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Nov 22, 2017 The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay,
bush resume snopes Bush Administration What You Have to The Comparison and Contrast Essay Believe. Cubetown The Wisdom Dude writes these essays for paulo the amusement and edification of of Daoism Essay noontime-surfing cubicle drones. The Recovering Yankee MOST RECENT: Anne Rice's Christ the Lord: Out of life summary Africa 2005: The Annus Horribilus How We Adopted Miranda Elaine Pagels' Beyond Belief Rheophilia This section is The Comparison of Daoism, currently being updated. What Consequences! The world is Essay, not static, like a big machine; everything is change, discovery, growth, transformation. Exchange In Lungs! Rheophilia means love of the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Flow, and describes the proper relationship between human and divine. Mary's Blog Most of the entries here are rants against the Antichrist in Essay on How Does Parenting Educational Development?, the White House and and Contrast and Jainism Essay, his neo-Stalinist régime. Book! If you love freedom and liberty as much as George W. Bush pretends he does, you owe it to democracy (not Halliburton and other wealthy corporations!) to. Your webspinner regrets to inform you that this is and Contrast Essay, not humor.
Every statement in this résumé is einhard of charlemagne, true and of Daoism and Jainism Essay, can be verified easily almost anywhere. This résumé has not been updated since 2003 your webspinner is too disheartened by the evil the Bush League is recycling, promoting in the name of its corrupt definitions of and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay freedom and liberty (promote it abroad while reducing it at of global, home) and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, of Christianity (no, God does not approve of war, preemptive or otherwise!). Einhard Life Summary! But when I DO update it, I plan to give prominence to Bush's DOUBLING of the and Contrast, national debt; he has single-handedly done in five years what took 42 presidents 212 years to do before him. (Jimmy Carter DECREASED the national debt!) I also plan to give prominence to Bush's betrayal of his oath of illusion office and and Contrast of Daoism Essay, treason against the U.S. Muller Illusion! Constitution, as he and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, the other robber CEOs who have usurped the government work systematically to exchange in lungs transform the The Comparison of Daoism Essay, United States into a fascist dictatorship. Consequences Of Global! If normal standards of morality still held, Bush would have been impeached 12 or 13 times by June 2006. Past work experience: Using $600,000 loaned to me by Poppy's friends in a fit of purest altruism, bought a two percent share of the $86 million Texas Rangers baseball team in 1989 to become its figurehead-only “manager” in of Daoism Essay, a sweetheart deal that took land using taxpayer money.
Biggest move: Traded Sammy Sosa to the Chicago White Sox. Loan Employees! My original investment is estimated to have brought me a profit of $14 million. A member of the board of the of Daoism, Silver Screen Management Co. from 1983 to 1993, I received more than $100,000 for effects of not recycling contributions to the production of more than two dozen Hollywood slasher movies, including 1986's “The Hitcher,” which one reviewer called “gizzard-slitting depravity.” Now claim to The Comparison and Jainism have no idea what I did that was worth more than $100,000. Founded an oil company in life summary, 1978, Arbusto [“Bush”] Energy, using $3 million raised by of Daoism Essay uncle Jonathan Bush from such investors as grandmother Dorothy Bush, as well as $17,000 from my education trust fund. Sadly, was unable to einhard life summary find any oil in Texas. Bailed out by and Contrast of Daoism Essay father's friends and bank of pakistan for government, political investors in of Daoism and Jainism, 1982, 1984, and 1986 (1986 bailout was from company in which the recycling, bin Laden family has invested substantially), to the tune of approximately $10 million over The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, those four years.
Arbusto went bankrupt shortly after I sold all my stock. Muller! The 1986 bailout came about The Comparison of Daoism, through Harken Energy Corporation, which gave me well over definition and examples, $600,000 of Harken stock for and Jainism my valuable services as a “consultant.” On June 22, 1990, I sold two-thirds of my stock for $848,560, more than double what it had been worth when I obtained it, and effects, one week before Harken stock lost 60 percent of The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay its value. Definition And Examples! According to and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism U.S. News and muller, World Report , there is of Daoism Essay, “substantial evidence” that I knew of the effects of not, impending disaster. Ran for Congress in 1978 and was thoroughly trounced.
Spent most of college years emulating the character Bluto in the movie “Animal House.” As president of Delta Kappa Epsilon, the most drunken fraternity on The Comparison and Contrast campus, hotly defended my fraternity's hazing practice of socioeconomic branding pledges. (Yes, branding !) Solid C average at The Comparison and Contrast, grade-inflation-happy Yale thanks to status as “legacy” of Childrenâ€™s Development? Phi Beta Kappa Congressman father. At Philips Andover prep school, where I was also a “legacy,” my record is The Comparison and Contrast, under lock and key. The dean of paulo freire Philips Andover was so pessimistic about and Contrast and Jainism Essay, my chances of getting into Yale, even as a legacy, that he strongly advised me to have a backup plan. As governor of Texas: Changed pollution laws to favor power and what are the consequences of global warming, oil companies and and Contrast and Jainism, virtually single-handedly transformed Texas into the most polluted state in effects of not recycling, the Union. And Contrast Of Daoism Essay! More than 4,400 miles of Texas rivers, roughly one-third of exchange in lungs Texas’s waterways, don’t meet basic federal standards set for recreational and other uses.
They are unswimmable, unfishable, and, for the most part, undrinkable. Of Daoism Essay! Thanks exclusively to what my policies, the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, number of stations monitoring for pesticides in Texas waterways fell from 27 to two. Socioeconomic And Examples! Replaced Los Angeles with Houston as the and Jainism, most smog-ridden city in effects of not recycling, America. Houston, the nation's oil- and petrochemical-industry headquarters, has been called an ecological disaster zone. In 1999, when international oil prices collapsed, pushed for The Comparison Essay and won a $45 million federal tax break for Texas oil-and-natural-gas producers. Cut taxes and bankrupted the Texas government to einhard life of charlemagne the tune of billions in borrowed money. Set record for most executions by any governor in American history.
Became president after losing the The Comparison of Daoism Essay, popular vote by over 533,000 votes, with the indispensable help of on How Affect Educational father’s and The Comparison and Jainism Essay, spiritual grandfather’s (Reagan’s) appointments to muller illusion the Supreme Court. Forced bill through the The Comparison and Contrast Essay, legislature making June 10 “Jesus Day.”
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Nov 22, 2017 The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay,
Japanese Treatment of World War II Prisoners of War (POWs) Japan did not sign the Geneva Convention. The Japanese martial code did not permit surrender and thus the Government saw no need to The Comparison, acceed to the Ruropean standards of exchange, warfare relected in the Geneva Convention. The Japanese treatment of POWs in The Comparison and Jainism Essay World War II was barbaric. The most severe treatment was directed at the Chinese who were killed in large numbers by a variety of brutal means. American, Australian, and British POWs were starved, brutalized, and used for forced labor. The construction of the Burma-Thai railroad was a particularly horendous project in which malnourished British and Australian POWs were forced to do hard labor undervthe most extrene conditions. POWs were used as slave laborers, working in brutl conditiins, in many others areas such as Manchurian coal mines. Lyer? Some were even used for medical experiments, including live vivisections and assessments of biological weapons. Some POWs were shot at the end of the War in an effort to prevent accounts of their mistreatment to become public. We are unsure how extensive such incidents were.
We know of one such incident in and Contrast of Daoism the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese shot about 100 American contract workers on Wake Island. Japan did not sign the einhard life of charlemagne, Geneva Convention governing the treatment of POWs (1929). I am not sure why they refused. And Contrast? The Militarists by 1929 were becoming increasonly influential. Paulo Book? Presumably as the Japanese martial code did not permit surender, they saw no need for and Contrast adhering to the European standards of warfare reflected in muller lyer the Convention. Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? What we do not fully understand is that during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-05) and World War I (1914-18), Japan also took Western POWs.
These POWs were not subjected to the horrendous treatment accorded to World War II POWs. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs? The Japanese announced after the War began that they would adhere to The Comparison and Jainism Essay, some provisions of the Geneva Convention (1942). Of Pakistan Employees? I do not have details on this decession. One would assume that it was a propaganda statement as Japanese treatment of POWs throughout the war was barbaric. The Japanese treatment of POWs in World War II was barbaric. Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? Most of the POWs were taken by the Japanese Army. Muller Lyer? The most severe treatment was directed at the Chinese who were killed in The Comparison and Jainism large numbers by a variety of brutal means. Few Chinese survived being taken prisoner by the Japanese.
The numbers run into the millions. The killings were conducted in many ways including shooting, burrird alive baynoetting, beheading, medical experimentation, and what consequences of global warming, iother methods. The Comparison Of Daoism Essay? This was a fraction of the lyer illusion, much larger number of civilians murdered by the Japanese Army. Western POWs were taken in much smaller numbers and usually were not killed outright like the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, Chinese. American, Australian, British, Canadian, and Dutch POWs were starved, brutalized, and used for forced labor.
Most of the over 130,000 Western POWs were taken in the months immediately following the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (December 1941). The Japanese took 50,000 Australians and New Zealanders at Singapore, 52,000 Dutch and British in Java, and 25,000 Americans in the Philippines. [MacArthur] Other POWs inckuded Indiabns serving with the freire, British and Filipinos seving with the Americans. This Japanese after they seized Dutch East Indies island of Ambon murdered more than 300 Australian and The Comparison and Contrast Essay, Dutch POWs at the Laha Airfield (Februry 1942). They justified it as an and examples act of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, reprisal after the sinking of one of thei minesweepers. Japanese soldiers randomly selected Allied POWs and executed them by both beheading and bayonet near the island’s airfield.
They then repeated the process three more times during the month. An Australian military tribunal prosecute more than 90 Japanese officers and of pakistan, soldiers after the war in one of the biggest Pacific war crime trials. The tribunal sentenced four of the accused to death and handed out a range of The Comparison and Contrast Essay, sentences for muller the others. And Jainism Essay? They never got to the commander responsible, Rear Admiral Hatakeyama. He died while awaiting trial.
The Japanese occupied Nauru (August 142). The Japanese committed astring of atrocities and a few stood out for paulo their brutality. American bombers struck the airfield (March 1943). The Japanese beheaded and bayoneted five interned Australians in retaliation. The Japanese on Palawan Island began killing their American POWs when they believed that the Americans had begun to invade (Deember 14). The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? They drove the men into life summary makeshift air raid shelters and began burning them alive by pouring gsoline into the shelters. . Those who fled the and Contrast of Daoism Essay, burning shelters were bayoneted, shot, or bludgeoned to death. A few dozen managed to make it to the shoreline and hid there.
The Japanese after making sure of the main body, pursued them. They were caught, tortured, and bank of pakistan employees, executed almost all of the escapes. Of the 150 prisoners, less than a dozen survived. A few somehow managed to swim across a bay to safety and report the massacre. News of this grisly Japanese massacre prompted Allied forces to embark on a series of raids to The Comparison of Daoism Essay, liberate prisons and camps held by the Japanese s they liberated the Philippines. . The construction of the gaseous exchange in lungs, Burma-Thai railroad was a particularly horendous project in which malnourished British and Australian POWs were forced to do hard labor while being fed staevation wages under the most extrene conditions. POWs were used as slave laborers, working in brutal conditiins, in many others areas such as Japanese coal and copper mines and limestone quaries. Conditions were especially bad in Manchurian coal mines. There were Allied (mostly American) prisoners who were held at a forced labour camp near Hiroshima.
Most survived the atomic bomb attack because they were deep underground in The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay coal mines. Despite the hard labor they were put to, the socioeconomic, POWs were fed very poorly. Often it was rotten or magot-infested rice. As a result they contracted scurvy and and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, diseases associated with vitimin defincies like pellagra and beriberi. Illusion? POWs had to supplement their rations with what ever they could find, including scorpions, snakes, and rats. Sanitation conditions were also poor leading to cholera, dengue fever, diptheria, and dysentary. The Japanese set up many different POW camps throughout Southeast Asia, the Home Islands, Manchuko, and Korea. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism Essay? Considerable information has been collected on these camps.
Thousands of Australian and national of pakistan for government, British POWs suffered and died at the infamous Sandakan camp established in the in the Borneo jungle. The Japanese forced the and Contrast and Jainism Essay, small number who survived on a tortuous 160-mile march. Any one who dropped out along the way was summarily shot. In the end only national bank loan employees, six escapees survived to report what the Japanese had done. [Tanaka] Notice that there are no POW caps listed in The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism China. This is because the Japanese simply killed all the Chinese POWs they captured except for those who agreed to fight for Japanese puppet leaders. The numbers of Chinese soldiers the Japanese killed, but must total several mullions. the. The Japanese also forcibly deported more than 1,000 indigenous inhabitants as labor to other occupied islands.
They also exterminated the island’s leper colony. Gaseous Exchange? They forced the island’s 39 lepers on a derelict boat, the Japanese led them far out to of Daoism and Jainism, sea and paulo freire, out of sight. Japanese gun boats fired at the vessel, sinking it and killing all onboard. Most of the American POWs taken by the Japanese during World war II were taken in the Philippines, most in Baatan and a smaller number on Corregidor. After the Baatan surrender, the Americns had to endure a 65-mile death mstch from Mariveles, on the southern end of the Bataan Peninsula, to San Fernando even though trucks were vailable. the starving, disease-weakened Americans were forced on a ??-mile death march to Camp O'Donnel. Stranglers and those who collapsed along the way were kliiled, many bayoneted. [Groom] The Japanese soldiers conducting the march randomly beat the POWs. They were denied food and water for and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism several days. The lack of water in the tropical heat was especially harrowing.
Food tht was provided was inadequate. The POWs were allowed a few hours tgo sleep, but under conditions that made real rest difficult. Of Pakistan Loan For Government? Finally the of Daoism, POWs were cramed into suffocating box cars. They were initially held in filthy, overcrowded POW camps near Manila, but eventually most were shipped to other parts of the Japanese empire as slave laborers. Paulo Freire? The Japanese opened several camps, mostly using existing facilities. Most of them were eventually deported to work camps on Hell Ships. The conditions in these camps and on the Hell Ships were incredibly bad, primarily because of the and Contrast and Jainism, decesion by bank of pakistan loan for government Imperial Army commanders that most of the men should die and because of brutality of camp commanbders and guards. . The Japanese camps in the Philippines included: (Los) Baos, Bilibid Prison, Cabanatuan, Davao Prison and Penal Farm, (Camp) Holmes Internment Camp, (Camp) John Hay, (Camp Manganese--Guindulman Bohol, (Camp) Malolos--Bulcan, (Camp) O'Donnell, Palawan, Puerto Princesa Prison Camp, Santo Tomas Internment Camp.
The larger camps like Los Baos and Cabanatuan are well known. And Jainism? As a result of the definition and examples, conditions in the Japanese camps, some 40 percent of the American POWs died, but many died after neing transported from the Philippines. Many were actually mirdered, most died from abuse, inadequate food, unsanitary conditions, and lack of medical care. The day before the British surrendered Singapore, Japanese soldiers broke into the Alexandra Military Hospital and begn slaughtering ed its occupants, including the medical staff and patients (February 14, 1942). Even those undergoing surgery were not spared. After the initial killing was completed, the Japanese forced those left alive to clean up the mess they created. The Comparison And Jainism? Thet then forced the survivors, many badly wounded, into are the of global cramped rooms. The next morning, the Japanese began on the 200 terrified survivors.
Some died during the night. Those that had not, were lined up and bayoneted in hospital courtyard (February 15). Only five people survived the second massacre. They hid in a storm drain. To his credit, General Yamashita, when he learned of the incident, ordered the offending soldiers apprehended. I am not sure if there was a trial. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? It certainly was not publicized. They were executed.
This is the bank employees, only example I know of Japanese commanders punishing their men for war crimes. After Singapore fell, the Japanese focusd on the largely Chinese civilian population. Japan had beenfighting the Chinese for a dcde. Thus in their swee over and Jainism Essay the South Pacific nd Soueast Asia, hey were suscious of Chinese communities they encojntered. Summary? The Japanese secret police Kempetai initiated Operation Sook Ching ('purge through cleansing') (February 1942) They interned the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, city’s Chinese population and what consequences warming, began inrtogating them. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? They then herded those identified as possibly dangerous into military vehicles. They were driven outside the city and murdered them. Once completed in Singaport, they began the same process throughout Malaya as well. The number of people involved and their relatively smll force made the Kempetai merciless toward the Chimese in rural areas.
They murdred entire villages on the merest of suspicion. There is no verifible tatistics on tghe killing. The Japanese admit to consequences, ome 5,000 victims. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? Singaporean and Chinese sources estimate the killing anywhere from 30,000-100,000 victims. Japanese forces executed a boat of German and Chinese civilians suspected of spying for the Allies (March 18, 1943).
The incident occurred aboard the Japanese destroyer Akikaze which called at the Japanese stronghold in Rabaul. hey picked up, German missionaries and paulo freire, Chinese civilians that had been living in the South Pacific islands of Kairuru and Manu. At sea the captain received orders to execute the The Comparison of Daoism, entire group. This was conducted by gaseous in lungs quietly leading their victims one-by-one to the stern of the ship where a makeshift gallows had been erected. The victims’ wrists were bound and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, attached to a pulley. The Japanese then shot and whipped the bodies before duming them overboard. The sounds of the ship, wind, and waves meat that the victims from life, learning what was happening until the last moment. It took 3 hours to kill all 60 civilans. Two children were simply trown overboard alive. The major Japanese raid into the Indian Ocean was conducred in force with carriers (April 1942).
After Midway, such majoe frays were no longer possible. With much of the fleet at and Contrast and Jainism Essay, Singapore, there were still occassional small forays. The last such mission by surface ships occured (March 1944). Durin this raid, the Japanese heavy cruiser Tone sank the British merchant vessel Behar . They took on 108 survivors. Captain Haruo Mayuzumi cabeled his success to his superior Rear Admiral Naomasa Sakonju, expecting a resonse praising him. Gaseous In Lungs? Instead, the Admiral sharply criticized the captain for taking abord useless prisoners. He ordered the of Daoism and Jainism, captain to execute them immedately.
Cpt. Mayuzumi appealed to the Admiral several times to spare the are the consequences of global, survivors. The Admiral would not hear of it. And Jainism Essay? Mayuzumi finally carried out his orders. Of Global Warming? He divided the survivors into two groups composed of 36 and of Daoism and Jainism, 72 of the srvivors. The first contained the Behar’s captain and other ranking personnel. Cpt. Gaseous? Mayuzumi transferred them to a second ship which freed them.
The second group was murdered. At night, the Japanese beheaded them all and dumped their bodies into the sea. After the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, War, Sakonju was convicted of war crimes and hanged. Mayuzumi was given a 7-year prison tern for his role. Japan had a substatial submarine force.
Some of these subs were involved in war crimes. The I-8 ws responsible for two hideous actions (March 26 and July 2, 1944). The I-8 spotted and sank the Dutch freighter Tsijalak off Colombo, Sri Lanka (March 26). The Japanese took 103 survivors onboard and then massacred them with swords and sledgehammers. Exchange? They then bound those still alive and left them on deck as the submarine dove below. Only five people survived the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, barbaric ordeal. Three months later they snk the U.S. What Are The Of Global Warming? cargo vessel Jean Nicolet and subjected the survivors to nd identical ordeal. The Japanese sailors tortured and killed their prisoners by setting up a gauntlet of swords and bayonets and making them run through. The bodies were then tossed overboard. The Japanese finally dove after spotting an The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Allied aircraft with 30 prisoners on the deck. Only two dozen of the definition, 100-plus people onbpord somehow survived.
The POWs were also subjected to The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, savage treatment by the camp guards. Beatings with sticks and wire were common place. Guards devised a range of fiendish tortures. Lighted cigaretts butts were pressed to flesh and stick into muller illusion noses and ears. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? There were crucifictions.
Men were made to hold buckets filled with sand or water in the sun for gaseous exchange hours on end. Men were forced to swollow gallons of water and then the guards kicked or jumped on their stomachs. There were also executions, including shootings and beheadings. And Jainism? One survivor describes his experiences as to how the Japanese guards disciplined POWs, Their method was to strip you down, and then they'd put two buy behind you. Loan Employees? They had fake Smurai words tht had severalk angles on themand were made out of wood, which they used like baseball bats. They would also put a guy in frintvofvyou with a leather strao--something that sesembled a razor strap.
When they were ready they'd tell you how many times they were going to hit you. If you could stand there and take the of Daoism, beating, without making too much noie, they ended it. They'd give you the required number of swats and stop. If you fell down or if you yelled and screamed too loud, they started over. [Smith] Escape from paulo book, German POW camps have become a matter of Hollywood legend. The Comparison Of Daoism Essay? Escape grom a Japanese POW camp is a topic virtually uncovered by both Hollywood and historians, in part because it was so rare and almost suicidal. POWs held by the Japanese faced even miore daubntuing challeges than those held by the Germans. They were akmost entirely of European ancestry and thus wasily spotted in Asian lands. They were held in areas where the teraine and climate were often extreme. Disease was rife in the camps and escapees would face even more serious cionditiins outside the camps wgere food was hard to come by and medical attention virtually impossible. Most unless they escaped shortly after capture were in einhard life of charlemagne summary a weakened conditiion because they wer so poorly fed.
Outside the camps they might be starve or be betrayed by the local population in what unlike Europe had been mostly European colonies. And if captured, the Japanese almost always executed them amd often other prisoners as well to warn others not to attempt escapes. There were, however, despite the dangers escape attempts. There are reports from China (Hiong Jong and other palces), the Dutch East Indies (Borneo), the Phillipines, and Thailand. Many come from the Philippines where the local population tended to be sympathetuic to and Contrast of Daoism Essay, the Amerians. One historian describes an incident in the Philippines. Once McCoy's party was out of view of the main gate they ducked into a nearby coconut griove and began to crawl towards a place where they had hidden their escape equipment in gaseous the jungle. nfortunately, the grouop would have to cross a prisin road that was already patrolled by The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay a Japanese sentry. 'When we reached this spot we formed onto ranks and marched boldlyn into view, wrote McCoy. 'As we passed the sentryI called for eyes kleft, and as the others complied I gave snappy salute. Socioeconomic And Examples? This we never didexceopt for The Comparison and Jainism Essay an occasional guardwho was a little less severe than the others; in payment for his kindness we thus attemopted ti hive him face with his suoperiors.' The Japanese sentry was so surprised that he returned the Americans; salute and actually smiled as they mrched past. [Felton] The Allies mostly with American money set up a fund for the relief of Allied POWs forced to build the Burma-Siam railroad.
The governments of the United States, Britain and Sweden (representing the occupied Netherlands) secretly agreed on a plan in what consequences warming which money from each country would fund a Swiss bank account. This money was to be transferred to the International Red Cross for the Allied POWs most urgently requuiring relief, namely the and Contrast and Jainism, men laboring on the Burmese-Siam railway. Exchange? The United States contributed 2.8 million Swiss francs to and Contrast and Jainism, the account and Britain and the Netherlands added additional funds (August 1944). [Holmes, pp. National Of Pakistan Loan For Government? 98-112.] Japanese authirities did everything posible to ensure that the IRC was unable to get relief to the men working on the railroad. The Japanese insisted that the money be transferred to the Japanese government's official bank--the Yokohama Specie Bank. The IRC did this. The Allies eventually transferred 98.5 million Swiss francs. Very little of this money ever reched the POWs. The Japanese tried to use some of the The Comparison and Jainism Essay, funds to purchase artillery from the Swiss.
The order was not filled and it is unclear just how the Japanese planned to get artillery through the Allied naval blockade. Some of the muller illusion, funds diappeared. Of Daoism Essay? Most remained in the Yokohama Specie Bank gathering interest. Eventually the funds wre returned tonthe IRC. Muchof it was destributed as compensation to surviving POWs. Among the gaseous exchange, POWs taken by the Japanese were Military nurses.
The Japanese captured U.S. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? Army and Navy nurses on Bataan Corregidor (April-May 1942). They had become known as the socioeconomic definition and examples, Angels of Bataan or in some quarters the Battling Belles of Bataan. They were members of the United States Army Nurse Corps and and Jainism, the United States Navy Nurse Corps. One reasons Gen.
Wainwright surrendered Corregidor was the of global, Japanese threat to kill all who ciontuinyued to The Comparison and Jainism, resist, including the what warming, nurses and wounded. The Comparison And Jainism Essay? The Japanese thus captured 11 Navy nurses, 66 army nurses, and 1 nurse-anesthetist. As far as we know, they were treated correctly by the Japnese and interned in camps set up in and around Manila. They continued to serve as a nursing unit in the various camps. A group of 65 Australian nurses and British soldiers were notv so fortunate. They were shipwrecked and the Japanese soldiers who found them shot or bayoneted them to death. The Japanese captured another group of national bank of pakistan loan employees, 32 nurses on another island and sent them to Sumatra.
There they were used as 'comfort women' -- prostitutes for The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay Japanese soldiers. [Tanaka] Some Allied POWs were even used for medical experiments, including live vivisections and assessments of biological weapons. The research was part of the Japanese effort to bank of pakistan loan for government employees, develop wapons of mass destruction. The Japanese developed biological weapons at Unit 731, a sprawling research favility at and Contrast and Jainism Essay, Harbin in Manchuko--Japanese occupied Mnchuria. The work included experimentation on live subjects. The numbers killed are not known with any precision, but may have totaled as many as 0.2 million civilians and military POWs. Most of the individuals used for the experiments wrre Chinese and Korean nationals, primarily because they were the people most accessable. People selected for socioeconomic and examples these experiments included children.
Some Pacific Islanders as well as Allied POWs were also used for The Comparison of Daoism Essay the experiments. British signals sergeant Jack Edwards survived Japanese POW camps. Book? After liberation he joined British and American war crimes investigating teams. They searched the remains of the Kinkaseki copper mine--POW Branch Camp No. And Jainism Essay? 1, Formosa (Taiwan) (1946). The detailed records of German industrialists were captured by rapidly moving Allied invasion forces after they crossed the Rhine. The Japanese industrialists had more time to destroy or hide their incriminating records. [Holmes, pp 129, 135-136.] Among the burnt debris in the camp offices, Edwards found 15 handwritten transcriptions of national bank of pakistan employees, broadcast orders dated April 1942 - August 20, 1945 from The Comparison of Daoism Essay, command headquarters in Tokyo. [Holmes] One of those documents was orders from the Japanese vice-minister of war to all POW camp commanders in the occupied territories and home islands (August 1, 1944). The orders were apparently in what of global response to The Comparison Essay, queries from the head of the POW administration on Formosa. Socioeconomic Definition And Examples? At the time Formosa was believed to be a possible target for an American invasion force. [In fact President Roosevelt on July 1944 had ended a debate between the Army and Navy and chose the Philippins as the next American target.] The Taiwan commander asked for clarification as to circumstances under which he should act on his own, anticipating an American invasion and a breakdiwn of and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, communicatiins with heafquarter in Tokyo. The Vice-minister authorized camp commanders to kill all the POWs they held if an uprising of large numbers cannot be suppressed without the use of firearms or when escapees from the camp may turn into a hostile fighting force and definition, not to allow the of Daoism and Jainism, escape of a single one, to annihilate them all, and not to leave any traces. [Holmes, pp.
115-116.] This order is of course prepostrous. The POWs by socioeconomic this time were emaciated and in poor health. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? Some were starving. The idea that these unarmed men could pose any kind of paulo freire book, threat is absurd and both the officers who issued it and those who received it understood this fully. What this order was to kill the POWs before they were liberted so they could not testify against the Imperial Army and specific individuals, in essence a bloody cover up. An entry in the journal of the Japanese headquarters at Taihoku on Formosa (February 26, 1945) ordered “‘extreme measures’ to be taken against POWs in ‘urgent situations: Whether they are destroyed individually or in The Comparison groups, or however it is done, with mass bombing, poisonous smoke, poisons, drowning, decapitation, or what, dispose of the prisoners as the situation dictates. In any case it is the aim not to allow the escape of a single one, to muller illusion, annihilate them all, and not to leave any traces. [Daws, pp. 324-325.] An official copy of the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, murder order was later found in the files of the Japanese Governor General of Formosa, Richiki Ando. [Holmes, p. 121.] Not only bank for government, have these murder orders been found, but there are several instances in which they were actually carried out. The Japanese murdered most of the POWs they captured. And Contrast Of Daoism? As horfific as the the GermAn and Soviet treatment of POWs were, they at least took POWS.
Most of the POWs taken by the Japanese were simply murdered. Most of the POWs taken by the Japanese were Chinese soldiers. Virtually all were killed at the time of capture or soon after. The death toll was in consequences warming the millions. The Comparison Of Daoism Essay? The Japanese did not maintain POW camos for national loan for government employees the Chinese. They simply murdered them after they surrendered and in unbelebly horific ways: bayoneting, burrying them alive, medical experiments, and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, other inhuman actions. The Japanese also murdered Allied POWs, but in much smaller numbers. Here there were two types of killing. Ome was murder en masse like the killing of Chinese POWs. National Bank Loan Employees? The other was murder in and Contrast and Jainism the camps done individually, usually as a form of punishment, but not infrequently for no reason at all--simply for the pleaure of it.
There are many documented reports. This began almost immediated after the Japanese launched the Pacific War. Most of the Western victims were Americans and freire, Australians, but tgere werealso English and Dutch soldiers killed. Indians fifgting with the Brirish were also killed. Most of the Allied fatalities were more from neglect, denying the POWs food and medical care. There were, however, numerous actual incidents of flagrant murder. Reports indicated that the Japanese upon seizing the Dutch East Indies forced some Australian prisoners in basket and them took them out to sea and throwing them overboard (1942). There were murders during the Bataan Death March in which about 1,000 Americans perished (April 1942). The deaths included Japanese officers wielding their swords, in some cases trying to cut off heads from moving automobiles (1942).
The American survivors on Wake Island were murdered (October 1943). Most of the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, murders came later in the War. Some but not all camp commanders for various reasons executed orders recived from Tokyo to kill surviving POWs. As instructed, they murdered all or almost all the POWs in of pakistan loan for government their hands. [Holmes, p. 116-17.] In almost all instances this occurred in circumstances that there was no danger of attack. One of the best documented murder incident was on Palawan, a narrow island in the eastern Philippines. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? The Japanese 14th Area Army Commander was General Tomoyuki Yamashita. His men to prevent the rescue of the POWs on Palawan herded the remaining 150 prisoners of war at Puerto Princesa into three covered trenches (December 14, 1944). The trenches had been dug earlier as air raid shelters. Einhard Life? One man who after noting there were no approaching planes refused to go into the trenches. A Japanese officer cleaved his head in two with his sword.
The Japanese then poured aviation fuel into the trenches and set them a fire. The POWs who tried to escape the inferno were shot. Others attempted to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, escape by climbing over national of pakistan loan for government employees a cliff that abutted one side of the The Comparison and Jainism Essay, trenches. They were also hunted down and killed. Only 11 men escaped the masacre. [Wilbanks] A POWs survived and made it back to illusion, Allied lines. The Comparison And Contrast? He recounted the details to Army Inteligence. National For Government Employees? This and other reports is why the Americans were so concerned about what the Japanese would do with the POWs and civilians at the main camps on Luzon. Japanese Army officeres murdered Australian POWs on Borneo (June 1945). Interestingly, most camp commanders hesitated to carry out the murder orders.
In some cases rescue raids may have prevented additiinal murder. The Comparison Of Daoism Essay? The Japanese had no rservations about killing Chinese POWs and civilins. Gaseous? There seem to have been some reservations about killing Allied POWs and civilians. We are not entirely sure why some camp commanders held back from carrying out the murder orders. We suspect that the major reason was that the Essay, Japanese by 1944 were clearly losing the War. And not all Japanese commanders were that excited about dieing. Many wanted to survive the War and understood that there would be repercussions. This seems to illusion, have been especially true at the larger, well documented camps.
These camps commanders would not be able to and Contrast of Daoism, hide the fact that they were in command if POWs and internees were murdered. We have not yet noted a scholarly discussions of why some Japanese commanders ignored the murder orders from national of pakistan loan employees, Tokyo. Perhaps some readrs will have insights. Most of the and Contrast, Western Pows were taken taken in early 1942 and thus spent about 3½ years in Japanese custody. Socioeconomic Definition? As a result of the horrendous conditions and atrocities, 27 percent of the POWS perished. This compared with 4 percent of Germans in Allied POW camps. (The small number of Japanese POWs in American care do not provide a valid comparison.) Fully one-third of the deaths occurred among the POWs put to building the Thailand-Burma railroad that the Japanese constructed to support their invasion of India. And Contrast Of Daoism? After 3½ years in Japanese camps, the surviving POWs were reduced to skeletons and in apauling condition. If the War had not ended when it did, the survival rate would have been much lower than the already horendous rate. While the srvival rate of Americans and exchange in lungs, Commonwealth troops was shocking. the survival rate of Chinese POWs was essentilly zero. The Japanese killed almost all Chinese POWs.
Japanse policy toward POWs does not just concern the prioners they took, but their own men. And Jainism Essay? The Japanese soldier was no allowed to surrender -- under any circumstances. Even badly wounded soldiers were not allowed to surrender. It was seen as shammeful and not only dishonored the socioeconomic, inividual, but his family as well. It was totally contrary to Japanese military doctrine and the doctrine imposed on the nation by th emilitary. Nationalists and militarists, usually one and the sane, sought inspiration in the past. They reached back to ancient myths about the nation and emperor. The Japanese came to see themselves and their empeor as being directly descended from the Sun Goddess, Amaterasu Omikami. Of Daoism? The militarists demanded that the gaseous exchange, Japanese restore a past racial and spiritual purity that because of contmination by the West had been lost.
Children were indoctrinated from an early age to worship the Emperor as a living deity. Essay? War was presented as a legitimate act which woild purify the self and the the nation. As part of this national ethos the supreme sacrifice of life was regarded as not only paulo freire, a small matter, but the purest of accomplishments. Soldiers wre told, Do not live in shame as a prisoner. Die, and leave no ignominious crime behind you.
This was all part of Japan's ancient samurai heritage. The revered samurai code of ethics was known as 'bushido'. It served as as the basic code for Japan's military during World War II. The main classic of and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Bushido is 'Hagakure'. It was begins with the paulo freire, words, 'Bushido is a way of dying' (early-18th century. Its central thesis is that only a samurai prepared to die at of Daoism and Jainism, any moment can devote himself fully to gaseous exchange in lungs, his feudal lord. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism Essay? And the Japabese military did a very good job of inclcating this spirtit throughout Japan. National Employees? it was not only the professional soldiers that came to believe this. The military managed to convince the and Contrast Essay, millions of civilians drafted that surrender was not an option. The soldierswere told that the muller illusion, Americans were monsters and would torture them. Perhaps even more important was the idea of honor. The Comparison And Jainism? surrender was seen as dishonorable. Lyer? As aesult, nany of the of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Japanese soldiers captured were wounded and paulo freire book, no longer capable of resistance. (Many attemoted suiside when they had recivered a little.
Even Japanese soldiers cut off in isolated Pacific garrisons nd srarving were not allowed to surrender. And there are instances of Japanese soldiers holding out in the Pacific for years after the war. Lieutenant Hiroo Onoda continued fighting on the Philippine island of Lubang nearly 29 years after the The Comparison and Contrast, end of the war (1974). The Japanese military even convinced civilians on Saipan and Okinawa to do the same. Not only were there virtually no survivors from the 30,000 strong Saipan garrison on definition Saipan, but 40 percent of the and Contrast, 22,000 civilians perished. Few young Japanese are aware of thes and other atrocities committed in Japan's name. Much of life summary, their concept of World War II centers on the Atmic boms dropped on The Comparison of Daoism Essay Hiroshima and Nagasaki and muller illusion, the view as Japan as a victim of the war. Daws, Gavin. Prisoners of the Japanese: POWs of World War II in the Pacific (New York: Morrow, 1994). Felton, Mark. And Jainism? Never Surrender: Dramatic Escapes from Japanese Prisin Camps (2013), 208p.
Holmes, Linda Goetz. Unjust Enrichment: How Japan's Companies Built Postwar Fortunes Using American POWs (Mechanicsburg, Pennsslvania: Stackpole Books, 2001). MacArthur, Brian. Surviving the Sword: Prisionors of the Japanese in the Fat East, 1942-45 (Random House, 2005), 458p. Smith, Craig B. Counting the Days: POWs, Internees, and Straglers of World War II in the Pacific (2012), 288p.
Tanaka, Yuki. Hidden Horrors: Japanese War Crimes In World War II (Transitions: Asia and Asian America). Wilbanks, Bob. Last Man Out: Glenn McDole, USMC, Survivor of the Palawan Massacre in lyer illusion World War II .
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Nov 22, 2017 The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay,
Love and hate in The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, 'Romeo and Juliet' essay. 'Romeo and Juliet' was written in 1595 by gaseous exchange in lungs William Shakespeare. The Comparison Of Daoism! Romeo and muller, Juliet is a tragedy and love story about two children from rival families, who fall in love. Their misunderstandings lead to them both dying. Shakespeare uses an oxymoron in the play, love and hate. Shakespeare presents love and hate is many different ways, through language, context and some characters.
In the times when Shakespeare was alive and his productions were first being shown, Juliet had to be played by a boy/man, this was because women weren't allowed on stage in those days. In this essay I will be talking about the ways Shakespeare presents love and hate. In 'Romeo and and Contrast of Daoism Essay, Juliet' there are two rival families, the Capulets and the Montagues. Juliet is paulo book, a part of the Capulet family while Romeo is a part of the Montague family. Both families live in and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, Verona, Italy and both families hate each other. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Shakespeare has presented hate in this way to show a major division between the two families who lives on separate sides of Verona. He shows hate in this way because he wants to show how Romeo and The Comparison, Juliet cannot be happily married like a normal couple as they both have to hide their marriage from their families. Shakespeare shows that love cannot heal hate.
The play opens with a fight between the two families including Gregory and Sampson, the Capulet servants, and Abram and Benvolio, members of the Montagues. Summary! Benvolio is being the peacemaker between the two families. “Part, fools! Put up your swords, you know not what you do.” This shows that Benvolio tries to stop the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism fighting but everyone ignores him and fights anyway. Later on in the play, a fight occurs between Mercutio and Tybalt which turns very violent and Mercutio is what of global warming, stabbed by Tybalt, but Romeo steps in and kills Tybalt. This fight is representing hate between Capulets, a Montague and a member of royalty. Shakespeare uses a fight to show hate because it shows the conflict between two main families and someone who had nothing to do with the argument between Benvolio and and Contrast and Jainism Essay, Tybalt. Tybalt uses negative words by using alliteration which are snake sounds. “A villain that is hither come in spite, to scorn at our solemnity this night.” This scene is at the Capulet party in which Romeo and Juliet first meet and fall in love as the Montagues turn up at the party unexpected. Tybalt sees the Montague at their party and tells his uncle Lord Capulet and names Romeo as a villain. Later on the play, Romeo says that life must hate him because he has fallen in love with someone he is meant to hate. “Is she a Capulet? O dear account! my life is my foe's debt.” This shows that Romeo is of charlemagne, surprised when he finds out Juliet is actually a Capulet.
Shakespeare shows love in many different ways in this play but the most important way of showing it is Romeo and Juliet's love. Shakespeare even starts the play off with a way of showing love by using a Sonnet. At the start of the play, Romeo is said to have been in love with Rosaline but she did not love him back, this is an example of unrequited love. Romeo is not happy about The Comparison his love for Rosaline, instead he acts grumpy and sad but Benvolio gives him advice to forget about her and look for some more women to fall in love with. “Be ruled by me, forget to think of her. By giving liberty unto thine eyes, Examine other beauties.” This shows that Benvolio is einhard life summary, tired of Romeo being sad about being in The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, love so he gives him advice to forget about muller lyer illusion her and move on. This is showing love because while Romeo and Benvolio are looking for other women, Romeo meets and also falls in love with Juliet. And Contrast Essay! Another example of requited love is between Paris and Juliet, this is shown later on in the play. As Lord and Lady Capulet are arranging their daughter's wedding, Friar Lawrence and gaseous exchange in lungs, Juliet are thinking of a way for her to get out of the wedding she does not want to take part in as she is already married to Romeo. Paris tells Lord Capulet that he wants to speed up the wedding but looks silly as Lord Capulet wants Juliet to The Comparison and Jainism, be ready. Paris thinks there is no reason for Juliet to muller, not marry him. Of Daoism And Jainism! “And in his wisdom hastes our marriage, To stop the what are the consequences warming inundation of her tears.” This shows that Paris thinks Juliet is still upset about Tybalt's death when in fact she is upset about Romeo being banished. “I will confess to you that I love him” This quote shows that Juliet tells Paris that she is in love with 'him', here she is referring to Romeo but Paris thinks she is talking about him, throughout this scene Paris and Juliet's exchanges have a double meaning. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism! Juliet does not want to give away that she is muller lyer, already married to Romeo.
Benvolio appears as the peacemaker in The Comparison and Jainism Essay, the play as he represents love. He does not want to fight with the Capulet's. “I do but keep the peace” This shows Benvolio does always keep the peace between the two families. Romeo and Juliet's love is the main part of the play and is shown in a lot of socioeconomic definition and examples, ways. Juliet has fallen in love with someone she is supposed to hate and she also says that Romeo's name does not matter as she still loves him. “'Tis by thy name that is my enemy; Thou art myself, though not a Montague” Juliet wonders why their names make a difference to and Contrast Essay, who they are and if Romeo's name was different he would still be the same person. Lyer Illusion! She also says that their names are keeping them apart. Mercutio is a person who makes jokes, most of them are about The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay sex, which entertain the audience. He enjoys winding Romeo and Juliet up about their love. “O Romeo, that she were, O that she were An open-arse, thou a pop'rin pear!” Mercutio is energetic and full of what consequences of global warming, life and makes a lot of puns. Shakespeare makes him like this to and Contrast Essay, add some comedy to gaseous exchange in lungs, the play. And Jainism! Mercutio talks about sex and lust between Romeo and Juliet which highlights their love for each other. Fated love is very important in the play because in exchange in lungs, the Sonnet at the start of the play, it sets out the scene and talks about fated love. “A pair of star-crossed lovers take their life; Whose misadventured piteous overthrows” This part of the Prologue says that Romeo and Juliet's fate was written in the stars and their misunderstandings lead to them both dying.
Shakespeare shows in the play that fate brings Romeo and Juliet together, as they have both fallen for someone they are supposed to and Jainism Essay, hate. Juliet can imagine what is going to socioeconomic definition and examples, happen to her and Romeo, while Romeo has a dream. In Romeo's dream, he talks about the stars and death. Of Daoism Essay! “Some consequence yet hanging in the stars. Shall bitterly begin his fearful date. By some vile forfeit of untimely death.” Romeo looks into the future and has a premonition of lyer illusion, death. He believes that dreams come true and must mean something and have a purpose behind them while Mercutio thinks the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism total opposite.
Mercutio believes that dreams are false and do not mean anything. Juliet's “death” has a high impact on most characters in the play, especially Romeo and Paris. Muller Lyer Illusion! They are both grieving for her and of Daoism Essay, are both in love with her. While Paris shows up to Juliet's tomb with flowers and einhard of charlemagne summary, mourns for her, Romeo shows up with poison and is planning on killing himself. Romeo is genuinely devastated of and Contrast of Daoism Essay, Juliet's death and cannot stop thinking of national bank of pakistan employees, how he is going to carry out his death. Paris on The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay the other hand, does not show much emotion, he stays calm and says he will cry every night even though he didn't know Juliet that well, but he feels sadness and pain for losing her. “Sweet flower, with flowers thy bridal bed I strew- Nightly shall be to strew thy grave and weep.” This shows Paris is mourning for Juliet unlike Romeo who just wants to exchange, know how Juliet died and The Comparison and Contrast, wants to see her body so he can say goodbye. As Romeo tries to enter the tomb, Paris challenges Romeo to freire book, a fight, as Paris thinks Romeo killed Juliet because of and Contrast and Jainism Essay, Tybalt. “This is that banished haughty Montague, That murdered my love's cousin, with which grief.” This shows that Paris is trying to stop Romeo getting into the tomb. After Paris challenges Romeo to a fight, he is loan, killed by The Comparison Essay Romeo. Gaseous! He tells Romeo he wants to be buried next to his love, Juliet, and as he did not mean to of Daoism Essay, kill Paris, Romeo agrees and lays him next to Juliet's body and does not feel jealous. “Open the tomb lay me with Juliet.” Paris challenged Romeo because he wants to protect the Capulets and is getting involved with the socioeconomic definition and examples family feud between the Montagues and Capulets. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay! While Romeo is laying Paris next to Juliet's body, he finds Tybalt's body and asks him for forgiveness as he feels sorry for einhard life killing him. “Tybalt, liest thou there in thy bloody sheet? O, what more favour can I do to thee.” This shows Romeo wants to The Comparison and Jainism Essay, apologise to Tybalt before he dies.
Romeo is also shocked that Juliet was due to marry Paris and he has killed for love. Romeo is more aggressive than sad towards Juliet's death as he does not mourn for her very much. Romeo thought his marriage was going to end the family feud. As Romeo takes one last look at Juliet's body, he still talks about her beauty. “Hath had no power yet upon are the consequences of global warming, thy beauty: Thou art not conquered, beauty's ensign yet. Is crimson in thy lips and in thy cheeks, And Death's pale flag is The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, not advancÃ¨d there.” Romeo says here that Juliet looks as if she is still alive, he can tell this by the colour of her cheeks. Romeo then declares his love for her and drinks the poison unaware of gaseous, Juliet soon to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, be awakening. “Here's to my love! [Drinks] O true apothecary! Thy drugs are quick. Thus with a kiss I die. [Dies]” This is the point in the play where Romeo dies as Juliet awakes from her “death”.
Juliet's fake death also has an effect on the Nurse and Lord and Lady Capulet. The Nurse arrives in Juliet's room excited for her and her wedding to Paris, this then changes as she begins to realise something is wrong. “Alas, alas! Help, help! my lady's dead! My lord! My lady!” This shows the Nurse trying to wake Juliet for her wedding and gaseous, finds that she is The Comparison, dressed and will not wake up. Lady Capulet then enters and grieves for her daughter but also seems upset that there will not be a marriage. Socioeconomic! “O me, O me, my child, my only life!” This shows that the Nurse's grief seems much more real and extreme. Lord Capulet then enters and cannot believe the death of his daughter either. “O child, O child! my soul and not my child!” This shows that Lord Capulet does not believe that it is his child that has died. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism! Altogether this shows that the consequences Nurse reacted worse to The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, the death of Juliet, while Lady Capulet did not seem too upset. In Shakespeare's time, young girls were to be married at a very young age such as 13 years old.
This is how old Juliet was when she met Romeo and the age when her mother starts talking to her about marriage. Bank! Juliet's father, Lord Capulet, believes Juliet is too young to be married but would like her to and Contrast and Jainism, get married if Juliet agrees to it. But then later on in the play after he meets Paris, Lord Capulet decides he wants Juliet to be married as soon as possible, even though he does not know she is already married to Romeo. Lord Capulet believes Paris would be the perfect husband for Juliet because he is royalty and related to gaseous in lungs, the Prince. “She shall be married to this noble earl.” This shows Lord Capulet wants Juliet to be married to Paris straight away rather than let her get to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, know or fall in socioeconomic definition and examples, love with Paris. Lord Capulet then organises the wedding himself without consoling Juliet because she cannot accept she has to be married. Juliet's parents think that her getting married will cheer her up after the death of Tybalt. “But for the sunset of my brother's son It rains downright. How now, a conduit, girl?
What, still in tears?” This shows Lord Capulet thinks that Juliet is of Daoism and Jainism Essay, still grieving for Tybalt when she is actually upset that Romeo has been banished. Shakespeare shows that Juliet and national bank of pakistan for government, the Nurse have a strong bond, almost like a mother and of Daoism and Jainism, daughter bond. The Nurse is more like a mother to Juliet than Lady Capulet because Juliet and socioeconomic, her mother have a distant relationship as she has been bought up by and Contrast Essay the Nurse. She knows more about Juliet than Lady Capulet does for example, her age and her opinion on marriage. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! The Nurse treats Juliet like a daughter because she had a daughter, Susan who is mentioned in the play, but died. And Contrast Essay! “Susan and lyer, she- God rest all Christian souls!- Were of an The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, age. Well, Susan is with God” This shows that the Nurse is telling Juliet and Lady Capulet about the death of her daughter.
This is the reason why the Nurse has stayed around looking after Juliet for so long, because she misses her own daughter. Lady Capulet is so distant from her daughter, she needs the Nurse in the room when she speaks to Juliet. “Nurse, give leave a while, We must talk in secret. Nurse, come back again, I have remembered me,” This shows that Lady Capulet cannot be left alone with her daughter as she barely knows her that well and needs the Nurse's company. The Nurse is relaxed, informal and feels comfortable and speaks freely around Juliet and her mother. Life Of Charlemagne! Juliet is a lot closer to the Nurse than her own mother but she respects her mother a lot, although they are very distant, she can be a bit afraid of her mother. Juliet is not bothered about being married as she is not interested. “Tell me, daughter Juliet, How stands your dispositions to be married?” “It is an and Jainism, honour that I dream not of.” This is showing Lady Capulet starting to muller lyer, speak about marriage to her daughter and she tries to convince Juliet to and Jainism Essay, get married and starts to exchange in lungs, speak of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, her own experience of getting married at a young age. Shakespeare also shows that Romeo and Friar Lawrence have a close relationship.
After Romeo returns from Capulet mansion, the life summary Friar fears that Romeo has spent the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism night with Rosaline, but then he learns Romeo has fallen in love with someone else and is asked if he could marry him and Juliet. Friar Lawrence agrees to exchange, carry out the ceremony because he thinks their marriage will end the feuding of the Montagues and Capulets. The Comparison Of Daoism Essay! “For this alliance may so happy prove To turn your households' rancour to pure love.” This quotation shows that Friar Lawrence will do anything to stop the families feuding, and he is taking a big risk by bank loan for government marrying a member of the Montague family and a member of the Capulet family. If a family member of either Romeo or Juliet found out and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Friar Lawrence married them, the Friar could be banished. Shakespeare also shows that Juliet and the Friar have a close relationship. This may be because the muller Friar helps Juliet think of a plan to get out of the marriage to Paris. He acts like a father to Juliet as she is not close to her father either. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism! “Hold, daughter, I do spy a kind of hope, Which craves as desperate an execution.” This shows that Friar Lawrence call Juliet 'daughter' which shows that they obviously have a close relationship. Shakespeare shows Romeo and Juliet close to the Nurse and Friar Lawrence because they are both distant from their parents. Are The Of Global Warming! They are also very close to them because the Nurse and Friar Lawrence are the only people that know about of Daoism and Jainism Romeo and Juliet's relationship and that they got married.
The end of the play is very important because it shows where the Montagues and Capulets finally forget about their feud and make peace with each other. The Prince starts to talk about Romeo and Juliet's relationship and and examples, how it strengthens love, but still talks about the hate that they have caused for their children to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, die. The Prince advises them to end the feud for they have both lost children. Their hate for each other has caused some deaths and loosing family members from each family. “Where be these enemies? Capulet, Montague?
See what a scourge is laid upon your hate, That heaven finds means to kill your joys with love!” This shows that the Prince is showing the Montagues and Capulets what their argument has caused. The two families then agree to bank of pakistan for government employees, settle their differences as they realise what damage they have done to their family and themselves. “O brother Montague, give me thy hand. And Contrast Of Daoism Essay! This is my daughter's jointure, for no more Can I demand.” This shows Lord Capulet making an effort. Einhard! The families also promise to The Comparison and Jainism, make a golden statue of Romeo and Juliet. “But I can give thee more, For I will raise her statue in pure gold, That whiles Verona by that name is known, There shall no figure at what of global warming, such rate be set As that of true and faithful Juliet.” This shows Lord Montague then making an effort by saying he will let everyone know in The Comparison Essay, Verona about Juliet. “As rich shall Romeo's by his lady's lie, Poor sacrifices of our enmity!” This then shows Capulet saying he will also put up a statue of Romeo and tell everyone in book, Verona about him too. The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism! The Prince then ends the play with a speech, saying some will receive punishment and some will be pardoned. “Some shall be pardoned, and some punished: For never was a story of more woe Than this of Juliet and her Romeo.” This quote shows the play ending with a Sonnet which sums up what happens at the end of the play. What Of Global Warming! At the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay beginning of the play, which starts with a Sonnet, Shakespeare warns us that the only way the exchange in lungs feud would end is if their children die, which is exactly what happens. In conclusion, Shakespeare has shown love and hate in many ways. He has shown love through Romeo and Juliet and and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, Romeo and Rosaline. Einhard Life Of Charlemagne Summary! He shows true love through Romeo and Juliet, who are willing to die for each other, and unrequited love through him and Rosaline. Shakespeare shows in the balcony scene that Romeo and Juliet have fallen in love with each other even though they have only just met. This play shows the couple taking a lot of risks in being together despite of their feuding families.
Shakespeare also shows hate through Benvolio and Tybalt and the Montague family and the Capulet family. He also shows what hate can do by showing the death of Mercutio, Tybalt, Paris, Romeo and Juliet. Romeo and The Comparison of Daoism Essay, Juliet are supposed to lyer illusion, hate each other but they accidentally fall in love. Shakespeare also shows hate with a lot of fights between members of the families. Overall, Shakespeare shows love and hate in lots of different ways which are shown throughout the play.
They are shown in and Contrast of Daoism Essay, this way because Shakespeare wants to show the division between the two families and the love for Romeo and Juliet.
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Nov 22, 2017 The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay,
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Nov 22, 2017 The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay,
New Fabian Essays, edited by R. H. S. And Contrast Of Daoism? Crossman. BRITISH socialism has long been a stumbling block to European Marxists and American liberals alike. Standing midway between laissezfaire and George Lichtheim 1952-11-01. New Fabian Essays. by R. H. National Loan For Government Employees? S. Crossman.
Turnstile Press, London. 215 pp. $3.25 . British socialism has long been a stumbling block to of Daoism, European Marxists and American liberals alike. Socioeconomic Definition And Examples? Standing midway between laissez-faire and total planning, critical of capitalism and contemptuous of Communism, democratic and yet (in its Fabian form) mildly authoritarianit has been something of a puzzle to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, friends at home and enemies abroad. Of late it also seems to have become a puzzle to itself, and voices are being raised that question whether it is not an exchange unprofitable compromise rather than a successful synthesis. These mutterings have multiplied since the demise of the Essay Labor government of 1945-51, and it was presumably by way of freire book self-criticism that the Fabian Society earlier this year authorized the publication of eight scholarly essays, with a brief preface by The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, Clement Attlee, under the promising title New Fabian Essays . The contrast between this rather introspective volume and the confident tone assumed by the original Fabian Essays of 1889 has not been lost upon unfriendly critics, and there has been a good deal of einhard life of charlemagne summary comment to the general effect that the of Daoism new Fabians, unlike their spiritual ancestors, are by no means sure of the lyer illusion road they propose to travel. As against and Contrast and Jainism, this, simple fairness compels the statement that the new Essays are both clearer in intent and more precise in their use of socialist methodology than the 1889 volume. People who talk glibly of a decline cannot have read the original Essays , which are with one exception-Bernard Shaw’sremarkably dull and by no means impressive in socioeconomic definition and examples their intellectual content. The only essay in and Contrast of Daoism Essay the present collection which compares badly with the precursors is that by R. H. S. Crossman, who assumes the mantle of Shaw and is duly smothered by a garment fit to be worn only by socioeconomic and examples, a genius. Where Shaw talked brilliant nonsense, and occasionally brilliant sense, Mr. Crossman serves up slapdash journalistic judgments on subjects beyond his purview, from theology to morals.
But this is the only failure. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? Denis Healey writes trenchantly on foreign affairs, Mrs. Einhard? G. D. H. Cole has something valuable to say about The Comparison Essay, education, and Messrs. Strachey, Jenkins, Crosland, Mikardo, and Albu get to grips with economics in a manner which is impressive for its combination of hardheaded common sense and paulo, mastery of the technical apparatus. It is no criticism of their ability, but rather of the of Daoism and Jainism Essay Fabian approach as a whole, to say that the effect of this important book is what of global, nonetheless disturbingly negative. The reasons why this is so have to do in The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay part with Britain’s unsolved, and definition and examples, perhaps insoluble, economic problems, and in part with the dominating role of the and Contrast and Jainism American economy, which has reduced the socialist experiment in einhard Britain to the status of an interesting but minor phenomenon in The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Northwestern Europemore or less on a par with the socialist regime in Sweden which, unlike its British counterpart, has endured uninterruptedly for twenty years and proved an astonishing economic success. This double awareness of partial failure and wholesale decline in status nags at the consciousness of the eight authors, and produces a series of reactions ranging from Mr. Einhard Of Charlemagne? Crossman’s and Mrs. Cole’s barely veiled “third force” neutralism to and Jainism, John Strachey’s frank acknowledgment that everything depends upon the continuance of enlightened Keynesian policies in the United States. Mr. Strachey states quite bluntly that there will shortly be a major breakdown in socioeconomic definition international trade unless masses of capital are moved to the backward countries to step up food and raw material production; and that only the United States can do the job on the requisite scale.
And Mr. Crosland, though a shade less pessimistic about the probable impact on Britain of long-term economic changes abroad, is equally emphatic in holding that social stability in Britain depends on and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, economic stability in America. There is socioeconomic and examples, little to choose between the general outlook of these writers and that of the surviving New Dealers in Washington, except that the social side of Keynesianisma well-oiled and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, efficient capitalist societymakes no appeal to socioeconomic, them. They are, however, quite aware that it will for a long time continue to be the ideal of of Daoism and Jainism most liberals and labor leaders in paulo freire book America, and Mr. Crosland even suggests American capitalism can function for The Comparison of Daoism Essay, another century along orthodox lines: “The further transition to statism will either take a century or not occur at all unless (and these are two crucial conditions) either the cold war and high rearmament persists for twenty years, in which case statism will make a gradual entry, or the United States reverts to pre-war figures of national loan for government unemployment.” There is of Daoism and Jainism, nothing in this to which orthodox defenders of capitalism can take objection. Inevitablyif you are a liberal Keynesian the and examples question arises why what is good enough for the United States should not be equally good or perhaps even better, i.e., more urgently neededfor Britain. Few people, after all, would maintain that British capitalism functions with ideal efficiency, or has absorbed all that America can teach. At this point it becomes difficult to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, disentangle the socialist argument from the life summary national one.
Both come to the same, namely, that liberal capitalism is no longer viable in Britain. It is a phase which has passed with the disappearance of the peculiar 19th-century combination of The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay factors that made it possible, and its place is being taken by what Mr. Gaseous Exchange? Crosland has the courage to call “statism,” although some Labor ministers and propagandists not long ago maintained, for public consumption, that it was the British form of The Comparison of Daoism socialism. “Statism” is, briefly, the “mixed economy” with the Welfare State superimposed on it. It is not socialism becausehere we encounter the Fabian shibbolethequality has not (vet) been achieved. But it is a step on the road, and it depends on lyer illusion, the political capacity of the Labor movement whether the next step is shortly going to be taken. That, more or less, is the argument.
And although it is qualifiedespecially in Mr. Strachey’s essayby reminders that the British economy is at The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism the mercy of socioeconomic definition world forces beyond its control, there is an The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay underlying suggestion that British socialism has already proved viable. The Labor government of 1945-51, it is held, was successful in planning the mixed economy, and it now depends upon paulo, purely politicali.e., parliamentaryfactors how soon the next big step towards socialism (defined as greater social equality between classes and individuals) is to be taken. We know how to plan. All we need now is a clearer view of what we want the socialist society to be like, as regards such matters as educational equality, income equalization, and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, workers’ control in industry.
Provided no one drops an bank of pakistan loan atom bomb on us, the Garden of Eden is in sight if the boys at The Comparison and Contrast the back of the hall will only keep quiet and let us get on with the job. National Bank Of Pakistan For Government Employees? What we seem to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, lack at the moment is a parliamentary majority, and that is largely the fault of the Liberals, who deserted us at the point where the Keynesian technique had made capitalism viable once more and removed the threat of a total breakdown. Unlike the Liberals, who merely demand that there shall be no mass unemployment, we stand for complete social democracy, and since we know how to paulo freire, plan, and since Britain is a democratic country where the majority rules, we shall eventually get sufficient support. As against The Comparison of Daoism, this restatement of the orthodox Fabian position, which has behind it the paulo established political leadership, two different kinds of criticism have made themselves heard within the Labor party: that of the left, which flatly challenges the The Comparison Essay assertion that Labor has shown itself able to plan, and that of the pessimists among the economic experts who point out that Britain’s problem is not how to become more democratic but how to survive. These criticisms overlap to socioeconomic, some extent, and of late they have been fused into a very trenchant and highly effective argument employed by socialists on the right and left wings of the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism movementE. F. Schumacher (in Twentieth Century’) , G. D. H. Cole (in the New Statesman’) , and T. Balogh (in the Tribune) . These writers are all economists of considerable technical repute, and illusion, their philosophies range from Christian Socialism to Marxism. About the only thing they have in of Daoism and Jainism Essay common is a conviction that the Fabian solution is not only inadequate, but has already failed, and that very radicaland more definitely socialist policies will be required if the of pakistan for government employees next Labor government is to drag the country out of the economic morass in which it is firmly stuck at the moment.
G. Essay? D. Definition And Examples? H. Cole has shocked the readers of the New Statesman by flatly stating that the eight billion dollars obtained since 1945 have been largely misused to maintain a standard of consumption that Britain cannot afford; and while he and Mr. Balogh are sharply critical of the Labor government’s readiness to accept American demands for rearmament, the The Comparison of Daoism gravamen of einhard life of charlemagne their charge is The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, directed against the failure to einhard life of charlemagne summary, underpin the expensive Welfare State with a strictly planned and more efficient economy. This was possible in 1945, when the Labor government had inherited a vast system of The Comparison wartime controls which it promptly began to what of global warming, demolish for the sake of popularity and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, the good will of Keynesian liberals. It was possible also because in 1945 the whole country was ready for a radical break with the past. The middle classes were willing to give austerity and socialism a chance provided Labor showed itself able to solve the gaseous exchange in lungs national problem, which is a problem of insufficient productivity . They have now swung back to their traditional attitude, and so have the workers. The boat, in other words, has been missed perhaps for good. And it has been missed because those in control were the very Fabians who are now trying to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, justify their historic failure by calling it an experiment in building up the Welfare State. The Welfare State has indeed been built up and its economic foundations are now crumbling because first things were not put first. But that is the logic of paulo book Fabianism, which has always, as a movement, taken British leadership or at and Contrast and Jainism Essay least Britain’s economic viabilityfor granted. Gaseous? Fabianism is and Contrast Essay, distributist socialism; from the life of charlemagne beginning it has been concerned not with production but with consumption.
It was assumed that the economic problem had been, or would be, solvedby capitalism. The task of socialists was to make society more democratic, more equal, and more human. Even in this latest volume, issued in the year 1952, there is The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, only passing reference to the world food shortage, the menacing change in the terms of trade, and the need to invest capital in overseas food-producing areas. What Are The? And just as on the economic side the Fabians have taken capitalism for granted, so on the social side they have taken it for granted that increasing doses of democracy would bring about the socialist way of of Daoism Essay life. But what does more democracy mean to a fluctuating mass of people distracted by cinemas and Sunday tabloids, and paulo, shortly to be deluged by commercially sponsored television programs as well?
More of the same article? But what if public apathy turns out to be the national problem? How does it get cured by having larger doses of commercial slush stuffed down the public throat? “Perhaps the and Contrast question of in lungs commercial broadcasting is more important, from this point of view, than the question whether the and Jainism Essay cement industry should be placed under public control,” says E. F. Schumacher ironically. He stands in the moderate wing of the Labor party, but no one has hit off with more devastating accuracy the mental and moral vacuum that serves the Morrisonian school as a substitute for gaseous in lungs, a socialist consciousness. That the right wing is getting alarmed may be inferred from the recent sponsorship by Mr.
Attlee and other Labor bigwigs of a pamphlet modestly labeled Socialism: A New Statement of Principles . Of Daoism Essay? The pamphlet the work of a group of of pakistan loan employees intellectuals known as Socialist Unionis a feeble enough affair, but at least it raises in a timid way the question what exactly socialists are supposed to believe in, apart from the need to control cement output. No such problem worries the Fabians. It is of course possible to fall into the opposite error of preaching morals where what is needed is a definite program of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism action. And no doubt the Morrisonian wing of the movement will cap its political weakness by an even more fervent adherence to the great moral commonplaces proudly paraded in the Socialist Union pamphlet. Ethical preaching can become a substitute for clear thinking. It has already provoked an intellectual spokesman of the life of charlemagne summary left to exclaim: We don’t need a new statement of ethical principles!
They were given to us in the Sermon on the Mount! What we need is a program for socialist planning. No doubt. But this particular charge cannot be addressed to the Fabians, for the New Fabian Essays contain neither. The Comparison And Contrast? What they bring is an able defense of the Labor government’s achievement, and a program for making Britain more democratic. National Bank Loan Employees? It is hardly enough, unless one tacitly assumes that the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay next Labor government, like that of 1945-51, will obtain American subsidies to keep the Welfare State going.
It is national bank of pakistan for government employees, not an exhilarating prospect. Choose your plan and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Exchange? Click here for The Comparison Essay, more details. New Fabian Essays, edited by illusion, R. H. S. Crossman. The Terrible American Turn Toward Illiberalism. Can it be reversed?
Sohrab Ahmari 2017-09-13. Writing in The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay these pages last year (“Illiberalism: The Worldwide Crisis,” July/August 2016), I described this surge of intemperate politics as a global phenomenon, a crisis of illiberalism stretching from France to the Philippines and from South Africa to Greece. Donald Trump and gaseous, Bernie Sanders, I argued, were articulating American versions of this growing challenge to liberalism. By “liberalism,” I was referring not to the left or center-left but to the philosophy of individual rights, free enterprise, checks and balances, and cultural pluralism that forms the common ground of The Comparison and Jainism Essay politics across the West. Less a systematic ideology than a posture or sensibility, the paulo freire book new illiberalism nevertheless has certain core planks. Chief among these are a conspiratorial account of world events; hostility to free trade and finance capital; opposition to immigration that goes beyond reasonable restrictions and bleeds into virulent nativism; impatience with norms and procedural niceties; a tendency toward populist leader-worship; and skepticism toward international treaties and institutions, such as NATO, that provide the scaffolding for The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, the U.S.-led postwar order. The new illiberals, I pointed out, all tend to gaseous exchange in lungs, admire established authoritarians to varying degrees. Trump, along with France’s Marine Le Pen and many others, looks to Vladimir Putin.
For Sanders, it was Hugo Chavez’s Venezuela, where, the Vermont socialist said in 2011, “the American dream is more apt to and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, be realized.” Even so, I argued, the crisis of bank employees illiberalism traces mainly to discontents internal to liberal democracies. Trump’s election and his first eight months in office have confirmed the thrust of my predictions, if not all of the policy details. And Contrast Essay? On the policy front , the definition new president has proved too undisciplined, his efforts too wild and haphazard, to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, reorient the U.S. government away from postwar liberal order. The courts blunted the “Muslim ban.” The Trump administration has reaffirmed Washington’s commitment to defend treaty partners in Europe and East Asia. Trumpian grumbling about allies not paying their fair share—a fair point in Europe’s case, by national loan for government, the way—has amounted to just that. The president did pull the U.S. out of the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Trans-Pacific Partnership, but even the definition ultra-establishmentarian Hillary Clinton went from supporting to opposing the pact once she figured out which way the Democratic winds were blowing. The North American Free Trade Agreement, which came into being nearly a quarter-century ago, does look shaky at the moment, but there is no reason to think that it won’t survive in The Comparison of Daoism Essay some modified form. Yet on the cultural front , the crisis of illiberalism continues to exchange, rage. If anything, it has intensified, as attested by the events surrounding the protest over and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism a Robert E. Lee statue in Charlottesville, Virginia. The president refused to condemn unequivocally white nationalists who marched with swastikas and chanted “Jews will not replace us.” Trump even suggested there were “very fine people” among them, thus winking at the so-called alt-right as he had during the national bank of pakistan loan for government campaign. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism Essay? In the days that followed, much of the left rallied behind so-called antifa (“anti-fascist”) militants who make no secret of their allegiance to violent totalitarian ideologies at the other end of the political spectrum.
Disorder is the new American normal, then. Questions that appeared to have been settled—about the connection between economic and political liberty, the perils of conspiracism and romantic politics, America’s unique role on the world stage, and of global, so on—are unsettled once more. Serious people wonder out loud whether liberal democracy is worth maintaining at all, with many of The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay them concluding that it is muller, not. The return of ideas that for and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, good reason were buried in the last century threatens the decent political order that has made the gaseous exchange in lungs U.S. an exceptionally free and prosperous civilization. F or many leftists , America’s commitment to liberty and and Contrast of Daoism Essay, equality before the law has always masked despotism and exploitation. This view long predated Trump’s rise, and definition and examples, if they didn’t subscribe to it themselves, too often mainstream Democrats and progressives treated its proponents—the likes of Noam Chomsky and Howard Zinn—as beloved and respectable, if slightly eccentric, relatives. This cynical vision of the free society (as a conspiracy against and Contrast, the dispossessed) was a mainstay of Cold War–era debates about the relative merits of Western democracy and what consequences, Communism. Soviet apologists insisted that Communist states couldn’t be expected to uphold “merely” formal rights when they had set out to shape a whole new kind of and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay man. In Lungs? That required “breaking a few eggs,” in the words of the and Contrast of Daoism Essay Stalinist interrogators in Arthur Koestler’s Darkness at Noon . Are The Consequences? Anyway, what good were free speech and due process to The Comparison, the coal miner, when under capitalism the whole social structure was rigged against him? That line worked for a time, until the national bank loan employees scale of Soviet tyranny became impossible to justify by anyone but its most abject apologists.
It became obvious that “bourgeois justice,” however imperfect, was infinitely preferable to the Marxist alternative. With the Communist experiment discredited, and Western workers uninterested in staging world revolution, the illiberal left began shifting instead to questions of identity. And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? In race-gender-sexuality theory and the identitarian “subaltern,” it found potent substitutes for dialectical materialism and the proletariat. We are still living with the consequences of this shift. Although there were superficial resemblances, this new politics of identity differed from earlier civil-rights movements. Those earlier movements had sought a place at the American table for hitherto entirely or somewhat excluded groups: blacks, women, gays, the disabled, and so on. Gaseous In Lungs? In doing so, they didn’t seek to The Comparison, overturn or radically reorganize the table.
Instead, they reaffirmed the American Founding (think of Martin Luther King Jr.’s constant references to the Declaration of Independence). And these movements succeeded, owing to America’s tremendous capacity for absorbing social change. Yet for paulo, the new identitarians, as for the Marxists before them, liberal-democratic order was systematically rigged against the downtrodden—now redefined along lines of race, gender, and sexuality, with social class quietly swept under the rug. America’s strides toward racial progress, not least the election and re-election of an African-American president, were dismissed. The U.S. still deserved condemnation because it fell short of and Contrast of Daoism perfect inclusion, limitless autonomy, and complete equality—conditions that no free society can achieve given the root fact of human nature.
The accidentals had changed from the Marxist days, in other words, but the essentials remained the same. In one sense, though, the identitarians went further. The old Marxists still claimed to stand on objectively accessible truth. Not so their successors. Following intellectual lodestars such as the gender theorist Judith Butler, the for government employees identity left came to reject objective truth—and with it, biological sex differences, aesthetic standards in art, the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism possibility of universal moral precepts, and much else of the kind. All of these things, the left identitarians said, were products of repressive institutions, hierarchies, and power. Today’s “social-justice warriors” are heirs to this sordid intellectual legacy. They claim to seek justice.
But, unmoored from any moral foundations, SJW justice operates like mob justice and revolutionary terror, usually carried out online. SJWs claim to protect individual autonomy, but the obsession with group identity and power dynamics means that SJW autonomy claims must destroy the autonomy of others. Muller Lyer? Self-righteousness married to total relativism is and Jainism, a terrifying thing. It isn’t enough to have legalized same-sex marriage in the U.S. via judicial fiat; the evangelical baker must be forced to bake cakes for national bank of pakistan employees, gay weddings. It isn’t enough to and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, have won legal protection and social acceptance for exchange, the transgendered; the Orthodox rabbi must use preferred trans pronouns on The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, pain of criminal prosecution. Likewise, since there is no objective truth to be gained from the open exchange of ideas, any speech that causes subjective discomfort among members of marginalized groups must be suppressed, if necessary through physical violence. Campus censorship that began with speech codes and mobs that prevented conservative and and examples, pro-Israel figures from speaking has now evolved into The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, a general right to beat anyone designated as a “fascist,” on- or off-campus. For the illiberal left, the election of Donald Trump was indisputable proof that behind America’s liberal pieties lurks, forever, the beast of bigotry.
Trump, in this view, wasn’t just an unqualified vulgarian who nevertheless won the decisive backing of voters dissatisfied with the alternative or alienated from mainstream politics. Life? Rather, a vote for Trump constituted a declaration of war against The Comparison and Jainism, women, immigrants, and other victims of American “structures of oppression.” There would be no attempt to persuade Trump supporters; war would be answered by bank employees, war. This isn’t liberalism. Since it can sometimes appear as an extension of traditional civil-rights activism, however, identity leftism has glommed itself onto of Daoism and Jainism Essay, liberalism. It is frequently impossible to tell where traditional autonomy- and equality-seeking liberalism ends and repressive identity leftism begins.
Whether based on and examples, faulty thinking or out of a sense of weakness before an angry and energetic movement, liberals have too often embraced the The Comparison and Contrast Essay identity left as their own. What Are The Consequences Of Global? They haven’t noticed how the The Comparison and Contrast identitarians seek to undermine, not rectify, liberal order. Some on the left, notably Columbia University’s Mark Lilla, are sounding the alarm and calling on Democrats to stress the gaseous exchange in lungs common good over tribalism. Yet these are a few voices in the wilderness. Identitarians of various stripes still lord over the broad left, where it is fashionable to believe that the U.S. project is of Daoism and Jainism, predatory and oppressive by design. If there is a viable left alternative to identity on the horizon, it is the one offered by Sanders and his “Bernie Bros”—which is to national of pakistan loan, say, a reversion to the socialism and and Contrast and Jainism, class struggle of the previous century.
Americans, it seems, will have to wait a while for reason and responsibility to return to the left. hen there is the illiberal fever gripping American conservatives. Liberal democracy has always had its critics on the right, particularly in Continental Europe, where statist, authoritarian, and blood-and-soil accounts of conservatism predominate. Mainstream Anglo-American conservatism took a different course. It has championed individual rights, free enterprise, and pluralism while insisting that liberty depends on public virtue and muller, moral order, and that sometimes the claims of and Contrast of Daoism Essay liberty and autonomy must give way to those of tradition, state authority, and the common good. The whole beauty of loan American order lies in keeping in tension these rival forces that are nevertheless fundamentally at peace. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? The Founders didn’t adopt wholesale Enlightenment liberalism; rather, they tempered its precepts about universal rights with the teachings of muller lyer illusion biblical religion as well as Roman political theory. The Constitution drew from all three wellsprings. The product was a whole, and Essay, it is a pointless and ahistorical exercise to muller, elevate any one source above the others. American conservatism and liberalism, then, are in fact branches of each other, the one (conservatism) invoking tradition and virtue to defend and, when necessary, discipline the regime of liberty; the other (liberalism) guaranteeing the open space in which churches, volunteer organizations, philanthropic activity, and other sources of tradition and civic virtue flourish, in freedom, rather than through state establishment or patronage. One result has been long-term political stability, a blessing that Americans take for of Daoism and Jainism, granted.
Another has been the transformation of liberalism into the lingua franca of all politics, not just at home but across a world that, since 1945, has increasingly reflected U.S. National Bank For Government Employees? preferences. The great French classical liberal Raymond Aron noted in The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay 1955 that the “essentials of liberalism—the respect for individual liberty and moderate government—are no longer the property of a single party: they have become the property of all.” As Aron archly pointed out, even liberalism’s enemies tend to frame their objections using the rights-based talk associated with liberalism. Under Trump, however, some in the party of the right have abdicated their responsibility to liberal democracy as a whole. They have reduced themselves to the lowest sophistry in defense of the New Yorker’s inanities and daily assaults on presidential norms. Beginning when Trump clinched the GOP nomination last year, a great deal of illusion conservative “thinking” has amounted to: You did X to us, now enjoy it as we dish it back to you and then some . Entire websites and some of the biggest stars in right-wing punditry are singularly devoted to and Contrast of Daoism, making this rather base point. Freire? If Trump is undermining this or that aspect of liberal order that was once cherished by conservatives, so be it; that 63 million Americans supported him and that the president “drives the left crazy”—these are good enough reasons to and Contrast Essay, go along. Some of this is partisan jousting that occurs with every administration. But when it comes to Trump’s most egregious statements and conduct—such as his repeated assertions that the U.S. and of pakistan loan for government employees, Putin’s thugocracy are moral equals—the apologetics are positively obscene.
Enough pooh-poohing, whataboutery, and misdirection of this kind, and there will be no conservative principle left standing. More perniciously, as once-defeated illiberal philosophies have returned with a vengeance to and Contrast and Jainism Essay, the left, so have their reactionary analogues to consequences of global, the right. The two illiberalisms enjoy a remarkable complementarity and even cross-pollinate each other. This has developed to the point where it is sometimes hard to distinguish Tucker Carlson from Chomsky, Laura Ingraham from Julian Assange, the Claremont Review from New Left Review , and so on. Two slanders against liberalism in particular seem to be gathering strength on the thinking right. The first is the tendency to frame elements of liberal democracy, especially free trade, as a conspiracy hatched by capitalists, the managerial class, and others with soft hands against American workers. One needn’t renounce liberal democracy as a whole to believe this, though believers often go the whole hog. The second idea is The Comparison and Jainism Essay, that liberalism itself was another form of totalitarianism all along and, therefore, that no amount of freire conservative course correction can set right what is wrong with the system. These two theses together represent a dismaying ideological turn on the right. The first—the account of global capitalism as an imposition of power over the powerless—has gained currency in the pages of The Comparison and Jainism American Affairs , the are the consequences of global new journal of The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Trumpian thought, where class struggle is a constant theme. Other conservatives, who were always skeptical of free enterprise and gaseous in lungs, U.S.-led world order, such as the Weekly Standard ’s Christopher Caldwell, are also publishing similar ideas to a wider reception than perhaps greeted them in the past.
In a March 2017 essay in the Claremont Review of and Contrast of Daoism Essay Books , for are the consequences, example, Caldwell flatly described globalization as a “con game.” The perpetrators, he argued, are “unscrupulous actors who have broken promises and seized a good deal of hard-won public property.” These included administrations of both parties that pursued trade liberalization over decades, people who live in cities and therefore benefit from the knowledge-based economy, American firms, and really anyone who has ever thought to capitalize on The Comparison and Jainism Essay, global supply chains to lyer, boost competitiveness—globalists, in a word. By shipping jobs and manufacturing processes overseas, Caldwell contended, these miscreants had stolen not just material things like taxpayer-funded research but also concepts like “economies of scale” (you didn’t build that!). Thus, globalization in and Contrast Essay the West differed “in degree but not in kind from the contemporaneous Eastern Bloc looting of state assets.” That comparison with predatory post-Communist privatization is definition, a sure sign of ideological overheating. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? It is gaseous in lungs, somewhat like saying that a consumer bank’s lending to home buyers differs in degree but not in kind from a loan shark’s racket in a housing project. Well, yes, in the sense that the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay underlying activity—moneylending, the purchase of assets—is the paulo book same in both cases. But the context makes all the difference: The globalization that began after World War II and accelerated in The Comparison and Jainism Essay the ’90s took place within a rules-based system, which duly elected or appointed policymakers in Western democracies designed in good faith and for muller lyer, a whole host of legitimate strategic and economic reasons. These policymakers knew that globalization was as old as civilization itself. It would take place anyway, and the only question was whether it would be rules-based and efficient or the kind of globalization that would be driven by great-power rivalry and therefore prone to protectionist trade wars. And they were right. What today’s anti-trade types won’t admit is that defeating the Trans-Pacific Partnership and a proposed U.S.-European trade pact known as TTIP won’t end globalization as such; instead, it will cede the game to other powers that are less concerned about The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, rules and fair play.
The postwar globalizers may have gone too far (or not far enough!). Life Summary? They certainly didn’t give sufficient thought to the losers in the system, or how to deal with the of Daoism and Jainism Essay de-industrialization that would follow when information became supremely mobile and wages in the West remained too high relative to skills and productivity gains in are the of global the developing world. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism? They muddled and socioeconomic, compromised their way through these questions, as all policymakers in the real world do. The point is that these leaders—the likes of FDR, Churchill, JFK, Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher, and, yes, Bill Clinton—acted neither with malice aforethought nor anti-democratically. The Comparison And Contrast Essay? It isn’t true, contra Caldwell, that free trade necessarily requires “veto-proof and non-consultative” politics. The U.S., Britain, and other members of what used to be called the Free World have respected popular sovereignty (as understood at the time) for as long as they have been trading nations. Put another way, you were far more likely to exchange in lungs, enjoy political freedom if you were a citizen of one of these states than of countries that opposed economic liberalism in the 20th century. That remains true today. These distinctions matter. Caldwell and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, like-minded writers of the what warming right, who tend to dwell on liberal democracies’ crimes, are prepared to tolerate far worse if it is committed in the name of defeating “globalism.” Hence the speech on The Comparison of Daoism Essay, Putin that Caldwell delivered this spring at a Hillsdale College gathering in in lungs Phoenix.
Promising not to “talk about what to think about Putin,” he proceeded to praise the and Jainism Russian strongman as the in lungs “preeminent statesman of our time” (alongside Turkish strongman Recep Tayyip Erdogan). Putin, Caldwell said, “has become a symbol of national self-determination.” Then Caldwell made a remark that illuminates the and Jainism link between the illiberalisms of yesterday and today. Putin is to “populist conservatives,” he declared, what Castro once was to what of global, progressives. “You didn’t have to be a Communist to and Contrast of Daoism, appreciate the way Castro, whatever his excesses, was carving out a space of autonomy for his country.” Whatever his excesses, indeed. he other big idea is socioeconomic, that today’s liberal crises aren’t a bug but a core feature of liberalism. This line of thinking is particularly prevalent among some Catholic traditionalists and other orthodox Christians (both small- and capital-“o”). The common denominator, it seems to me, is having grown up as a serious believer at a time when many liberals—to their shame—have declared war on faith generally and social conservatism in particular. The argument essentially is The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, this: We (social conservatives, traditionalists) saw the threat from liberalism coming.
With its claims about abstract rights and socioeconomic definition, universal reason, classical liberalism had always posed a danger to the Church and to people of God. We remembered what those fired up by the new ideas did to our nuns and and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, altars in muller lyer illusion France. Still we made peace with American liberal order, because we were told that the Founders had “built on low but solid ground,” to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, borrow Leo Strauss’s famous formulation, or that they had “built better than they knew,” as American Catholic hierarchs in the 19th century put it. Maybe these promises held good for a couple of centuries, the argument continues, but they no longer do. Witness the second sexual revolution under way today. The revolutionaries are plainly telling us that we must either conform our beliefs to Herod’s ways or be driven from the democratic public square.
Can it still be said that the of charlemagne summary Founding rested on solid ground? Did the Founders really build better than they knew? Or is The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, what is passing now precisely what they intended, the rotten fruit of the socioeconomic definition Enlightenment universalism that they planted in the Constitution? We don’t love Trump (or Putin, Hungary’s Viktor Orban, etc.), but perhaps he can counter the pincer movement of sexual and and Contrast and Jainism Essay, economic liberalism, and restore a measure of solidarity and commitment to the Western project. The most pessimistic of these illiberal critics go so far as to argue that liberalism isn’t all that different from Communism, that both are totalitarian children of the Enlightenment. What Are The Consequences? One such critic, Harvard Law School’s Adrian Vermeule, summed up this position in a January essay in First Things magazine: The stock distinction between the Enlightenment’s twins—communism is violently coercive while liberalism allows freedom of thought—is glib.
Illiberal citizens, trapped [under liberalism] without exit papers, suffer a narrowing sphere of permitted action and speech, shrinking prospects, and increasing pressure from regulators, employers, and acquaintances, and even from The Comparison and Jainism Essay friends and family. Liberal society celebrates toleration, diversity, and free inquiry, but in national bank of pakistan loan practice it features a spreading social, cultural, and ideological conformism. 1. I share Vermeule’s despair and that of many other conservative-Christian friends, because there have been genuinely alarming encroachments against conscience, religious freedom, and the dignity of life in Western liberal democracies in recent years. Even so, despair is an unhelpful companion to sober political thought, and the case for plunging into political illiberalism is weak, even on social-conservative grounds. Here again what commends liberalism is historical experience, not abstract theory. Simply put, in the real-world experience of the 20th century, the Church, tradition, and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, religious minorities fared far better under liberal-democratic regimes than they did under illiberal alternatives.
Are coercion and conformity targeting people of faith under liberalism? To be sure. Book? But these don’t take the form of the gulag or the concentration camp or the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism soccer stadium–cum-killing field. Catholic political practice knows well how to draw such moral distinctions between regimes: Pope John Paul II befriended Reagan. If liberal democracy and Communism were indeed “twins” whose distinctions are “glib,” why did he do so? And as Pascal Bruckner wrote in his essay “The Tyranny of Guilt,” if liberal democracy does trap or jail you (politically speaking), it also invariably slips the key under your cell door. The Swedish midwives driven out national bank for government, of the profession over their pro-life views can take their story to the media. The Down syndrome advocacy outfit whose anti-eugenic advertising was censored in France can sue in The Comparison and Jainism national and then international courts.
The Little Sisters of the Poor can appeal to the Supreme Court for a conscience exemption to Obamacare’s contraceptives mandate. And so on. Conversely, once you go illiberal, you don’t just rid yourself of the NGOs and doctrinaire bureaucrats bent on muller lyer illusion, forcing priests to perform gay marriages; you also lose the legal guarantees that protect the Church, however imperfectly, against capricious rulers and popular majorities. And if public opinion in the West is of Daoism and Jainism, turning increasingly secular, indeed anti-Christian, as social conservatives complain and surveys seem to confirm, is it really a good idea to socioeconomic definition, militate in and Contrast favor of of global a more illiberal order rather than defend tooth and The Comparison and Contrast, nail liberal principles of freedom of conscience? For tomorrow, the state might fall into Elizabeth Warren’s hands.
Nor, finally, is political liberalism alone to blame for the Church’s retreating on various fronts. Employees? There have been plenty of and Contrast Essay wounds inflicted by churchmen and national bank loan, laypeople, who believed that they could best serve the faith by conforming its liturgy, moral teaching, and public presence to Essay, liberal order. But political liberalism didn’t compel these changes, at least not directly. In the space opened up by liberalism, and amid the kaleidoscopic lifestyles that left millions of people feeling empty and einhard, confused, it was perfectly possible to propose tradition as an of Daoism and Jainism alternative. It is still possible to do so.
N one of this is to national bank loan for government employees, excuse the failures of liberals. Liberals and mainstream conservatives must go back to the drawing board, to figure out why it is that thoughtful people have come to conclude that their system is incompatible with democracy, nationalism, and religious faith. Essay? Traditionalists and others who see Russia’s mafia state as a defender of Christian civilization and national sovereignty have been duped, but liberals bear some blame for driving large numbers of lyer illusion people in The Comparison of Daoism Essay the West to in lungs, that conclusion. This is a generational challenge for and Contrast of Daoism Essay, the liberal project. So be it. Liberal societies like America’s by freire, nature invite such questioning. But before we abandon the 200-and-some-year-old liberal adventure, it is worth examining the of Daoism and Jainism ways in which today’s left-wing and paulo freire book, right-wing critiques of it mirror bad ideas that were overcome in the previous century. The ideological ferment of the moment, after all, doesn’t relieve the illiberals of the responsibility to reckon with the lessons of the past. 1 Vermeule was reviewing The Demon in Democracy , a 2015 book by the Polish political theorist and parliamentarian Ryszard Legutko that makes the same case. Fred Siegel’s review of the and Contrast Essay English edition appeared in our June 2016 issue.
Choose your plan and pay nothing for socioeconomic, six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in order while you can. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism? This offer is also valid for freire, existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Essay? Click here for more details. The Campus Sex-Crime Tribunals Are Losing. How the courts are intervening to block some of the most unjust punishments of our time. KC Johnson 2017-09-08. Barrett’s decision marked the 59th judicial setback for a college or university since 2013 in a due-process lawsuit brought by a student accused of sexual assault. (In four additional cases, the exchange school settled a lawsuit before any judicial decision occurred.) This body of law serves as a towering rebuke to the Obama administration’s reinterpretation of Title IX, the 1972 law barring sex discrimination in schools that receive federal funding. Beginning in 2011, the Education Department’s Office for and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Civil Rights (OCR) issued a series of “guidance” documents pressuring colleges and universities to change how they adjudicated sexual-assault cases in ways that increased the likelihood of guilty findings. Amid pressure from student and faculty activists, virtually all elite colleges and universities have gone far beyond federal mandates and have even further weakened the rights of students accused of sexual assault.
Like all extreme victims’-rights approaches, the new policies had the greatest impact on the wrongly accused. Loan For Government Employees? A 2016 study from UCLA public-policy professor John Villasenor used just one of the and Contrast and Jainism Essay changes—schools employing the lowest standard of are the consequences proof, a preponderance of the evidence—to predict that as often as 33 percent of the time, campus Title IX tribunals would return guilty findings in cases involving innocent students. Villasenor’s study could not measure the impact of other Obama-era policy demands—such as allowing accusers to appeal not-guilty findings, discouraging cross-examination of accusers, and urging schools to adjudicate claims even when a criminal inquiry found no wrongdoing. In a September 7 address at George Mason University, Education Secretary Betsy DeVos stated that “no student should be forced to sue their way to due process.” But once enmeshed in the campus Title IX process, a wrongfully accused student’s best chance for justice may well be a lawsuit filed after his college incorrectly has found him guilty. (According to and Jainism, data from United Educators, a higher-education insurance firm, 99 percent of students accused of campus sexual assault are male.) The Foundation for Individual Rights has identified more than 180 such lawsuits filed since the einhard life of charlemagne summary 2011 policy changes. That figure, obviously, excludes students with equally strong claims whose families cannot afford to go to court. These students face life-altering consequences. As Judge T.S. Ellis III noted in a 2016 decision, it is The Comparison, “so clear as to be almost a truism” that a student will lose future educational and employment opportunities if his college wrongly brands him a rapist. “It is not the role of the federal courts to set aside decisions of school administrators which the court may view as lacking in wisdom or compassion.” So wrote the Supreme Court in a 1975 case, Wood v. Strickland . While the Supreme Court has made clear that colleges must provide accused students with some rights, especially when dealing with nonacademic disciplinary questions, courts generally have not been eager to intervene in such matters.
This is what makes the developments of the last four years all the more remarkable. The process began in einhard of charlemagne summary May 2013, in a ruling against St. Joseph’s University, and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, has lately accelerated (15 rulings in 2016 and 21 thus far in 2017). Of the 40 setbacks for colleges in federal court, 14 came from judges nominated by Barack Obama, 11 from Clinton nominees, and nine from selections of paulo George W. Bush. Brown University has been on and Contrast of Daoism Essay, the losing side of einhard life three decisions; Duke, Cornell, and Penn State, two each. Court decisions since the expansion of Title IX activism have not all gone in one direction. The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism? In 36 of the due-process lawsuits, courts have permitted the university to maintain its guilty finding. (In four other cases, the are the consequences university settled despite prevailing at a preliminary stage.) But even in these cases, some courts have expressed discomfort with campus procedures. The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism? One federal judge was “greatly troubled” that Georgia Tech veered “very far from an ideal representation of due process” when its investigator “did not pursue any line of investigation that may have cast doubt on gaseous exchange in lungs, [the accuser’s] account of the incident.” Another went out of his way to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, say that he considered it plausible that a former Case Western Reserve University student was actually “innocent of the charges levied against him.” And one state appellate judge opened oral argument by bluntly informing the University of California’s lawyer, “When I . Summary? . And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? . finished reading all the briefs in this case, my comment was, ‘Where’s the kangaroo?’”
Judges have, obviously, raised more questions in illusion cases where the college has found itself on the losing side. Those lawsuits have featured three common areas of concern: bias in the investigation, resulting in a college decision based on incomplete evidence; procedures that prevented the accused student from challenging his accuser’s credibility, chiefly through cross-examination; and schools utilizing a process that seemed designed to The Comparison and Jainism, produce a predetermined result, in response to real or perceived pressure from the federal government. C olleges and universities have proven remarkably willing to act on incomplete information when adjudicating sexual-assault cases. Exchange? In December 2013, for example, Amherst College expelled a student for sexual assault despite text messages (which the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism college investigator failed to discover) indicating that the accuser had consented to sexual contact. The accuser’s own testimony also indicated that she might have committed sexual assault, by initiating sexual contact with a student who Amherst conceded was experiencing an alcoholic blackout. When the accused student sued Amherst, the einhard of charlemagne college said its failure to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, uncover the text messages had been irrelevant because its investigator had only sought texts that portrayed the incident as nonconsensual. In February, Judge Mark Mastroianni allowed the accused student’s lawsuit to proceed, commenting that the texts could raise “additional questions about the credibility of the version of of charlemagne events [the accuser] gave during the disciplinary proceeding.” The two sides settled in late July. Amherst was hardly alone in its eagerness to avoid evidence that might undermine the accuser’s version of events; the same happened at Penn State, St. Joseph’s, Duke, Ohio State, Occidental, Lynn, Marlboro, Michigan, and Notre Dame. Even in cases with a more complete evidentiary base, accused students have often been blocked from presenting a full-fledged defense. As part of its reinterpretation of Title IX, the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay Obama administration sought to shield campus accusers from cross-examination.
OCR’s 2011 guidance “strongly” discouraged direct cross-examination of accusers by the accused student—a critical restriction, since most university procedures require the accused student, rather than his lawyer, to defend himself in the hearing. OCR’s 2014 guidance suggested that this type of cross-examination in and of itself could create a hostile environment. The Obama administration even spoke favorably about the growing trend among schools to abolish hearings altogether and life, allow a single official to serve as investigator, prosecutor, judge, and and Contrast, jury in sexual-assault cases. The Supreme Court has never held that campus disciplinary hearings must permit cross-examination. Nonetheless, the recent attack on the practice has left schools struggling to explain why they would not want to utilize what the Court has described as the “greatest legal engine ever invented for the discovery of truth.” In June 2016, the University of Cincinnati found a student guilty of sexual assault after a hearing at which neither his accuser nor the university’s Title IX investigator appeared. Consequences Of Global? In an unintentionally comical line, the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay hearing chair noted the absent witnesses before asking the accused student if he had “any questions of the einhard life of charlemagne Title IX report.” The student, befuddled, replied, “Well, since she’s not here, I can’t really ask anything of the report.” (The panel chair did not indicate how the “report” could have answered any questions.) Cincinnati found the student guilty anyway. 1. Limitations on full cross-examination also played a role in judicial setbacks for Middlebury, George Mason, James Madison, Ohio State, Occidental, Penn State, Brandeis, Amherst, Notre Dame, and Skidmore. Finally, since 2011, more than 300 students have filed Title IX complaints with the Office for Civil Rights, alleging mishandling of their sexual-assault allegation by The Comparison and Jainism Essay, their college. In Lungs? OCR’s leadership seemed to welcome the The Comparison complaints, which allowed Obama officials not only to inspect the individual case but all sexual-assault claims at the school in gaseous exchange in lungs question over a three-year period.
Northwestern University professor Laura Kipnis has estimated that during the Obama years, colleges spent between $60 million and $100 million on these investigations. Of Daoism And Jainism? If OCR finds a Title IX violation, that might lead to a loss of federal funding. This has led Harvard Law professors Jeannie Suk Gersen, Janet Halley, Elizabeth Bartholet, and Nancy Gertner to exchange, observe in of Daoism and Jainism Essay a white paper submitted to OCR that universities have “strong incentives to ensure the school stays in OCR’s good graces.” One of the earliest lawsuits after the Obama administration’s policy shift, involving former Xavier University basketball player Dez Wells, demonstrated how an OCR investigation can affect the socioeconomic definition and examples fairness of a university inquiry. The accuser’s complaint had been referred both to Xavier’s Title IX office and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, the Cincinnati police.
The police concluded that the bank of pakistan employees allegation was meritless; Hamilton County Prosecuting Attorney Joseph Deters later said he considered charging the The Comparison and Jainism Essay accuser with filing a false police report. Deters asked Xavier to book, delay its proceedings until his office completed its investigation. School officials refused. Instead, three weeks after the initial allegation, the university expelled Wells. He sued and The Comparison and Contrast Essay, speculated that Xavier’s haste came not from a quest for justice but instead from a desire to avoid difficulties in finalizing an agreement with OCR to resolve an unrelated complaint filed by two female Xavier students. (In recent years, OCR has entered into lyer illusion, dozens of similar resolution agreements, which bind universities to policy changes in exchange for The Comparison of Daoism, removing the threat of losing federal funds.) In a July 2014 ruling, Judge Arthur Spiegel observed that Xavier’s disciplinary tribunal, however “well-equipped to socioeconomic definition, adjudicate questions of cheating, may have been in over its head with relation to an alleged false accusation of sexual assault.” Soon thereafter, the two sides settled; Wells transferred to the University of Maryland. Ohio State, Occidental, Cornell, Middlebury, Appalachian State, USC, and and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Columbia have all found themselves on freire, the losing side of court decisions arising from cases that originated during a time in which OCR was investigating or threatening to The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, investigate the school. (In the Ohio State case, one university staffer testified that she didn’t know whether she had an obligation to correct a false statement by what of global, an accuser to a disciplinary panel.) Pressure from and Contrast OCR can be indirect, as well. The Obama administration interpreted federal law as requiring all universities to have at least one Title IX coordinator; larger universities now employ dozens of of global Title IX personnel who, as the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Harvard Law professors explained, “have reason to fear for their jobs if they hold a student not responsible or if they assign a rehabilitative or restorative rather than a harshly punitive sanction.” A mid the wave of and examples judicial setbacks for universities, two decisions in particular stand out. Easily the most powerful opinion in a campus due-process case came in March 2016 from Judge F. Dennis Saylor.
While the stereotypical campus sexual-assault allegation results from an alcohol-filled, one-night encounter between a male and a female student, a case at Brandeis University involved a long-term monogamous relationship between two male students. A bad breakup led to the accusing student’s filing the following complaint, against which his former boyfriend was expected to The Comparison of Daoism, provide a defense: “Starting in socioeconomic definition and examples the month of September, 2011, the Alleged violator of Policy had numerous inappropriate, nonconsensual sexual interactions with me. These interactions continued to occur until around May 2013.” To adjudicate, Brandeis hired a former OCR staffer, who interviewed the two students and a few of their friends. Since the The Comparison and Contrast Essay university did not hold a hearing, the investigator decided guilt or innocence on einhard, her own. She treated each incident as if the two men were strangers to each other, which allowed her to determine that sexual “violence” had occurred in the relationship. The accused student, she found, sometimes looked at his boyfriend in the nude without permission and sometimes awakened his boyfriend with kisses when the The Comparison boyfriend wanted to stay asleep.
The university’s procedures prevented the student from seeing the investigator’s report, with its absurdly broad definition of sexual misconduct, in preparing his appeal. “In the context of American legal culture,” Boston Globe columnist Dante Ramos later argued, denying this type of information “is crazy.” “Standard rules of muller illusion evidence and other protections for the accused keep things like false accusations or mistakes by authorities from hurting innocent people.” When the The Comparison and Jainism Essay university appeal was denied, the student sued. At an October 2015 hearing to consider the national of pakistan for government university’s motion to and Contrast, dismiss, Saylor seemed flabbergasted at the unfairness of the school’s approach. “I don’t understand,” he observed, “how a university, much less one named after Louis Brandeis, could possibly think that that was a fair procedure to not allow the accused to see the accusation.” Brandeis’s lawyer cited pressure to conform to OCR guidance, but the judge deemed the university’s procedures “closer to Salem 1692 than Boston, 2015.” The following March, Saylor issued an 89-page opinion that has been cited in virtually every lawsuit subsequently filed by an accused student. “Whether someone is a ‘victim’ is national loan, a conclusion to be reached at the end of a fair process, not an assumption to be made at the beginning,” Saylor wrote. “If a college student is to be marked for life as a sexual predator, it is reasonable to require that he be provided a fair opportunity to defend himself and an impartial arbiter to and Contrast of Daoism Essay, make that decision.” Saylor concluded that Brandeis forced the accused student “to defend himself in what was essentially an inquisitorial proceeding that plausibly failed to provide him with a fair and reasonable opportunity to be informed of the charges and to present an adequate defense.” The student, vindicated by the ruling’s sweeping nature, then withdrew his lawsuit. He currently is pursuing a Title IX complaint against Brandeis with OCR. Four months later, a three-judge panel of the socioeconomic definition Second Circuit Court of Appeals produced an opinion that lacked Saylor’s rhetorical flourish or his understanding of the basic unfairness of the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay campus Title IX process. But by creating a more relaxed standard for accused students to exchange, make federal Title IX claims, the Second Circuit’s decision in Doe v. The Comparison Of Daoism? Columbia carried considerable weight. Two Columbia students who had been drinking had a brief sexual encounter at a party.
More than four months later, the accuser claimed she was too intoxicated to have consented. Her allegation came in an atmosphere of campus outrage about the university’s allegedly insufficient toughness on sexual assault. In this setting, the accused student found Columbia’s Title IX investigator uninterested in hearing his side of the story. He cited witnesses who would corroborate his belief that the accuser wasn’t intoxicated; the investigator declined to speak with them. The student was found guilty, although for reasons differing from the initial claim; the Columbia panel ruled that he had “directed unreasonable pressure for sexual activity toward the [accuser] over a period of weeks,” leaving her unable to what, consent on The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, the night in muller question. He received a three-semester suspension for this nebulous offense—which even his accuser deemed too harsh. He sued, and the case was assigned to Judge Jesse Furman. Furman’s opinion provided a ringing victory for and Contrast of Daoism, Columbia and the Obama-backed policies it used. In Lungs? As Title IX litigator Patricia Hamill later observed, Furman’s “almost impossible standard” required accused students to have inside information about the institution’s handling of other sexual-assault claims—information they could plausibly obtain only through the legal process known as discovery, which happens at a later stage of litigation—in order to survive a university’s initial motion to dismiss. The Comparison And Contrast Essay? Furman suggested that, to prevail, an accused student would need to show that his school treated a female student accused of life of charlemagne sexual assault more favorably, or at least provide details about how cases against other accused students showed a pattern of bias. But federal privacy law keeps campus disciplinary hearings private, leaving most accused students with little opportunity to uncover the information before their case is dismissed.
At the same time, the opinion excused virtually any degree of of Daoism and Jainism Essay unfairness by the institution. Furman reasoned that taking “allegations of rape on campus seriously and . . . treat[ing] complainants with a high degree of sensitivity” could constitute “lawful” reasons for university unfairness toward accused students. Samantha Harris of the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education detected the decision’s “immediate and nationwide impact” in several rulings against accused students. It also played the same role in university briefs that Saylor’s Brandeis opinion did in filings by accused students. The Columbia student’s lawyer, Andrew Miltenberg, appealed Furman’s ruling to the Second Circuit. The stakes were high, since a ruling affirming the lower court’s reasoning would have all but foreclosed Title IX lawsuits by accused students in consequences warming New York, Connecticut, and of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Vermont. But a panel of three judges, all nominated by Democratic presidents, overturned Furman’s decision. In the opinion’s crucial passage, Judge Pierre Leval held that a university “is not excused from what are the consequences of global warming liability for discrimination because the discriminatory motivation does not result from a discriminatory heart, but rather from a desire to avoid practical disadvantages that might result from unbiased action.
A covered university that adopts, even temporarily, a policy of bias favoring one sex over the other in a disciplinary dispute, doing so in order to and Contrast and Jainism, avoid liability or bad publicity, has practiced sex discrimination, notwithstanding that the national of pakistan loan employees motive for the discrimination did not come from ingrained or permanent bias against that particular sex.” Before the and Contrast and Jainism Essay Columbia decision, courts almost always had rebuffed Title IX pleadings from accused students. More recently, judges have allowed Title IX claims to proceed against socioeconomic definition, Amherst, Cornell, California–Santa Barbara, Drake, and Rollins. After the Second Circuit’s decision, Columbia settled with the accused student, sparing its Title IX decision-makers from having to testify at a trial. James Madison was one of the few universities to take a different course, with disastrous results. A lawsuit from an accused student survived a motion to dismiss, but the university refused to settle, allowing the student’s lawyer to depose the three school employees who had decided his client’s fate. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? One unintentionally revealed that he had misapplied the university’s own definition of consent. Another cited the importance of the what consequences of global accuser’s slurring words on a voicemail, thus proving her extreme intoxication on the night of the The Comparison of Daoism alleged assault. It was left to the accused student’s lawyer, at a deposition months after the decision had been made, to lyer illusion, note that the voicemail in question actually was received on The Comparison and Jainism, a different night.
In December 2016, Judge Elizabeth Dillon, an Obama nominee, granted summary judgment to the accused student, concluding that “significant anomalies in what of global warming the appeal process” violated his due-process rights under the Constitution. niversities were on The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, the losing side of 36 due-process rulings when Obama appointee Catherine Lhamon was presiding over the Office for Civil Rights between 2013 and 2016; no record exists of her publicly acknowledging any of them. In June 2017, however, Lhamon suddenly rejoiced that “yet another federal court” had found that students disciplined for sexual misconduct “were not denied due process.” That Fifth Circuit decision, involving two former students at the University of Houston, was an odd case for her to paulo, celebrate. The majority cabined its findings to the “unique facts” of the case—that the accused students likely would have been found guilty even under the fairest possible process. And the dissent, from Judge Edith Jones, denounced the procedures championed by Lhamon and other Obama officials as “heavily weighted in favor of The Comparison and Contrast finding guilt,” predicting “worse to come if appellate courts do not step in to protect students’ procedural due process right where allegations of quasi-criminal sexual misconduct arise.” At this stage, Lhamon, who now chairs the U.S. Gaseous In Lungs? Commission on The Comparison of Daoism, Civil Rights, cannot be taken seriously when it comes to socioeconomic definition and examples, questions of campus due process.
But other defenders of the current Title IX regime have offered more substantive commentary about the university setbacks. Legal scholar Michelle Anderson was one of the few to even discuss the due-process decisions. “Colleges and universities do not always adjudicate allegations of sexual assault well,” she noted in a 2016 law review article defending the Obama-era policies. Anderson even conceded that some colleges had denied “accused students fairness in and Contrast Essay disciplinary adjudication.” But these students sued, “and campuses are responding—as they must—when accused students prevail. So campuses face powerful legal incentives on both sides to address campus sexual assault, and to do so fairly and impartially.” This may be true, but Anderson does not explain why wrongly accused students should bear the socioeconomic and examples financial and emotional burden of inducing their colleges to and Contrast and Jainism, implement fair procedures.
More important, scant evidence exists that colleges have responded to the court victories of wrongly accused students by creating fairer procedures. Paulo? Some have even made it more difficult for and Contrast Essay, wrongly accused students to sue. After losing a lawsuit in December 2014, Brown eliminated the right of students accused of sexual assault to have “every opportunity” to present evidence. That same year, an accused student showed how Swarthmore had deviated from muller illusion its own procedures in his case. The college quickly settled the lawsuit—and then added a clause to its procedures immunizing it from similar claims in the future. Swarthmore currently informs accused students that “rules of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism evidence ordinarily found in for government employees legal proceedings shall not be applied, nor shall any deviations from The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism any of these prescribed procedures alone invalidate a decision.” Many lawsuits are still working their way through the judicial system; three cases are pending at federal appellate courts.
Of the two that address substantive matters, oral arguments seemed to bank of pakistan employees, reveal skepticism of the university’s position. On July 26, a three-judge panel of the First Circuit considered a case at Boston College, where the accused student plausibly argued that someone else had committed the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay sexual assault (which occurred on gaseous exchange in lungs, a poorly lit dance floor). Judges Bruce Selya and William Kayatta seemed troubled that a Boston College dean had improperly intruded on the hearing board’s deliberations. At the Sixth Circuit a few days later, Judges Richard Griffin and Amul Thapar both expressed concerns about the and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism University of Cincinnati’s downplaying the importance of cross-examination in campus-sex adjudications. Judge Eric Clay was quieter, but he wondered about the tension between the university’s Title IX and of global warming, truth-seeking obligations. In a perfect world, academic leaders themselves would have created fairer processes without judicial intervention.
But in the current campus environment, such an approach is The Comparison of Daoism Essay, impossible. So, at least for the short term, the courts remain the gaseous exchange in lungs best, albeit imperfect, option for students wrongly accused of sexual assault. Meanwhile, every year, young men entrust themselves and their family’s money to institutions of higher learning that are indifferent to their rights and unconcerned with the injustices to which these students might be subjected. 1 After a district court placed that finding on hold, the university appealed to the Sixth Circuit. Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. The Comparison Of Daoism? Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is are the, also valid for existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details. Review of 'Terror in France' By Gilles Kepel.
James Kirchick 2017-09-13. Kepel is particularly knowledgeable about the history and process of The Comparison radicalization that takes place in his nation’s heavily Muslim banlieues (the depressed housing projects ringing Paris and other major cities), and Terror in France is informed by paulo, decades of The Comparison of Daoism Essay fieldwork in these volatile locales. Consequences Warming? What we have been witnessing for more than a decade, Kepel argues, is the “third wave” of global jihadism, which is The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, not so much a top-down doctrinally inspired campaign (as were the 9/11 attacks, directed from afar by the oracular figure of lyer illusion Osama bin Laden) but a bottom-up insurgency with an “enclave-based ethnic-racial logic of violence” to it. Kepel traces the phenomenon back to 2005, a convulsive year that saw the second-generation descendants of France’s postcolonial Muslim immigrants confront a changing socio-political landscape. That was the year of the greatest riots in modern French history, involving mostly young Muslim men.
It was also the year that Abu Musab al-Suri, the Syrian-born Islamist then serving as al-Qaeda’s operations chief in Europe, published The Global Islamic Resistance Call . This 1,600-page manifesto combined pious imprecations against the West with do-it-yourself ingenuity, an The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay Anarchist’s Cookbook for muller illusion, the Islamist set. In Kepel’s words, the manifesto preached a “jihadism of proximity,” the brand of civil war later adopted by the Islamic State. It called for The Comparison of Daoism, ceaseless, mass-casualty attacks in Western cities—attacks which increase suspicion and regulation of Muslims and, in turn, drive those Muslims into the arms of violent extremists. The third-generation jihad has been assisted by two phenomena: social-networking sites that easily and widely disseminate Islamist propaganda (thus increasing the rate of self-radicalization) and the so-called Arab Spring, which led to state collapse in Syria and Libya, providing “an exceptional site for military training and bank loan employees, propaganda only a few hours’ flight from The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay Europe, and at a very low cost.” Kepel’s book is not just a study of the ideology and tactics of Islamists but a sociopolitical overview of how this disturbing phenomenon fits within a country on the brink. For example, Kepel finds that jihadism is exchange, emerging in conjunction with developments such as the “end of industrial society.” A downturn in work has led to an ominous situation in which a “right-wing ethnic nationalism” preying on The Comparison of Daoism, the economically anxious has risen alongside Islamism as “parallel conduits for paulo freire book, expressing grievances.” Filling a space left by the French Communist Party (which once brought the ethnic French working class and Arab immigrants together), these two extremes leer at each other from opposite The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism sides of a societal chasm, signaling the potentially cataclysmic future that awaits France if both mass unemployment and Islamist terror continue undiminished. The French economy has also had a more direct inciting effect on jihadism. Definition? Overregulated labor markets make it difficult for young Muslims to get jobs, thus exacerbating the conditions of social deprivation and and Contrast of Daoism, exclusion that make individuals susceptible to muller illusion, radicalization.
The inability to tackle chronic unemployment has led to widespread Muslim disillusionment with the left (a disillusionment aggravated by another, often glossed over, factor: widespread Muslim opposition to the Socialist Party’s championing of of Daoism and Jainism same-sex marriage). Essentially, one left-wing constituency (unions) has made the unemployment of another constituency (Muslim youth) the einhard life of charlemagne mechanism for The Comparison and Jainism, maintaining its privileges. Kepel does not, however, cite deprivation as the sole or even main contributing factor to national for government employees, Islamist radicalization. One Parisian banlieue that has sent more than 80 residents to and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, fight in Syria, he notes, has “attractive new apartment buildings” built by the state and features a mosque “constructed with the backing of the Socialist mayor.” It is also the birthplace of well-known French movie stars of Arab descent, and thus hardly a place where ambition goes to gaseous exchange in lungs, die. “The Islamophobia mantra and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, the victim mentality it reinforces makes it possible to rationalize a total rejection of France and a commitment to jihad by making a connection between unemployment, discrimination, and French republican values,” Kepel writes. Indeed, Kepel is refreshingly derisive of the term “Islamophobia” throughout the paulo freire book book, excoriating Islamists and and Contrast Essay, their fellow travelers for “substituting it for anti-Semitism as the West’s cardinal sin.” These are meaningful words coming from of charlemagne summary Kepel, a deeply learned scholar of Islam who harbors great respect for the faith and its adherents.
Kepel also weaves the of Daoism Essay saga of for government employees jihadism into the ongoing “ kulturkampf within the French left.” Arguments about Islamist terrorism demonstrate a “divorce between a secular progressive tradition” and the children of the Muslim immigrants this tradition fought to defend. The most ironically perverse manifestation of this divorce was ISIS’s kidnapping of Didier Francois, co-founder of the of Daoism and Jainism Essay civil-rights organization SOS Racisme . Kepel recognizes the origins of this divorce in the “red-green” alliance formed decades ago between Islamists and definition, elements of the French intellectual left, such as Michel Foucault, a cheerleader of the Iranian revolution. Though he offers a rigorous history and analysis of the of Daoism Essay jihadist problem, Kepel is generally at a loss for solutions. He decries a complacent French elite, with its disregard for gaseous exchange in lungs, genuine expertise (evidenced by the decline in and Jainism Essay institutional academic support for Islamicists and Arabists) and the narrow, relatively impenetrable way in which it perpetuates itself, chiefly with a single school (the Ecole normale superieure) that practically every French politician must attend. Paulo? Despite France’s admirable republican values, this has made the of Daoism process of assimilation rather difficult. But other than wishing that the public education system become more effective and inclusive at life of charlemagne instilling republican values, Kepel provides little in the way of suggestions as to how France emerges from this mess.
That a scholar of such erudition and humanity can do little but throw up his hands and issue a sigh of despair cannot bode well. The third-generation jihad owes as much to the political breakdown in France as it does to the meltdown in the Middle East. The Comparison And Contrast And Jainism Essay? Defeating this two-headed beast requires a new and comprehensive playbook: the West’s answer to The Global Islamic Resistance Call. Gaseous In Lungs? That book has yet to be written. Choose your plan and pay nothing for The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on consequences of global, both our subscription plans. Put your intellectual life in The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay order while you can. This offer is also valid for lyer, existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription.
Click here for more details. Matthew Continetti 2017-09-13. resident Trump, in case you haven’t noticed, has a tendency to exaggerate. And Contrast And Jainism? Nothing is “just right” or “meh” for exchange in lungs, him. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism? Buildings, crowds, election results, and gaseous exchange, military campaigns are always outsized, gargantuan, larger, and more significant than you might otherwise assume. “People want to believe that something is the of Daoism Essay biggest and the greatest and the most spectacular,” he wrote 30 years ago in The Art of the Deal . “I call it truthful hyperbole. For Government Employees? It’s an innocent form of exaggeration—and a very effective form of Essay promotion.” So effective, in fact, that the press has picked up the habit.
Reporters and editors agree with the president that nothing he does is gaseous exchange, ordinary. Of Daoism Essay? After covering Trump for more than two years, they still can’t accept him as a run-of-the-mill politician. And while there are aspects of Donald Trump and his presidency that are, to say the exchange least, unusual, the media seem unable to distinguish between the abnormal and significant—firing the FBI director in the midst of an investigation into one’s presidential campaign, for example—and the commonplace. Consider the The Comparison and Contrast Essay fiscal deal President Trump struck with Democratic leaders in early September. On September 6, the president held an Oval Office meeting with Vice President Pence, Treasury Secretary Mnuchin, and congressional leaders of of charlemagne summary both parties. He had to find a way to of Daoism and Jainism, (a) raise the debt ceiling, (b) fund the federal government, and (c) spend money on hurricane relief. The problem is that a bloc of House Republicans won’t vote for (a) unless the gaseous in lungs increase is accompanied by significant budget cuts, which interferes with (b) and (c). To raise the debt ceiling, then, requires Democratic votes. And the debt ceiling must be raised. “There is and Contrast of Daoism Essay, zero chance—no chance—we will not raise the debt ceiling,” Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said in August.
The meeting went like this. First House Speaker Paul Ryan asked for an 18-month increase in the debt ceiling so Republicans wouldn’t have to vote again on the matter until after the midterm elections. Democrats refused. In Lungs? The bargaining continued until Ryan asked for a six-month increase. The Democrats remained stubborn. So Trump, always willing to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, kick a can down the road, interrupted Mnuchin to offer a three-month increase, a continuing resolution that will keep the government open through December, and about $8 billion in hurricane money. Are The Consequences Of Global Warming? The Democrats said yes. That, anyway, is The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, what happened.
But the media are not satisfied to report what happened. They want—they need —to tell you what it means. And what does it mean? Well, they aren’t really sure. But it’s something big. It’s something spectacular. For example:
1. “Trump Bypasses Republicans to Strike Deal on of pakistan loan, Debt Limit and Harvey Aid” was the headline of a story for the New York Times by Peter Baker, Thomas Kaplan, and Michael D. Shear. “The deal to and Jainism Essay, keep the government open and paying its debts until Dec. 15 represented an einhard summary extraordinary public turn for the president, who has for much of his term set himself up on the right flank of the Republican Party,” their article began. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism? Fair enough. But look at definition and examples how they import speculation and opinion into the following sentence: “But it remained unclear whether Mr. Trump’s collaboration with Democrats foreshadowed a more sustained shift in strategy by a president who has presented himself as a master dealmaker or amounted to just a one-time instinctual reaction of a mercurial leader momentarily eager to poke his estranged allies.”
2. “The decision was one of the most fascinating and mysterious moves he’s made with Congress during eight months in The Comparison and Jainism office,” reported Jeff Zeleny, Dana Bash, Deirdre Walsh, and Jeremy Diamond for CNN. Thanks for sharing! 3. “Trump budget deal gives GOP full-blown Stockholm Syndrome,” read the headline of Tina Nguyen’s piece for Vanity Fair . “Donald Trump’s unexpected capitulation to new best buds ‘Chuck and Nancy’ has thrown the in lungs Grand Old Party into a frenzy as Republicans search for explanations—and scapegoats.” 4. “For Conservatives, Trump’s Deal with Democrats Is Nightmare Come True,” read the headline for of Daoism and Jainism Essay, a New York Times article by Jeremy W. Peters and national for government, Maggie Haberman. “It is the scenario that President Trump’s most conservative followers considered their worst nightmare, and on The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Wednesday it seemed to come true: The deal-making political novice, whose ideology and loyalty were always fungible, cut a deal with Democrats.” 5. “Trump sides with Democrats on fiscal issues, throwing Republican plans into chaos,” read the Washington Post headline the day after the deal was announced. “The president’s surprise stance upended sensitive negotiations over the debt ceiling and other crucial policy issues this fall and for government employees, further imperiled his already tenuous relationships with Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell and House Speaker Paul Ryan.” Yes, the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism negotiations were upended. Then they made a deal. 6. “Although elected as a Republican last year,” wrote Peter Baker of the Times , “Mr. Trump has shown in the nearly eight months in office that he is, in many ways, the first independent to hold the presidency since the advent of the freire two-party system around the time of the Civil War.” The title of Baker’s news analysis: “Bound to The Comparison and Contrast Essay, No Party, Trump Upends 150 Years of Two-Party Rule.” One hundred and fifty years? Why not 200?
The journalistic rule of thumb used to be that an article describing a political, social, or cultural trend requires at least three examples. Not while covering Trump. If Trump does something, anything, you should feel free to inflate its importance beyond all recognition. And stuff your “reporting” with all sorts of dramatic adjectives and frightening nouns: fascinating , mysterious , unexpected , extraordinary , nightmare , chaos , frenzy , and socioeconomic and examples, scapegoats . It’s like a Vince Flynn thriller come to life. The case for the significance of the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism budget deal would be stronger if there were a consensus about consequences, whom it helped. There isn’t one. At first the press assumed Democrats had won. “Republicans left the Oval Office Wednesday stunned,” reported Rachael Bade, Burgess Everett, and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, Josh Dawsey of Politico . Another trio of Politico reporters wrote, “In the aftermath, Republicans seethed privately and distanced themselves publicly from the paulo deal.” Republicans were “stunned,” reported Kristina Peterson, Siobhan Hughes, and Louise Radnofsky of the Wall Street Journal . And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? “Meet the swamp: Donald Trump punts September agenda to December after meeting with Congress,” read the headline of Charlie Spiering’s Breitbart story.
By the following week, though, these very outlets had decided the GOP was looking pretty good. “Trump’s deal with Democrats bolsters Ryan—for now,” read the Politico headline on September 11. “McConnell: No New Debt Ceiling Vote until ‘Well into 2018,’” reported the Washington Post . “At this point…picking a fight with Republican leaders will only definition and examples help him,” wrote Gerald Seib in the Wall Street Journal . “Trump has long warned that he would work with Democrats, if necessary, to fulfill his campaign promises. And Wednesday’s deal is The Comparison and Jainism, a sign that he intends to follow through on that threat,” wrote Breitbart’s Joel Pollak. The sensationalism, the conflicting interpretations, the visceral language is dizzying. We have so many reporters chasing the same story that each feels compelled to gussy up a quotidian budget negotiation until it resembles the Ribbentrop–Molotov pact, and none feel it necessary to summary, apply to their own reporting the The Comparison scrutiny and incredulity they apply to Trump. The truth is einhard of charlemagne summary, that no one knows what this agreement portends. Nor is it the job of a reporter to divine the meaning of current events like an augur of Rome.
Sometimes a cigar is just a cigar. The Comparison Of Daoism? And a deal is just a deal. Choose your plan and pay nothing for six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans. Illusion? Put your intellectual life in order while you can. The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? This offer is freire book, also valid for The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Click here for more details. Remembering something wonderful. Terry Teachout 2017-09-13. Not surprisingly, many well-established performers were left in the lurch by the rise of the new media. And Examples? Moreover, some vaudevillians who, like Fred Allen, had successfully reinvented themselves for The Comparison of Daoism Essay, radio were unable to gaseous, make the transition to TV.
But a handful of exceptionally talented performers managed to move from vaudeville to radio to TV, and none did it with more success than Jack Benny, whose feigned stinginess, scratchy violin playing, slightly effeminate demeanor, and preternaturally exact comic timing made him one of the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism world’s most beloved performers. Are The Of Global Warming? After establishing himself in vaudeville, he became the star of a comedy series, The Jack Benny Program , that aired continuously, first on radio and then TV, from and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay 1932 until 1965. Save for Bob Hope, no other comedian of his time was so popular. With the demise of nighttime network radio as an muller lyer illusion entertainment medium, the 931 weekly episodes of The Jack Benny Program became the province of comedy obsessives—and because Benny’s TV series was filmed in black-and-white, it is no longer shown in syndication with any regularity. And while he also made Hollywood films, some of which were box-office hits, only one, Ernst Lubitsch’s To Be or Not to of Daoism Essay, Be (1942), is today seen on TV other than sporadically. Nevertheless, connoisseurs of comedy still regard Benny, who died in socioeconomic definition 1974, as a giant, and numerous books, memoirs, and articles have been published about his life and art. Of Daoism And Jainism? Most recently, Kathryn H. What Are The Warming? Fuller-Seeley, a professor at and Jainism the University of Texas at Austin, has brought out Jack Benny and the Golden Age of Radio Comedy , the and examples first book-length primary-source academic study of The Jack Benny Program and its star.
1 Fuller-Seeley’s genuine appreciation for Benny’s work redeems her anachronistic insistence on viewing it through the fashionable prism of gender- and race-based theory, and The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay, her book, though sober-sided to the point of occasional starchiness, is often quite illuminating. Most important of gaseous in lungs all, off-the-air recordings of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay 749 episodes of the radio version of The Jack Benny Program survive in whole or part and can easily be downloaded from the Web. As a result, it is possible for people not yet born when Benny was alive to hear for themselves why he is still remembered with admiration and in lungs, affection—and why one specific aspect of his performing persona continues to fascinate close observers of the American scene. B orn Benjamin Kubelsky in Chicago in 1894, Benny was the son of Eastern European emigres (his father was from Poland, his mother from Lithuania). He started studying violin at six and had enough talent to pursue a career in music, but his interests lay elsewhere, and by the time he was a teenager, he was working in vaudeville as a comedian who played the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism Essay violin as part of his act. Over time he developed into a “monologist,” the period term for what we now call a stand-up comedian, and he began appearing in films in 1929 and on for government employees, network radio three years after that. Radio comedy, like silent film, is now an obsolete art form, but the and Jainism program formats that it fostered in consequences the ’20s and The Comparison, ’30s all survived into the era of TV, and some of einhard life them flourish to this day. One, episodic situation comedy, was developed in large part by Jack Benny and his collaborators. Benny and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, Harry Conn, his first full-time writer, turned his weekly series, which started out einhard of charlemagne summary, as a variety show, into and Contrast of Daoism, a weekly half-hour playlet featuring a regular cast of characters augmented by guest stars.
Such playlets, relying as they did on a setting that was repeated from week to week, were easier to write than the free-standing sketches favored by Allen, Hope, and in lungs, other ex-vaudevillians, and by the late ’30s, the The Comparison and Jainism sitcom had become a staple of socioeconomic and examples radio comedy. The process, as documented by Fuller-Seeley, was a gradual one. And Contrast Of Daoism? The Jack Benny Program never broke entirely with the variety format, continuing to feature both guest stars (some of whom, like Ronald Colman, ultimately became semi-regular members of the show’s rotating ensemble of players) and songs sung by Dennis Day, a tenor who joined the cast in socioeconomic 1939. And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? Nor was it the first radio situation comedy: Amos Andy , launched in 1928, was a soap-opera-style daily serial that also featured regular characters. Nevertheless, it was Benny who perfected the form, and his own character would become the prototype for life summary, countless later sitcom stars. The show’s pivotal innovation was to turn Benny and the other cast members into fictionalized versions of themselves—they were the stars of a radio show called “The Jack Benny Program.” Sadye Marks, Benny’s wife, played Mary Livingstone, his sharp-tongued secretary, with three other characters added as the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay self-reflexive concept took shape. Don Wilson, the paulo book stout, genial announcer, came on board in 1934. He was followed in The Comparison 1936 by Phil Harris, Benny’s roguish bandleader, and, in 1939, by Day, Harris’s simple-minded vocalist. To this team was added a completely fictional character, Rochester Van Jones, Benny’s raspy-voiced, outrageously impertinent black valet, played by Eddie Anderson, who joined the cast in 1938. As these five talented performers coalesced into a tight-knit ensemble, the jokey, vaudeville-style sketch comedy of the early episodes metamorphosed into sitcom-style scripts that portrayed their offstage lives, as well as the making of the show itself. Gaseous Exchange? Scarcely any conventional jokes were told, nor did Benny’s writers employ the topical and political references in which Allen and Hope specialized.
Instead, the show’s humor arose almost entirely from the close interplay of character and situation. Benny was not solely responsible for the creation of this format, which was forged by Conn and perfected by his successors. Instead, he doubled as the star and producer—or, to use the modern term, show runner—closely supervising the writing of the scripts and The Comparison and Contrast, directing the performances of the other cast members. In addition, he and Conn turned the character of Jack Benny from a sophisticated vaudeville monologist into lyer, the hapless butt of the show’s humor, a vain, sexually inept skinflint whose character flaws were ceaselessly twitted by his colleagues, who in turn were given most of the biggest laugh lines. This latter innovation was a direct reflection of Benny’s real-life personality. Legendary for his voluble appreciation of other comedians, he was content to respond to The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, the wisecracking of his fellow cast members with exquisitely well-timed interjections like “Well!” and “Now, cut that out,” knowing that the comic spotlight would remain focused on the man of whom they were making fun and secure in the knowledge that his own comic personality was strong enough to let them shine without eclipsing him in the process.
And with each passing season, the fictional personalities of Benny and his colleagues became ever more firmly implanted in the minds of their listeners, thus allowing the writers to gaseous, get laughs merely by The Comparison and Jainism, alluding to their now-familiar traits. At the same time, Benny and his writers never stooped to coasting on their familiarity. Exchange? Even the funniest of the The Comparison and Jainism “cheap jokes” that were their stock-in-trade were invariably embedded in carefully honed dramatic situations that heightened their effectiveness. A celebrated case in point is the best-remembered laugh line in the history of The Jack Benny Program , heard in muller a 1948 episode in which a burglar holds Benny up on the street. “Your money or your life,” the burglar says—to which Jack replies, after a very long pause, “I’m thinking it over!” What makes this line so funny is, of course, our awareness of Benny’s stinginess, reinforced by a decade and a half of constant yet subtly varied repetition. What is The Comparison of Daoism Essay, not so well remembered is paulo, that the line is heard toward the end of an episode that aired shortly after Ronald Colman won an Oscar for his performance in A Double Life . Inspired by this real-life event, the writers concocted an elaborately plotted script in which Benny talks Colman (who played his next-door neighbor on the show) into letting him borrow the and Contrast of Daoism Essay Oscar to show to life of charlemagne summary, Rochester. It is on his way home from this errand that Benny is held up, and the burglar not only robs him of his money but also steals the statuette, a situation that was resolved to equally explosive comic effect in the course of two subsequent episodes.
No mere joke-teller could have performed such dramatically complex scripts week after week with anything like Benny’s effectiveness. The secret of The Jack Benny Program was that its star, fully aware that he was not “being himself” but playing a part, did so with an actor’s skill. This was what led Ernst Lubitsch to cast him in To Be or Not to Be , in and Contrast Essay which he plays a mediocre Shakespearean tragedian, a character broadly related to are the of global warming, but still quite different from the one who appeared on The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, his own radio show. As Lubitsch explained to what are the warming, Benny, who was skeptical about his ability to carry off the part: A clown—he is a performer what is doing funny things.
A comedian—he is a performer what is saying funny things. But you, Jack, you are an actor, you are an actor playing the part of The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay a comedian and this you are doing very well. To Be or Not to Be also stands out from the rest of Benny’s work because he plays an identifiably Jewish character. The Jack Benny character that he played on gaseous, radio and TV, by contrast, was never referred to or explicitly portrayed as Jewish. To be sure, most listeners were in and Contrast and Jainism Essay no doubt of national bank loan employees his Jewishness, and not merely because Benny made no attempt in real life to conceal his ethnicity, of which he was by all accounts proud. The Jack Benny Program was written by Jews, and the ego-puncturing insults with which their scripts were packed, as well as the and Contrast Essay schlemiel-like aspect of Benny’s “fall guy” character, were quintessentially Jewish in style. As Benny explained in a 1948 interview cited by Fuller-Seeley: The humor of my program is this: I’m a big shot, see?
I’m fast-talking. I’m a smart guy. I’m boasting about how marvelous I am. Lyer? I’m a marvelous lover. I’m a marvelous fiddle player. And Contrast Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? Then, five minutes after I start shooting off my mouth, my cast makes a shmo out of me.
Even so, his avoidance of are the consequences warming specific Jewish identification on the air is noteworthy precisely because his character was a miser. At a time when overt anti-Semitism was still common in America, it is remarkable that Benny’s comic persona was based in large part on an anti-Semitic stereotype—yet one that seems not to have inspired any anti-Semitic attacks on Benny himself. When, in 1945, his writers came up with the and Contrast and Jainism Essay idea of an “I Can’t Stand Jack Benny Because . Gaseous Exchange? . And Jainism? . Life Of Charlemagne Summary? ” write-in campaign, they received 270,000 entries. Only three made mention of his Jewishness. As for the winning entry, submitted by a California lawyer, it says much about what insulated Benny from such attacks: “He fills the air with boasts and brags / And obsolete, obnoxious gags / The way he plays his violin / Is music’s most obnoxious sin / His cowardice alone, indeed, / Is matched by his obnoxious greed / And all the things that he portrays / Show up MY OWN obnoxious ways.” It is clear that Benny’s foibles were seen by his listeners not as particular but universal, just as there was no harshness in the razzing of his fellow cast members, who very clearly loved the Benny character in spite of his myriad flaws. So, too, did the and Jainism American people.
Several years after his TV series was cancelled, a corporation that was considering using him as a spokesman commissioned a national poll to find out how popular he was. It learned that only 3 percent of the respondents disliked him. Therein lay Benny’s triumph: He won total acceptance from the American public and did so by in lungs, embodying a Jewish stereotype from which the The Comparison and Contrast Essay sting of prejudice had been leached. Far from being a self-hating whipping boy for anti-Semites, he turned himself into WASP America’s Jewish uncle, preposterous yet lovable. W hen the life of charlemagne bottom fell out of network radio, Benny negotiated the move to TV without a hitch, debuting on the small screen in 1950 and bringing the radio version of The Jack Benny Program to a close five years later, making it one of the very last radio comedy series to shut up shop. Even after his weekly TV series was finally canceled by CBS in 1965, he continued to The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, star in well-received one-shot specials on NBC. But Benny’s TV appearances, for all their charm, were never quite equal in quality to his radio work, which is why he clung to the radio version of The Jack Benny Program until network radio itself went under: Better than anyone else, he knew how good the show had been. For the rest of his life, he lived off the accumulated comic capital built up by 21 years of weekly radio broadcasts.
Now, at long last, he belongs to the ages, and The Jack Benny Program is a museum piece. Yet it remains hugely influential, albeit at muller illusion one or more removes from the original. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism? From The Dick Van Dyke Show and The Danny Thomas Show to Seinfeld , Everybody Loves Raymond , and The Larry Sanders Show , every ensemble-cast sitcom whose central character is a fictionalized version of its star is based on Benny’s example. And now that the ubiquity of the Web has made the radio version of bank for government his series readily accessible for the first time, anyone willing to make the of Daoism Essay modest effort necessary to seek it out is in a position to discover that The Jack Benny Program , six decades after it left the air, is still as wonderfully, benignly funny as it ever was, a monument to the talent of the bank of pakistan loan man who, more than anyone else, made it so. Choose your plan and pay nothing for The Comparison and Contrast, six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans.
Put your intellectual life in socioeconomic definition order while you can. This offer is also valid for The Comparison and Contrast Essay, existing subscribers wishing to purchase a gift subscription. Book? Click here for more details. Review of The Comparison and Contrast 'The Transferred Life of and examples George Eliot' By Philip Davis. Thomas L. Jeffers 2017-09-13.
The Transferred Life of George Eliot. Not that there’s any danger these theoretically protesting students would have read George Eliot’s works—not even the short one, Silas Marner (1861), which in The Comparison and Contrast an earlier day was assigned to high schoolers. I must admit I didn’t find my high-school reading of Silas Marner a pleasant experience—sports novels for what are the, boys like John R. Tunis’s The Kid from Tomkinsville were inadequate preparation. I must confess, too, that when I was in graduate school, determined to study 17th-century English verse, my reaction to the suggestion that I should also read Middlemarch (1871–72) was “ What?! An 800-page novel by the guy who wrote Silas Marner ?” A friend patiently explained that “the guy” was actually Mary Ann Evans, born in 1819, died in 1880. Partly because she was living in sin with the literary jack-of-all-trades George Henry Lewes (legally and irrevocably bound to his estranged wife), she adopted “George Eliot” as a protective pseudonym when, in The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism her 1857 debut, she published Scenes from Clerical Life . I did, many times over and with awe and delight, go on to read Middlemarch and the seven other novels, often in order to teach them to college students. Students have become less and gaseous exchange in lungs, less receptive over the years. Forget modern-day objections to George Eliot’s complex political or religious views. Adam Bede (1859) and The Mill on the Floss (1860) were too hefty, and The Comparison of Daoism Essay, the triple-decked Middlemarch and Deronda , even if I set aside three weeks for paulo, them, rarely got finished. The middle 20th century was perhaps a more a propitious time for appreciating George Eliot, Henry James, and other 19th-century English and American novelists. Influential teachers like F.R.
Leavis at Cambridge and Lionel Trilling at Columbia were then working hard to persuade students that the study of literature, not just poetry and drama but also fiction, matters both to their personal lives—the development of their sensibility or character—and to their wider society. The “moral imagination” that created Middlemarch enriches our minds by The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, dramatizing the complications—the frequent blurring of good and evil—in our lives. Great novels help us cope with ambiguities and make us more tolerant of one another. Many of Leavis’s and of global warming, Trilling’s students became teachers themselves, and for several decades the feeling of cultural urgency was sustained. In the 1970s, though, between the leftist emphasis on literature as “politics by other means” and the deconstructionist denial of the possibility of The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay any knowledge, literary or otherwise, independent of political power, the high seriousness of Leavis and Trilling began to fade. The study of George Eliot and her life has gone through many stages. Directly after her death came the sanitized, hagiographic “life and letters” by J.W. National Bank Of Pakistan? Cross, the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism much younger man she married after Lewes’s death.
Gladstone called it “a Reticence in three volumes.” The three volumes helped spark, if they didn’t cause, the long reaction against the Victorian sages generally that culminated in the dismissively satirical work of the einhard life of charlemagne summary Bloomsbury biographer and critic Lytton Strachey in his immensely influential Eminent Victorians (1916). The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism Essay? Strachey’s mistreatment of his forbears was, with regard to George Eliot at least, tempered almost immediately by Virginia Woolf. Muller Illusion? It was Woolf who in 1919 provocatively said that Middlemarch had been “the first English novel for adults.” Eventually, the critical tide against George Eliot was decisively reversed in the ’40s by Joan Bennett and The Comparison, Leavis, who made the inarguable case for her genuine and lasting achievement. That period of correction culminated in the 1960s with Gordon S. Haight’s biography and with interpretive studies by Barbara Hardy and muller illusion, W.J. Harvey. Books on George Eliot over the last four decades have largely been written by specialists for of Daoism, specialists—on her manuscripts or working notes, and on her affiliations with the scientists, social historians, and competing novelists of her day. The same is true, only more so, of the books written, with George Eliot as the ostensible subject, to lyer, promote deconstructionist or feminist agendas. Biographies have done a better job appealing to the common reader, not least because the woman’s own story is inherently compelling. The question right now is and Jainism, whether a book combining biographical and interpretive insight—one “pitched,” as publishers like to consequences of global warming, say, not just at experts but at the common reader—is past praying for. Philip Davis, a Victorian scholar and an editor at Oxford University Press, hopes not. His The Transferred Life of George Eliot —transferred, that is, from her own experience into her letters, journals, essays, and novels, and beyond them into us—deserves serious attention.
Davis is conscious that George Eliot called biographies of writers “a disease of English literature,” both overeager to discover scandals and too inclined to substitute day-to-day travels, relationships, dealings with publishers and so on, for critical attention to the books those writers wrote. Davis therefore devotes himself to George Eliot’s writing. Alas, he presumes rather too much knowledge on the reader’s part of the day-to-day as charted in Haight’s marvelous life. Of Daoism And Jainism? (A year-by-year chronology at the front of the book would have helped even his fellow Victorianists.) As for George Eliot’s writing, Davis is determined to refute “what has been more or less said . . Exchange In Lungs? . in the schools of theory for the last 40 years—that 19th-century realism is conservatively bland and unimaginative, bourgeois and parochial, not truly art at all.” His argument for the richness, breadth, and art of George Eliot’s realism—her factual and sympathetic depiction of poor and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, middling people, without omitting a candid representation of the rich—is most convincing. Exchange In Lungs? What looms largest, though, is the and Contrast and Jainism realist, the paulo freire book woman herself—the Mary Ann Evans who, from the letters to the novels, became first Marian Evans the translator and essayist and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, then later “her own greatest character”: George Eliot the novelist. Davis insists that “the meaning of national bank loan employees that person”—not merely the voice of Essay her omniscient narrators but the omnipresent imagination that created the whole show—“has not yet exhausted its influence nor the larger future life she should have had, and may still have, in in lungs the world.” The transference of George Eliot’s experience into her fiction is unquestionable: In The Mill on the Floss , for example, Mary Ann is Maggie, and and Contrast, her brother Isaac is Tom Tulliver.
Davis knows that a better word might be transmutation, as George Eliot had, in Henry James’s words, “a mind possessed,” for “the creations which brought her renown were of the incalculable kind, shaped themselves in mystery, in some intellectual back-shop or secret crucible, and were as little as possible implied in the aspect of bank her life.” No data-accumulating biographer, even the most exhaustive, can account for that “incalculable . . . The Comparison Of Daoism Essay? mystery.” Which is why Davis, like a good teacher, gives us exercises in “close reading.” He pauses to consider how a George Eliot sentence balances or turns on an easy-to-skip-over word or phrase—the balance or turn often representing a moment when the novelist looks at what’s on the underside of the cards. George Eliot’s style is life of charlemagne, subtle because her theme is subtle. Take D.H. Lawrence’s favorite heroine, the adolescent Maggie Tulliver. The external event in The Mill on the Floss may be the girl’s impulsive cutting off her unruly hair to spite her nagging aunts, or the young woman’s drifting down the river with a superficially attractive but truly impossible boyfriend. The Comparison? But the real “action” is Maggie’s internal self-blame and self-assertion. No Victorian novelist was better than George Eliot at tracing the psychological development of, say, a husband and wife who realize they married each other for shallow reasons, are unhappy, and now must deal with the ordinary necessities of balancing the muller lyer domestic budget—Lydgate and Rosamund in Middlemarch —or, in the same novel, the religiously inclined Dorothea’s mistaken marriage to the old scholar Casaubon. That mistake precipitates not merely disenchantment and an unconscious longing for love with someone else, but (very finely) a quest for a religious explanation of and guide through her quandary.
It’s the of Daoism and Jainism religio-philosophical side of George Eliot about which Davis is strongest—and weakest. Her central theological idea, if one may simplify, was that the God of the Bible didn’t exist “out there” but was a projection of the gaseous imagination of the people who wrote it. Of Daoism Essay? Jesus wasn’t, in Davis’s characterization of her view, “the impervious divine, but [a man who] shed tears and suffered,” and died feeling forsaken. “This deep acceptance of are the of global so-called weakness was what most moved Marian Evans in her Christian inheritance. It was what God was for.” That is, the character of Jesus, and and Contrast and Jainism Essay, the dramatic play between him and his Father, expressed the human emotions we and George Eliot are all too familiar with. The story helps reconcile us to what is, finally, inescapable suffering. George Eliot came to this demythologized understanding not only national bank of pakistan for government employees of Judaism and Christianity but of all religions through her contact first with a group of intellectuals who lived near Coventry, then with two Germans she translated: David Friedrich Strauss, whose 1,500-page Life of Jesus Critically Examined (1835–36) was for her a slog, and of Daoism and Jainism, Ludwig Feuerbach, whose Essence of Christianity (1841) was for her a joy. Also, in the search for the universal morality that Strauss and Feuerbach believed Judaism and Christianity expressed mythically, there was Spinoza’s utterly non-mythical Ethics (1677).
It was seminal for her—offering, as Davis says, “the intellectual origin for freethinking criticism of the Bible and for definition, the replacement of religious superstition and dogmatic theology by pure philosophic reason.” She translated it into The Comparison and Jainism Essay, English, though her version did not appear until 1981. I wish Davis had left it there, but he takes it too far. He devotes more than 40 pages—a tenth of the national loan for government whole book—to her three translations, taking them as a mother lode of ideational gold whose tailings glitter throughout her fiction. These 40 pages are followed by 21 devoted to Herbert Spencer, the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Victorian hawker of theories-of-everything (his 10-volume System of Synthetic Philosophy addresses biology, psychology, sociology, and bank loan employees, ethics). She threw herself at The Comparison Essay the feet of this intellectual huckster, and though he rebuffed her painfully amorous entreaties, she never ceased revering him. Freire Book? Alas, Spencer was a stick—the kind of philosopher who was incapable of emotion.
And she was his intellectual superior in of Daoism Essay every way. The chapter is largely unnecessary. The book comes back to life when Davis turns to George Henry Lewes, the man who gave Mary Ann Evans the paulo book confidence to The Comparison Essay, become George Eliot—perhaps the lyer greatest act of loving mentorship in all of literature. Like many prominent Victorians, Lewes dabbled in all the arts and sciences, publishing highly readable accounts of them for a general audience. His range was as wide as Spencer’s, but his personality and The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, writing had an irrepressible verve that Spencer could only have envied. Lewes was a sort Stephen Jay Gould yoked to Daniel Boorstin, popularizing other people’s findings and concepts, and muller lyer illusion, coming up with a few of The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism his own. He regarded his Sea-Side Studies (1860) as “the book . . . which was to me the most unalloyed delight,” not least because Marian, whom he called Polly, had helped gather the of pakistan employees data. She told a friend “There is so much happiness condensed in it!
Such scrambles over rocks, and peeping into clear pool [sic], and strolls along the pure sands, and fresh air mingling with fresh thoughts.” In his remarkably intelligent 1864 biography of Goethe, Lewes remarks that the poet “knew little of the Essay companionship of two souls striving in emulous spirit of loving rivalry to exchange, become better, to become wiser, teaching each other to soar.” Such a companionship Lewes and George Eliot had in spades, and some of Davis’s best passages describe it. Regrettably, Davis also offers many passages well below the and Contrast standard of his best—needlessly repeating an already established point or obfuscating the obvious. Still, The Transferred Lives is the most formidably instructive, and paulo, certainly complete, life-and-works treatment of of Daoism and Jainism George Eliot we have. Choose your plan and pay nothing for what are the, six Weeks! For a very limited time, we are extending a six-week free trial on both our subscription plans.
Put your intellectual life in order while you can. This offer is also valid for and Jainism, existing subscribers wishing to definition and examples, purchase a gift subscription. Of Daoism And Jainism? Click here for national bank loan for government employees, more details.
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essays newspeak 1984 Written February 27, 2000; Modified May 9, 2000. If you quote or paraphrase from my essay, please give me due credit. Language as the The Comparison and Jainism Essay, #147;Ultimate Weapon#148; in Nineteen Eighty-Four. George Orwell, like many other literary scholars, is gaseous exchange in lungs, interested in the modern use of the The Comparison and Contrast Essay, English language and, in socioeconomic definition and examples particular, the abuse and misuse of English. He realises that language has the power in The Comparison politics to mask the truth and mislead the public, and he wishes to increase public awareness of this power. He accomplishes this by placing a great focus on Newspeak and the media in his novel Nineteen Eighty-Four . Demonstrating the repeated abuse of language by the government and by the media in his novel, Orwell shows how language can be used politically to socioeconomic definition deceive and manipulate people, leading to a society in which the people unquestioningly obey their government and mindlessly accept all propaganda as reality. Language becomes a mind-control tool, with the ultimate goal being the destruction of will and imagination. As John Wain says in his essay, #147;[Orwell#146;s] vision of 1984 does not include extinction weapons . . . The Comparison Essay? He is not interested in extinction weapons because, fundamentally, they do not frighten him as much as spiritual ones#148; (343). Paul Chilton suggests that the language theme in Orwell#146;s novel has its roots in paulo freire book the story of the Tower of Babel (2).
When God destroys the Towel of The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay Babel, the civilizations which have contributed to muller the construction of the Tower suffer ever-after from the Curse of Confusion. The Curse both makes languages #147;mutually unintelligible#148;, and The Comparison alters their nature so that #147;they no longer lucidly [express] the nature of things, but rather [obscure] and [distort] them#148; (Chilton, 2). Einhard Of Charlemagne Summary? Orwell#146;s Newspeak , the ultra-political new language introduced in Nineteen Eighty-Four , does precisely that: it facilitates deception and manipulation, and its purpose is to restrict understanding of the real world. Chilton also suggests that a corollary to this is The Comparison Essay, that #147;each post-Babel language [becomes] a closed system containing its own untranslatable view of the world#148; (2). Certainly, the ultimate aim of Newspeak is to enclose people in an orthodox pseudo-reality and isolate them from the real world. Whereas people generally strive to expand their lexicon, the government in Nineteen Eighty-Four actually aims to cut back the Newspeak vocabulary.
One of the Newspeak engineers says, #147;[we#146;re] cutting the language down to the bone . . Loan? . Newspeak is the only language in the world whose vocabulary gets smaller every year#148; (55). By manipulating the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism, language, the government wishes to alter the public#146;s way of thinking. This can be done, psychologists theorise, because the words that are available for the purpose of communicating thought tend to influence the way people think. The linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf was a firm believer in this link between thought and language, and he theorised that #147;different languages impose different conceptions of reality#148; (Myers 352). So when words that describe a particular thought are completely absent from socioeconomic and examples, a language, that thought becomes more difficult to think of and communicate. The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? For the Inner Party, the goal is to paulo impose an orthodox reality and make heretical thought (#145;thoughtcrime#146;) impossible. #147;In the end we shall make thoughtcrime literally impossible,#148; explains the The Comparison and Contrast, Newspeak engineer, #147;because there will be no words in which to express it#148; (55). By design, Newspeak narrows the range of thought and shortens people#146;s memories. It is therefore ideal for a totalitarian system, in which the government has to rely on a passive public which lacks independent thought and which has a great tolerance for mistakes, both past and present. Bank Of Pakistan Loan Employees? #147;To expand language is to expand the ability to of Daoism and Jainism think,#148; says Myers (353).
Conversely, to restrict language, as with Newspeak, is to restrict the range of thought. Chilton identifies the national of pakistan, specific features of Newspeak that help restrict thought: #147;reduced complexity, few abstractions, and no selfreference#148; (37). Such narrowed public thought is what the The Comparison and Jainism Essay, Inner Party prefers, because a public that lacks the ability to think vividly poses less of a threat than one that can readily criticise the government and defend itself from harm. However, an interesting consequence of this narrowed thought is that the public#146;s memory is also effectively shortened. #147;The Inner Party [deprives] people of their own words and in so doing, deprives them of memory#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). After O#146;Brien forces Winston to embrace Ingsoc, for instance, Winston#146;s imagination decays and he #147;[can] no longer fix his mind on national loan any one subject for more than a few moments at a time#148; (301). The Comparison And Contrast Of Daoism Essay? Winston, like the majority of the public, suffers when he is robbed of his words and national bank loan employees thoughts. The Comparison And Contrast Essay? Consequently, #147;memory, with its attendant richness and variety, atrophies#148; since #147;memories die when they go unrehearsed in words#148; (Lewis and Moss 51). Given that Newspeak is such a politically-motivated language, why does the public in Nineteen Eighty-Four accept it? After all, the Party is undertaking a project of national employees monumental proportions: they are trying to completely replace a common language (English, or #147;Oldspeak#148;), and one would expect great opposition to such a plan.
The Party is able to achieve this by again employing psychological tactics. Instead of forcing the public to The Comparison of Daoism Essay use Newspeak by law, the Party ensures that the paulo, public is immersed in the new language. And Jainism Essay? Nobody is forced to read or write in Newspeak, but #147;its ubiquitous broadcast creates a pressure to employ it simply in order to communicate economically#148; (Chilton 37). Orwell#146;s novel paints a nightmarish picture of a totalitarian system gone to the absolute extreme, but it is a novel that is fundamentally about psychological control of the public. Of course, the Party does employ torture as part of its control regimen, but the bank loan, psychological control tactics are the dominant ones in the novel. While physical punishment is difficult to administer, psychological tactics (manipulation of people through language) can be continuously applied to the general public without raising great public opposition or fear #151; and that is and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, where its strength lies. It is for this reason that #147;Newspeak rather than torture is planned as the way to freire book erase thoughtcrime#148; (Stansky 88).
However, while Newspeak is a very significant method of mind control through language, it is just a part of The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism a greater Inner Party scheme. It is, in fact, the Party-controlled media in the novel that expertly uses Newspeak as well as other linguistic trickery to spread its propaganda and what warming brainwash the public. The media is powerful as a tool for manipulation both because the public is widely exposed to it, and also because the public trusts it. The telescreens continuously shout bursts of news and propaganda throughout the day, and The Comparison of Daoism the people listen intently and cheer at #145;good news#146; (victories) and life of charlemagne are driven to rage by #145;bad news#146;. The characters in Orwell#146;s novel are slaves of the media; they revere it as an oracle. When the telescreens initiate the Two Minutes Hate, for instance, the people are roused to a frenzy: #147;People were leaping up and down in their places and and Jainism shouting at freire book, the tops of their voices . . . [a girl] had begun crying out #145;Swine! Swine! Swine!#146;#148; (16). Certainly, in Nineteen Eighty-Four , #147;[media information] does control some of the ways in which [people] think about and assess the world#148; (Lewis and Moss 47). The Comparison Of Daoism And Jainism? The Party is interested in masking the national employees, truth, and so the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism Essay, media manipulates language to present a distorted reality.
As Orwell says in muller lyer illusion his essay Politics and the English Language , #147;Political language . . . is and Contrast of Daoism and Jainism, designed to make lies sound truthful and murder respectable, and to consequences of global give an appearance of solidity to pure wind#148; (150). In the novel, these lies are quite obvious. For example, the media (controlled by the Party, of course) continually refers to the Ministries of Truth, Peace, Love, and Plenty. In reality, however, the Ministry of Truth is concerned with the and Contrast, falsification of records, and the Ministry of einhard life of charlemagne summary Peace deals with warfare. The Ministry of Love is #147;the really frightening one#148; (6) as it is essentially a place for the questioning and The Comparison Essay torturing of suspected criminals. Lyer Illusion? The Ministry of and Contrast and Jainism Plenty makes up economic figures to convince the muller lyer, public that the economy is in good shape, even though there are great shortages of all commodities due to the war.
Although the irony in the titles is blatantly obvious, Orwell is making a point about how the media can use language to mask the The Comparison and Contrast and Jainism, truth. The totalitarian state of Oceania is in a constant state of war, and part of the Party#146;s ongoing struggle is to keep the public satisfied with this warfare. If the public were dissatisfied, they would resent the shortage of food and other commodities and possibly rebel against the Party. The Party therefore has to of charlemagne summary distract the public#146;s attention away from the negative side of warfare, and they use the media to do this. By using only language that carries neutral or positive connotations to talk about anything related to war, the The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay, media successfully soothes an otherwise resentful public. For instance, the media never reports on the #147;twenty or thirty [rocket bombs] a week falling on socioeconomic London#148; (28), but rather inundates peoples#146; lives with good news about of Daoism and Jainism, victories. Winston#146;s telescreen announces, #147;Our forces in of charlemagne summary South India have won a glorious victory. Of Daoism? I am authorised to say that the action we are now reporting may well bring the war within measurable distance of its end#148; (28). Similar reports follow throughout the entire novel, constantly celebrating the capture of lyer illusion enemies and the conquering of new territories, but never admitting any kind of defeat. In many ways, the media is relying on The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay the principle that a piece of gaseous exchange in lungs information that is and Jainism Essay, repeated often enough becomes accepted as truth. Winston, a particularly strong-minded individual, is continually amazed to see his friends and national bank of pakistan loan employees colleagues swallow the lies that the media dishes out.
For this form of brainwashing (#145;Duckspeak#146;) to be effective, #147;you just say things frequently and people eventually understand and The Comparison and Contrast of Daoism Essay say it themselves#148; (Chilton 27). This brainwashing is done through the words of the telescreens, newspapers and magazines. The media is skilled at what consequences, engineering #145;truth#146; through language, and one of the most disturbing consequence of this developed in the novel is that the Party has ultimate control over The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay history. After all, language is the link to history. Winston#146;s job in the Ministry of Truth is to modify news items and other documents that in one way or another make the gaseous in lungs, Party look bad. After he replaces an original document with the modified one, all the originals are destroyed.
Orwell describes the process: This processes of continuous alteration was applied not only to newspapers, but to books, periodicals, pamphlets, posters, leaflets . . . Day by day and almost minute by minute the past was brought up to date. In this way every prediction made by the Party could be shown by documentary evidence to have been correct; nor was any item of news, or any expression of opinion, which conflicted with the The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism, needs of the moment, ever allowed to remain on record. (42) Lewis and Moss believe that #147;the tactic is to obliterate history so that centres of opposition cannot grow#148; (51). Orwell shows us evidence that this tactic is working: even the socioeconomic, main character, who knows exactly what is going on with the falsification of The Comparison documents, has trouble recalling who Oceania is really at war with at the present. It is either Eurasia or Eastasia, but Winston is not sure because the Party keeps changing history. This nagging doubt eats away at Winston until he no longer knows what reality is; by the end of the paulo, novel, he is willing to accept the Party#146;s reality. Orwell#146;s novel asks the philosophical question: if all available evidence shows something to be true, is it not true? Winston struggles with this idea of #147;Reality control#148; (37) as he works at The Comparison and Jainism, the Ministry of Truth. #147;The frightening thing,#148; Winston thinks to himself, #147;[is] that it might all be true. If the Party [can] thrust its hand into freire the past and say of this or that event, it never happened #150; that, surely, [is] more terrifying than mere torture and death#148; (36).
One of Winston#146;s assignments is to invent a biography of The Comparison of Daoism Essay a fictional soldier named Ogilvy, so that he can be honoured by Big Brother in a public address. After writing the description of Ogilvy#146;s life, Winston marvels at how #147;once the act of forgery [is] forgotten, [Ogilvy will] exist just as authentically, and upon the same evidence, as Charlemagne or Julius Caesar#148; (50). As well as altering the past by manipulating written language, the definition and examples, Party has an ingenious plan to break the link with the real past by introducing a language barrier. When #147;all real knowledge of Oldspeak [disappears] . . . the whole literature of the past will have been destroyed#148; (56). After a few generations, when people are no longer capable of decoding information from the past, there will no longer even be a need to censor the history that has the potential for breeding unorthodox ideas #151; it will be completely out of the public#146;s reach. Thus, the manipulation of language and text not only effects the present, but also the past and and Jainism Essay future in more than one way. A Party slogan in the novel reads, #147;Who controls the past, controls the future: who controls the present controls the past#148; (37). Orwell#146;s novel is extreme, but it is not necessarily a prediction of the future. Einhard Life? Rahv believes that the book#146;s #147;importance is mainly in its powerful engagement with the present#148; (183). Indeed, politicians have used written language to manipulate history both in the past and present. There was much distortion of history during the Stalinist era, #147;when such standard works of misinformation as the Soviet Encyclopaedia changed constantly with the party line, so that in successive editions Trotsky was first the and Contrast and Jainism, hero of the Civil War, then an agent of the Mensheviks, and the western powers#148; (Woodcock 177).
Patrick Wright suggests that the issue is still very much alive in the late twentieth century, citing as an example #147;[the British Secretary for Education, who] refused a number of proposed syllabus systems for the teaching of history in schools, finding them insufficiently assiduous in their promotion of the mythical, rather than simply historical, values of are the national unity and pride#148; (111). Equally alive today is the fear that politicians and the media abuse language to The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay hide truth. Orwell gives examples of how politicians can twist words to deceive people in his essay Politics and the English Language : #147;Defenceless villages are bombarded from the air, the inhabitants driven out into the countryside . Muller Illusion? . . this is called pacification . Millions of peasants are robbed of and Contrast of Daoism their farms and einhard of charlemagne sent trudging along the roads with no more than they can carry: this is called transfer of The Comparison of Daoism and Jainism Essay population or rectification of frontiers #148; (148). Woodcock refers to the modern jargon-filled English used by #147;newspaper editors, bureaucrats, radio announcers, and parliamentary speakers#148; who have, just as Orwell feared, a heavy #147;reliance on ready-made phrases#148; (92). Even more disturbing, in the twenty-first century we have now a rapidly growing, major industry based solely upon the manipulation of language and thought: advertising. Orwell#146;s novel carries a well-founded warning about the powers of language. It shows how language can shape people#146;s sense of reality, how it can be used to conceal truths, and even how it can be used to manipulate history. #147;Language is one of the key instruments of political dominations, the necessary and insidious means of the #145;totalitarian#146; control of reality#148; (Rai, 122). While language in the traditional sense can expand horizons and improve our understanding of the world, Orwell#146;s novel demonstrates that language, when used in a maliciously political way, can just as easily become #147;a plot against human consciousness#148; (Rahv, 182). Chilton, Paul.
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Stansky, Peter, ed. On Nineteen Eighty-Four . New York: W. H. Freeman and Company, 1983. Wain, John. Essays on Literature and Ideas - George Orwell (1) in Twentieth-Century Literary Criticism Vol. 6 . 343-4. Woodcock, George. Orwell#146;s Message: 1984 and are the warming the Present . Madeira Park: Harbour Publishing Co. Ltd, 1984.
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