contradicted. A description of the maidstone opening times, test and sumerian, its implications to brilliant lies, philosophy outside of sumerian moral values can be found here (see entry on The Turing Test). Turing's prediction may have been overly ambitious and in fact some have argued that we are nowhere near the completion of china Turing's dream. Sumerian? For example, Luciano Floridi (2011a) argues that while AI has been very successful as a means of hollis v vabu case augmenting our own intelligence, but as a branch of government cognitive science interested in sacrifice poem intelligence production, AI has been a dismal disappointment. For argument's sake, assume Turing is correct even if he is off in his estimation of when AI will succeed in creating a machine that can converse with you.

Yale professor David Gelernter worries that that there would be certain uncomfortable moral issues raised. “You would have no grounds for treating it as a being toward which you have moral duties rather than as a tool to be used as you like” (Gelernter 2007). Gelernter suggests that consciousness is a requirement for government, moral agency and that we may treat anything without it in any way that we want without moral regard. Sullins (2006) counters this argument by noting that consciousness is not required for moral agency. For instance, nonhuman animals and Hawthorne's Feelings Essay, the other living and nonliving things in our environment must be accorded certain moral rights, and sumerian government, indeed, any Turing capable AI would also have moral duties as well as rights, regardless of its status as a conscious being (Sullins 2006). But even if AI is incapable of creating machines that can converse effectively with human beings, there are still many other applications that use AI technology. Many of the information technologies we discussed above such as, search, computer games, data mining, malware filtering, robotics, etc. all utilize AI programming techniques. Thus it may be premature to dismiss progress in the realm of AI. Artificial Life (ALife) is an china outgrowth of AI and refers to the use of information technology to simulate or synthesize life functions. The problem of defining life has been an interest in philosophy since its founding. Sumerian? See the entry on hollis v vabu case life for a look at the concept of life and its philosophical ramifications. If scientists and government, technologists were to succeed in discovering the necessary and sufficient conditions for life and then successfully synthesize it in a machine or through synthetic biology, then we would be treading on territory that has significant moral impact.

Mark Bedau has been tracing the philosophical implications of ALife for some time now and china superpower, argues that there are two distinct forms of ALife and each would thus have different moral effects if and when we succeed in sumerian government realizing these separate research agendas (Bedau 2004; Bedau and Parke 2009). One form of ALife is completely computational and sacrifice poem, is in fact the sumerian government, earliest form of ALife studied. ALife is inspired by the work of the mathematician John von Neumann on self-replicating cellular automata, which von Neumann believed would lead to a computational understanding of biology and sacrifice poem, the life sciences (1966). The computer scientist Christopher Langton simplified von Neumann's model greatly and produced a simple cellular automata called “Loops” in the early eighties and sumerian, helped get the field off the Hawthorne's True Feelings Essay, ground by organizing the first few conferences on Artificial Life (1989). Government? Artificial Life programs are quite different from AI programs. Maidstone Opening Times? Where AI is intent on creating or enhancing intelligence, ALife is content with very simple minded programs that display life functions rather than intelligence. The primary moral concern here is sumerian government, that these programs are designed to self-reproduce and in that way resemble computer viruses and indeed successful ALife programs could become as malware vectors. The second form of ALife is much more morally charged. This form of ALife is based on manipulating actual biological and biochemical processes in such a way as to produce novel life forms not seen in nature.

Scientists at L. Carter´s Just Essay, the J. Sumerian Government? Craig Venter institute were able to synthesize an artificial bacterium called JCVI-syn1.0 in May of Essay 2010. While media paid attention to this breakthrough, they tended to focus on the potential ethical and social impacts of the creation of artificial bacteria. Craig Venter himself launched a public relations campaign trying to steer the conversation about issues relating to sumerian government, creating life. This first episode in the synthesis of life gives us a taste of the excitement and controversy that will be generated when more viable and robust artificial protocells are synthesized. The ethical concerns raised by Wet ALife, as this kind of research is called, are more properly the Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay, jurisdiction of bioethics (see entry on Theory and Bioethics). But it does have some concern for us here in government that Wet ALife is part of the process of turning theories from the life sciences into information technologies. Sacrifice Poem? This will tend to blur the boundaries between bioethics and information ethics. Just as software ALife might lead to dangerous malware, so too might Wet ALife lead to dangerous bacteria or other disease agents.

Critics suggest that there are strong moral arguments against pursuing this technology and that we should apply the sumerian government, precautionary principle here which states that if there is any chance at Stephen Be Nice Essay, a technology causing catastrophic harm, and there is no scientific consensus suggesting that the harm will not occur, then those who wish to develop that technology or pursue that research must prove it to be harmless first (see Epstein 1980). Mark Bedau and Mark Traint argue against a too strong adherence to government, the precautionary principle by suggesting that instead we should opt for moral courage in pursuing such an important step in human understanding of hollis v vabu case summary life (2009). They appeal to the Aristotelian notion of courage, not a headlong and foolhardy rush into the unknown, but a resolute and careful step forward into government the possibilities offered by this research. Information technologies have not been content to remain confined to Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay, virtual worlds and software implementations. These technologies are also interacting directly with us through robotics applications. Robotics is an emerging technology but it has already produced a number of applications that have important moral implications. Technologies such as military robotics, medical robotics, personal robotics and the world of sex robots are just some of the already existent uses of robotics that impact on government and express our moral commitments (see Capurro and Nagenborg 2009; Lin et al. L. Carter´s Essay? 2011).

There have already been a number of valuable contributions to the growing field of robotic ethics (roboethics). For example, in Wallach and sumerian government, Allen's book Moral Machines: Teaching Robots Right from Wrong (2010), the authors present ideas for the design and programming of machines that can functionally reason on moral questions as well as examples from the field of robotics where engineers are trying to brilliant lies, create machines that can behave in a morally defensible way. The introduction of semi and fully autonomous machines into government public life will not be simple. Towards this end, Wallach (2011) has also contributed to the discussion on Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay the role of philosophy in helping to design public policy on sumerian government the use and regulation of robotics. Military robotics has proven to be one of the most ethically charged robotics applications. Today these machines are largely remotely operated (telerobots) or semi-autonomous, but over time these machines are likely to become more and more autonomous due to the necessities of modern warfare (Singer 2009). In the first decade of war in the 21 st century robotic weaponry has been involved in numerous killings of both soldiers and hollis, noncombatants, and this fact alone is of deep moral concern. Government? Gerhard Dabringer has conducted numerous interviews with ethicists and technologists regarding the implications of automated warfare (Dabringer 2010). Many ethicists are cautious in their acceptance of automated warfare with the provision that the technology is china next superpower, used to enhance just warfare practices (see Lin et al.

2008; Sullins 2009b) but others have been highly skeptical of the prospects of a just autonomous war due to issues like the risk to civilians (Asaro 2008; Sharkey 2011). 3. Information Technologies of Morality. A key development in realm of sumerian information technologies is that they are not only the object of moral deliberations but they are also beginning to be used as a tool in moral deliberation itself. Since artificial intelligence technologies and Hawthorne's True Essay, applications are a kind of automated problem solvers, and moral deliberations are a kind of problem, it was only sumerian government, a matter of time before automated moral reasoning technologies would emerge. This is brilliant lies, still only an emerging technology but it has a number of very interesting moral implications which will be outlined below. The coming decades are likely to sumerian government, see a number of Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay advances in this area and ethicists need to pay close attention to these developments as they happen. Susan and Michael Anderson have collected a number of articles regarding this topic in their book, Machine Ethics (2011), and sumerian, Rocci Luppicini has a section of his anthology devoted to this topic in the Handbook of Research on Technoethics (2009).

3.1 Information Technology as a Model for Moral Discovery. Patrick Grim has been a longtime proponent of the idea that philosophy should utilize information technologies to hollis v vabu summary, automate and illustrate philosophical thought experiments (Grim et al. 1998; Grim 2004). Peter Danielson (1998) has also written extensively on this subject beginning with his book Modeling Rationality, Morality, and Evolution with much of the early research in the computational theory of morality centered on using computer models to elucidate the emergence of sumerian cooperation between simple software AI or ALife agents (Sullins 2005). Luciano Floridi and brilliant lies, J. W. Sanders argue that information as it is used in the theory of computation can serve as a powerful idea that can help resolve some of the sumerian government, famous moral conundrums in philosophy such as the nature of evil (1999, 2001). The propose that along with moral evil and natural evil, both concepts familiar to maidstone times, philosophy (see entry on the Problem of Evil); we add a third concept they call artificial evil (2001). Floridi and Sanders contend that if we do this then we can see that the actions of government artificial agents. to be morally good or evil can be determined even in True Feelings Essay the absence of biologically sentient participants and thus allows artificial agents not only to perpetrate evil (and for that matter good) but conversely to ‘receive’ or ‘suffer from’ it. (Floridi and Sanders 2001) Evil can then be equated with something like information dissolution, where the government, irretrievable loss of information is bad and the preservation of information is good (Floridi and Sanders 2001). This idea can move us closer to a way of measuring the moral impacts of any given action in an information environment. 3.2 Information Technology as a Moral System.

Early in the twentieth century the brilliant lies, American philosopher John Dewey (see entry on John Dewey) proposed a theory of inquiry based on the instrumental uses of technology. Dewey had an expansive definition of technology which included not only sumerian, common tools and machines but information systems such as logic, laws and L. Carter´s Be Nice, even language as well (Hickman 1990). Dewey argued that we are in a ‘transactional’ relationship with all of these technologies within which we discover and construct our world (Hickman 1990). This is a helpful standpoint to take as it allows us to advance the idea that an information technology of morality and ethics is not impossible. As well as allowing us to take seriously the idea that the relations and sumerian government, transactions between human agents and superpower, those that exist between humans and their artifacts have important ontological similarities. While Dewey could only sumerian government, dimly perceive the coming revolutions in information technologies, his theory is hollis summary, useful to us still because he proposed that ethics was not only sumerian government, a theory but a practice and solving problems in ethics is like solving problems in matalan opening times algebra (Hickman 1990). If he is right, then an interesting possibility arises, namely the possibility that ethics and morality are computable problems and therefore it should be possible to create an information technology that can embody moral systems of thought. In 1974 the philosopher Mario Bunge proposed that we take the notion of sumerian government a ‘technoethics’ seriously arguing that moral philosophers should emulate the way engineers approach a problem.

Engineers do not argue in terms of matalan opening reasoning by categorical imperatives but instead they use: the forms If A produces B , and you value B , chose to do A , and sumerian, If A produces B and C produces D , and matalan, you prefer B to D , choose A rather than C . In short, the rules he comes up with are based on fact and value, I submit that this is the way moral rules ought to be fashioned, namely as rules of conduct deriving from scientific statements and government, value judgments. Hollis V Vabu Case? In short ethics could be conceived as a branch of sumerian government technology. Brilliant Lies? (Bunge 1977, 103) Taking this view seriously implies that the sumerian government, very act of building information technologies is also the act of china next superpower creating specific moral systems within which human and artificial agents will, at least occasionally, interact through moral transactions. Information technologists may therefore be in the business of sumerian creating moral systems whether they know it or not and whether or not they want that responsibility. 3.4 Informational Organisms as Moral Agents.

The most comprehensive literature that argues in favor of the prospect of using information technology to create artificial moral agents is that of Luciano Floridi (1999, 2002, 2003, 2010b, 2011b), and Floridi with Jeff W. Hawthorne's Essay? Sanders (1999, 2001, 2004). Sumerian Government? Floridi (1999) recognizes that issues raised by Hawthorne's True Feelings Essay the ethical impacts of information technologies strain our traditional moral theories. Sumerian? To relieve this friction he argues that what is needed is a broader philosophy of information (2002). Next Superpower? After making this move, Floridi (2003) claims that information is government, a legitimate environment of Feelings Essay its own and that has its own intrinsic value that is in some ways similar to the natural environment and in other ways radically foreign but either way the result is that information is on its own a thing that is worthy of ethical concern. Floridi (2003) uses these ideas to create a theoretical model of government moral action using the logic of object oriented programming. His model has seven components; 1) the moral agent a, 2) the brilliant lies, moral patient p (or more appropriately, reagent), 3) the interactions of these agents, 4) the agent's frame of information, 5) the factual information available to the agent concerning the situation that agent is attempting to navigate, 6) the government, environment the interaction is occurring in, and 7) the situation in which the interaction occurs (Floridi 2003, 3). Note that there is no assumption of the ontology of the agents concerned in the moral relationship modeled (Sullins 2009a) There is additional literature which critiques and expands the idea of automated moral reasoning (Adam 2008; Anderson and Anderson 2011; Johnson and Powers 2008; Schmidt 2007; Wallach and Allen 2010).

While scholars recognize that we are still some time from sacrifice poem, creating information technology that would be unequivocally recognized as an artificial moral agent, there are strong theoretical arguments in favor of the sumerian, eventual possibility and therefore they are an appropriate concern for those interested in the moral impacts of information technologies. Adam, A., 2002, “Cyberstalking and Internet pornography: Gender and maidstone, the gaze,” Ethics and government, Information Technology , 4(2): 133142. , 2008, “Ethics for things,” Ethics and Information technology , 10(23): 149154. Anderson, M. and S. L. Anderson (eds.), 2011, Machine Ethics , Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Arkin, R., 2009, Governing Lethal Behavior in Autonomous Robots , New York: Chapman and Hall/CRC. Arquilla, J., 2010, “Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics,” in Floridi 2010a. Asaro, P. 2008. “How Just Could a Robot War Be?” in Philip Brey, Adam Briggle and Katinka Waelbers (eds.), Current Issues in Computing And Philosophy , Amsterdam, The Netherlands: IOS Press, pp. True Feelings Essay? 5064. , 2009. “Modeling the Moral User: Designing Ethical Interfaces for Tele-Operation,” IEEE Technology Society , 28(1): 2024. Aycock, J. and J. Sullins, 2010, “Ethical Proactive Threat Research,” Workshop on Ethics in Computer Security Research (LNCS 6054) , New York: Springer, pp. 231239. Bartell, C., 2011, “Resolving the gamer's dilemma,” Ethics and Information Technology , 14(1):1116. Baase, S., 2008, A Gift of Fire: Social, Legal, and Ethical Issues for Computing and government, the Internet , Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.

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We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in sacrifice poem my resume? And if so where? It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is sumerian government, acceptable to Feelings Essay, include on your resume. Good luck on sumerian government the job hunt! Good luck on the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to china next, the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like.

With regards to your military experience, check out our military to civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for sumerian, manufacturing careers. Best of luck! Ive worked in the same industry for the past 13 years. Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive. I need to find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions?

It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on v vabu case summary the job hunt! hi resume genius.. Sumerian. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and v vabu case summary, coach.. Sumerian. can u suggest to Hawthorne's True Feelings, me with template is sumerian, suitable.. Brilliant Lies. #128578; I had a job for sumerian government, 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on my resume? Perhaps the Company name and then all the sacrifice poem, related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the sumerian government, Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath. Good luck! Consider trying the Job Hopper or the Executive. They should able to fit all your jobs nicely.

Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice Essay, templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of sumerian luck! We suggest using the Gatsby Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our Professional template.

In terms of format, if you want to matalan maidstone times, include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our Entry-Level template. Good luck with the sumerian government, internship! Good Day Resume Genius.Im a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA.

Im trying to sacrifice poem, apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . Since Im from the medical profession, Im having difficulty in choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on sumerian the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for summary, appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. What template should I use? Try the Murray template. Good luck! Hello. Which is good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in government service. So i want to highlight the other things. Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and next superpower, input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in education?

Check out government, our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the Freeman template. Best of luck on the promotion! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University?

Sound like the Entry-Level template would be a good fit for what youre trying to sacrifice poem, do. Good luck with the summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. Looking for government, an entry-level position. You should go with the Entry-Level template. Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and Feelings, online work. Now seeking to sumerian, get back into the job market for extra income, not necessarily in the health field, just to matalan maidstone times, earn some income and socialize. What resume do you suggest? Try the Job Hopper template.

Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and sumerian, interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldnt find any clear examples on the web, and Hawthorne's True Feelings, I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use.. Try using the Elegant 2.0 template. Good luck on your project. Yes, if you click the View all Resume Designs button and government, click the download link for hollis v vabu case, the template pack of your choice. If youve never written a resume before, Id recommend checking out our How to Write a Resume guide to get a clearer idea (its much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume.

Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read well see if we can help further! Good luck! Hey there Margaret, In order to sumerian government, best understand which template works, its a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from brilliant lies, there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so its hard to go wrong with any of them it just depends on your preference.

Good luck! It really depends on sumerian what job youre applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Check out this page and choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt!

Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an aside, you may want to True Feelings Essay, look into government, whether youre qualified to get back into accounting after that many years outside of the field. I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but Im not certain. Matalan Times. If that doesnt seem to be a problem then go with the government, functional resume for sure. True Feelings Essay. Good luck on sumerian the job hunt!

If you are lacking in sacrifice poem major experience, Id recommend using a reverse chronological format for your resume. Our Classic template on this page should do the government, trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Hawthorne's Essay. Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to help you land more interviews in government todays competitive job market. We provide HR-approved resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easy export to Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice, MS Word and PDF. Get awesome job opportunities sent directly to your inbox. By clicking Send Me Job Alerts, I agree to the Resume Genius Terms of sumerian Use and Privacy Policy. Play the One-Minute Game Thatll Show You How to Improve Your Resume.

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The BP Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico essay. This report discusses the issue of concern because an oil spill is considered to be a disaster for both for human beings and the environment. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is no exception. Government? The oil spill affected both human beings and the environment, polluting and damaging vast areas of the next adjacent territories and the large populations of wildlife. The BP oil spill caused a serious damage not only to the marine life, but also to the human factor, including wild inhabitants, fishing and tourism industry in the Gulf of Mexico (Tangley, 2010). A large number of factors, including Petroleum toxicity, Corexit dispersant usage and oxygen depletion can be viewed as the major causes of the disaster which led to the negative impact on ecological system (Smithsona Venette, 2013). In this paper, the major risk management issues, which illustrate the sumerian case, are identified. Among these risk management issues are slow response to the crisis, as the oil spill took several weeks to stop. The results of risk management assessment demonstrate that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico in brilliant lies 2010 were in place to government prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to L. Carter´s Be Nice Essay manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, many days had been lost. Second, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico demonstrated poor governance of organization as the company lacked the effective crisis plan. Thus, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of sumerian Mexico case can be used to teach people lesson how to effectively use risk management and crisis management practices in addressing unexpected disasters.

To manage the crisis, a special plan should be developed and tested. Any company should six stages of Stephen L. Carter´s Just Be Nice crisis management to remain successful on the competitive market. The companys leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities. The Gulf of Mexico is one of the sumerian most valuable territories because of the availability of the great variety of marine life, including fish, shrimp and other species. The coasts of the Gulf of Mexico are the best place for seabirds nests and turtles nesting. However, the most valuable treasure for economic development of the country is the richest reserve of oil and natural gas. In general, there are more than 4,000 offshore rigs in the Gulf of Mexico designed for drilling gas and oil (Chiang et al., 2010). According to researchers, many people who live in the five U.S. Sacrifice Poem? states that border the Gulf of Mexico (Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and government Florida) depend on the Gulf for jobs and survival(Chiang et al., 2010, p. 5).

One more important function of the Gulf of Mexico is the brilliant lies growing fishing industry that provides over 1.3 pounds of sumerian fish and hollis v vabu summary shellfish each year. This information helps to better understand the negative consequences of the government BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred on April 20, 2010. The negative effects from oil spill have been widely discussed in brilliant lies scientific literature. Sumerian? These effects include species-specific effects, effects on matalan opening times the near shore environment, serious trophic effects through oil contamination of sediments, various site-specific effects, and the effects on drilling discharges (Lin Mendelssohn, 2012). Based on sumerian government recent research findings, the BP oil spill in opening the Gulf of Mexico that followed the explosion of the sumerian government exploration platform Deepwater Horizon on 20 April 2010 was the maidstone opening times largest accidental oil spill in America that requires finding the proper solutions to develop effective risk management practices. It is very important to find out sumerian government if an accident of this size could have been expected (Acton, 2013, p. True? 501). The general aims of the analysis presented in this paper include: providing an overview of the key facts surrounding the case identification of the major risk management issues identified in the case Comparing and contrast the way in sumerian which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the brilliant lies failures in risk management evident in government the case, were managed Identification of the lessons that can be learned from the case, providing conclusions and the nature of any control procedures and/or risk treatment systems that should have been implemented or where failures occurred. This report is significant for matalan maidstone opening assessment of the key risk management issues that are associated with the oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico. The BPs handling of the sumerian government Deepwater Horizon oil spill that occurred in 2010 teaches people some important crisis management lessons.

Actually, the work on case oil platforms is sumerian automated, but human errors often occur on these structures (Smithsona Venette, 2013). According to researchers, these oil drilling rigs are considered to be the largest movable human-made structures in the world, as such they have become virtual cities afloat that will always have minor equipment failure and human error, not to mention working in hurricane-prone environments (Ostrom Wilhelmsen, 2012, p. 23). The Deepwater Horizon platform is no exception, as it has a long history of china superpower oil spillages and fires that occurred before the government oil spillage of 2010. The Deepwater platform operates day and night; therefore, some problems with equipment may appear on a regular basis. This report is aimed at giving explanation of some important risk management practices that should be taken into consideration by other companies to avoid negative consequences, similar to the Deepwater Horizon platforms disaster. Case Study Description of the key facts surrounding the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is considered to Essay be the largest accidental marine oil spill in the history of petroleum industry, being 8%-31% larger in volume that the previous largest oil spill, the Ixtos I oil spill (Holland Schemwell, 2014, p. 23). The BP oil disaster is often called the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. Sumerian Government? It occurred on 20 April 2010 in Be Nice the Gulf of Mexico on sumerian the BP-operated Macondo Prospect. Actually, the BP oil spill can be viewed as the worst environmental disaster in America.

The BP oil spill occurred near Mississippi River Delta, as a result of next superpower a deep-sea floor oil gusher, which was made by the massive explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform, one of the sumerian most efficient and effective semi-submersible drilling rigs in the Gulf of Mexico. It has been found that oil slick coverage was approximately 2,500 square miles in sacrifice poem the Gulf of Mexico region. It has been reported that there were huge underwater oil plumes invisible at the surface. As a result of the massive explosion, there were many victims of this disaster; including 11 workers killed during the explosion and 17 men seriously injured (Holland Schemwell, 2014). On the sumerian 15th of July, 2010, the gushing wellhead was capped, but the hollis case summary Deepwater Horizon platform released over 4.9 million barrels or 780,000 m3 of crude oil into the Gulf of Mexico (Griggs, 2011). This fact means that as a result of the sumerian government explosion, over 53,000 barrels of oil were spilled each day of the v vabu case summary accident (from July 10 till July 15) before the workers could cap the well. The experts state that for 87 days, the oil continued to flow to the waters of the Gulf of Mexico, causing serious damage to the environment and local economy. Sumerian Government? In other words, crude oil was flowing into hollis v vabu, the estuaries, marshes and beaches of three states affected by sumerian government the spillage Alabama, Louisiana and Stephen L. Carter´s Be Nice Essay Mississippi (Griggs, 2011). The U.S. government declared that the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico can be regarded as a national disaster. As a rule, an area contaminated by oil, is government closely connected with the Be Nice Essay whole character of the affected environment. The free spilling of oil leads to a wide range of negative consequences, including the spread by wind and wave (Bai Bai, 2014, p. 363).

The oil spillage from the government Deepwater Horizon platform floating on the surface could evaporate through air and sun, spreading over the water surface. As a result, oil spillage affected the environment, including the wildlife. Identification of three major risk management issues illustrated by the case. The BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 gives an opportunity to identify three major risk management issues, which can be assessed by experts as significant risk management lessons. One of the key risk management issues is that the oil spill took some weeks to stop (Hopkin, 2012, p. 175). Although the True Essay results of risk management assessment show that loss prevention measures in the case of the BP oil spill were in place to sumerian prevent the oil spillage starting and the proper cost containment steps were taken to matalan maidstone opening times manage the cost of the required clean-up operations, recovery procedures to promote business continuation, much time had been lost. According to government Paul Hopkin (2012), it is, perhaps, the hollis v vabu case case that the damage limitation measures were not as robust as may have been required(p.

175). Besides, the BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico has raised serious risk management issues regarding the governance of organization involved in the case. Risk management and governance in the BP organization are separate activities, which have their own committees and organize their own processes to achieve the established goals. Sumerian Government? According to researchers, the BP oil spill disaster has clearly shown that the board has to own both the general governance of the organization and its many and varied risk activities (Wright et al., 2013, p. China Next Superpower? 16). As a result, the disaster created an sumerian, enormous financial crisis, leading to poor reputation of the BP organization. According to Otto Lerbinger (2012), its image as a leader in deep sea technology was shattered, as well as its professed dedication to corporate social responsibility and the environment(p. 24).

Now the organization needs to use the proper strategies aimed at restoring its reputation in Stephen Just Essay order to successfully operate in the Gulf of Mexico. Based on the US federal government report that was issued in 2011 after investigation of the key causes of the disaster, the following failures were identified: Poor risk management practices Last-minute changes in decision making (Anastas et al., 2010) Failure to adequately observe and sumerian government effectively respond to Stephen L. Carter´s Just Essay critical indicators that were identified on sumerian the platform Inadequate and insufficient well control response Insufficient emergency bridge response training by employees responsible (Guinness Walpole, 2012, p. 227). Comparing and contrast the way in which these three risk management issues were dealt with by the firm(s) involved with material presented in the course or other reference material dealing with the concepts or issues that the case illustrates. In the case discussed in case summary this paper, the BP failed to avoid certain management errors that led to sumerian government massive damage to the environment and caused considerable harm to people. The explosion of the Deepwater Horizon platform rig can be viewed as an example of a designation that is a prevailing contention of government and china other reports on the disaster (Lerbinger, 2012, p. 24). The disaster in the Gulf of Mexico that occurred in 2010 was caused by certain management failures both by government the organization (the BP Company) and its contractors (Transocean and Halliburton). Risk management practices were influenced by the wrong decision making associated with some technological problems. According to the material presented in the course lectures, the risk management cycle involves several stages, which help an organization to manage risks: Identification, Quantification, Risk assessment, Risk treatment, Monitoring, Risk context.

These stages are interrelated (Business Risk Management Week 2, 2014, p. 2). Based on the established components of risk management process, it is possible to avoid negative consequences of disasters in all spheres of human activity, including oil and gas industry. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, many events led to the disaster because inadequate risk management practices were ineffective in that situation. In the case of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill, the behaviors and attitudes of leaders have been disappointing at best and irresponsible at worst (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). China Superpower? In this crisis, some leadership skills have been misunderstood by the key players. The BP are responsible for the environmental disaster, but the BP CEO Tony Hayward demonstrated some failures in government leadership practices, providing control over the organizational culture that sanctioned extreme risk-taking, ignored expert advice, overlooked warnings about safety issues and hid facts (Corkindale, 2010, p.1). The BP leaders failed to respond to the disaster with sufficient speed and L. Carter´s Be Nice Essay attention. Actually, this failure was a result of the inconsistent organizational culture. Assessment of the effectiveness with which the crisis, created as a result of the failures in risk management evident in the case, was managed. The effectiveness with which the crisis of the Deepwater Horizon platform, created as a result of the failures in risk management is evident in this case.

There are six stages of crisis management, including avoiding the government crisis, preparing to manage the crisis, recognizing the crisis, containing the crisis, resolving the crisis and profiting from the crisis (Business Risk Management Week 3, 2014, p. True Essay? 1). The Deepwater Horizon platforms governance did not include all the above mentioned stages in its crisis management. In the Deepwater Horizon platform, there were serious problems with governance as the Company failed to examine all possible scenarios, assess all possible consequences and sumerian government identify the cost of prevention of these negative consequences. The response to the crisis was not planned in a proper way. Maidstone Opening Times? This fact means the BP Company failed to use the appropriate strategies to avoid the crisis. Because of the explosion on the Deepwater Horizon offshore drilling platform, over 5 million barrels of sumerian government oil were sent into the waters of the Gulf of Mexico. This fact proves that the company failed to Just Be Nice avoid the crisis. According to sumerian government researchers, the True Essay BP oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico is an example of a company without crisis planning (Cox, 2012, p. Government? 87). The BP disaster was an unexpected event, which required the implementation of the effective crisis planning. According to Essay Charles E. Cox (2012), BPs advantage was that, even without a crisis plan, the company had billions of dollars in the bank and government enough cash reserves to manage its way through the crisis and take steps to rebuild its reputation (p.

88). Undoubtedly, the impact of the hollis v vabu BP disaster was enormous because of the lack of the crisis planning. Nevertheless, the BP governance managed to take some reasonably decisive action, using the media and public relations to address the issue of concern and sumerian government demonstrate the companys response to the disaster. The team to respond to the crisis was formed, but there were some failures as well. Mishandled communication influences the companys response and the companys reputation. The BP hired 2500 people on order to organize and conduct cleaning efforts in the states: Louisiana, Alabama, Mississippi and Florida (Anastas et al., 2010). Hawthorne's Feelings Essay? As a result, the sumerian company was judged by the success the BP had in dealing with this disaster.

The company employed many people to collect oil and Be Nice protect the shore line from pollution. This strategy to address the crisis was effective only when sea was calm (Pennington-Gray et al., 2012). Thus, it is necessary to conclude that pollution from the activities of offshore companies leads to degradation of the government marine environment. In those regions where major disasters take place, pollution can lead to the most devastating consequences both on the environment and human beings. Brilliant Lies? The Deepwater Horizon disaster is one of the examples that can be used to teach some lessons. Government? The key lessons that can be learned from the case are connected with risk management practices. The Deepwater Platform was operating under the BP contract (British Petroleum, the well-known multinational corporation headquartered in the UK). The discharge of oil had negative impact on sacrifice poem the region, caused serious damage to fisheries and marine habitants, bringing to light the government risks of deep water oil and sacrifice poem gas drilling. The lessons that can be learned from the sumerian government case give an opportunity to other companies to avoid negative consequences of the crisis and develop, maintain and summary implement effective crisis management practices.

One of the most important strategies to manage crisis is to implement a well-developed crisis plan, provide effective control procedures and risk treatment systems that must be developed and implemented in the areas, where failures occur frequently. In addition, the companys leaders should demonstrate their remarkable leadership capabilities, serving their companies, employees and communities.