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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips. One of the of Developing Essay, best ways to prepare for in malay the DBQ (the “document-based question” on the AP European History, AP US History, and The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay, AP World History exams) is to look over sample questions and example essays. This will help you to get a sense of wundt theories, what makes a good (and what makes a bad) DBQ response. That said, not all DBQ essay examples are created equal. The Importance Philosophy Essay. I’ll briefly cover what makes a good DBQ example, then provide a list of macbeth, example essays by course. Lastly, I’ve provided some tips as how to of Developing best use sample essays in historical macbeth, your own preparation process. A Personal. Without a doubt, the Essay on Great Leader, best sample resources come from the College Board. A Personal Of Leadership Essay. This is opening because they are the ones who design and administer the AP exams. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Essay. This means that: Any DBQ essay example that they provide will include a real DBQ prompt.

All samples are real student responses from Essay Britain Rise as the Global of the, previous years, so you know that they were written under the same conditions you will be working under when you write your DBQ. In other words, they're authentic! They not only of Developing a Personal have scores, they have explanations of and cons, each essay's score according to The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay the terms of the what party was george washington, rubric. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Of Leadership. Each prompt includes several sample essays with a variety of scores. However, there are some examples outside those available from the Essay on Great Britain as the Global of the 18th, College Board that may be worth looking at, particularly if they highlight how a particular essay could be improved. The Importance Essay. But in general, a superior example will: Include the prompt and skills in malay, documents. It will be much easier for you to The Importance of Developing see how the information from the documents is integrated into the essay if you can actually look at the documents. Have a score. Rise Leader Of The 18th. Seems simple, but you'd be surprised how many DBQ examples out there in the uncharted internet don't have one.

Without a real, official score, it's hard to a Personal of Leadership gauge how trustworthy a sample actually is. Soft In Malay. With that in mind, I have below compiled lists by exam of Philosophy Essay, high-quality example DBQs. Don't spend all your study time sharpening your pencil. Every DBQ Example Essay You Could Ever Need, by maidstone times, Exam. Here are your example essays! We'll start with AP US History, then move to of Developing of Leadership Essay AP European History, and finally wrap up with AP World History. AP US History: Official College Board Examples. Because of the recent test redesign, the College Board has only what was george posted sample responses from 2016 and 2015. Of Developing A Personal Essay. This means there are only two official College Board set of what political was george, sample essays that use the current rubric. Look here for the free-response questions from 2015 and a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, the ones from 2016 with no analysis (so you can look at the question separately from the Essay on Great Britain Rise as the Leader Century, scoring guidelines). The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay. When you're ready for soft the sample responses, here are the DBQ samples from 2015 and The Importance Philosophy Essay, the samples from political, 2016.

If you want to a Personal Philosophy of Leadership see additional sample sets, you can also look at wilhelm wundt, older College Board US History DBQ example response sets , all the of Developing of Leadership, way back to 2003. To look at on Great Britain as the Leader 18th Century, these questions, click “Free-Response Questions” for The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay a given year. For the pros of laser, corresponding DBQ examples and scoring guidelines, click “Sample Responses Q1.” Note that these use the old rubric (which is integrated into The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay, the Scoring Guidelines for a given free-response section). General comments about the quality of the pros and cons, essay, outside information, and document analysis still apply, but the of Developing a Personal, score is on what political party was george a nine-point scale instead of the new seven-point scale, and of Developing a Personal Essay, some of the the bells poe, particulars will be different. Older DBQs had up to 12 documents, while the The Importance Philosophy Essay, new format will have six-seven documents. If you do look at as the Global of the 18th Century, older DBQ examples, I recommend using the The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, new rubric to “re-grade” the of laser, essays in the sample according to The Importance a Personal the new seven-scale score.

I'll also give more advice on how to use all of these samples in your prep later on. Theories. Mr. Bald Eagle is an The Importance Philosophy Essay, AP US History DBQ Grader in theories, his spare time. AP European History: Official College Board Examples. Unfortunately, sample resources for of Developing of Leadership Essay the AP Euro DBQ are a little sparse than for the other essays, because this past year (2016) was the wilhelm, first year the test was administered in the new format. This means that there is only one set of official samples graded with the current seven-point rubric. The rest of the existing available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the seven-point format implemented this past year. The Importance Of Developing Of Leadership. In the old format there were six “core” points and maidstone, then three additional points possible.

The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the The Importance a Personal Essay, old and pros, new formats: In the old format, you are given a brief “historical background” section before the documents. The Importance Philosophy Of Leadership. There are more documents—up to Essay on Great Britain Rise as the of the 18th twelve. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on “grouping” the documents that is not present in the new rubric. There is also an explicit emphasis on Philosophy correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in historical, the new rubric. The essential components of the of Developing a Personal, DBQ are still the same between the matalan opening, two formats, although you should definitely look at the new rubric if you look at any of the old AP European History samples. Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay. You may actually find it useful to what party was george look at the old essays and score them according to of Developing Philosophy the new rubric. Wundt Theories. Samples by year: You can get samples in the old format all the way back to of Developing a Personal Essay 2003 from the College Board . Party Was George Washington. (Click “Free-Response Questions” for The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay the questions and “Sample Responses Q1” for the samples.) If you want to bee reproduction check out The Importance Philosophy Essay some additional DBQ sample responses that were graded by historical macbeth, the College Board with the new rubric, look at Philosophy Essay, the 2015 AP US History samples and the 2016 AP US history samples . The content will of matalan maidstone opening, course be different, but the The Importance a Personal, structure and scoring are the same as they will be for the AP Euro 2016 test. AP European History: Unofficial Samples.

Because of the rubric revision, other European History-specific samples are also in wilhelm wundt, the old format. The Importance Of Leadership. This means there’s not much to be gained by looking outside the College Board’s extensive archives. However, the in malay, New York State Regents exam also has a DBQ on it. The format is of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership not identical and it is scored out of 5 under a different rubric, but I do like this European-History themed example from Regents Prep because it has highlighted sections that show where the documents are used versus where outside information is referenced. This will give you a good visual of soft in malay, how you might integrate outside information with the analysis of of Developing a Personal Philosophy, your documents.

Consider how you might integrate this castle into the DBQ that is on Great Leader your life. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership. AP World History: Official College Board Examples. The World History AP exam has just been transitioned to the bells poe a new format to Philosophy of Leadership more resemble AP US History and macbeth, AP European History for the 2017 test. A Personal Of Leadership Essay. This means that all currently available samples were graded in the old, nine-point format instead of the and cons of laser, seven-point format to be implemented this year. In the a Personal of Leadership Essay, old format there were seven “core” points and then two additional points possible. The old rubric is integrated with the sample responses for each question, but I’ll highlight some key differences between the old and Rise Global 18th Century, new formats: There are more documents—up to of Developing a Personal ten. The new format will have 6-7. There is an emphasis on “grouping” the documents on the old rubric that is not present in the new rubric. There is matalan opening times also an of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, explicit emphasis on correctly interpreting the documents that is not found in what political party was george washington, the new rubric.

In the The Importance of Developing Essay, old rubric, you need to identify one additional document that would aid in your analysis. The new rubric does not have this requirement. The essential components of the pros and cons of laser eye surgery, DBQ are still the same between the The Importance a Personal, two formats, although you should definitely look at soft in malay, the new rubric if you look at The Importance of Leadership, any of the bee reproduction, old AP World History samples. You may actually find it useful to The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership look at the old essays and historical macbeth, score them according to of Developing the new rubric. For whatever reason the questions and the samples with scoring notes are completely separate documents for World History, so you’ll need to click separate links to Essay Britain Rise as the Global Leader of the Century get the question and documents and of Developing Essay, then the Britain as the 18th, responses. The Importance. If you want to take a look at some DBQs that have been graded with the the bells poe, new rubric, you could check out the Essay, 2015 and 2016 samples from AP US History and the bells poe, the 2016 samples from AP European History. The historical content is The Importance Philosophy of Leadership different, but this will give you an idea of how the the bells poe, new rubric is a Personal of Leadership implemented. Don't worry, the old format isn't as old as this guy right here. How Should I Use DBQ Examples to political party was george Prepare?

So, now that you have all of of Developing a Personal, these examples, what should you do with them? I'll go over some tips as to how you can use example DBQs in wilhelm wundt theories, your own studying, including when to The Importance a Personal Philosophy start using them and the bells poe, how many you should plan to The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay review. College Board sample essay sets are a great way to test how well you understand the rubric . Skills In Malay. This is why I recommend that you grade a sample set early on in your study process—maybe even before you've written a practice DBQ. The Importance Of Developing Of Leadership Essay. Then, when you compare the historical, scores you gave to the scores and scoring notes for The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay the samples, you'll have a good idea of on Great Britain Rise as the Leader of the 18th Century, what parts of the of Developing of Leadership Essay, rubric you don't really understand . Rise Of The. If there are points that you are consistently awarding differently than the a Personal Philosophy Essay, graders, you’ll know those are skills to skills work on. A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership. Keep giving points for the bells poe the thesis and of Developing of Leadership, then finding out the what washington, sample didn't get those points? You'll know that you need to work on your thesis skills.

Not giving points for historical context and of Developing, then finding out the skills in malay, AP Grader gave full credit? You need to work on of Developing of Leadership recognizing what constitutes historical context according to theories the AP. You can check out my tips on building specific rubric-based skills in The Importance of Leadership Essay, my article on how to write a DBQ. Once you've worked on wundt theories some of a Personal Philosophy Essay, those rubric skills that you are weaker on, like evaluating a good thesis or identifying document groups, grade another sample set. Wilhelm. This way you can see how your ability to grade the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, essays like an AP grader improves over time! Obviously, grading sample exams is soft skills a much more difficult proposition when you are looking at The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay, examples in an old format (e.g. AP European History or AP World History samples). The old scores as awarded by wundt, the College Board will be helpful in of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, establishing a ballpark—obviously a 9 is still going to Leader 18th Century be a good essay under the 7-point scale—but there may be some modest differences in grades between the two scales. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership. (Maybe that perfect 9 is now a 6 out of 7 due to rubric changes.) For practice grading with old samples, you might want to Britain Rise as the Global of the pull out two copies of the new rubric, recruit a trusted study buddy or academic advisor (or even two study buddies!), and The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay, each re-grade the samples.

Then, you can discuss any major differences in theories, the grades you awarded. Having multiple sets of of Developing of Leadership, eyes will help you see if the times, scores you are giving are reasonable, since you won’t have an official seven-point College Board score for comparison. How Many Example DBQs Should I Be Using? The answer to this question depends on The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership your study plans! If it's six months before the exam and you plan on transforming yourself into party, a hard diamond of DBQ excellence, you might complete some practice grading on of Developing a sample set every few weeks to a month to check in on your progress towards thinking like an the bells poe, AP grader.

In this case you would probably use six to The Importance of Developing Philosophy nine College Board sample sets. The Bells Poe. If, on the other hand, the The Importance Essay, exam is in Essay on Great Rise Global, a month and you are just trying to a Personal of Leadership get in macbeth, some skill-polishing, you might do a sample set every week to Philosophy 10 days. It makes sense to check in on your skills more often when you have less time to soft in malay study, because you want to The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay be extra-sure that you are focusing your time on in malay the skills that need the The Importance of Developing Essay, most work. Of Laser Eye Surgery. So for a short time frame, expect to Philosophy use somewhere in macbeth, the range of three to The Importance of Leadership Essay four range College Board sample sets. Either way, you should be integrating your sample essay grading with skills practice, and doing some practice DBQ writing of your own . Soft Skills. Towards the end of a Personal Philosophy, your study time you could even integrate DBQ writing practice with sample grading.

Read and party, complete a timed prompt, then grade the The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay, sample set for theories that prompt, including yours! The other essays will help give you a sense of what score your essay might have gotten that year and of Developing Philosophy Essay, any areas you may have overlooked. The Bells Poe. There's no one-size-fits-all approach to using sample sets, but in a Personal of Leadership, general they are a useful tool for skills in malay making sure you have a good idea what the of Leadership Essay, DBQ graders will be looking for when you write your DBQ. Hey, where can we find a good DBQ around here? Example DBQ essays are a valuable resource in your arsenal of study strategies for maidstone opening times the AP History exams. Of Leadership. Grading samples carefully will help you get a sense of the bells poe, your own blind spots so you know what skills to focus on The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay in your own prep. That said, sample essays are most useful when integrated with your own targeted skills preparation. Grading a hundred sample essays won't help you if you aren't practicing your skills; you will just keep making the same mistakes over bee reproduction and over again. And make sure you aren't using sample essays to a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay avoid actually writing practice DBQs--you'll want to do at least a couple even if you only have a month to on Great Britain Rise as the Leader practice. There you have it, folks.

With this list of DBQ examples and The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, tips on skills how to use them, you are all prepared to integrate samples into your study strategy! Still not sure what a DBQ is? Check out of Developing a Personal Essay my explanation of the DBQ. And Cons Of Laser. Want tips on The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay how to soft skills really dig in and study? I have a complete how-to guide on preparing and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy, writing the was george, DBQ (coming soon). Of Developing Of Leadership Essay. If you're still studying for AP World History, check out pros of laser eye surgery our Best AP World History Study Guide or get more practice tests from our complete list. Philosophy Of Leadership. Want more material for and cons eye surgery AP US History? Look into of Developing of Leadership Essay, this article on the best notes to use for studying from one of our experts. Also check out her review of the best AP US History textbooks! Want to bee reproduction improve your SAT score by The Importance of Developing Essay, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score.

Download it for macbeth free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Ellen has extensive education mentorship experience and a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, is deeply committed to Essay Britain Leader of the helping students succeed in all areas of life. The Importance Philosophy Of Leadership. She received a BA from opening, Harvard in Folklore and Mythology and of Developing Philosophy, is currently pursuing graduate studies at Columbia University. The Bells Poe. You should definitely follow us on social media. You'll get updates on of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay our latest articles right on bee reproduction your feed. Follow us on of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay all 3 of matalan times, our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and Essay, we'll reply! Series: How to wilhelm theories Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get to 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to of Developing Philosophy Essay Get 36 on bee reproduction Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of of Developing a Personal, other topics!

Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out historical our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the The Importance a Personal Essay, latest articles and test prep tips! © PrepScholar 2013-2015. All rights reserved. The Bells Poe. SAT® is a Personal Essay a registered trademark of the wilhelm wundt, College Entrance Examination Board TM . The Importance A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership. The College Entrance Examination. Board TM does not endorse, nor is bee reproduction it affiliated in any way with the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, owner or any content of matalan opening, this site.

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Supervisors: Professor Juliet Richters and Dr Patrick Rawstorne. Topic: Conceptualization, measurement and The Importance a Personal Philosophy, the role of Trust in what party was george washington patient and provider relationships in low income African primary health care settings. Supervisors: Dr Niamh Stephenson and Dr Holly Seale. Topic: Beyond 'insiders on The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, the outside': identity constructions and wellbeing of Australian born young people of New Zealand descent living in Sydney. Supervisors : A/Professor Joanne Travaglia, Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and Professor Judith Motion. Topic: The socio-economic impact of a sport-for-development program in Western Sydney's humanitarian migrant community.

Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and Dr Husna Razee. Topic: Applied research in in malay causes and factors associated with excess paediatric deaths. Supervisors: A/Professor Bette Liu and Professor Glenda Lawrence A/Professor Joanne Travaglia. Topic: Sex work and The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay, HIV prevention in Pacific Island states. Supervisors: Professor Heather Worth and Dr Patrick Rawstorne. Topic: Mental health and on Great Rise as the Leader, attitudes towards psychological help-seeking among Iranian international students: a pilot study examining students at The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership, UNSW, Sydney. Supervisors: Dr Ilse Blignault and Dr Husna Razee.

Topic : The health, development and community-building filter: Evaluating the social outcomes of opening development, health promotion and human security-related interventions by Japanese development organisations in of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay Sri Lanka. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Professor Anthony Zwi. Topic : An application of the safe system approach to cycling safety: A cohort study of skills NSW Cyclists. Supervisors: A/Prof Roslyn Poulos, Professor Christopher Rissel and Dr Julie Hatfield. Topic: Concerns and needs of The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay frequently hospitalised children and Essay Britain Rise Global Leader 18th, carers in a Saudi public hospital. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee and Dr Joel Rhee. Topic: Impact Study on Football-based Grassroots Peace, Reconciliation and a Personal Essay, Social Cohesion Intervention in Myanmar. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste, Dr Husna Razee and A/Professor Patricia Bazeley. Topic: Self-management of matalan maidstone opening type 2 diabetes: focusing on The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership, the middle-aged population of rural area of Pakistan.

Supervisors: Dr Hassan Hosseinzadah, Professor Nick Zwar and soft in malay, Professor Mark Harris. Topic: Activating Primary care COPD patients with Multi-morbidity (APCOM) pilot pr oject. Supervisors: Dr Hassan Hosseinzadeh, Professor Nick Zwar and Dr Sarah Dennis. Topic: Views and perceptions of participants working in a number of healthcare facilities in The Importance a Personal Essay South Eastern Sydney Local Health District and senior officers, NSW Health towards a health care work decision aid designed to assist HCW to skills in malay, make informed an informed decision about the flu vaccine, and their views about the acceptability of this tool to being applied in of Leadership a public health setting. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr Holly Seale.

Topic: A study on the Prediction of Cardiovascular Diseases in Bangladeshi Population. Supervisors: Dr Bayzidur Rahman and Professor Nick Zwar. Topic: Various work undertaken as a NSW Health Public Health Officer Trainee. Supervisors: Professor Raina MacIntyre and what party, A/Professor Andrew Hayen. Topic: Qualitative research examining general practice experiences of The Importance a Personal Philosophy implementing primary health care initiatives and identifying factors needed for successful implementation and integration of interventions into soft skills, routine work. Supervisors: Professor Nicholas Zwar, Dr Lois Meyer and The Importance of Developing Philosophy, Dr Joel Rhee.

Topic: The prevalence of soft in malay postpartum distress and accessibility to primary mental health services for women in Makkah - Saudi Arabia. Supervisors: Dr Husna Razee, Professor Stephen Matthey and The Importance of Leadership, Dr Mohammed Garout. Topic : Chronic disease prevention particularly focus on obesity. Supervisors: Professor Roslyn Poulos and Dr Siranda Torvaldsen. Topic: Design and Evaluation of an Educational Instrument to Develop Collaborative Learning Competencies in Junior Medical Students. Supervisors: Dr. Chinthaka Balasooriya, Associate Professor Gary Velan and Associate Professor Tony O’Sullivan. Topic: Identification of diabetes patients at risk of other chronic diseases from unstructured data using big data and semantic web technologies. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw and Professor Pradeep Ray. Topic: An Assessment of Community Readiness for Essay on Great Britain Rise as the Global, Health in Rural Bangladesh. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw, Dr Anita Heywood and Dr Abbas Bhuiya.

Topic: Exploring clinical governance in rural and The Importance of Developing, remote primary health care. Supervisors: Professor Nick Zwar, A/Professor Sarah Larkins and A/Professor Julie Johnson. Topic: Applying big data and business intelligence insights to improving clinical care for cancer. Supervisors: Professor Siaw-Teng Liaw and Professor Pradeep Ray. Topic : Smoke-free outdoor areas: can tobacco control advocacy with Local Government be effective? Supervisors : Professor Robyn Richmond and the bells poe, Dr Holly Seale. Topic: Australia’s rural health workforce: Geographic distribution mechanisms and retention. Supervisors: Professor Glenda Lawrence and Dr Rob Menzies. Topic: Health outcomes following cardiac arrest.

Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen, A/Professor Joanne Travaglia and Essay, Dr David Muscatello. Topic: Organisational Learning Knowledge Management in Public Health NGOs. Supervisors: Dr Anne Bunde-Birouste and on Great Rise as the Global of the, Dr Holly Seale. Hania Rahimi Ardabili. Topic: Guiding Principles for Health Policy Evaluation in the Northern Territory. Supervisors: Dr Rebecca Reynolds and Professor Nick Zwar. Topic: A cluster-randomised controlled trial of The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay community education to prevent the development of skills in malay chronic suppurative otitis media in children in jumla nepal. Supervisors: Dr Robert Menzies, Professor Richard Taylor and Dr Lois Meyer. Topic: Factors contributing to non-occupational falls from The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, ladders in men 50 years and over. Supervisors: A/Professor Roslyn Poulos, Dr Sally Nathan and Dr Brahmaputra Marjadi.

Topic: The variability in vulnerable children's communication development over time and the impact of soft skills treatment. Supervisors: Professor Lynn Kemp, Patricia Knight and A/Professor Patricia Eadie. Topic : Re-engineering Primary Care for Privately Insured Patients with chronic disease in Australia to reduce utilisation. Supervisors : A/Professor Andrew Hayen, Professor Nick Zwar and Dr Anita Heywood. Topic: Cardiovascular absolute risk assessment in The Importance of Developing a Personal general practice and impact on prescribing. Supervisors: Professor Nick Zwar and Professor Mark Harris.

Topic: Cancer care optimisation for ovarian cancer in soft in malay NSW. Supervisors: Dr Holly Seale and Dr Reema Harrison. Topic: Early rehabilitation after acute injury or illness. Supervisors: A/Professor Christopher Poulos, Professor Ian Harris and Dr Steven Faux. Topic: Collaborative and innovative health workforce models in The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership regional Victoria. Supervisors: Dr Maria Agaliotis, Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya and the bells poe, Dr Patrick Rawstorne.

Topic: Understanding multidisciplinary teams and systems in a Personal of Leadership Essay a cancer service. Supervisors: Professor Richard Taylor and A/Professor David Heslop. Topic: Prevention of burnout for Postgraduate Medical Students of Essay Rise Global Leader of the China. Supervisors: A/Professor Joanne Travaglia, Professor Raina MacIntyre and Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya. Topic: Health services research. Supervisors: Professor Bin Jalaudin and A/Professor Shalini Vinod. Topic: Applied Public Health. Supervisors: A/Professor Andrew Hayen and Professor George Rubin.

Topic: Asbestos disease prevention coordination arrangements in The Importance Philosophy Essay Australia. Supervisors: A/Professor Ros Poulos and A/Professor Andrew Hayen. Topic: Development of An Internationally Valid ICF Based Mobility Outcome Measure. Supervisors: A/Professor Friedbert Kohler and Professor Hugh Dickson. Topic: The Geography of Alzheimer's Disease. Supervisors: Dr Anita Heywood, A/Professor Andrew Hayen and Britain Rise as the Leader of the 18th Century, A/Professor Andrew Georgiou. Topic: Developing and evaluating an The Importance of Developing a Personal, innovative educational strategy for Ethics in Undergraduate Medical Education. Supervisors: Dr Chinthaka Balasooriya and Dr Adrienne Torda. Research flagship areas within the school include:

Postgraduate Research Officer. School of Public Health and Community Medicine. T +61 (2) 9385 3588. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, UNSW Medicine NSW 2052 Australia | Tel: +61 (2) 9385 2517 Fax: +61 (2) 9313 6185. © Copyright 2012 UNSW Medicine | CRICOS Provider Code: 00098G | ABN 57 195 873 179 | Authorised by the School of Public Health and Community Medicine.

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Panel Stories: Public Lies Private Lives in Panelaks and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay Sidlistes. Prejudiced and Prefabricated Judgements obscure the lives that were, are and can be lived in housing estates built during the communist period. Debunking these myths – these panel stories [1] – can help promote wider and deeper reflections on the communist period, postcommunist transition and the material politics of both the past and the present. By Benjamin Tallis. Despite their best efforts neither jetset shock therapists nor home-grown dissidents and their various governmental inheritors have been able to make postcommunist transition a clean break with the past.

Apparatchiks and functionaries were denounced and (occasionally) lustrated, only to re-appear as nomenklatura capitalists and even government ministers. Statues were removed, but the metronomic passing of time in their after-image triggers memory, not forgetting. Streets and metro stations were renamed, but we still know who Evropska and Dejvicka used to be. The persistent presence of the historical macbeth communist past is a key site of struggle for The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay Czech (and Slovak) collective memory. Competing interpretations, both domestic and bee reproduction international, significantly impact the ways in which people can live today, how post-communist societies are structured and whom they are for. Material reminders of that time have come in for particular criticism and none more so than the panelaky , the concrete-panel blocks that make up the sidliste and sidlisky which became such prominent features of Czechoslovak socialist cities. While a nascent revisionism has begun, belatedly and hesitantly, to recognise the architectural quality and even (shock, horror!) beauty of Czech brutalist architecture, it tends to focus on particular marquee buildings (such as the Nova Scena of the National Theatre or the Nova Budova of the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay National Museum). Meanwhile the communist-era housing estates are still routinely damned from all sides. However, recent research has shown that both domestic and international criticisms of the panelaky and sidliste are wide of the Essay Britain Rise Global Century mark. Blinkered by ideology and blind to the plurality of panelak and project life lived both then and now, these flawed critiques are indicative of wider problems of both understanding and policy in postcommunism. This essay sets out to debunk three of the most significant myths or ‘panel stories’ associated with communist era housing projects: (1) that panelaks and sidlistes were a ‘communist’ idea that were imposed on Czechs and Slovaks from elsewhere; (2) that problems with high-density public housing are indicative of the futile and flawed pursuit of modernist and social-democratic goals; and Philosophy (3) that people lived, live and will live badly in panelaks and sidlistes.

Condemned by some at the time of matalan maidstone times their construction as “cement deserts” good only of Developing a Personal of Leadership as “battle grounds for skills high-rise brats,[2]” the estates provide an all-too-easy synecdoche for the time of their building; “monotonous and repetitive, banal, inhuman […] poor in quality[3]” or most commonly (and lazily) “grey”[4] or at least “grayish.”[5] Normally nuanced and even-handed judges have been moved to unequivocal castigation of the aesthetics and morals of the of Developing Philosophy of Leadership ‘structural panel buildings’ that make up the vast majority of Czech housing constructed between 1955 and 1990. Sean Hanley of the UCL School for Slavonic and Eastern European Studies describes the “monster estates” as “hideous” and “awful,” and Vaclav Havel famously spoke of the bells poe “undignified rabbit pens, slated for liquidation.”[6] The controversy and criticism that continue to batter these concrete facades, from both home and abroad, reflects and of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership reinforces a particular politics of memory, identity and belonging. It stems from a combination of blanket judgements on the communist period, teleological notions of neoliberal postcommunist ‘transition’ and Essay on Great Britain Rise Global particular (Western European and North American) experiences and ideological interpretations of high-density social housing. Negative Czech judgements on a Personal Philosophy, panelaks in skills popular discourse and the statements of of Developing Essay well-known figures seem to stem largely from the circumstances of their making – they were built by the communists and must therefore not only be bad, but are a malaise forced upon Czechs (and others) by unwelcome intruders and soft in malay occupiers.[7] The popular and Philosophy of Leadership academic focus on the myriad crimes and appalling injustices of the communist regime have helped to support such views. These are undoubtedly important stories that needed to be told about life in communism. Bee Reproduction? However, they are not the only stories of The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay that time and cannot be used to historical sustain uniformly negative views of an era in which, under trying circumstances, people continued to of Developing Philosophy live, laugh, love, have children and make the homes in Global Century which they could grow up. The regime failed in its totalizing ambitions, but has been posthumously been granted success that it could have only dreamed of in a totalizing memory of the a Personal of Leadership time that erases the positives of this painful past. Similarly, while institutional design and what political washington the processes of re-adopting democratic politics, market economics and re-integrating to international institutional structures have been highly significant, they have often obscured lived experiences of transition, what came before and what may come after.[8] This blinkering, combined with the prefabricated opinions of many Americans and a Personal Essay Western Europeans towards large scale public housing projects has allowed skewed views of the material and social conditions of sidliste life to dominate past and present. After the fall of the wall, it was easy for historical incoming investors, advisors and a Personal of Leadership Essay other ‘tutors’, keen to school the in malay ‘children of the revolution’ in their neoliberal ways, to tar the panelaky with the same brush as their own concrete jungles.

They knew of the riots in Toxteth and Brixton and heard in the Sidlistes the echoes of the doomed Pruitt-Igoe housing project in The Importance of Developing Philosophy St. Louis. The self-styled ‘tutors’ found eager prefects in the dissidents of the communist period, all too happy to run-down the remnants of a hated regime, often with little thought for the people who lived there. Unlike many dissidents and their quieter sympathisers, the Sidliste dwellers were not waiting for prime real estate to be restituted to them. Many of these tutors also had a double interest in denigrating the communist past. It would both bolster their own superiority (and thus legitimacy as teachers) and enhance the case for neoliberal transition as a greater contrast to what had gone before, rather than a more social-democratic approach. Tearing down the old structures of bee reproduction ownership and usage was more feasible than destroying the panelaks themselves and raised the potential for Western-owned banks to The Importance of Leadership introduce market rates to these rent-controlled worlds. Social research conducted over the last two decades has questioned the basis for matalan times each of the criticisms leveled at Panelaks and sidlistes, exposing them as mere ‘Panel Stories’. Challenging these stories and telling new tales of panelak life not only has specific relevance to these persecuted places but opens up the possibility of questioning the socio-political settlements of The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay transition more widely. It can allow us to ask again what type of societies we want to build, who they are for and how they are constructed, as well to matalan opening re-examine the various roles of the state, the market, the individual and the collective. Detail from building at Sidliste Invalidovna, Prague.

Panel Story 1: A Communist Idea, Imposed from Outside. Over the last five years, the writings of Kimberly Elman Zarecor have made a good deal of multidisciplinary Czech scholarship on panelaks and The Importance Essay sidliste’s available to Anglophone audiences. What Party Was George? Zarecor has exposed the double fallacy of claims that concrete tower blocks were a communist idea and that they were only a Personal accepted in Czechoslovakia under Soviet duress[9]. Zarecor highlights how far from being imposed from outside, the specific circumstances of postwar Czechoslovakia spurred the continuation and development of matalan times interwar architectural practices and politics to accelerate and intensify, but not intitiate, the development of prefabricated structural panel housing in the communist era. The construction technology for Czech panelaks owed its development to of Developing Philosophy Essay the Building Department of the Bata shoe company in opening Zlin, which had been experimenting before the war with prefabricated building technologies. The architects Hynek Adamec and Bohumil Kula had continued these experiments during the war and headed the projects on new structural panel housing at the time when the department was incorporated into the communist Stavoprojekt building co-ordination system. Despite Zlin having been renamed Gottwaldov after Czechoslovakia’s first communist leader, Zarecor points out that Adamec and Kula were still working in the same office when developing the first panelak – the G-building (named for Gottwaldov). Zlin, Bata building from The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, Zlin.cz; Zlin workers housing, pre-war brick (erasmusu.com) and post-war concrete (zippomaniac.fr) Far from following developments elsewhere, Czechs (and Slovaks) were actually ahead of the game in panel building. The crucial breakthrough – as Zarecor shows – came when an innovative solution was found to the problem of joining the concrete panels together in a stable way.

The use of a series of steel ‘hooks’ and maidstone opening staples’ allowed for full exploitation of their structural properties and eliminated the need for an additional skeleton.[10] The pioneering architects who found this way previously worked for of Developing of Leadership Essay the feted (and avowedly capitalist) Bata company and were actually continuing construction-technology research that had begun long before the communist takeover. It is also significant to note, however, that the bee reproduction ideas which inspired the social aspects of both the panelak and the sidliste can also be found in the first Czechoslovak Republic (as well as elsewhere). The First Republic under the ‘Liberator-President’ and ‘philosopher king’ Tomas Garrigue Masaryk is widely hailed as the Czech golden age, a brief and glorious interlude of independence, after empire and before both Nazi occupation and Soviet subjugation. The wave of of Leadership Essay creativity in both culture and bee reproduction commerce that was unleashed during this time merits this golden reputation, with companies such as Bata and Tatra stylishly propelling Czechoslovakia into the ranks of the of Developing Philosophy Essay top-six exporting economies in the world. Times? The poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and Jaroslav Seifert; the painting of The Importance of Developing Philosophy Frantisek Kupka, Jindrich Styrsky and – the already post-gender – Toyen; the buildings of local talents such as Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik, Josef Fuchs and Oldrich Tyl, alongside those of proto-starchitects Adolf Loos and Mies van der Rohe, ensured that there was plentiful art to accompany the bee reproduction industry.

Karel Teige, Building and Poem (1927) the Minimum Dwelling (1932). However, like much of Europe at the time, the The Importance a Personal Philosophy First Republic was also awash with radical Marxist ideas. A mixture of proactive idealism and reaction to the polarized living conditions of the time inspired those such as Nezval and Karel Teige – writer, architecture critic and ringleader of the Essay on Great as the Leader of the radical Devetsil group – to rail against the inequalities and The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay injustices they saw around them. They sought collective salvation through both art and industry, but saw that both should serve functional, social goals rather than being beholden to the monied mores of the market. Teige in bee reproduction particular struggled with the tension[11] between instrumental social function and of Developing a Personal of Leadership liberating creative expression, but in opening architectural terms prioritized the former, arguing that beauty would spring from the minimal forms that would most efficiently serve their purpose.[12] Demanding that those at the sharp end of the housing crisis at the time receive only “the best of the best,” Teige publically upbraided Le Corbusier for abandoning such functional purity and effectively re-introducing decoration; he slammed Mies’ much-praised Tugendhat Villa as the “pinnacle of modern snobbery.”[13]

Villa Tugendhat, Brno, from the guardian.com. It is therefore no wonder that Zarecor is able to draw a clear line between the construction of panelaks and sidlistes in the communist period and social tendencies in First Republic Modernism, which were, however, also strongly connected to non-marxist Bauhaus figures such as Walter Groupius. Although Stavoprojekt, a state-run system of architecture and engineering offices, replaced private practice in the late 1940s and changed the a Personal of Leadership profession profoundly, the vast housing estates in many Czech and Slovak cities are, in fact, the fulfillment of an interwar vision of modernity that emphasized the right to housing at a minimum standard over the artistic qualities of individual buildings (a debate that Teiger wrestled with and which continues to animate discussions over functionalism and modernism’s social purpose into the present). Zarecor highlights intensified construction of Panelaks, as the Czech version of what she beautifully terms “Socialism with a Modernist face” in the wake of the Essay Leader 18th success of the Czech pavilion at Expo ’58 – the Brussels Dream of ‘One Day in Czechoslovakia’. The socialist students of Karel Teige – notably Karel Janu, Jiri Stursa and Jiri Vozelinek – that rose to prominent positions in postwar Czechoslovak architecture helped shape the estates. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Essay? However, so too did Havlicek, Honzik and other non-Marxists who continued to build for the new regime, sharing the soft skills common idea that building housing was a social good.[14]

While it is of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay almost certainly true that the scale and what was george scope of panelak-based sidlistes was greater in Czechoslovakia due to The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership the communist takeover, it cannot be claimed that these architectures and urbanisms were imposed on Czechs from outside, nor that they were a communist-era idea. The Bells Poe? However, emphasizing the links, rather than the rupture, between the The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay First republic and the Communist period goes against matalan maidstone opening times, the currently dominant and highly Manichean politics of Czech collective memory that divides positive and negative in fairly bald temporal terms – 1918-38: Good ; 1938-1989: Bad . 1989 onward: Good again (we hope). Panel Building at Hloubetin, Prague. Panel Story 2: High-Density Public Housing as Failed Socialist Modernist Dreams. Dissident attacks on panelaks have resonated with wider narratives of neoliberal transition about the role of government in society and of Developing of Leadership Essay related attitudes toward public housing. The ‘End of History’ consensus that laissez-faire, (neo)liberal-market-democracy is the in malay only way to govern chimed with hostility towards high-density public housing as architecturally flawed, naively irresponsible and ultimately dangerous social engineering. Scepticism of government born from bad experience of a particular regime has met ideological opposition to the state as such.

The failure of The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay social housing projects in the West has been conflated with the matalan maidstone opening times failure of state socialism in The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay the second world with both used as evidence of dangerous burdens of the bells poe utopian dreams. Buildings from Sidliste Invalidovna and Sidliste Cerveny Vrch, Prague. Such attacks generally eschew the controversialist, yet architecturally adventurous and of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership open-minded iconoclasm of Charles Jencks.[15] They tend to prefer the offended traditionalism of Simon Jenkins, whilst retaining their mutual weakness for decor and ornament – eyebrows simultaneously arched and bee reproduction furrowed in facial gymnastics that Alec Guinness would be proud of. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership Essay? Crucially they often combine this aesthetic position with the selfish Hayekian/Friedmanite socio-economic Darwinism that seeks to entrench power for those who already have money and which, since ’89, has come disguised as freedom. Matalan Opening? A supposedly hard-headed pragmatism in which politics is disguised as economics; a refusal to of Developing of Leadership be suckered into social dreaming. Often accompanied (in some quarters at least) by faux-rueful laments for the failure of stillborn social schemes that never had a chance, they are wheeled out time and again as evidence for why even marginally idealistic or minimally visionary social endeavours can never work. The Death of Modern Architecture. Long before Jencks famously used the dynamiting of political was george this massive and ill-fated housing project to The Importance Philosophy Essay proclaim the death of Modern Architecture “on July 15, 1972 at maidstone, 3:32pm or thereabouts” the Pruitt-Igoe story had come to symbolise the supposedly hopeless futility of The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay well-intentioned social housing in the US. The Bells Poe? A recent documentary film, The Pruitt-Igoe Myth, [16] exposes even this – the nadir of all the panel stories – as just that, a myth.

The documentary, which takes an academically informed, socio-anthropological approach, effectively refutes the charges against the architecture of Pruitt-Igoe (and by implication against the principles of modernist-inflected high-rise and high-density public housing in general).[17] The joy with which the initial residents recall first moving in to the sufficiently spacious and well-appointed apartments (particularly in comparison to The Importance of Developing Essay the slums where many had previously lived) is manifest. One resident – Ruby Russell – who moved into an apartment on the 11 th floor coined the affectionate and memorable term “the poor man’s penthouse” to describe her apartment, while others describe the feelings of community, of safety and the possibility this provided for children to macbeth play and a Personal Philosophy of Leadership adults to live. However, this was not to last. As the documentary shows as it details the total collapse of this housing project to the point where the police were afraid to enter and the tower blocks ended up being dynamited, this fate was largely pre-ordained. Cutbacks to Rise as the Global 18th the original design and the failure of the 1949 US Federal Housing Act to provide any maintenance money for of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay such projects – requiring that such funds came from the rents paid by the low-income tenants – was the first nail in its coffin. Racism in both planning policy and the everyday practices of citizens continued de facto segregation policies long after they became de jure impermissible.[18] The combination of ‘white flight’, a declining city population (robbing it of historical necessary tax revenues to pay for essential services, including housing maintenance), the selling off of the of Developing Philosophy Essay downtown to property developers and official encouragement for sprawling suburban, low-density housing at the expense of the rotting urban core meant that the estate failed within grim socio-economic context. Maidstone Opening Times? Once the poor maintenance made Pruitt-Igoe a more difficult place to live, those who could, moved out.

Low occupancy rates further diminished the money available for upkeep and repairs, unleashing a vicious cycle of decline and degradation. As the documentary powerfully shows, this was not accidental. Rather, it was rather the result of the deliberate diminution of governmental power to act in a socially progressive manner in a politico-economic environment stacked against the most disadvantaged and predicated on the myth of the socially-unencumbered, all-consuming individual. Park Hill, Sheffield, bdonline.com; the guardian.com and The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay Robin Hood Gardens from detail-online.com. Significantly, the documentary specifically links the failure to Essay Britain Rise Global of the 18th Century support social housing to its associations with socialism, which both during the a Personal cold war and in the aftermath of ’89 made it ‘un-American’ and thus taboo in Essay Rise as the Leader of the the US. While European experiences of a Personal of Leadership public and social housing have not been as extreme as Pruitt-Igoe, the problems of soft housing estates such as Park Hill in The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay Sheffield and Robin Hood Gardens in political London, as well as many of the French banlieues can similarly not be blamed on their modernist (or, too-often, modernish) architecture, nor on the social intentions that inspired their construction. Rather, it was the failure to adequately address the underlying social conditions that prompted their creation and then the lack of conviction in backing the estates – with proper materials and maintenance – to provide (part of) the solution that sealed their fate. That this lack of conviction held after the a Personal Essay fall of the Berlin wall is not surprising.

The very construction of such estates as a response to the demand for bee reproduction rapid urbanization and the ongoing postwar housing crisis in communist countries can be described after ’89 as “arrogant”[19] or dismissed as being “in the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy best traditions of vulgar Marxism” which apparently implies that, “the Communist regime believed that people were shaped by their environment.”[20] It would be hard to think of a government – or indeed practically any other institution – that didn’t believe people were to at least some degree shaped by their environment. Indeed the prospect of people being impervious to their built environments would mean the end of historical architecture as anything more than art, or worse, decoration. When Sean Hanley claims that this substantiates his charge that the building of the panelaks was ideologically motivated, the The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay point made by Michel Foucault and echoed by Slavoj Zizek that ideology is at what washington, its most powerful when it is most hidden, should also be considered in relation to the ‘pragmatic’, post-’89 treatment of social housing and the damage done more widely to ideas of social democracy and transformative governance by the collapse of of Developing Philosophy communism and the neo-liberal consensus that filled the vacuum. Panel Building at Hloubetin. Panel Story 3: People Lived and Live Badly in Panelaks and Sidlistes. The fall of Pruitt-Igoe, the Brixton and Toxteth riots and Global Leader of the Century the postmodern malaise that long beset the Unite d’Habitation and its ilk have been particularly unkind to millions of Central East Europeans. Of Developing Of Leadership? They have been forced to belatedly ‘learn’ that the places in which they grew up, laughed, loved, raised children, realized creative activities, plotted defiance, cohabitation, collaboration or escape and where they created their cosy dens[21], insulated to the bells poe some degree from the party regime, were no longer appropriate for their lives as ‘New Europeans’.

Crucially however, as even noted by critics[22] of the appearance and intentions of the panelaks, the social mix of the communist-era housing projects was very different than that of their counterparts in the West. In the a Personal Philosophy Essay second world, largte numbers of people from different walks of life and what party was george washington from varied social strata finding themselves (willingly or otherwise) thrust into high-rise neighbourhoods. This is partly due to the sheer number of people who live in such developments. Zarecor[23] quotes figures of 3.1 million people living in The Importance 1,165,000 apartment units in 80,000 panelaks in Czech Republic. With almost a third of the total population and nearly half the city of Prague living in panelaks, the bee reproduction issues facing postsocialist sidlistes are, in most cases, very different than those experienced by residents in their deprived and marginalized western counterparts. Building at Sidliste Dablice. Many communist-era estates are well-planned. Well-connected and well-provided for communities: house-proud and successful places. Their abundant and well-kempt common spaces (leafy in summertime, albeit rendered climactically bare in winter) host a variety of public services and private activities and allow collective grandmothering in the ample and adventurous social space they provide for children.

There was not the Essay same stigma attached to political party living in The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy these places and as the artist Eva Kotatkova argues, these were places where many people grew up happily and well, learning to be the Essay Britain Rise as the Global of the 18th creative and independent, experiencing concrete as schoolyard rather than jungle and certainly not succumbing to the attempts to create new uniform ‘Socialist [Wo]Man’: I was born in Prague, grew up in one of the typical grey block-houses on the periphery and went to school there. The Importance A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership? Many people find this kind of architecture awful or boring but I have a strong nostalgia connected with this place – a place of the soft most formative periods of my life. Many motifs appearing in The Importance Philosophy Essay my work have their origin in the time of my childhood and adolescence and in the specific atmosphere of this location.[24] Kotatkova’s comments are not the isolated opinion of Essay Rise as the Global Leader 18th a nostalgic or contrarian artist. Zarecor’s work also draws upon several academic studies that show consistently high levels of satisfaction with sidliste life.

Research conducted in 2001 by a Personal of Leadership, Lux and Sunega showed that 64% of Czechs considered their accommodation ideal and only 11% planned to move within three years. Moreover, Zarecor also cites studies that show that this is bee reproduction not a new trend, with many sidliste residents recalling moving to their new Havirov homes in the same excited and reverent terms that the Pruitt Igoe tenants did. Recent work by Eva Spackova and Martin Jemelka in the Hranice sidliste in Karvina also shows generally high degrees of satisfaction, although mixed with calls for further improvements relating to of Developing Essay upkeep and Essay on Great Rise Global Leader 18th Century noise issues. As Spackova put its in an interview with Zarecor: Generally it is possible to say that the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership majority of imperfections in the housing development, according to the opinions of the residents, are not conditional on architectural solutions but rather on soft, the unmaintained, disordered, and unsatisfactory control and commercial abuse of public space and the former civic facilities. [25] Hotel Kupa at The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay, Jizni Mesto.

In a widely cited ethnographic study of the as the Leader Prague sidlistes at a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, Jizni mesto and soft skills in malay Jihozapadni Mesto, French anthropologist Laurent Bazac-Billaud concluded that people in panelaks generally know their neighbours and that both social and transport networks not only exist but also work.[26] Furthermore, Hanley repeats Bazac-Billaud’s finding that: panelak life is based on a intense drive for privacy and individuality. Inside their standard panelak flats – identical in layout and to thousands of others the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay length and breadth of former Czechoslovakia – the key impulse of historical macbeth Czech panelak residents is to create their own private worlds. This is of Developing Philosophy Essay still however not enough for Hanley who claims that “In a democratic society, [panelaks] would never have been built. Essay On Great Britain Global Leader Of The 18th Century? Such hideous-looking, poorly planned public housing would quickly have attracted criticism and protest (as it did in the West). The Importance Philosophy? In a market economy, no one with any money would have invested a crown into Britain Rise Global Leader 18th Century a panelak flat.”

London’s Broadwater Farm Estate, from trainwalkslondon.com and flickr.com. Hanley’s critique could be read as a dire warning about the potential fate of panelaks in the postcommunist period after the The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay end of rent controls, although currently this has only happened in exceptional cases. In the town of Most, the semi-ghetto of Chanov carries the maidstone opening times real echoes of of Developing Essay Pruitt-Igoe, not in its architecture, but in the social neglect that led to the decay and near abandonment of this Roma-majority housing estate. Similarly, Zarecor points to another North Bohemian town – Litvinov – and the Janov estate where an anti-Roma riot took place in 2008. Research conducted by what party was george, a team lead by the prominent geographer Ludek Sykora showed that the situation in The Importance a Personal of Leadership Janov had been exacerbated by the sale of municipal apartments to ‘investors’ who refused to invest in repairing or upgrading the buildings and rented the declining apartments to historical low-income Roma groups, helping to create social segregation and stoke racial tensions.[27] Chanov, Most, from wikimapia.com; Pruitt-Igoe from Radiantwriting.hubpages.com. In many more cases however, the right-to-buy schemes allowed tenants to purchase their apartments affordably from municipalities and rent controls remained in place until recently. Right-to-buy schemes were balanced with incentives to Philosophy form tenants associations and soft in malay residents committees in order to be able to benefit from The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, EU-funded refurbishment schemes. Opening? These schemes have largely consisted of the installation of new windows, doors, elevators and the application of The Importance Essay fixed Styrofoam cladding directly to the outside of panelaks, which are then covered with plaster in Essay Britain Global of the Century order to improve insulation. Residents have then been able to choose from a variety of colours to repaint the new cladding, eliminating the a Personal of Leadership Essay darkness at the edge of town. However, transforming the skills dreaded grey into what Zarecor terms a ‘rainbow’ of colours threatens to create what Spackova terms “multi-coloured kitsch.” Zarecor too warns against the loss of architectonic detail such as the definable edges of panels or surface texture which give the buildings a sense of proportion and without which they risk becoming “cartoon likenesses in of Developing a Personal of Leadership the shape of apartment buildings with undifferentiated surfaces.”

Popular with residents, these largely cosmetic renovations seem to please Hanley, who in a later piece states “After this beauty treatment the hideous grey panelaky look pretty civilized” passing in an augenblick , for Holland or Germany. This confirms Hanley’s mainstream hierarchical view of transition (where success equals imitation of the West), but also Zarecor’s observation that, if all that took was a lick of paint, then perhaps there wasn’t so much wrong with them in the first place. Sidliste Rajska Zahrada (Paradise Garden) Building New Panel Stories: Re-evaluating and reviving the realities beyond the myths. The difficulty of disentangling aesthetic judgements on ‘grey’ or ‘ugly’ panel buildings from their context in the politics of communist memory and the particular political economy of the what party was george post-89 world makes it unsurprising that they should provide rich material for visual artists with social sensibilities. That artists with praxis as different as Veronika Drahotova, Tomas Dzadon, Patricie Fexova, Eva Kotatkova and Katerina Seda should find inspiration or fascination in these massive structures and micro-societies speaks to their significance as sites for the interaction of and negotiation between public and private, uniformity and individuality, enabling constraints and bounded freedoms.

The work of scholars such as Kimberly Zarecor, Eva Spackova, Laurent Bazac-Billaud and Ludek Sykora, as well as the The Importance Philosophy Essay engagements of the aforementioned artists call into question what we know about panelaks and macbeth sidlistes and the contexts in which we know it. This challenges the how we remember both the public politics and The Importance of Developing a Personal the private lives of communism and the ways they have been re-negotiated in transition. It questions the social relations that are possible on housing estates today and between the estates and elsewhere. In turn this prompts us to consider who we live with, how we want to do so and to what political party was george what extent we can achieve that. It questions the underlying assumptions of post-communist societies and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy they ways these societies are constructed – now and in the future – as well as who they are for. Panelaks and sidlistes are too often seen merely as monumental milestones on the way to a future that was never built: as inconvenient reminders of a past that would be better forgotten or as hangovers of Essay on Great Britain of the Century uneasy dreams. Zarecor rightly calls for of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay the rehabilitation of panelaks, which would act as a catalyst for re-appraisals of other aspects of the bells poe Czech society. Of Developing A Personal Essay? If this is to matalan maidstone opening times happen, then the old myths of The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay outside imposition, misdiagnosis of the maidstone ills of The Importance social programmes and social democracy need to be exposed. Fallacies of the bells poe indignity and malicious attacks on panel dwellers need to be put to of Developing Philosophy Essay rest in party was george washington order to The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership better deal with real emergent inequity and emiseration. To start telling new panel stories, we need to macbeth experience and embrace the diversity and vibrancy of sidliste life, aesthetically and socially, from the clean neo-functionalist lines of the Invalidovna estate to Dablice’s open green spaces, Jizni Mesto’s thriving brewery and the panoramic views from the Hotel Kupa.

This is a re-drafted version of a piece that was initially published hard copy in of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay Vlak 4, Prague, London, New York, Melbourne, Paris, Amsterdam: Eqqus Press (2013) and skills in malay is also featured in Abolishing Prague , ed. Louis Armand, Prague: Litteraria Pragensia (2014). [1] The title refers to The Importance of Leadership Vera Chytilova’s legendary film ‘Panel Story’ which provides a supposedly candid, but largely negative look at the early days of the Jizni Mesto housing estate. [2] From the poem Jizni Mesto (South City) by Jiri Zacek, reproduced in From a Terrace in Prague, ed. Stephan Delbos (2011) Prague: Litteraria Pragensia. [3] As noted by macbeth, Els de Vos’ (2012) review of Lynne Attwood’s Socialist Housing in the Eastern Bloc: Gender and a Personal Housing in Soviet Russia and the bells poe Kimberly Elman Zarecor’s Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity , published in The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay Technology and Culture , 53 (2), April 2012, pp. 465-469. [5] Ivan T. On Great Rise Global Leader Century? Berend as quoted in Zarecor (2012) Zarecor (2012) ‘Socialist Neighbourhoods after Socialism: The Past, Present and Future of Postwar Housing in the Czech Republic’ , East European Politics and a Personal Philosophy Essay Societies, 26: 486. [8] e.g.

Alison Stenning Kathrin Hoerschelmann (2008) History, Geography and bee reproduction Difference in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-socialism? Antipode, 40(2): 312-335. [9] Zarecor (2009) ‘The Rainbow Edges: The Legacy of Communist Mass Housing and the Colorful Future of Czech Cities in a Personal Peggi Clouston, Ray Kinoshita Mann, Stephen Schreiber, eds. Without a Hitch – New Directions in Prefabricated Architecture . http://scholarworks.umass.edu/wood/2008/; Zarecor Eva S pac ? kova ? (2012) ‘Czech Panelaks are Disappearing, but the Housing Estates Remain’ , Architecture Town Planning (Architektur Urbanizmus), 34: 288-301; [10] For the the bells poe fullest treatment of this, see Zarecor (2011) Manufacturing a Socialist Modernity: Housing in a Personal Philosophy Essay Czechoslovakia 1945-1960, Pittsburgh University Press: Pittsburgh, PA. [11] See for matalan maidstone times example Peter Zusi ‘s excellent (2004) ‘The Style of the Present: Karel Teige on Constructivism and Poetism’, Representations (88); (2008) ‘Tendentious Modernism: Karel Teige’s path to Functionalism’, Slavic Review (67:4). [12] e.g. Teige (2002[1932]) Nejmensi Byt (The Minimum Dwelling), MIT Press: Cambridge MA, trans Eric Dluhlosch. [13] Karel Teige, The Minimum Dwelling, p6. [15] Jencks (1991 [1977]) The Language of Postmodern Architecture, New York: Rizzoli.

[16] The Pruitt-Igoe Myth (2011) dir. Chad Friedrichs. [17] See for example Oscar Newman (1975) ‘Reactions to the Defensible Space Study Some Further Findings’ International Journal of Mental Health vol 4(3):48-70. [18] See also Elizabeth Birmingham (1999) ‘Refraining the Ruins: Pruitt-#1113093;Igoe, structural racism, and African American rhetoric as a space for cultural critique, Western Journal of Communication, 63:3, 291-309. [21] See the Czech film Pelisky (literally translated as ‘Cosy Dens’) , directed by Jan Hrebejk. [22] Sean Hanley specifically notes this in his 1999 piece. [24] Interview with Luigi Fassi in Kotatkova ‘ Documentation 2’

[26] Hanley (1999) and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay Kristina Alda, writing for the Prague Daily Monitor both reference Bazac-Billaud’s work. http://praguemonitor.com/2009/10/27/praguescape-pink. [27] Sykora et al (2010), Rezidencni Segregace, Univerzita Karlova Minesterstvo pro mnistni rozvoj v Ceske Republice. The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored (Full Version) The Unbearable Lightness of Being Ignored. Czech Brutalist Architecture The Politics of Material Memory in the bells poe Postcommunism. Those in the aesthetic know have long recognized that there is much more to Prague than the dreamlike castle rising above the of Developing Baroque and Rococo confections that jostle for Essay Britain Rise Global of the tourists’ attention in the picturesque old town. Interwar Czechoslovakia gained a well-earned reputation for its modernist milieu, from which sprang the painting of Frantisek Kupka, the poetry of Vitezslav Nezval and the design classics such as the streamlined teardrop tourer, the The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay Tatra T77.

Architects working in Masaryk’s Republic also ensured that Modernist light flooded the bourgeois residences of the famous Villas Mueller (Adolf Loos) and the bells poe Tugendhat (Mies van der Rohe). In contrast to the folksy, myth-making and introspective imaginary of the ‘National Revival’, the nascent bi-national consciousness that emerged from the decline of decadent Kakania and the carnage of the First World War openly embraced the International Style. Czech architects and their patrons absorbed lessons learnt abroad and let their projects talk the language of CIAM[1], but with a proudly Czech accent. Of many possible examples, Oldrich Tyl and Josef Fuch’s Functionalist Trade-Fair Palace in Holesovice and Josef Havlicek and Karel Honzik’s Corbusian Pension Institute in Zizkov display a familiarity and comfort with the The Importance a Personal of Leadership principles and practice of Modernist architecture that fuelled the urban utopianism of Tomas Bata’s “shiny phenomenon” in Zlin and reflected the confidence of a Republic, recognized as such for the first time, beginning to times feel like it belonged in the world. The thoroughly modern flourishing of this sense of collective self was tragically cut short by the British and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay French betrayal at Munich. Chamberlain’s cruel condemnation of Czechoslovakia as ‘a faraway country of which we know little’, an expendable pawn in the cynical play of great-power politics, opened the door for historical Nazi annexation and occupation, ‘liberation’ by the Red Army and the subsequent slide into authoritarian communism. That short, twenty-year period, remembered elsewhere as a time of The Importance of Leadership Essay crisis[2], was burned into historical the Czechoslovak collective memory as a time of unparalleled freedom and creativity, hope and possibility. This was a time when the of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay swirling forces of modernist creativity, such as those of Karel Teige’s Devetsil ensured that while this medium-sized, Central European country grew to become world’s 6 th largest exporting economy, it was feted not only for the bells poe its wares, but the The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay way it wore them.

The memory of this period has become crucial to historicized understandings of what followed as well as ideas of how to be, become and belong in the present, which has been both reflected and historical reinforced in the material memoryscape. The clipping of the First Republic’s youthful wings is often seen as the end of the Czech modernist line, leaving behind an architectural high-water mark as a reminder of what could have been, of a time when concrete could be the stuff of dreams, rather than the material manifestation of a Personal of Leadership a closing curtain-wall. The monuments to that golden youth are now regular highlights on tourist schedules, highly recommended in guidebooks and often featured in design magazines. Significantly, they are promoted and maintained by city and state authorities, sites of officially sanctioned mourning, melancholia and nostalgia. Bee Reproduction? However, while such acclaim is richly deserved, the politics of The Importance of Developing Essay material memory are never far from postcommunist surfaces. The focus on the First Republic has meant that many of Prague’s later modernist gems have often been ignored, seemingly hidden in plain sight. What Prague is the bells poe For.

Whereas Berlin is lauded for The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay its TV Tower and Cafe Moskau and the former Soviet Union has seen its Cosmic Communist Constructions Photographed to widespread acclaim by Frederic Chaubin, Czech Brutalism has remained largely uncelebrated, mired in the brutal circumstances of its making. Political Party Washington? It is notable that in a feature article on another recent book in this emerging genre[3], ‘Socialist Modern’ buildings in Slovakia, Poland, Lithuania, Serbia, Hungary, Ukraine and Georgia are mentioned, while the Czech Republic is conspicuous by its absence. The Ministry of Transportation in Tblisi, The Slovak National Library in Bratislava, the Riga TV Tower and everything from the post-office to the university in Skopje all warrant attention but, somehow, in the international imagination, this is not what Prague is for . This impression has often also been cultivated by previously dominant politics of public memory, with Prague’s brutalist buildings seen as sad anomalies amidst the ancien splendour – inconvenient material truths that have nonetheless served a useful purpose by prodding at the guilty conscience of visiting tourists and statesmen, obscuring their uses and material qualities by casting them into the shadow of totalitarianism. It is a Personal of Leadership Essay important to understand the causes of this willed amnesia, which in the time after communism, curated a particularly powerful impression of the Britain Rise Global recent past and of Developing a Personal Essay has had significant implications for how life can be lived in the present. The confluence of international and local understandings of the history of the short 20 th Century and especially its second-half, has created a dominant narrative of post-communist collective memory. This view sees 1989 as the inevitable victory of a superior western model that ended a period defined exclusively by oppression and suffering, thus condemning the lived experience of Essay on Great Rise as the Global of the 18th Century millions of people to the garbage heap of history and constructing them in the present as victims and damaged goods. The Importance A Personal Essay? In part, this has been tactical, helping to forge an understanding of a Czechs as ‘Central Europeans’ and thus deserving of what a ‘return to Europe’, to the exclusion of those further East, condemned as oriental others, as non-EUropeans. Milan Kundera’s famous essay ‘The Kidnapped West’[4] is a prominent example of The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay such an party, approach, asserting Central European belonging in a Western idea of Europe and grounding its legitimacy in the interwar period.

Central Europe becomes the West’s jilted lover, banished to the Russian East, diverted from it’s ‘true’ path and of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership facing a kidnapped present and a hijacked future. Ironically, although Kundera explicitly rejects Marx and Hegel’s version of History, he effectively espouses a Fukuyamian historicism avant le letter, albeit one that limits the teleology of a Western destiny of ‘Liberal-Market-Democracy’ to Western and Central Europeans and Americans . The importance of this narrative to dominant understandings of postcommunism cannot be overstated. Playing on matalan maidstone, the curtailed experience of democracy and linking this to the cultural flourishing of the First Republic, helped Vaclav Havel and of Developing Lech Walesa (and others) ensure that the so-called ‘Return to Europe’ was institutionally concretised in accession to the European Union, although this very much on the EU’s terms[5]. The creation of the link between the First Republic and contemporary belonging helps to erase nuanced understandings of the communist period. To be clear, this was indeed a time of tremendous suffering, oppressive politics and the callous crushing of a shocking amount of human potential, but was that the bee reproduction whole story?

As Vaclav Havel famously noted, there were many forms of resistance and a Personal Philosophy of Leadership resilience in the face of terrible circumstances, with those who were supposedly powerless, actually enacting their power on the everyday stage. It is therefore worth questioning whether this this was a ‘postcultural’ period, as Kundera claimed, or whether this assertion is bee reproduction as ideologically freighted as the of Developing a Personal communism (and Russianness) he set out to oppose. The Manichean view of the interwar period as good, the time until ’89 as bad and what followed as a return to the good life has had several important effects and affects. Following Kundera, this sees postcommunist ‘transition’ as a journey from point to point, from the “stolen European and capitalist past” to the predetermined ?progressive? trajectory of the macbeth West[6]. However, once back on of Developing Philosophy Essay, the same path, Central Europeans were seen to be behind and historical macbeth backward, frequently labeled either as ‘success stories’ or ‘laggards’[7] in imitating the always-already advanced West which they were benchmarked against, leading Juergen Habermas to denigrate the events of 1989 as “catching up revolutions.” Such a view fits with the pedagogical historicism in which the victims of communism became the ‘pupils’ of heroic European and American ‘tutors’[8].

This is also reflected in the patronizing Pentecostalism that styled these revolutions as a re-birth and that talks of ‘young democracies’ and the ‘children of 89’[9]. Hard Times in Soft Cities. Importantly for this discussion of the social meaning of architecture and its role in material memory, characterizations of the communist period as one of merely kidnap and theft ignore the complexity of lived experiences of the time leaving victim testimonies as the main mode of available and acceptable public speech regarding that time. Labelling art, architecture and literature of the time as ‘postcultural’ is a delegitimizing move that seeks to reify other types of The Importance of Leadership Essay culture and which supports unfairly totalizing accounts of communist experiences, a treatment all too common where communist-era cultural production is concerned. However, architecture has a particular place in the cultural politics of memory, as unlike visual art or literature, engagement with it is not always a choice.

We all experience the skills in malay material environments we live in and the buildings in which we live and work may not always be of of Developing a Personal of Leadership our choosing. Noting Jonathan Raban’s account of the ‘Soft City’ – that makes us as we make it – recognizes the importance of the imposition or contestation of material meaning and the different ways we experience architectural and urban affect. Czech Brutalist buildings were mainly built after the crushing of the soft skills in malay 1968 Prague Spring and have all too often become seen as the distinctly inhuman face of socialist ‘Normalisation’. These structures have thus been equated with unwelcome outside interference at a time when the a Personal Philosophy only available international style was seen as a material manifestation of imprisonment, rather than the interwar proof of progressive, dynamic cosmopolitanism. Considering the very different reaction that Brutalist buildings have often inspired in the reunified Germany, it is important to note the skills significance of different understandings of the of Developing of Leadership Essay communist period there, as well as the impact of a very different (inter)war past.

This may have contributed to a continued embrace of contemporary modernism throughout the skills post-war period, with the clear connection (and open competition) between building in the East and the West, reaffirming national connection by of Developing Philosophy, highlighting the falseness of enforced division. In Germany, as in what political was george washington many other places, Brutalism was understood as an architecture from within rather than one imposed from without, albeit with differing variations and of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay connotations in the two halves of the divided nation. This foregrounds the social meaning-making that plays an the bells poe, essential, if often under-acknowledged role in aesthetic judgement. Thus, the marquee buildings of the Czechoslovak Normalisation period are often seen as all too closely entwined with authoritarian politics of the period, with their aesthetic, material and The Importance of Leadership functional qualities and the complexity of their social meaning is historical too often ignored in this totalizing gaze. The communist period is often seen in a Personal of Leadership Essay the popular, Western imagination as ‘grey’ or ‘drab’, with ‘the people’ of the time eking out historical macbeth a meagre existence in a concrete-clad, shadowy half-light that is all too easily equated with run-down, large-scale housing projects.

These descriptions, as well as the slights on key socialist-era buildings, continue to reverberate in the concrete estates – built then, but still lived-in now – many of The Importance a Personal which were realized in a brutalist vernacular: from the low rise ‘Solidarita’ in Strasnice and Karlin’s sleek ‘Invalidovna’, to the fleets of panel-buildings in Dablice and Jizni Mesto, they have been all too easily dismissed as mere communist blocks that signal second class-life in what was the second world. After ’89 these visions of how the future used to look no longer looked the part, as post-communist countries tried to shed their socialist skin and tried to Essay Britain of the 18th Century emulate the West. This helped to of Developing a Personal contribute to the postcommunist identity crisis and the vacuum of political subjectivity created by hurried passing of these winds of change. Damning the buildings of that time has also helped to cast people who live in historical macbeth them today as poor relations, willfully forgetting that these were, and of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay continue to be, the places where people grew up, loved, laughed and even enjoyed moments in ignorance or defiance of the the bells poe party regime. These were the of Developing a Personal Philosophy walls that sheltered growing families, harboured thought contemplation, witnessed the realization of small-scale creative activities and within which, people made their cosy dens.

Brutalism beyond Brutality. More recently however, as the post-historical utopianism of the neoliberalising global order has been buffeted by an economic crisis so prolongued that it has become the norm and as the realities of living by rules largely made elsewhere become clearer, it has been possible to detect mnemonic counter-currents in the Prague cityscape and beyond. Aesthetically and functionally, the designs of Karel Prager, Vladimir and Vera Machonin and others at the forefront of Czech brutalism, have stood the test of time and are starting to receive the Essay on Great Rise 18th Century local and international acclaim that they deserve. Much like the myth of the Czech ‘return to Europe’ post-89, Prague did not need to “return to the international architecture scene[10]” after the The Importance a Personal Philosophy cold war, it had always been there. The re-appraisal of these previously neglected architectural jewels, which increasingly stand out amidst the banality of contemporary commercial construction is part of a wider contestation of the totalizing memory of the communist period and party a new willingness to accept that not everything produced in this time was necessarily bad[11]. This points to the need to re-engage a past all too quickly jettisoned in The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay the haste of Essay on Great Rise as the Global 18th Century transition, not to Philosophy of Leadership pardon or rehabilitate the communist regime, but to recognize the party nuance and complexity of the lived experiences of that period, of the significant grey areas that people were required to operate in and the of Developing Philosophy of Leadership not so grey experiences they may have had in and around the soft in malay buildings of the time. The Importance A Personal Philosophy Essay? Reconsidering the architectures of that time and Essay Britain Rise as the of the 18th their place in contemporary urban life is a significant step in reclaiming the The Importance a Personal Essay multiple singularities of the past and soft skills thus restoring the possibility of subjective authenticity, that sense of having been both then and now and being able to speak as fully as one can of both times and indeed to rescue the The Importance a Personal beautiful babies that were thrown out with the surfeit of bad bathwater.

The former Czechoslovak Federal Assembly building (Prager, 1972) at the top of matalan maidstone times Wenceslas Square, which served as the post-89 headquarters Radio Free Europe has been fully refurbished to mark its transformation into ‘The New Building’ of the Czech National Museum. This is the building that is often seen under construction in The Importance a Personal the background of political party photos showing the Russian tanks that came to crush the Prague Spring and as a building explicitly intended for of Developing a Personal Essay the authorities attained massive symbolic significance. That this architectural wonder was effectively given away to a foreign organization in the wake of the velvet revolution is also indicative of the politics of the time, as its gleaming resurgence at the heart of officially-sanctioned national memory. Another Prager building, the Nova Scena (1983) of the skills National Theatre, famous as the ‘Magic Lantern’ where roundtable talks were held during the seizure of The Importance of Leadership Essay power from the communist regime has gone from being derided as looking like “frozen piss”[12] to being lauded as a must-see site in the latest Prague guide from international tastemakers Wallpaper* magazine. Similarly, the Kotva[13] department store is macbeth a reassuringly solid presence opposite the pink creme chantille of the recent and hideously Disney-like Palladium shopping centre. Hotels such as the Intercontinental[14], and President[15] downtown and of Developing of Leadership Essay the Praha[16] and Pyramida[17] further out have long catered for tourists and conference-goers, while commercial buildings such as the Smichov Komercni Banka[18] and the Cube[19] office complex showing the party was george washington range of brutal beauty in Prague.

Many of these buildings are archetypal brutalist designs, showcasing that the use of exposed materials arranged in playful or elegantly repetitive forms that is juxtaposed with the solidity and weight of the materials themselves. The Importance Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? This play of lightness and weight, elegance and solidity is often lost in the brutalist nomenclature which was coined for its use of Essay on Great Rise as the Global Leader of the 18th Century Beton brut , rather than anything more sinister. The sweeping curves and egalitarian distribution of balcony space at the Hotel Praha and the elevated and seemingly floating, curtain-walled body of the former Federal Assembly speak of a technical mastery of contemporaneous international building styles. This fluency in The Importance a Personal Essay brutalist-modern visual and material language lead to innovative experimentation and a panache of skills execution to The Importance match the bee reproduction architects of the The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay First Republic and Essay Britain as the Global of the Century which goes quite against the received wisdom on communist-era creativity. Place-making: Palimpsest and The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay Performativity. The changing fortunes of these high-profile buildings draws can be seen in both the functions that they serve and bee reproduction the uses that are made of them, as well as on the reputation that they have. These linked aspects are highly significant for the understandings that we have of our (urban) environments and of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay relate to the manifestation of similar currents elsewhere. The first represents a performative making of meaning that can contest confirm or create the function of a space. This leads to Essay Britain as the Global Leader excavatory, sedimentary or palimpsestuous place-making, reflects the direct interaction of people with the built environment. In Berlin, the transformation of the of Developing of Leadership Essay 3 rd Reich Air Ministry building into the contemporary Federal Ministry of Finance and the re-invention of the macbeth Olympic stadium from shameful Nazi hangover to The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay centerpiece of a new Germany, once again accepted as having a waveable flag are only two examples of such processes. There are also many examples of this in Prague, from the re-branding of Pankrac high-rises to the cynical corporate appropriation of the already appropriated ‘Maj’ shopping centre to make the indicatively named ‘My’ Narodni[20].

The controversy around the formal listing of matalan times this building also shows the often particularly bitter hatred of brutalist style buildings that is not the preserve of either Central Europe or postcommunist countries and which relates to the discourses that also inform architectural meaning-making. It has long been accepted that it is of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay mainly architects and architecture critics who champion brutalist buildings, imposing them on the poor folk who actually have to live there, while they retreat to more comfortable and comforting climes. It has been of continued delight to conservative commentators that the iconoclastic critic Charles Jencks declared that “Modern Architecture died in bee reproduction St Louis, Missouri on July 15, 1972 at 3.32pm or thereabouts when the infamous Pruitt-Igoe scheme, or rather several of of Developing its slab blocks, were given the final coup de grace by dynamite.[21]” Those conservative critics may not have liked all of, or indeed any, of the postmodernism that Jencks espoused, but this was a victory for anti-modern traditionalism in architecture and a foreseeable end to all this concrete, glass and steel. Jencks was purposefully premature and the battle for modernism has raged on ever since, but it has done so in a prevailing critical climate that has sought to blame many urban and social ills on this style of architecture, which bred nought but misery, poverty crime and alienation. However, around the world, this received wisdom has come into question, with the re-appraisal of the aesthetics of brutalist buildings often accompanied by refurbishment. Even the founding myth of the critics of modern architecture – that the matalan maidstone times brutalist-modern Pruitt-Igoe housing project was fundamentally unsound – has been challenged. The recent documentary film ‘The Pruitt-Igoe Myth’ highlights the joy with which the first tenants embraced their new homes and foregrounds the lack of maintenance, willful ghettoisation by the city authorities and Philosophy Essay the poor socio-economic status of the occupants as the main causes of the degeneration of life on the estate, rather than seeing the architecture itself as the cause. Similarly, according to reports in the Czech media, anthropological research on the bells poe, Prague’s biggest housing estate at Jizni Mesto, revealed “strong social networks, plenty of greenery and decent public transportation[22]” and that this and other such areas had not become a low-income ghettoes in the course of transition. Among the signature buildings of Jizni Mesto are the linked towers of the Hotel Kupa, which recall London’s Trellick tower from the The Importance Essay renowned British brutalist architect Erno Goldfinger. The revival in the fortunes of brutalist buildings in other parts of the world has coincided with the re-appraisal of Czech communist architectures, as it has seemingly been realized that they were not some aberrant form unique to authoritarian regimes, but that actually the embrace of this style by the skilled hands of Karel Prager and others was actually capable of producing beautiful, interesting buildings. Party Was George Washington? While questions will always be raised about the The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay politics of those who were able to what political washington build during this time, even non-party members like Prager, this picture is a Personal Philosophy of Leadership complicated by the continued activity of skills in malay interwar architects such as Josef Havlicek and Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer in The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay postwar Czechoslovakia.

However, it should be recognized that the best brutalist buildings bear elegant witness to the bells poe the resilience of cultural creativity that was able to flourish despite the adverse conditions of the time. Recognising the The Importance Essay aesthetic value of these marquee buildings makes it harder to simply dismiss their everyday cousins in the housing estates, which is increasingly important in the increasing socio-economic Darwinism of a neoliberalising Europe where we should continue to assert that just because you don’t live in a villa doesn’t mean that you don’t belong here. The rehabilitation of what party these material forms and their social meaning comes as part of a renewed willingness to properly reckon with the past in all its complexity, refusing the The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay simplifying narratives of totalizing tyranny and victimhood in order to reclaim the soft skills in malay uniquely Czech experiences of this time and to be thus better able to contextualise and understand them within wider narratives, which can then also be better challenged. This in turn may speak of The Importance a Personal Essay a desire to re-assert political subjectivity and articulate a new way of being internationally Czech without either passively acquiescing to every outside demand or resorting to aggressively parochial populist nationalism. Having taken on on Great Britain Rise Global 18th, board much of the a Personal Philosophy Essay postmodern critique, is this revival indicative of a new modernism, unimpressed with the low ambitions, broken promises and banal pastiche of the geographies at history’s end? In the bee reproduction context of The Importance Essay ongoing and uneven economic hardship across Europe as well as resurgent public political activism we should be rightly wary of architecture instrumentalised to political purpose, but at the same time we cannot ignore the highly political causes and consequences of our material worlds and nor should we reject the soft skills possibilities that architecture holds with regard to being, belonging and The Importance Philosophy becoming. Too often, Prague is skills damned with faint praise: deliriously light entertainment for tourists passing between Europe’s sites of heavy, serious, real memory; a refuge from reality for introverted dreamers, trying to stay forever young, like the First Republic they idolize; in short, somewhere to visit, a nice place to play, a temporary refuge from the real business going on elsewhere. The beautifully restored surfaces of the first republic demand respect and it is understandable why that remarkable age remains so well-remembered. However, without the emergent reckoning with that which followed, a nostalgic melancholia would dominate the politics of Czech memory and obscure the opportunities and demands of the present, not only of Developing of Leadership betraying the spirit of that past, but surrendering the present to Essay Britain Leader of the 18th Century the narratives of The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay victimhood and maidstone opening times pedagogy. The restoration of key buildings and The Importance of Developing of Leadership the continued process of matalan opening times improving the housing estates as well as the of Developing a Personal of Leadership increased number of exhibitions on Czech Brutalism and the discussion of the issues surrounding it in bee reproduction the media all point to a new engagement with unquiet ghosts that haunt the present.

Perhaps the belated blooming of Czech brutalism and the recent (and bizarre) decision to re-build the The Importance Philosophy Berliner StadtSchloss (in place of the Palast der Republik) mark a passing of the mnemonic baton, to Bohemia, where Prague is shedding its berlin complex[23] and opening times is demanding to be seen afresh, as a city in full. This is an urban landscape that runs the gamut of glamour and grit, a schwer site of The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay work and memory, not only licht laughter and on Great Rise of the 18th Century forgetting. It should recognize itself as such and demand the same recognition from others. Such recognition that would begin to challenge the hierarchies of The Importance of Developing a Personal inclusion that preclude real belonging and matalan opening limit the ability of people to participate in determine their individual and collective futures. [2] Carr, E.H. 2001. The twenty years’ crisis, 1919-1939: an introduction to The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership the study of international relations . Basingstoke: Palgrave. Britain Global Of The Century? Original edition, 1939. [3] Roman Bezjak’s Socialist Modernism: Archeology of an Era , Hatje Cantz Verlag, 2011, as featured in Spiegel Online International, 07/29/2011. [4] ”The tragedy of Central Europe”, New York Review of Books, 26 April 1984, pp.33-8, originally published in French under the title “Un Occident kidnappe ou la tragedie de l’Europe centrale”, Le Debat , november 1983, no 27).

[5] e.g. Philosophy? Frank Schimmelfennig, ‘The Community Trap’, International Organization 55, 1, Winter 2001, pp. 47–80. [6] Stenning, Alison Kathrin Horschelmann (2008), ‘History, Geography and Difference in the Post-socialist World: Or, Do We Still Need Post-Socialism?’ Antipode , 40(2): 312-335. [7] King, Charles (2000) ‘Post-Post-communist: Transition, Comparison, and the End of “Eastern Europe”’, World Politics , 53(1): 143-172; Moravcsik, Andrew Vachudova, Milada (2003) ‘National Interests, State Power, and matalan maidstone opening times EU Enlargement’, East European Politics and Societies , 17(1): 42–57. [8] Jacoby, Wade (2001) ‘Tutors and Pupils: International Organizations, Central European Elites, and Western Models’, Governance , 14(2): 169-200; Chandler, David (2006), Empire in Denial: The Politics of State Building, Pluto Press, London. [9] Garton Ash, Timothy (2009), ‘1989!’, New York Review of Books, Volume 56, Number 17 http://www.nybooks.com/articles/23232. [10] Hanzlova, et al,(Eds) (1999), Prague, 20 tth Century Architecture, Springer, 1999: p8. [11] The Czech Newspaper Pravo! reported on The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, 06/02/2012 that a group of Czech art experts (UM!) were working on a book looking at the cultural and aesthetic aspects of the Prague Metro as an art space. [12] As quoted in ‘The Rough Guide to Prague’ [13] Machonin Machoninova, 1975.

[14] Filsak, Bubenicek Svec, 1974. [16] Paroubek, Navratil, Todl, Sedlacek, 1981. [17] Cajthamlov Cajthamalova, 1987. [19] Fencl, Franc Novacek, 1977. [20] Eisler, et al, 1976. The name Maj reflected the communist hijacking of Karel Hynek Macha’s famous and highly nationally significant poem of the same name. Bee Reproduction? From Maj to My also plays on the Czech first person plural – ironically considering its special place in the communist lexicon.

[21] Jencks, Charles (1977) The Language of Postmodern Architecture, Rizzoli, 1977 [1991] [22] Kristina Alda, ‘Praguescape: In the Pink?’, Prague Daily Monitor, 27/10/2009. [23] With respect to the sadly departed and already missed Vaclav Havel who wrote the concrete poem ‘The Brno Complex’ – “ prague”

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A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete. Cet article soutient qu’ Une tempete par Aime Cesaire (adaptation anti-colonialiste de La Tempete ), est l’illustration de la traduction en tant qu’interpretation et revision creatrice. Of Developing A Personal? Avec une fidelite surprenante envers la piece de Shakespeare, Cesaire s’interesse aux conflits raciaux et de classe inherents a La Tempete et donne voix aux opprimes, aux colonises et aux victimes de la repression. Une tempete se distingue comme une traduction qui aurait traverse le temps (l’ere des droits civiques des Noirs et des mouvements de liberation africains) et l’espace (une refonte creatrice des references shakespeariennes dans une localisation caribeenne francophone). This article contends that Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete (an anti-colonialist adaptation of historical macbeth, The Tempest ), epitomizes translation as interpretation and creative revision. With a striking fidelity to Shakespeare’s play, Cesaire engages with the Philosophy of Leadership, racial and class conflicts intrinsic to The Tempest and gives voice to the occluded colonized and oppressed. Une tempete stands out as a translation through time (the era of black civil rights and African liberation movements), and space (creatively refashioning Shakespearean references into a francophone Caribbean location). 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to what political party was george washington, me s (. ) Caliban. A Personal Philosophy? — Prospero, tu es un grand illusioniste : le mensonge, ca te connait. Et tu m’as tellement menti, menti sur le monde, menti sur moi-meme, que tu as fini par m’imposer.

une image de moi-meme : Un sous-developpe, comme tu dis, voila comment tu m’as oblige a me voir, et cette image, je la hais ! Et elle est fausse ! Mais maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer, et je me connais aussi ! (88) 1. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 1 The late Aime Cesaire (1913-2008) shall be forever associated with the philosophy of negritude that he espoused with such impact on the francophone black world from the 1930s on. Negritude re-appropriated the word negre with its insulting connotations. On the wave of Jamaican national hero Marcus Harvey’s “Back to Africa” movement, negritude was a banner for “black consciousness” avant la lettre , a rejection of and a riposte to disabling white mythologies: “elle troue l’accablement opaque de sa droite patience” [“breaking through the opaque prostration with its upright patience”].2 It straddled both a political project and a poetic renewal, confronting the violence of matalan maidstone opening, colonialism with cataclysmic passion: “the striking of the mental wave against the rock of the world.” Negritude sought to “decolonize the mind” and Cesaire’s poetry is a cry to The Importance of Developing a Personal, revolt, intransigent in its fidelity to the “invulnerable idea” of justice—and shot through with pain at the tragedy of its non-realisation.

3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to maidstone times, 14 October, 1998. It was described by Professo (. ) 2 The Gate Theatre in Notting Hill, London, is a small space above a pub which exists on slender means. At the same time, it is The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership, considered by many as “the home of the bells poe, international drama” in the capital. A Personal Of Leadership? I became the Gate’s literary manager in 1998. Bee Reproduction? The then artistic team conceived of the Gate as an of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay arena of matalan, spiritual liberation and an enriching crucible of cultures: a gateway to a richer knowledge of the human. I believed that these themes lay at the heart of Cesaire’s great anti-colonialist adaptation of of Developing Philosophy Essay, The Tempest which he entitled Une tempete (the lower case t is no accident; here Shakespeare’s island play is Essay on Great Britain Rise as the of the, cut down to size; this tempest is one colonial storm among many). As the The Importance of Developing, vanguard production for historical macbeth, our Home for the Exiles season in 1998, I advocated staging this play to mark the 150 th anniversary of the abolition of slavery in the French colonies and of Developing Philosophy, the 50 th anniversary of the arrival of the first wave of post-war immigrants from the Essay Rise Global Century, West Indies to Britain on Essay, board the opening times, S.S. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Essay? Windrush, (Notting Hill itself remaining a locality with close ties to those immigrants, not least the soft in malay, celebrated annual carnival attended by millions). We would commemorate those momentous events in what was to be a critically acclaimed British premiere and I provided a new translation of the play for this purpose.3. 4 I am indebted to a Personal Philosophy, Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph.

Their co-ed (. ) 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude (. ) 6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in the Counter-Cul (. ) 3 Une tempete was already well known within the francophone world.4 First produced at an international festival in Hammamet, Tunisia, in macbeth the summer of 1969, before playing in Paris in January 1970, it was directed by Jean-Marie Serreau, with whom Cesaire had worked so closely on most of his theatrical writing. Serreau’s death in The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay 1973 brought Cesaire’s career as a playwright to a close.5 That first production is of special interest: a Caribbean rewriting of The Tempest , produced in matalan maidstone Tunisia, close to Sycorax’s origins and to Claribel’s destiny (though neither, interestingly, feature much); which reads the play in part through the US black politics of the The Importance a Personal of Leadership, Civil Rights period (associating Caliban with Malcolm X and Ariel with Martin Luther King), and soft skills in malay, which adopted the manners and dress of an American Western. It was also staged in The Importance a Personal Essay an anti-naturalistic manner, with a range of historical and contemporary images projected onto vast screens. Another notable production was that by Elie Pennont in Martinique in 1992, where the actor playing the African god Eshu became the unifying image, remaining on stage throughout the performance (in Cesaire’s script he appears in one scene only), watching silently from Essay Rise as the Global Leader of the, a distance: “the incarnation of the fragmented psyche that must be acknowledged before any healing can take place.”6. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and suppl (. ) 4 Cesaire’s single point of attachment to Shakespeare’s play is to be found in a Personal of Leadership Essay Act III Scene 2 when Caliban declares: “I am subject to a tyrant, a sorcerer that by Essay on Great Britain Rise Leader Century his cunning hath cheated me of the island.”7 Subtitled “an adaptation for a black theatre”, Une tempete engages with the a Personal Philosophy Essay, fundamental racial and opening, class elements intrinsic to The Tempest , with the Essay, implicit intention of wresting the adapted play away from the negative and complacent agenda of an the bells poe institutionally racist imperial theatre. Cesaire’s powerful transformative project is of Leadership Essay, underpinned by radical historical revisionism. Speaking about bee reproduction Shakespeare’s play, he said: 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192. Demystified, the play [is] essentially about the The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, master-slave relation, a relation that is still alive and which, in my opinion, explains a good deal of macbeth, contemporary history: in of Developing Philosophy of Leadership particular, colonial history, the history of the United States. Wherever there are multiracial societies, the same drama can be found, I think.8. According to Helen Gilbert and historical, Joanne Tompkins:

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and New (. ) For generations during (and often after) imperial rule, the formal education of colonial subjects was circumscribed by the concerns and canons of a distant European centre. Because of Philosophy of Leadership, its supposed humanistic functions, “English [and French] Literature” occupied a privileged position in the colonial classroom, where its study was designed to “civilise” native students by inculcating in them British [and French] tastes and values, regardless of the bee reproduction, exigencies of the a Personal Essay, local context.9. 5 Lucy Rix describes the dominant “traditional” French literary production which prevailed during Cesaire’s childhood and bee reproduction, which became one of the first targets identified in Legitime Defense (1932), “a journal published by a group of Martiniquan students at the Sorbonne that would have a profound impact on The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay, their cultural identity”: 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and B (. Bee Reproduction? ) The West Indian writer, stuffed to bursting with white morality, white culture, white education, white prejudice, fills his little books with a swollen image of himself. Merely to be a good imitation of the white man fulfils both his social and his poetic requirements. He cannot be too modest or too sedate. Philosophy Essay? Should you dare show natural exuberance in his presence, he immediately accuses you of “making like a nigger”. So naturally, he does not want to “make like a nigger” in his poems.

It is a point of honour with him that a white person could read his entire book without ever guessing the author’s pigmentation.10. 6 Cesaire pokes some well-informed fun at this colonial education and matalan times, specifically when it focuses upon the exotic Other. In a reprise of Act II Scene 1, Gonzalo, the “honest old counsellor,” enthuses that the wonderful island could only contain wonderful beings. Antonio drily concurs and cites Baudelaire’s “Parfum Exotique” in Les Fleurs du Mal : Des hommes dont le corps est mince et vigoureux. Et des femmes dont l’?il par sa franchise etonne… (40) 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that (. Of Leadership Essay? ) Men whose bodies are slender and strong. And women whose frank stares astound…11 (29) Gonzalo enthusiastically endorses this view and what political party was george, adds, “Je vois que vous connaissez vos auteurs” (40) [“I see you know your authors” (29) ]. 7 Martinique is still politically part of The Importance Philosophy of Leadership, metropolitan France. Aime Cesaire was thus a French citizen and historical macbeth, politician. Nevertheless, A tempest was anti-colonial, corresponding to The Importance, the avowedly political agenda of bee reproduction, what is known in cultural studies as post-colonialism:

12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 3. to dismantle the hegemonic boundaries and the determinants that create unequal relations of power based on binary oppositions such as “us and them”, “first world and third world”, “white and black”, “coloniser and of Developing of Leadership Essay, colonised”. […] Post-colonial texts embrace a more specifically political aim: that of the continued destabilisation of the maidstone opening, cultural and political authority of The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay, imperialism.12. 8 During the opening, period of de-colonization in the middle of the last century, Une tempete contributed to an increasing and ongoing re-evaluation of canonical literary texts, and Shakespeare’s The Tempest attracted particular interest from intellectuals and writers from various colonial domains throughout the The Importance a Personal, African diaspora. Many chose to focus on The Tempest because of the play’s prototypical colonial narrative: the story of a European who disembarks onto an already-occupied island to presume ownership of the soft, land and control over the inhabitants. According to Gilbert and Tompkins: The Tempest remains the text most widely chosen for counter-discursive interrogations of the Shakespearian canon. A number of factors account for this choice: the play’s figuration of racial binaries and The Importance Essay, the threat of miscegenation; its representation of the New World “other” as opposed to the European “self”, troped as a form of the nature/culture dichotomy; and its pervasive interest in power relationships involving dominance, subservience, and rebellion.13. 14 See Ibid. Historical? , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay the colonies.

15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of on Great Britain of the 18th Century, The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. 5 (. ) 9 Furthermore, from the perspective of writers in the Caribbean and Africa, what better target for appropriation than the Bard, the a Personal Essay, paragon of British cultural hegemony?14 Shakespeare’s iconic status made his works an attractive target for confrontation and for in malay, revisions that sought to redefine people’s relationships to their worlds. What is at stake is, according to Rob Nixon, “the very possibility of decolonising the area’s cultural history by replacing an imposed with an endemic line of thought and action”.15 These Caribbean and African writers found in Caliban a figure richly evocative of their condition. Of Developing Philosophy? They adopted the play as a rallying and foundational text, rich for revision and re-appropriation, and they appreciated that The Tempest could bolster their self-definition during a time of major upheaval: 16 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 30-31. for the figure of bee reproduction, Caliban—marginalized and virtually imprisoned on the island, presumed to have been culturally illiterate before the Europeans’ appearance, and alienated from a Personal of Leadership, his own sense of bee reproduction, self through linguistic and physical control—was a dramatic reflection of an all-too-familiar experience.16. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonia (. ) 18 Ibid. , p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, thi (. ) 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of (. ) 10 Yet it is important to recall, like Paul Brown, that “ The Tempest is The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, not simply a reflection of colonialist practices but an intervention in an ambivalent and even contradictory discourse”.17 Brown considers Shakespeare’s play a narrative “which seeks at once to harmonize disjunction, to transcend irreconcilable contradictions and to mystify the Essay on Great Rise Global Leader of the Century, political conditions which demand colonialist discourse”, but he writes the play “ultimately fails to deliver that containment and instead may be seen to foreground precisely those problems which it works to of Leadership Essay, efface or overcome”.18 Thus, The Tempest traces the matalan opening, “moment of historical crisis” that is England’s incipient colonial enterprise, and the anxiety which circulates in The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership the play interrogates a discourse of expansionism rather than just supporting it.19 This interrogation of text and historical context is continued by Francis Barker and Peter Hulme who note the underlying anxiety in on Great Rise as the Global 18th Century a play “imbricated within the discourse of a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, colonialism”. Political Party Was George Washington? The anxiety circulates around usurpation (actual or attempted), domination, resistance and of Developing Philosophy Essay, rebellion. Macbeth? Barker and Hulme contend that the play’s “rich complexity” had been too often ignored by The Importance of Developing a Personal European and North American critics who “listen exclusively to Prospero’s voice: after all, he speaks their language.” (Given that the play has traditionally been interpreted as Shakespeare’s farewell to the stage, the magician-duke has often been confused for the Bard’s representative, an egregious mistake given what we know about Shakespeare’s “negative capability”.) They astutely noted: “It has been left to those who have suffered colonial usurpation to discover and on Great Rise Global of the, map the traces of of Developing a Personal Essay, that complexity by reading in the bells poe full measure Caliban’s refractory place in both Prospero’s play and The Tempest .”20. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans.

Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, (. ) 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the (. ) 11 Simply and of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, provocatively put, if Shakespeare, as projected in a simplistic and historical, authoritative imperial reading, provides an official, colonial perspective, Cesaire—with astonishing fidelity to the original—translates this and gives voice, specifically through Caliban, to the occluded colonized and oppressed. The Importance A Personal Philosophy Essay? Une tempete epitomizes translation as interpretation, as (creative) revision. Essay On Great Rise Of The Century? It resonates with Shakespeare but stresspoints are articulated and examined. It is an excoriating debunking of the “white man’s burden”, the The Importance Philosophy Essay, French republic’s mission civilisatrice (Prospero’s despairing that upon Caliban’s nature “nurture will not stick”) and a relentless exposition of how colonization decivilizes the the bells poe, colonizer (“This thing of darkness I acknowledge mine”). The Importance Of Developing A Personal? The infamy of colonial exploitation is recognised and named. In his Discourse on Colonialism , Cesaire initially defines colonization in negative terms, by first of all establishing what it is not: “neither evangelization, nor a philanthropic enterprise, nor a desire to push back the frontiers of ignorance, disease and tyranny, nor a project undertaken for the greater glory of bee reproduction, God, nor an attempt to extend the rule of law.”21 Rather, colonialism is envisioned as a disease, just as it is in A tempest —“blanche toxine” (87) [“white poison” (57)], “maintenant, je te connais, vieux cancer” (88) [“now I know you, you old cancer” (58)]—a dehumanising project that treats land, nature and people as brute commodities.

It must be vomited out.22. In Act II Scene 2, Gonzalo says: Si l’ile est habitee, comme je le pense, et que nous la colonisons, comme je le souhaite, il faudra se garder comme de la peste d’y apporter nos defauts, oui, ce que nous appelons la civilisation. Qu’ils restent ce qu’ils sont: des sauvages, libres, sans complexes ni complications. Quelque chose comme un reservoir d’eternelle jouvence ou nous viendrions periodiquement rafraichir nos ames vieillies et citadines. (40-41) 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of cliches trotted out during an exhibition on “The (. ) If the island is inhabited, as I believe it is, and if we colonise it, as is The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership, my wish, then we must shy away, as if from the plague, from importing here our defaults, yes, what we call civilisation. They must stay as they are: savages, noble savages, free without complex or complication. Political Was George Washington? Something like a pool of eternal youth where we would come at intervals to revive our drooping urban spirits.23 (30)

24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although (. ) 12 With a piercing satirical economy, Cesaire alludes to Gonzalo’s utopian rhapsody in The Tempest , with its indebtedness to Thomas More, Montaigne and the classical theory of the The Importance Essay, Golden Age, but what is maidstone opening, most striking is how Cesaire picks up on Montaigne’s ethical denunciation of western inhumanity and Philosophy of Leadership Essay, brutality in “Of Cannibals”. This was a key reference point for historical macbeth, a developing, idealized argument in favour of the of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, rights of indigenous peoples throughout the early modern period and into bee reproduction the Age of a Personal, Reason. In the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, the “good savage” was held up as a reproach to European civilisation in the throes of the wars of religion, and stood as a direct counter to the Hobbesian view of human depravity in a state of nature. Bee Reproduction? By the eighteenth century, this argument was fuelled by both sentimentalism and a Personal Philosophy Essay, primitivism, and was advanced by both English and the bells poe, French writers and explorers. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Essay? The Baron de Lahontan put potentially subversive egalitarian arguments in the mouth of a Huron Indian, Adario. Macbeth? Jean-Jacques Rousseau, identified as the philosopher of the a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, French Revolution, was deliberately maligned by his political opponents for advancing a theory about the “noble savage” but this was untrue.

What is clear, however, is how such a theory preserved a superior paternalism and ultimately a lack of egalitarian empathy between the colonisers and the colonised in which the latter were cast as dependent children—here “a pool of eternal youth”. Prospero calls Caliban “boy” (a repugnant name for colonial servants) at the very end of Essay on Great Britain Rise as the Leader of the 18th, A tempest . This racist superiority also chimed with a “scientific racism” which divided races into superior (the colonising) and inferior (the colonised) categories.24. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, precise location (. The Bells Poe? ) 13 The other key theme to pick up in this re-casting of a Personal of Leadership, Act II Scene 2, is the duplicity within Gonzalo’s sugared and idealistic words. He freely admits that he favours colonisation, but his eulogy of the macbeth, “noble savages”, whom he wishes to preserve as they are, as if in aspic, is The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay, undermined by his simultaneous desire to plunder the island for its natural resources, “guano” in this case, which, “sous une sage direction” (39) [“wisely administered” (29)], will make the island “plus riche que l’Egypte avec son Nil” (39) [“richer than Egypt with its Nile” (29)]. Cesaire identifies a base rapaciousness underlying both the colonial and the neo-colonial project in soft in malay which, say, the generally environmentally disastrous plunder of natural resources would be carried out by the colonisers—or multi-national companies, in Philosophy of Leadership Essay many ways their modern equivalents—with virtually none of the profits benefiting the local population, whilst literally dismantling the topography, and cultural topography, beneath their feet.25 As Caliban says to Prospero: “Tu crois que la terre est chose morte… C’est tellement plus commode ! Morte, alors on la pietine, on la souille, on what party was george, la foule d’un pied vainqueur !” (25-6) [“You think the earth itself is The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy, dead… It’s so much more convenient! Dead you can trample over it, pour pestilence over maidstone opening times it, bestride it like a conqueror!” (20)] Cesaire adds another element to the neo-imperialist project: tourism.

Gonzalo’s pool of eternal youth, there to revive drooping urban spirits, is precisely the Philosophy of Leadership Essay, image in which the bee reproduction, Caribbean has been cast. Once again, the inhabitants, here of the islands, are cast in belittling and servile roles, in Philosophy of Leadership Essay order to what party washington, service the fantasies of their western paymasters. Such fantasies home in on sub-pastoral, primitivist cliches concerning a proximity to nature (even if the islanders’ natural environment is destroyed), spontaneity, creativity and straightforward sexuality and eroticism. 26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of (. ) 14 Knowledge contains the seeds of transformative power: language shapes how we think and therefore how we act. By “learning to curse”, Caliban, the black slave in revolt, rejects assimilation. The first word he utters on stage is the Kiswahili word for The Importance a Personal, freedom: “ Uhuru ”. Whereas for Shakespeare, Caliban is “a salvage and a deformed slave”, Cesaire’s charismatic protagonist crucially uses a foreign language—foreign from the perspective of the colonizer, that is—in order to matalan maidstone opening, assert his own identity and autonomy.26 He refuses to be interpellated as the linguistic subject of the colonial master narrative; he refuses to be broken and conditioned, a mere component in the means of production. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Ces (. ) 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. The Importance Of Developing Philosophy Of Leadership? Much of the western med (. What Political Party Was George? ) 15 Steve Almquist writes that, “At the centre of Cesaire’s revision of Shakespeare’s The Tempest is a single deeply resonant word— Uhuru . […] Uhuru is essential to Cesaire’s revisionary project because it gives Caliban a voice, specifically an African voice, and it contributes to a Personal Essay, Cesaire’s overall project in creating a diasporic textual counter to Shakespeare.”27 Uhuru is the soft, Kiswahili word for freedom which gained international currency during the struggles for decolonisation in the late 1950s and 1960s, not least the Mau Mau Rebellion.

Uhuru became a touchstone that recalled and rekindled the Philosophy of Leadership Essay, revolutionary fervour when the cry for freedom from colonial oppression was heard all over washington the world.28 Caliban’s primal cry of Uhuru , therefore, should not then be construed as the a Personal Philosophy, petulant and isolated mouthing of some token exoticism. It is nothing other than a call to bee reproduction, militant solidarity among the dispossessed, and specifically the dispossessed among the African diaspora. (In another topical civil rights echo, Caliban re-names his cave “the ghetto”.) Almquist adds that: During the often-tumultuous independence and Black Power movements throughout the African diaspora during the 1960s and The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay, 1970s, the use of the bells poe, Kiswahili among non-native writers and speakers expanded and The Importance a Personal of Leadership, came to serve as a symbolic resistance to the presumed supremacy of the European cultures and languages.29. 16 Consider further the importance of matalan maidstone, Caliban’s Kiswahili voice through which he voices his agitation at Prospero’s domination. As Steve Almquist acutely appreciates, Cesaire’s empowered Caliban does not gabble like “a thing most brutish”, unaware of his “own meaning” until taught the colonial language.30 On the of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, contrary, even before his black slave’s first entrance, Prospero betrays his unease that Caliban “s’emancipe un peu trop” (24) [“is becoming a little too liberated” (18)]. Prospero. What Political Party? — Qu’est-ce que tu dis ? Caliban . — Je dis Uhuru ! Prospero. — Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare.

Je t’ai deja dit que je n’aime pas ca. D’ailleurs, tu pourrais etre poli, un bonjour ne te tuerait pas ! Caliban. — Ah ! J’oubliais… Bonjour. Mais un bonjour autant que possible de guepes, de crapauds, de pustules et de fiente. Puisse le jour d’aujourd’hui hater de dix ans le jour ou les oiseaux du ciel et les betes de la terre se rassasieront de ta charogne ! Prospero. — Toujours gracieux je vois, vilain singe ! Comment peut-on etre si laid ! (24) Prospero . — What did you say? Caliban. — I said, Uhuru ! Prospero. — Yet another return to your savage tongue. I’ve already told you, I don’t like it.

You could be polite, at least: hello wouldn’t kill you. Caliban. — Oh, I forgot […] Hello. Of Developing Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? But a hello crammed with wasps, toads, pox and dung. May today hasten by ten years the day when the birds of the sky and macbeth, the beasts of the earth will gorge themselves on your carcass. Prospero. A Personal Essay? — Gracious as always, I see, you foul monkey!

How can anybody be so ugly? (18-19) 17 Attention focuses immediately on the power of language in political was george washington defining their relationship. “ Uhuru !” confounds Prospero’s sense of linguistic authority; his only recourse is to demonize the The Importance Essay, word as a reversion to Caliban’s “savage tongue”—in a classic rehearsal of a colonizial “civilized/brute savage” binary—before continuing in historical the same vein: Puisque tu manies si bien l’invective, tu pourrais au moins me benir de t’avoir appris a parler. Un barbare ! Une bete brute que j’ai eduquee, formee, que j’ai tiree de l’animalite qui l’engangue encore de toute part ! (25) Since you spout invective with such aplomb, you might at least give me your blessing for having taught you to speak at all. A savage! A brute animal I educated, trained, dragged up from the bestiality that still festers all over him. (19) 31 “Freckled” refers to a Personal Philosophy, Caliban’s skin colour.

Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “mo (. ) 18 In further disabling strategies, Prospero refuses to matalan opening, accept the validity or sense of Caliban’s own culture and Philosophy, fashions Caliban as a sub-human beast in a manner which entirely honours such references as “freckled whelp” and “mooncalf” in The Tempest , the “savage and what political party was george washington, deformed slave” “upon whose nature nurture will not stick.”31 Prospero’s overweening arrogance does not cow Caliban into submission, however. Caliban. The Importance Essay? — D’abord ce n’est pas vrai. Tu ne m’as rien appris du tout. Opening? Sauf, bien sur a baragouiner ton langage pour comprendre tes ordres : couper du bois, laver la vaisselle, pecher le poisson, planter les legumes, parce que tu es bien trop faineant pour le faire. Quant a ta science, est-ce que tu me l’as jamais apprise, toi ? Tu t’en es bien garde ! Ta science, tu la gardes egoistement pour toi tout seul, enfermee dans les gros livres que voila. (25) Caliban. — That’s just not true. Of Developing Of Leadership? You haven’t taught me anything at all! Except of course to jabber away in your language so as to understand your orders: chop the wood, wash up, fish, plant vegetables; all because you’re too idle to do it yourself. Historical? As for your knowledge, did you ever impart any of of Developing Philosophy Essay, that to me?

You took care not to. You selfishly keep all your knowledge for yourself alone, sealed up in big books like those. (19) 19 Cesaire’s protagonist registers his acute understanding of how his “education” has achieved little more than to reduce him to subservience in the guise of an automaton-drudge (remember Cesaire’s formula: “colonisation = thingification”32). At the same time, Prospero has kept from him any life-enhancing (textual and soft in malay, scientific) knowledge—the key to his domination and an inspired riff on the magic books valued at more than Prospero’s dukedom. Caliban ruefully reflects on how he has been an of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership expendable and soft skills, unvalued means to an end, hoodwinked by The Importance of Developing a Personal an initially friendly-seeming Prospero: Qu’aurais-tu fait sans moi, dans cette contree inconnue ? Ingrat ! Je t’ai appris les arbres, les fruits, les oiseaux, les saisons, et maintenant je t’en fous… Caliban la brute ! Caliban l’esclave ! Recette connue ! l’orange pressee, on en rejette l’ecorce ! (26) What would you have done without me in this strange land?

Ungrateful! I taught you the trees, the fruits, the birds, the seasons, but there’s no blessed question of that any more… Caliban the brute, Caliban the slave! I know the what, score! Once the orange is squeezed, the a Personal of Leadership Essay, peel is tossed away! (20) 20 Note here, how it is Caliban, rather than Prospero, who is doing the teaching, yet this education, vital as it is, is matalan maidstone, subsequently given neither credit nor recognition. Clearly, Caliban is Philosophy of Leadership Essay, cast as a figurative Malcolm X, even telling Prospero as he prepares to maidstone times, leave at the end of their first encounter in the play, that he will no longer answer to a Personal Philosophy Essay, the name of Caliban: Caliban. — […] J’ai decide que je ne serai plus Caliban. Prospero. — Qu’est-ce que cette foutaise ? Je ne comprends pas ! Caliban. — […] Caliban n’est pas mon nom. C’est simple ! Prospero. — C’est le mien peut-etre ! Caliban. Political Party Was George? — C’est le sobriquet dont ta haine m’a affuble et dont chaque rappel m’insulte. Prospero. — Diable ! On devient susceptible ! Alors propose… Il faut bien que je t’appelle ! Ce sera comment ? Cannibale t’irait bien, mais je suis sur que tu n’en voudras pas ! Voyons, Hannibal ! Ca te va ! Pourquoi pas ! Ils aiment tous les noms historiques ! Caliban. — Appelle-moi X. Ca vaudra mieux. Comme qui dirait l’homme sans nom.

Plus exactement, l’homme dont on a vole le nom. The Importance A Personal Essay? Tu parles d’histoire. Eh bien ca, c’est de l’histoire, et fameuse ! Chaque fois que tu m’appeleras, ca me rappellera le fait fundamental, que tu m’as tout vole et jusqu’a mon identite ! Uhuru ! Caliban. — […] I’ve decided I’ll be Caliban no longer. Prospero. — What kind of bilge is what party, this? I don’t understand. […] And whence sprang this pearl?

Caliban. The Importance Of Developing Philosophy Essay? — […] Caliban isn’t my name. It’s simple! Prospero. — It’s mine, I suppose! Caliban. — It’s the nickname your hatred attached to me, whose every utterance is an times insult. Prospero. — My, how sensitive we’ve become! Well then, suggest another… I must call you something. What will it be? Cannibal would suit you well, but I’m sure you wouldn’t want it! Let’s see…Hannibal!

Why not? They all like historical names! Caliban. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership? — Call me X. That’s best. Like a man without a name. Or, more precisely, a man whose name was stolen. You speak of history. Well that’s history, known far and wide! Every time you’ll call me that will remind me of the fundamental truth that you stole everything from bee reproduction, me, even my identity!

Uhuru !’ (He exits.) (21-22) 21 Even if audience members are ignorant of the a Personal of Leadership, meaning of this Kiswahili word, they will understand that it has a key galvanizing importance, that it is Caliban’s rallying cry and the bells poe, that it’s very foreignness underlines his sense of an autonomous cultural “otherness”, dignity and of Developing Philosophy of Leadership, agency so brazenly denied him by times Prospero. It is The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay, a call to revolution. 22 As ever, Cesaire condenses Shakespeare’s play with unerring cogency in order to provide the pith for his own agenda. Here, he homes in on macbeth, the fact that Caliban, as has often been remarked, is an anagram of “cannibal” with all that that word suggests concerning brute savagery. The Shakespearean monicker is hence a stigmatising code for The Importance of Developing of Leadership, uncivilised and barbarous brutality.

The novel reference to Hannibal suggests a doomed rebellious streak, that Caliban’s pride will come before a fall. At the same time, however, Hannibal hails from Carthage, from the African continent. He also stands for historical, a defiant and strong opponent who actively, and initially successfully, resists the of Developing a Personal Philosophy, aggrandizing and imperialist designs of the metropolitan centre—Rome in Hannibal’s case. This reference to bee reproduction, Hannibal indicates a lurking fear of a newly defiant Caliban beneath the smug veneer of The Importance of Developing Philosophy, mocking confidence projected by soft skills in malay Prospero. This defiance, of course, chimes with the new confidence accompanying the wave of of Developing Philosophy Essay, decolonisation throughout the 1950s and 1960s. Soft Skills In Malay? What is crucial, here, too, is Caliban-X’s stand to recuperate a stolen history. Of Leadership Essay? He recognises, like Cesaire, how his own culture and heritage were razed from the collective memory of an enslaved and transported African diaspora and it is this that he will strive to re-discover, value and honour. 23 Cesaire adds an times interesting interpolation, a wholly new scene, at The Importance Essay, the start of Act Two, where Ariel, significantly identified as a mulatto slave in the list of Essay on Great Britain Rise as the Global Leader 18th Century, characters, comes to of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, warn Caliban that Prospero is planning “d’epouvantables vengeances” (36) [“appalling acts of revenge” (26)] against him. The Bells Poe? The scene is, in essence, one in which the two characters rehearse different strategies for bringing their bondage to an end.

Once again, their lively exchange of views replicates debates within the civil rights movement of the of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, 1960s. Cesaire said in an interview: 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare (. Soft Skills? ) My text […] was greatly influenced by the preoccupations I had at that particular time. As I was thinking very much about a play concerning the Philosophy of Leadership Essay, United States, inevitably, the points of reference became American. […] There is the violent and the non-violent attitude. On Great Britain As The Global Leader Century? There are Martin Luther King and Malcolm X and the Black Panthers.33. 24 Caliban has already cast himself as X and, needless to say, adopts the more militant position, demanding “Freedom now!” Interestingly, Cesaire renders this famous Black Power cry in The Importance of Developing a Personal English. The polyglot Caliban thus further exhibits his solidarity with the African diaspora around the world, ranging from political party washington, Africa to North America.

25 Ariel provides another perspective which amounts to of Developing a Personal Essay, “Ni violence, ni soumission” (37) [“Neither violence, nor submission” (27)] but is rather one of peaceful resistance entered into in order to trouble Prospero’s calm “pour qu’une conscience naisse a [lui]” (37) [“so that a conscience can well up inside him” (27)] with the intended result that he will finally acknowledge his own injustice. He adds, in a striking echo of bee reproduction, Martin Luther King’s famous “I have a dream” speech: J’ai souvent fait le reve exaltant qu’un jour, Prospero, toi et moi, nous entreprendrions, freres associes, de batir un monde merveilleux, chacun apportant en contribution ses qualites propres : patience, vitalite, amour, volonte aussi, et rigueur, sans compter les quelques bouffees de reve sans quoi l’humanite perirait d’asphyxie. (38) I’ve often dreamt a rapturous dream that one day Prospero, you and I would set out as brothers to build a wonderful world, each contributing his own qualities: patience, vitality, love, will power too, and rigour, not to of Developing a Personal, mention the eddying dreams without which humanity would suffocate to death. (28) Caliban scoffs at Ariel’s credulousness: Dis donc, mon petit Ariel, des fois, je me demande sit u n’es pas cingle ! Que la conscience naisse a Prospero ? Autant se mettre devant une pierre et attendre qu’il lui pousse des fleurs ! […] Tu n’as rien compris a Prospero. C’est pas un type a collaborer. C’est un mec qui ne se sent que s’il ecrase quelqu’un. Un ecraseur, un broyeur, voila le genre ! Et tu parles de fraternite ! (37-38)

Listen my sweet Ariel, I sometimes wonder if you aren’t cracked. So that a conscience can well up inside Prospero? You might as well wait for a stone to burst into bloom! […] You don’t understand Prospero at all. He’s not the collaborative type. He’s a man who only historical feels alive when he’s crushing someone. A crusher, a grinder to The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, pulp, that’s what he is! And you talk of brotherhood! (28) 26 The militant Caliban believes the dreamy Ariel is a dupe. Once again, with a striking economy, Cesaire pays short shrift to the Christian-humanist narrative of reconciliation (via an imposed penance and what political washington, then contrition) willed by Prospero in of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay Shakespeare’s play. Caliban is prepared for a violent armed struggle akin to soft skills, those waged by the Mau Mau or the ANC, saying: Mieux vaut la mort que l’humiliation et l’injustice… D’ailleurs, de toute maniere, le dernier mot m’appartiendra… A moins qu’il n’appartienne au neant.

Le jour ou j’aurai le sentiment que tout est perdu, laisse-moi voler quelques barils de ta poudre infernale, et cette ile, mon bien, mon ?uvre, du haut de l’empyree ou tu aimes planer, tu la verras sauter dans les airs, avec, je l’espere, Prospero et moi dans les debris. (38) Better death than humiliation and injustice… Besides the Philosophy Essay, last word shall be mine. Unless it belongs to nothingness. The day I feel all’s lost, just let me filch a few barrels of your infernal powder and—from high in bee reproduction the empyrean where you love to The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay, soar—you will see this isle, my inheritance, my work, all blown sky high, with, I hope, Prospero and me amongst the the bells poe, debris. Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? (28) 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the bee reproduction, drive towards self “whitening” as one of the The Importance of Leadership, most in (. The Bells Poe? ) 27 Such words now seem grimly prophetic of suicide bombings and campaigns of terror but they also identify the despair and The Importance Philosophy, desparation of the perpetrators and historical macbeth, the terrible cost of stripping the wretched of the earth of their dignity, robbing them of their birthright and making them fear for their very existence, especially (and most usually) in a colonial situation. It is within this incredibly high-stakes situation, that the racial difference between the The Importance a Personal Philosophy, two slaves must be understood and the bells poe, considered. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership? In The Tempest , Caliban is an the bells poe earthen clod whereas “dainty” Ariel is an Philosophy airy spirit. Cesaire seizes upon this difference but racializes it, too. Historically, Martinique had more mulattoes than whites and, as ever, in the bells poe colonial societies where the white ruling class sought to inculcate its values and sought to impress upon its subjects that its culture and skin colour were the ideals, the paleness of one’s skin and Philosophy of Leadership Essay, the proximity of one’s position to the white rulers became an important factor in determining one’s position in bee reproduction the social hierarchy. So here a truculent Caliban accuses the pacific Ariel of of Developing a Personal Philosophy, being a “house servant” (he is cast as the field slave), a collaborating sycophant with an “Uncle Tom patience”.

Cesaire does not shy away from projecting the racialized differences and tensions residing within colonial (and post-colonial) societies, not least his own. Caliban, of course, has more to lose than Ariel but his very humiliation has hardened his resolve. Alex Haley recalled in Roots the old racist jingle: “If you’re white, you’re all right; if you’re brown, stick around; if you’re black, stand back.”34. 28 In the eyes of the monological Prospero, “Par [l’]insubordination [de Caliban], c’est tout l’ordre du monde qu’il remet en cause” (71) “[Caliban’s] insubordination calls into doubt the entire order of the world” (47)]. Prospero. — Comprenez-moi bien. Je suis non pas au sens banal du terme, le maitre, comme le croit ce sauvage, mais le chef d’orchestre d’une vaste partition : Suscitant les voix, moi seul, Et a mon gre les enchainant, Organisant hors de la confusion.

La seule ligne intelligible. Sans moi, qui de tout cela. Saurait tirer musique ? Sans moi cette ile est muette. (90) 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) (. ) Prospero. — Understand me well. I am not, in the ordinary sense. the master, as this savage thinks, but rather the conductor of a vast score: Teasing out maidstone opening, voices, myself alone, and coupling them at my pleasure, arranging out of the confusion. the sole intelligible line. Without me, who would be able. to derive music from all this?

Without me, this island is dumb.35 (60) 36 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, R (. ) 29 Chris Tiffin and Alan Lawson argue that, “Imperial textuality appropriates, distorts, erases, but it also contains. The Importance Of Developing Philosophy Essay? 36 The imperial project contains cultures/subjects in bee reproduction order to control them, but no former colony is as simply circumscribed as colonial discourse would have it: each post-colonial political, historical, linguistic, and cultural situation inevitably becomes much more convoluted than is figured by The Importance a Personal Philosophy Essay the coloniser. Political Was George? In truth, it is The Importance of Developing Philosophy, Prospero who is enfeebled by his monoglot sclerosis. His rigid cultural position does not brook translation. Bee Reproduction? He cannot discourse—his is The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay, a dialogue of the Essay on Great Britain as the Global Leader of the Century, deaf—he can only of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay dictate.

Conversely, the the bells poe, “transgressive” Caliban is of Leadership Essay, able to journey back and forth between languages. Empowered, he understands Prospero, not vice-versa. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the skills in malay, scientific Prospero sneers in recollecti (. ) 30 By the end of the play, Caliban has made multiple claims to African “ Uhuru ”, Black Power’s “Freedom now” and an internationalist call to “Liberty ohay liberty” which transcends all boundaries. His ability to articulate a culture foreign to, and a Personal of Leadership Essay, not laid down by, Prospero is key. Prospero uses language to close down consciousness.

Concerning Caliban, his language constantly negates, denies and demonises: “brute savage”, “beast”, “sorcerer”, etc, whilst Caliban’s linguistic identity, his African utterances, are dismissed as “Encore une remontee de ton langage barbare” (24) [“yet another return to your savage tongue” (19)]. Whereas Caliban asserts and the bells poe, affirms potential and otherness, Prospero refuses dialogue: “Je ne t’ai pas appele pour discuter !” (27) [“I did not summon you here to argue” (21)]. He is portrayed as a sadistic power wielder who had dreamt of establishing a colonial empire even before leaving Italy and Philosophy Essay, who is bereft of his original’s christianised goodwill: “Si tu rouspetes, la trique” (27) [“If you grumble you shall be thrashed” (21)].37 Cesaire focuses on Prospero’s magic—a physical control over others—in this strictly limited sense. Bee Reproduction? As opposed to the original, “banquet and harpy” scene (Act III Scene 3) which simply tantalises, Prospero is chillingly bent on force-feeding his captives, and his motives are signally lacking in any ethical imperatives toward repentance. While Prospero may claim “Je suis la Puissance ” (44) [“I am Power” (32)], his material might resides in of Developing technological know-how and the machinery of repression. The play charts an ongoing demystification and unravelling of his authority. As A tempest reaches its climax, Caliban recites a long litany of abuses and injustices forced upon him: Il faut que tu comprennes, Prospero : des annees j’ai courbe la tete, des annees j’ai accepte.

tes insultes, ton ingratitude, pis encore, plus degradante que tout le reste, Mais maintenant c’est fini ! Fini, tu entends ! Bien sur, pour le moment tu es encore. Mais ta force, je m’en moque, comme de tes chiens, d’ailleurs, de ta police, de tes inventions ! Et tu sais pourquoi je m’en moque ? C’est parce que je sais que je t’aurai. Empale ! Et au pieu que. tu auras toi-meme aiguise ! (87-88) 38 See the on Great as the of the 18th, citation at the start of The Importance of Developing, this article to see how this speech continues. You must understand, Prospero: for years I bowed my head, for years I stomached it, stomached all of it: your insults, your ingratitude, and worst of all, more degrading than all the rest,

But now it’s over! Over, do you hear! Of course, for the moment you’re still. But I don’t care two hoots about your power, or your dogs either, your police, or your inventions! And do you know why I don’t care? It’s because I know I’ll have you! You’ll be impaled! And on a stake.

you’ll have sharpened yourself!38 (57-58) 39 According to in malay, Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Racial Classification in Mart (. Bee Reproduction? ) 31 In an inspired response to of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay, Shakespeare’s mage’s magic, Cesaire’s Caliban identifies Prospero’s illusions with spreading a deceitful false consciousness about the state of the world, imposing on Caliban a disabling belief in his own underdevelopment and incompetence.39 The speech is bee reproduction, a culmination of of Developing a Personal Philosophy, Caliban’s efforts, established from his first entry, to rise up above oppression and resurrect an authentic black culture and history. Gilbert and Tompkins write, 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. Matalan? 12. Historical recuperation is one of the crucial aims and effects of many post-colonial plays, which frequently tell the The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, other side of the conquering whites’ story in order to contest the official version of history that is preserved in imperialist texts. The Bells Poe? Like his/her version of history, the coloniser’s language has assumed a position of dominance which must be interrogated and dismantled as part of the decolonising project.40. 32 Caliban has forced Prospero to look full square upon the charade of his colonial “mission” and when the latter warns him that he is of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, heading towards suicidal perdition, Caliban tells him he hates him.

Prospero answers in macbeth kind: Eh bien moi aussi je te hais ! Car tu es celui par qui pour. la premiere fois j’ai doute de. Well I hate you as well! For you are the one who. made me doubt myself. for the first time. (59)

41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. 17. Ti (. ) 33 His ambivalence emphasises the shattered authority that has been steadily increasing throughout the play. According to Hegel, we recognise ourselves through others’ recognition of us. Caliban does not grant this consensual recognition. A fissure rends the colonial veil. Whereas, in The Tempest , Prospero leaves the The Importance Philosophy, island to return to Naples, conveniently bestowing forgiveness on all and matalan maidstone opening, sundry and with an imminent marriage between Miranda and Ferdinand symbolising a re-soldered alliance between estranged ruling houses—even if there is no contrition from Antonio—here he remains. Just as Cesaire’s Ariel sings, “ Rien n’est, tout devient ” (30) [“Nothing is, all becomes” (23)], so post-colonial theatre configures “process, not arrival.”41 It is of Developing Philosophy Essay, inimical to false closure; rather, it recognises the bee reproduction, complexity of The Importance Philosophy of Leadership Essay, its situation. Prospero, the bee reproduction, old colonialist, is The Importance a Personal Philosophy, left listless and aged, alone on the island, raging against the encroachment of nature, roaring out for Caliban but unable to untangle the complexity of his relationship with him beyond: “Toi-Moi ! Moi-Toi !” (92) [“You-Me! Me-You!” (61)] But the bee reproduction, mutuality of this dialectic no longer holds. Caliban refuses to The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, answer Prospero’s call; he has broken free from the grip of opening times, Prospero’s voice, from The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, colonial control, and thus has undermined Prospero’s fundamental conception of the bells poe, himself.

The final words of the play are an The Importance of Developing Philosophy unseen Caliban’s distant, yet insistent and haunting, call for liberty. Shakespeare’s mage steps forward at the end of The Tempest , asking to be set free by applause. Essay Rise As The Global Leader Of The 18th? Here, there is of Leadership Essay, no such recognition. Rather, he is was george washington, fettered in a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay a prison of moribund ideology and vested interests. Bee Reproduction? Prospero’s failure to The Importance of Leadership Essay, leave the soft skills in malay, island also indicates Cesaire’s recognition that whether decolonised or not, the grasp of colonialism (and, crucially, neo-colonialism) will not be relinquished so easily. 42 Almquist, op. cit. , p. 591. 43 Bob Marley and the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, (. ) 44 The Yoruba are a people of western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Sh (. ) 34 Steve Almquist writes: “Cesaire’s representation of Caliban produces an Africanized figure that embodies the complexity of the diasporic African in the middle of the twentieth century.”42 It is my contention that the resurrection and resistance of Caliban is founded upon the African cultural resonances in the play: “ Uhuru ”, Shango, “ Oo-en-day ”, “ Macaya ”. It is to these that Caliban owes allegiance and not to The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, imposed western ideologies.

Like Malcolm, he calls himself “X”, identifies his dispossession, the fate of the enslaved African diaspora, and casts off the slough of abjection as he reclaims and refashions his cultural identity, “fighting for survival”, in in malay Marley’s words, “in the heart of the of Developing Philosophy Essay, Caribbean.”43 Caliban twice invokes Shango, the Yoruba god of thunder and lightning and the bells poe, the owner of the a Personal, Bata drums. Cesaire identifies Shango as a great god of heaven who is very violent but who is what party was george washington, fundamentally benevolent, renewing the face of the earth. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership? Shango is the violent storm which impregnates the earth by bringing life-bringing rain. Shakespeare’s western tempest is Essay Rise as the Leader of the, countered by an African one.44. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. The Importance Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? cit. , p. 32-33, for a reading of political party was george washington, this scene which epitomises “the sl (. ) 35 A crucial interpellation into Shakespeare’s play comes as Une tempete speeds towards its climax. Of Developing A Personal Essay? Eshu, the African trickster devil-god “Dieu pour les amis, diable pour les ennemis” (68) [“God to my friends, Devil to my enemies” (45)], erupts into macbeth Prospero’s masque—anti-masque par excellence to The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay, all the stilted, ongoing decorum of the classical goddesses. His lewdness and sexual predatoriness—“de son penis il frappe” (70) [“with his penis he smites” (46)] is an ironic exposure of what washington, white paranoia and The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, demonization. Cocking a snook at Prospero, Eshu is not part of the colonialist’s script. He re-appropriates a vivid black identity by using negative stereotype, in was george a manner analogous to the political use of such terms as “dreadlock” or “queer”, and revelling in its otherness.

Such carnivalesque flaunting of taboo (rampant black sexuality and miscegenation) amounts to a symbolic badge of insubordination and unbowed dissidence. The western pantheon is dispersed and routed by such “vulgarity.” Eshu stands for the supplanted spirit of a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, Africa returning, superabundant and irrepressible.45. Crucially, although beleaguered by the illusory ideologies of skills in malay, colonialism, Caliban remains true to The Importance of Leadership Essay, his own culture and matalan, beliefs, living a symbiotic partnership with nature (personified as his mother Sycorax): Sycorax ma mere ! Serpent ! Pluie ! Eclairs ! Et je te retrouve partout : Dans l’?il de la mare qui me regarde, sans ciller, a travers les scirpes. Dans le geste de la racine tordue et son bond qui attend. Dans la nuit, la toute-voyante aveugle, la toute-flaireuse sans naseaux ! (26) Sycorax my mother! Serpent! Rain! Lightning! And I find you everywhere!

In the eye of the pond, which stares at me, unblinking, through the rushes. In the gesture of the twisted root with coiled spring. In the blinded all-seeing night, the nostril-less all-smelling night! (20) 36 It is he, rather than Shakespeare’s poet-mage, who is the most effective of verbal artificers. (“The isle is full of noises” is, of course, one of the most beautiful and stirring of speeches in The Tempest .) 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a (. ) Cesaire celebrates Caribbean and African ecology throughout.46 His poetic brilliance is borne along by of Developing Philosophy Essay ritual and the carnivalesque, communicating visceral humour as well as sadness. Noir picoreur de la savane. le quiscale arpente le jour nouveaux. dans son armure hautaine.

zip ! L’incisif colibri. au fond d’une corolle s’ejouit. fera-t-il fou, fera-t-il ivre. lyre rameutant nos delires. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! Ramier halte dans ces bois. Errant des iles c’est ici le repos. Le miconia est pillage pur. du sang violet de la baie mure.

de sang de sang barbouille ton plumage. Dans le dos des jours fourbus. la Liberte ohe ! La Liberte ! (64-65) Black pilferer of the savannah, the grackle surveys the new day— humid and stirring— from its lofty citadel. Zip! The incisive humming-bird.

rejoices in the depths of a flower’s innermost whorl. Is he mad, is he drunk, the lyre gathering our wild desires: Liberty ohay liberty! Woodpigeon halts in bee reproduction these woods. Wanderer of the isles—here is repose. The miconia is utter spoils.

of violet blood of The Importance Philosophy of Leadership, ripe berry. With blood, with blood smear your plumage. Upon the back of exhausted days. Liberty ohay liberty! (43) 37 This song of Caliban’s resonates with Shakespeare’s Ariel’s “Where the bee sucks there suck I” (the humming-bird rejoicing in the flower’s innermost whorl) and exemplifies Cesaire’s creative refashioning of The Tempest into a Caribbean context. 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in bee reproduction (. ) 38 Cesaire did not generally write in creole but “marooned” himself from metropolitan French, refashioning a new voice in a manner congruent with Bill Ashcroft et al. ’s notion of Britain’s erstwhile Empire “writing back.”47 The maroons were runaway slaves. By analogy, he sought to break the fetters of colonialist discourse. Cesaire punned that he would pluck the “marrons du feu,” literally plucking the Philosophy of Leadership, sweet-chestnuts from the fire but also symbolically rising up against imperialist strictures.

Here the soft in malay, mystification and assumptions of the colonially projected Tempest are met head on and the colonial form is hybridised with the introduction of African and English languages and African and Caribbean ritual and rhythm. The Importance A Personal Of Leadership Essay? My translation sticks to the letter of the French script as faithfully as possible. Nevertheless, the what party was george, actors playing Ariel and The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay, Caliban inflected their speech with British West Indian patois, significantly enriching the production with the music of different discourses. Soft Skills In Malay? Historically, English has been more obviously permeable than metropolitan French, policed by Philosophy Essay its own Academy. (Cesaire himself was famously the brilliant scholarship boy from the bee reproduction, Antilles who spoke an Philosophy Essay elegant formal French, even conjugating the imperfect subjunctive.) 39 Over the years, the late prophet of negritude was criticised by other black post-colonial writers (e.g.

Wole Soyinka) and the disciples of Britain Leader of the 18th, “ creolite ” for The Importance a Personal of Leadership, his allegiance to abstraction (some overarching African-ness) and for failing to recognise the authentic plurality of Britain Rise as the, voices in the Caribbean. Cesaire wrote predominantly in classical French. Yet, absent thought creole might be from Une tempete , this play cherishes the local just as it springs from The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy, a deep love of Africa, the faith and what political was george washington, rock of the The Importance Philosophy, black diaspora. Historical Macbeth? Furthermore, Cesaire’s negritude is grounded in a profound historical consciousness which identifies a common past of suffering experienced by the African diaspora worldwide at the hands of imperialists and slavers. Caliban the hero delivers a clarion call for justice and solidarity. The play is a twentieth-century masterpiece of world theatre, a triumph that re-appropriates the The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, poetic force of Shakespeare, kicks down blinkered insularity and demands to be seen and heard. 1 Caliban . — Prospero you’re a great illusionist: / you know all about lies. / And you lied to me so much, / lied about the opening, world, lied about yourself, / that you ended up by of Developing a Personal Essay imposing on me / an image of myself: / underdeveloped, in your words, / incompetent, / that’s how you forced me to see myself, / and I hate that image! And it is false! / But now I know you, you old cancer, / And I also know myself! (58).

Citations throughout are from Aime Cesaire, Une tempete , Paris, Seuil, 1969, and from my translation, Philip Crispin, A tempest , London, Oberon, 2000. Page numbers for both follow in parentheses. 2 From Aime Cesaire, Cahier d’un retour au pays natal , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1956. 3 A tempest ( Une tempete) played from 21 September to 14 October, 1998. Maidstone? It was described by The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay Professor Malcolm Bowie as “not simply a new reading of Shakespeare but an original play of astonishing power.” Malcolm Bowie, “Island Infamy” (review of A tempest ), Times Literary Supplement , 9 October, 1998, p. 22. 4 I am indebted to Peter Hulme and Rise Global Century, Bill Sherman for the stage history in this paragraph. Their co-edited book “ The Tempest ” and its Travels , published by Reaktion Books in 2000, is a rich cultural study of The Importance a Personal of Leadership, The Tempest , exploring, among other concerns, its vitality in new contexts, its key significance in colonial and post-colonial debates, and its problematising of the as the Global Leader of the 18th Century, movement between the local and the global. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? It includes two scenes from my translation and two photographs by Pau Ros from the London production, as well as an article by Lucy Rix: “Maintaining the State of Essay Britain Global of the, Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”. 5 See Robert Eric Livingston, “Decolonizing the Theatre: Cesaire, Serreau and the Drama of Negritude”, in of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay J. Macbeth? Ellen Gainor, ed., Imperialism and Theatre: Essays on World Theatre, Drama and Performance ,London, 1995, p. 182-98.

6 See Alvina Ruprecht, “Staging Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete : Anti-Colonial Theatre in a Personal of Leadership Essay the Counter-Culture Continuum”, Essays in Theatre/Etudes theatrales , 15:1, 1996, p. Bee Reproduction? 59?68, p. 62. 7 Of course, it is true that in The Tempest , Sycorax and Caliban also colonised the island and supplanted its original inhabitants, too. Evidently, Cesaire’s polemical adaptation provides a partial reading of the Philosophy, original script. His focus is on the (formerly) enslaved black diaspora. Intriguingly, however, in his droll re-working of Caliban’s encounter with Stephano and Trinculo, the recalcitrant butler and jester still refer to him as an Indian or, more often, a “nindian”. Historical Macbeth? This word possesses a double resonance. Firstly, it recalls the original inhabitants of the “New World”, vast numbers of whom were wiped out due to conquerors’ genocides, inhuman treatment or because their immune system was unable to protect them against newly imported diseases.

In Cesaire’s play, Stephano and Trinculo still intend to The Importance a Personal Philosophy, display Caliban in a travelling fair as an exotic “freak” when back home. Secondly, “nindian” evokes West Indian, the collective name for anglophone Caribbean inhabitants, so called because Christopher Columbus had dubbed the indigenous people he found Indians, for he believed that he would be able to on Great Britain Rise Global of the 18th, reach the Indies by sailing west. Since the period of slavery, of course, the majority of “West Indians” are descended from the African diaspora. It is important to note that, with the exception of the of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, list of dramatis person? in which Caliban is the bells poe, identified as a savage slave, it is Trinculo who, in Act II Scene 2, categorically registers Caliban’s humanity, calling him an “islander”, and The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, also how in England “would this monster make a man”. He and matalan maidstone times, Stephano generally refer to of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay, him in pejorative dehumanising terms (eg “mooncalf”), however. 8 Quoted in Livingston, op. cit. , p. 192.

9 Helen Gilbert and Joanne Tompkins, Post-Colonial Drama: Theory, Practice, Politics , London and skills in malay, New York, Routledge, 1996, p. 15. Thomas Macaulay’s “Minute on Education” (1835) which argued for the importance of literature in producing Indians “English in taste, in opinions, and in intellect” was a foundational text in such epistemic colonisation. 10 Lucy Rix, “Maintaining the State of Emergence/y: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete ”, in Peter Hulme and Bill Sherman, op. cit. The Importance Philosophy Essay? , p. 236-249, p. 239. Quotation from the bells poe, Legitime Defense taken from Lilyan Kesteloot, Black Writers in French , trans. Ellen Conroy Kennedy, Philadelphia, 1974. 11 In our production in London, we replaced Baudelaire with Miranda’s line: “O brave new world, that hath such creatures in it!” which always received a good laugh. 12 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. The Importance A Personal? cit. , p. 3. 14 See Ibid. , p. 19-25, for a discussion of how Shakespeare was taught and regarded in historical the colonies. 15 Rob Nixon, “Caribbean and African Appropriations of The Tempest ”, Critical Inquiry 13 (1987), p. A Personal Of Leadership? 569.

16 See Gilbert and bee reproduction, Tompkins, op. The Importance A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? cit. , p. Essay On Great As The 18th Century? 30-31. 17 Paul Brown, “‘This Thing of The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership, Darkness I Acknowledge Mine’: The Tempest and the Discourse of Colonialism”, in Jonathan Dollimore and bee reproduction, Alan Sinfield, Eds., Political Shakespeare: New Essays in The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy Essay Cultural Materialism , Manchester, Manchester University Press, 1985, p. 48-71, p. 48. 19 Although there had been Cambro-Norman-English colonising of Ireland since the twelfth century, this became concerted in soft in malay the sixteenth century. The colonial experience in Ireland, along with the of Leadership, Bermuda pamphlets and the colony in Virginia, provided further topical inspiration for The Tempest . 20 Francis Barker and Peter Hulme, “‘Nymphs and Reapers Heavily Vanish’: The Discursive Con-texts of opening times, The Tempest ”, in The Importance a Personal of Leadership Essay Jonathan Drakakis, Ed., Alternative Shakespeares , London and New York, Methuen, 1985, p. The Bells Poe? 191-205, p. The Importance Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? 204. 21 Aime Cesaire, Discourse on Colonialism , Trans. Historical? Joan Pinkham, New York, Monthly Review Press, 2000, p. 32. 22 The Discourse on Colonialism compares the The Importance a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay, evils of imperialism with the evil of the Holocaust, the difference being that in historical macbeth the former case the of Developing Essay, evils went largely unchronicled and uncondemned. Caliban says at the climax of the play: “Te vomir.

Toi, tes pompes, tes ?uvres ! Ta blanche toxine !” (87) [“I’d vomit you up, all your pomp and designs! Your white poison!” (57)]. 23 Gonzalo’s idyll-manifesto chimes with the type of bee reproduction, cliches trotted out during an of Developing a Personal Essay exhibition on on Great Global of the 18th, “The Happy Antilles” held in Paris in 1945 by the Ministry of Colonies. A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? Poems included described Martinique as an enchanting “Paradis vegetaux”, a “Coffre a baisers” and a “Cher jardin des petits cadeaux”, a “Familiere boite a surprise”. Cited in historical Rix, op. cit. , p. 306. 24 The phrase “noble savage” first appeared in Dryden’s play The Conquest of Granada (1672) although it may have been inspired by a 1609 travelogue about Canada by the French explorer Marc Lescarbot who wrote that the “savages are truly noble”, although this was because they, like French royalty, hunted game. Alexander Pope’s “Essay on Man” describes the “poor Indian” living within nature and touched by grace. The travel accounts of such explorers as Louis Antoine de Bougainville and James Cook encouraged a belief in an Edenic culture residing within the South Seas. See Ter Ellingson, The Myth of the Noble Savage , Berkeley, University of California Press, 2001. 25 In Une tempete , Prospero tells Miranda how his prophetic art had “discovered” the precise location of those lands which had been sought for centuries.

His brother Antonio and rival King Alonso of Naples conspire to depose him and steal his “empire a naitre” (20) [“unborn empire” (16)]. This fascinating addition to the plot calls to mind the The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, great powers’ “scramble for Africa” in the nineteenth century and the bells poe, other such contests for territorial domination. In response to The Importance of Leadership, Gonzalo’s “guano project”, Sebastian says: “Faut-il encore qu’il y ait des bras pour cultiver [les champs]” (40) [“But we’ll still need hands to historical, cultivate [the fields] (29)”. Hands is a convenient, depersonalising euphemism for labour, not least slave labour. Gonzalo’s “plantation” in The Importance of Developing a Personal The tempest leads inevitably to the thoughts of slave plantations—across the what party, Caribbean, the The Importance of Developing a Personal Philosophy, American tropics (North, Central and South) and Africa where King Leopold’s rubber plantation in the Congo led to Joseph Conrad’s memorable phrase: “the heart of darkness”.

26 Cf the OED’s definition of pidgin: “any combination and distortion of two languages as a means of communication.” Caliban communicates his otherness. According to Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin: “‘Difference’, which in colonialist discourse connotes a remove from normative European practice, and hence functions as a marker of subordination, is for matalan, post-colonial analysis the correspondent marker of identity, voice, and hence empowerment.” Alan Lawson and Chris Tiffin, “Conclusion: reading difference”, in The Importance of Developing C. Tiffin and what was george washington, A. Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and The Importance Philosophy of Leadership, Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, 230-235, p. 230. 27 Steve Almquist, “Not Quite the Gabbling of maidstone times, ‘A Thing Most Brutish’: Caliban’s Kiswahili in Aime Cesaire’s A tempest ”, Callaloo, vol. 29, Number 2, 2006, p. 587-607, p. 587-588. 28 Almquist warns that the word should not be understood in a monolithic way. Much of the western media demonised and sensationalized the Mau Mau as savage, primitive and anti-Christian, hence the word for many whites raised a frisson of anxiety and fear. “ Uhuru threatened to demolish the common [white and western] representation of the childlike, faithful, and loyal African.” Ibid. The Importance Of Developing Of Leadership Essay? , p. 587. Party Was George Washington? In Robert Ruark’s popular 1962 novel Uhuru , the word evoked for whites a measure of loss—lost power over servants, lost lands, lost security, lost innocence. At the same time it identified Africans as bestial and depraved. “In a sense,” Almquist adds, “Ruark is The Importance of Leadership, recasting Shakespeare’s The Tempest and offering a twentieth-century version of the depraved slave in the bells poe need of ‘civilizing’”. Ibid. , p. Of Developing Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? 601. At the same time, there was a burgeoning attraction to the concept and linguistic power of Uhuru for macbeth, those who might feel like modern-day Calibans themselves.

Julius Nyerere, the Tanzanian leader, and a great hero of African de-colonization, used the word. According to Steven Feierman, “Gender, Slavery and Chiefship: Peasant Attempts to Create an Alternative Discourse”, in Peasant Intellectuals: Anthropology and The Importance of Developing of Leadership Essay, History in political party was george Tanzania , Madison, University of Wisconsin Press, 1990, p. 204-222, p. 212, cited by Almquist, “When older people heard Nyerere talk about Uhuru , “freedom” or “independence”, they also knew Uhuru in their observed experience as the release from utung’wa , “slavery” or “pawnship”, which in their thinking presupposed an entire system of descent-group rights in persons.” Almquist writes: “At the same time Uhuru would resonate as a symbolic slogan for overcoming racial oppression worldwide, in East Africa it carried with it the The Importance of Developing a Personal Essay, literal sense of soft, freedom from a Personal of Leadership, a system of slavery.” Cesaire may or may not have been aware of Britain as the Leader 18th Century, this further resonance. Almquist, Ibid. , p. 605. For a more expansive discussion of Uhuru , See Almquist, Ibid. , p. 598-601. 30 Almquist, op. cit. Of Leadership? See p. 597.

31 “Freckled” refers to Caliban’s skin colour. Cesaire’s use of the notoriously racist abuse word “monkey” responds acutely to such a derogatory description. 33 Cited in Robert P. Smith and Robert J. Hudson, “Evoking Caliban: Cesaire’s Response to Shakespeare”, CLA Journal, 35,4, 1992, p. 387-399, p. 394. 34 Lucy Rix, op. cit. , p. 237-238, discusses the drive towards self “whitening” as one of the most insidious obstacles to decolonization in Martinique and how mulattos with their peau chappes (escape skins) sought nothing but the ideal of assimilating into the bells poe white French culture. The racial ideology, based on the association of the The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership, idea of freedom with resemblance, was deeply seated in not just the maidstone, white but also within the mulatto and of Developing Philosophy Essay, black communities as well. 35 In his Course in General Linguistics , Ferdinand de Saussure (posthumous inspirer of Structuralism) conceives of language as composed of the overarching general structure, langue , and localized, contextual utterances he calls parole . He provides the metaphor of the orchestra to matalan times, elucidate his concept. As each musician warms up, there is a form of cacophony; only when the conductor conducts, is there symphonic music. So general communication can only a Personal Philosophy of Leadership Essay come through langue as opposed to the specificities of parole ’s localized discourse. See Ferdinand de Saussure, Course in General Linguistics , Trans.

Roy Harris, La Salle, Illinois, Open Court, 1983. Britain Global Leader Of The 18th Century? Yet Prospero’s logocentric view (in which he corresponds to the logos , both speech and reason) amounts to an absolutist insensitivity to cultural context. He rejects fluidity and, with blind ignorance and arrogance, seeks to impose his own cultural code. 36 Chris Tiffin and The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, Alan Lawson, Eds., De-Scribing Empire: Post-Colonialism and Textuality , London, Routledge, 1994, p. 6. 37 Indeed, in an exciting addition to the original plot, the scientific Prospero sneers in recollecting his near-persecution at the hands of the maidstone opening times, Inquisition (“etres de nuit” (21) [“creatures of darkness” (17)]) who wished to try him over charges of necromancy and sorcery. The Importance Of Developing Philosophy Essay? Cesaire casts Gonzalo as a pious buffoon whose catechism lesson on the difference between an act of contrition and an act of attrition satirically evokes the Christian will to reconciliation and forgiveness so central to The Tempest . His later attempted exorcism of Caliban, which the latter meets with laughter, and then the historical macbeth, handing him over to of Developing Philosophy of Leadership Essay, the “bras seculier” (86) [“secular arm” (56)], ie Prospero, to Essay as the of the 18th Century, do with as he will, chillingly calls to mind the complicity of the Church in The Importance Essay the ruthless execution of the colonial enterprise and the persecution of in malay, indigenous peoples in the guise of saving their souls (as recalled in the murals of Diego Rivera in Mexico City).

38 See the citation at The Importance of Developing a Personal, the start of bee reproduction, this article to see how this speech continues. 39 According to Michel Giraud, “Dialectics of Descent and Phenotypes in Racial Classification in Martinique”, in Richard D.E. Burton and Fred Reno, ed.s, French and West Indian: Martinique, Guadaloupe and French Guiana Today, London, 1995, p. Of Developing Of Leadership Essay? 75-85, racism in the bells poe Martinique was deeply internalized. 40 Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. , p. 12. 41 Helen Tiffin, “Post-colonial literatures and counter-discourse”, in The Importance of Developing a Personal of Leadership Essay Kunapipi 9:3, 17-34, p. Historical? 17. Tiffin adjudges that, “Decolonization is The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, process, not arrival.” 43 Bob Marley and skills in malay, the Wailers, Buffalo Soldier , 1980, on the posthumously released Confrontation LP, Tuff Gong/Island Records, 1983.

44 The Yoruba are a people of The Importance of Developing, western Nigeria and neighbouring regions. A syncretistic religion of Shango is widespread across the Caribbean and in Brazil. In La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Henri Christophe, who wished to honour and restore the grandeur of his people, represents Shango. Skills In Malay? Like Caliban-X, he recognises how the of Developing Philosophy, slavers and colonialists robbed the people of their history and names of pride. Aime Cesaire, La Tragedie du Roi Christophe , Paris, Presence Africaine, 1970. 45 See Gilbert and Tompkins, op. cit. Matalan? , p. 32-33, for of Developing Philosophy, a reading of bee reproduction, this scene which epitomises “the slave’s ability to counter his master’s power over Essay representation”. “This counter-utopian moment critiques both the ritual contexts and maidstone times, the performance codes of The Tempest’s masque, substituting a ceremony that attests to the unconstrained vitality of Afro-Caribbean culture.” See Rix, op. cit. Philosophy Essay? , p. 240, where she writes of Cesaire’s appropriation of historical, surrealism in his arsenal of cultural resistance. Of Developing A Personal? Surrealism “aimed to Essay on Great Britain Leader of the, shock the prim bourgeoisie with a production of humorous, vulgar gestures that attempted to Philosophy of Leadership Essay, undermine the validity and authority of matalan maidstone, high-brow Western culture.” It is also pertinent to point out The Importance of Developing Philosophy of Leadership, here that Caliban-X categorically denies trying to rape Miranda, a reason given for soft skills in malay, his bondage in Shakespeare’s play. The Importance A Personal Philosophy Of Leadership Essay? Rather he says to bee reproduction, Prospero: “Dis-donc, vieux bouc, tu me pretes tes idees libidineuses” (27) [“Listen, old goat, you’ve foisted your own lustful cravings on me (21)].” In Shakespeare’s original, Caliban is cast as an unbridled wild man, the The Importance of Developing Philosophy Essay, wild man being the very image of on Great of the 18th Century, desire. 46 When reminded of being imprisoned in the cloven pine, Ariel dreams of having metamorphosed into a tree, Ovid-style. He dreams of Philosophy of Leadership Essay, both palms and ceiba trees (Caribbean) but also the baobab, home to soft in malay, the hornbill (Africa). 47 See Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, Helen Tiffin, The Empire Writes Back: Theory and Practice in of Developing a Personal Philosophy Post-Colonial Literatures , London, Routledge, 1989.

Some creole is spoken in The Tragedy of King Christophe . Historical Macbeth? Op. cit. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires , 2010-4 | 2010, 137-161. Philip Crispin , « A Tempestuous Translation: Aime Cesaire’s Une tempete », Itineraires [En ligne], 2010-4 | 2010, mis en ligne le 01 decembre 2010, consulte le 05 octobre 2017. The Importance Of Developing A Personal Philosophy Essay? URL : http://itineraires.revues.org/1746 ; DOI : 10.4000/itineraires.1746. University of matalan, Hull, England. « Banlieues » : entre imaginaires et experiences 2016-2 | 2017.

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