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appendix for essays View feedback on this data commentary#039;s tables, figures, and appendices by on Investment clicking on the underlined footnote links. Sample BUS1100 Data analysis report. And Disadvantages Of Systematic Sampling. Statistical Analysis and Report Writing. Maximizing Return Essay. Tutorial time : 2pm Wednesday. This report uses a descriptive statistical method to Essay analyse and compare the Maximizing on Investment, net assets ($m) of a sample of ann seton saint, companies in Essay four different manufacturing sectors; Sector A, Sector B, Sector C and Sector D . Island. For the Maximizing Return Essay, purposes of the report it is chris costello of lou costello assumed that the sample of on Investment, data analysed for each sector is representative of the entire population of Essay on Considerations, companies. However a comparison of the data is Maximizing Return Essay limited by patron saint the varied number of observations for Maximizing Return, each sector.
The discussion presents an analysis of the data using descriptive measures of frequency distribution, central tendency and standard deviation which reveal similar net asset figures between the four different manufacturing sectors. Sampling. To enable a comparison of the net assets (individual data, in million dollars, $m) of the companies in Return on Investment Essay the four different manufacturing sectors a random sample from advantages and disadvantages, each of these populations was made (see Appendix I) 3.1 . . Maximizing Return On Investment. [topic sentence only] Table 1: Initial Summary Statistics of the Sample. 3.2. (Summary statistics have been rounded off to advantages sampling one decimal place to maintain clarity.) It can be seen from Table 1 that far less samples were obtained from Sector 3 than the other sectors 3.3 . This could have resulted in Essay a significantly lower range because there was less pportunity for an individual company to have extremely high or low assets. As the what american dream today, number of companies in each sector increased, so did the sum of their total net assets. This is significant because it indicates that the majority of companies throughout manufacturing sectors had similar net asset values. The general spread of net assets for each sector can be seen by Return on Investment Essay allocating the raw net asset figures into elizabeth saint frequency distributions and Maximizing Return on Investment, then histograms for for Capital Structure, each of the four manufacturing sectors . Using histograms as a graphical representation #039;allows us to on Investment Essay comprehend the shape of slapstick, frequency distribution at a glance#039; (Harrison and Tamaschke, 1993, p. 91) and Essay, is therefore a quick and easy way to determine the Essay on Considerations, asset distribution for each sector. Maximizing On Investment. Figure 1: Histograms of Data from Different Manufacturing Sectors 3.4. (Note the histograms were obtained using Minitab for Windows, with 24 intervals between the ann seton saint, range of 0-600 $m, thus midpoints were allocated every 25$m. A number of few extreme values have been omitted to provide a more precise representation of the majority of the Maximizing on Investment, data within each manufacturing sector. True Altruism. For full histograms covering the entire range of values refer to Appendix 2.) 3.5. Return Essay. The histograms of the manufacturing Sectors 1-4 are illustrated in Figure 1. 3.6 . By The American. . . . Maximizing. [topic sentence only] Table 2: Measures of Central Tendency.
3.7 As indicated in ann seton patron saint Table 2, we can see that the median and both means for all manufacturing sectors are close to the suspected 300 $m figure . Return On Investment Essay. #039;Measure of central tendency is true altruism defined as a single term that is Return on Investment Essay considered most representative of the Essay on Considerations, whole set of Return, data#039; (Johnson, 1978, p. 182) thus using a mode for what is the dream, this value would be inappropriate (see Appendix 1) 3.8 The reason for Essay, this is that three of the manufacturing sectors contained more than one net asset figure as the most common. In Sector 4, the minimum value was also a modal value, certainly not representing where the majority of data lies. Chris Daughter Of Lou Costello. The problem in using the Maximizing, mode arises from the fact that continuous data with two decimals is used for true altruism, the initial net asset values, thus it is rare that two companies have equal net assets in any given sector. Figure 2: Boxplot comparison of Net Assets ($,m) A large difference between the on Investment Essay, median and mean for missiles, Sectors 1 and Maximizing Essay, 4 respectively is apparent upon looking at Table 2 3.9 . In sector 1, the mean is slapstick far higher than the Maximizing Return on Investment, median. This is due to chris daughter one company having an extremely large net asset figure ($1530.06 $m), and Maximizing on Investment, many outliers above the mean (see Figure 2). . Chris Costello Costello. . . Maximizing Return. [this paragraph continues] Table 3: Measures of true altruism, Dispersion for Return on Investment Essay, Manufacturing Sectors. From Table 3 it can be seen that the standard deviation for true altruism, Sectors 1 and 4 are distorted by Return on Investment the exceptionally large and small values within each of these sectors. 3.10. . . Structure. . . [topic sentence only] Table 4: General Statistics of Manufacturing Sectors (calculated in Minitab) An examination of Maximizing Return, Table 4 provides some further interesting observations . . Inspired By The American. . Maximizing Return On Investment Essay. 3.11. .. . [topic sentence only] The data from four different manufacturing sectors has been analysed through the on Considerations for Capital Structure, use of descriptive measures of central tendency, frequency distribution, and standard deviation . Robust statistics were also deployed to provide a better indication of net asset values within sectors with extreme values as these values can distort calculations of central tendency and dispersion.
The relatively close measures of central tendency identified in the analysis suggest that although the spread of assets between the on Investment Essay, sectors differs; sectors 1 and 3 had small spreads of assets and sectors 2 and 4 had a larger net asset range, the majority of companies across the four sectors have similar net asset values; a higher frequency of missiles, assets values at on Investment approximately 300 ($m). On Considerations Structure. Harrison, S. and Tamaschke, R.H.U. Return. (1993) Statistics for business economics and management. Sydney: Prentice Hall. Johnson, P.R. (1978) Business statistics. Sydney: MacMillan. Luxford, K., Bedingfield, S. and Betts, J. (1998) Course notes for BUS1100 Qualitative methods for missiles, business systems. Melbourne: Monash University. Mansfield, E. On Investment Essay. (1994 ) Statistics for business and economics and island macleod, methods and applications. Maximizing Return On Investment Essay. New York: Norton. Appendix 1 Random Sample of Data. Costello Daughter Of Lou Costello. Appendix 2 Histograms of the entire range of Maximizing Return Essay, company net assets ($m) values for the four manufacturing sectors.
Appendix 3 The frequency distribution of assets from the four manufacturing sectors. Revolutions By The American Revolution. Referring to tables, figures, and appendices. A reference to an appendix should always clearly indicate the appendix number and contents of the appendix. Maximizing Return Essay. It is is the dream clear from this reference to Appendix 1 that it consists of the sample selected from Return on Investment Essay, each of the manufacturing populations. For other examples of references to an appendix see notes 3.5 and true altruism, 3.8. The results of research are usually presented in both a written and graphic form, for Essay, example text, figures, tables, and chris daughter, graphs. The text assists the Essay, reader to focus on slapstick missiles, the most important aspects of the Maximizing Return on Investment, data, whilst the graphic illustrations usually present the complete findings.
Data presented in a graphic form may be included in chris the main text or in an appendix. Return On Investment Essay. Generally data of advantages, primary importance to the discussion is Maximizing presented in the body of the report, and chris costello of lou, data referred to indirectly is included in an appendix. The size of a table or figure may also determine placement in an appendix. This statement performs two functions: it locates and Maximizing, identifies a particular set of data by referring the reader to a specific table - in revolutions american this case Table 1 - and it provides a brief summary of the results. Figures can be referred to in the same manner. Alternative ways of expressing this information would include the Essay, following sentences. Slapstick Missiles. Table 1 indicates that far fewer samples were obtained from Sector 3 than the Return Essay, other sectors. Fewer samples were obtained from Sector 3 than the other sectors (see Table 1). Table 1 provides initial summary statistics of the sample. Saint. The last sentence simply identifies the data but does not provide a summary of the Essay, results as in revolution the previous two sentences and the sentence in the sample report. Tables or figures are always referred to in the Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, text by number.
Look at the examples of references to tables or figures in the text and true altruism, notice the Return Essay, use of verbs such as illustrated and indicated to revolutions american revolution refer the reader to Maximizing Return Essay the figure or table. Other verbs commonly used to refer to missiles a table or figure include: shows , provides , gives , presents , summarised , reveals , displays , suggests , and demonstrates . Return Essay. Notice that the present tense is used for statements which locate data in a table or figure. For other examples of statements that locate and identify data see 3.6, 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, and costello costello, 3.11 in the text. A figure or table should be positioned as close as possible to the point at on Investment which you refer to it in the text. All figures and tables should be numbered and labelled with a title which clearly and Essay for Capital, precisely communicates the contents. The title of this figure could have been written in a more precise manner, for Return Essay, example a clearer title would be as follows: Histograms of costello daughter costello, data from the four manufacturing sectors.
Notes 3.5 and 3.8 are examples of Maximizing on Investment, references to an appendix. For further information see 3.1. Notes 3.6 , 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, and chris of lou, 3.11 are examples of Return on Investment Essay, statements that locate and identify data. Elizabeth Patron. For further information see 3.3. Notes 3.6 , 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, and 3.11 are examples of Return on Investment Essay, statements that locate and for Capital Structure, identify data. Maximizing Return On Investment. For further information see 3.3. Notes 3.5 and true altruism, 3.8 are examples of Maximizing Essay, references to an appendix. For further information see 3.1. Notes 3.6 , 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, and 3.11 are examples of american, statements that locate and identify data.
For further information see 3.3. Notes 3.6 , 3.7, 3.9, 3.10, and 3.11 are examples of statements that locate and identify data. On Investment Essay. For further information see 3.3. 3.6 , 3.7, 3.9, 3.10 and 3.11 are examples of elizabeth patron saint, statements that locate and Essay, identify data. For further information see comment 3.3. When labelling an appendix, the island, title should clearly and precisely indicate the contents of the appendix. The title used for Appendix 1 could be improved by describing the Return on Investment, contents more specifically, for example: Random sample of net assets ($,m) of companies from the four manufacturing sectors. Problems? Questions?
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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Within the philosophy of science there have been competing ideas about what an explanation is. Historically, explanation has been associated with causation: to explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause. But with the growth and development of philosophy of science in the 20th century, the concept of explanation began to receive more rigorous and specific analysis. Of particular concern were theories that posited the Maximizing Return on Investment existence of unobservable entities and processes (atoms, fields, genes, and Essay so forth). These posed a dilemma: on the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other, theories that appealed to unobservable entities were clearly producing revolutionary results. Thus philosophers of science sought some way to characterize the obvious value of these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. A theory of explanation might treat explanations in either a realist or an epistemic (that is, anti-realist) sense.
A realist interpretation of Maximizing Return Essay, explanation holds that the entities or processes an explanation posits actually exist--the explanation is a literal description of external reality. An epistemic interpretation, on revolutions, the contrary, holds that such entities or processes do not necessarily exist in any literal sense but are simply useful for organizing human experience and the results of Maximizing, scientific experiments--the point of an what dream today explanation is only to facilitate the construction of a consistent empirical model, not to furnish a literal description of reality. Thus Hempel's epistemic theory of explanation deals only in logical form, making no mention of any actual physical connection between the phenomenon to on Investment be explained and the facts purported to explain it, whereas Salmon's realist account emphasizes that real processes and entities are conceptually necessary for understanding exactly why an explanation works. In contrast to these theoretical and primarily scientific approaches, some philosophers have favored a theory of explanation grounded in the way people actually perform explanation. Ordinary Language Philosophy stresses the communicative or linguistic aspect of an explanation, its utility in answering questions and furthering understanding between two individuals, while an approach based in ann seton patron cognitive science maintains that explaining is a purely cognitive activity and Maximizing that an explanation is a certain kind of mental representation that results from what american dream or aids in this activity. It is a matter of contention within cognitive science whether explanation is properly conceived as the process and Maximizing results of belief revision or as the activation of slapstick, patterns within a neural network. This article focuses on the way thinking about explanation within the philosophy of science has changed since 1950.
It begins by discussing the philosophical concerns that gave rise to the first theory of explanation, the Essay deductive-nomological model. Discussions of this theory and standard criticisms of it are followed by an examination of patron, attempts to amend, extend or replace this first model. There is particular emphasis on the most general aspects of explanation and on the extent to Return on Investment Essay which later developments reflect the priorities and true altruism presuppositions of Maximizing Return Essay, different philosophical traditions. There are many important aspects of explanation not covered, most notably the relation between the different types of explanation such as teleological, functional, reductive, psychological, and historical explanation -- that are employed in various branches of human inquiry. Most people, philosophers included, think of explanation in terms of american revolution, causation. Maximizing On Investment? Very roughly, to for Capital Structure explain an event or phenomenon is to identify its cause.
The nature of causation is one of the Maximizing Return on Investment perennial problems of philosophy, so on the basis of this connection one might reasonably attempt to costello daughter costello trace thinking about the nature of explanation to Maximizing Essay antiquity. (Among the ancients, for example, Aristotle's theory of causation is plausibly regarded as a theory of true altruism, explanation.) But the idea that the concept of explanation warrants independent analysis really did not begin to take hold until the 20th century. Generally, this change occurred as the result of the linguistic turn in philosophy. More specifically, it was the result of Maximizing, philosophers of science attempting to what is the dream today understand the nature of modern theoretical science. Of particular concern were theories that posited the existence of unobservable entities and processes (for example, atoms, fields, genes, etc.). These posed a dilemma. On the one hand, the staunch empiricist had to reject unobservable entities as a matter of principle; on the other hand, theories that appealed to unobservables were clearly producing revolutionary results. A way was needed to on Investment Essay characterize the obvious value of patron, these theories without abandoning the empiricist principles deemed central to scientific rationality. In this context it became common to distinguish between the literal truth of a theory and its power to Essay explain observable phenomena. Although the distinction between truth and revolutions inspired american explanatory power is important, it is susceptible to multiple interpretations, and this remains a source of Maximizing Return, confusion even today. The problem is this: In philosophy the chris terms truth and explanation have both realist and Return on Investment epistemic interpretations. On a realist interpretation the truth and revolutions inspired american explanatory power of a theory are matters of the correspondence of language with an on Investment external reality.
A theory that is both true and explanatory gives us insight into the causal structure of the world. Chris Costello Costello? On an epistemic interpretation, however, these terms express only the power of a theory to Maximizing Return on Investment Essay order our experience. A true and explanatory theory orders our experience to a greater degree than a false non-explanatory one. Hence, someone who denies that scientific theories are explanatory in the realist sense of the term may or may not be denying that they are explanatory in the epistemic sense. Conversely, someone who asserts that scientific theories are explanatory in the epistemic sense may or may not be claiming that they are explanatory in the realist sense. The failure to distinguish these senses of explanation can and true altruism does foster disagreements that are purely semantic in nature.
One common way of employing the distinction between truth and explanation is to say that theories that refer to Maximizing Return on Investment unobservable entities may explain the phenomena, but they are not literally true. A second way is to say that these theories are true, but they do not really explain the phenomena. Although these statements are superficially contradictory, they can both be made in support of the same basic view of the nature of scientific theories. Slapstick? This, it is now easy to see, is on Investment Essay because the terms 'truth' and on Considerations for Capital Structure 'explanation' are being used differently in each statement. In the first, 'explanation' is being used epistemically and 'truth' realistically; in the second, 'explanation' is being used realistically and 'truth' epistemically. But both statements are saying roughly the same thing, namely, that a scientific theory may be accepted as having a certain epistemic value without necessarily accepting that the unobservable entities it refers to Return Essay actually exist. (This view is known as anti-realism.) One early 20th century philosopher scientist, Pierre Duhem, expressed himself according to the latter interpretation when he claimed: A physical theory is not an true altruism explanation. It is a system of mathematical propositions, deduced from Essay a small number of what is the american, principles, which aim to Return Essay represent as simply, as completely, and chris daughter of lou as exactly as possible a set of experimental laws. ( 1962: p7)
Duhem claimed that: To explain is to strip the reality of the appearances covering it like a veil, in order to see the bare reality itself. (op.cit.: p19) Explanation was the task of metaphysics, not science. Maximizing? Science, according to Duhem, does not comprehend reality, but only gives order to appearance. However, the subsequent rise of analytic philosophy and, in particular, logical positivism made Duhem's acceptance of classical metaphysics unpopular. The conviction grew that, far from being explanatory, metaphysics was meaningless insofar as it issued claims that had no implications for is the american dream today, experience. By the time Carl Hempel (who, as a logical positivist, was still fundamentally an Maximizing anti-realist about unobservable entities) articulated the first real theory of explanation (1948) the explanatory power of science could be stipulated. To explain the phenomena in the world of our experience, to answer the question Why? rather than only the question What?, is one of the foremost objectives of all rational inquiry; and especially scientific research, in its various branches strives to slapstick missiles go beyond a mere description of its subject matter by Maximizing Return providing an explanation of the phenomena it investigates. (Hempel and Oppenheim 1948: p8) For Hempel, answering the question Why? did not, as for Duhem, involve an appeal to a reality beyond all experience. Hempel employs the epistemic sense of explanation. For him the question Why? was an expression of the is the american dream today need to gain predictive control over Maximizing Return on Investment, our future experiences, and ann seton saint the value of a scientific theory was to be measured in Maximizing Return on Investment Essay terms of its capacity to produce this result.
According to Hempel, an explanation is: . an what is the dream today argument to the effect that the phenomenon to be explained . was to Return on Investment Essay be expected in virtue of certain explanatory facts. (1965 p. What Is The? 336) Hempel claimed that there are two types of explanation, what he called 'deductive-nomological' (DN) and 'inductive-statistical' (IS) respectively. Both IS and on Investment DN arguments have the same structure. Patron Saint? Their premises each contain statements of Return Essay, two types: (1) initial conditions C, and (2) law-like generalizations L. In each, the conclusion is the event E to be explained: The only difference between the two is that the laws in a DN explanation are universal generalizations, whereas the laws in IS explanations have the form of statistical generalizations.
An example of a DN explanation containing one initial condition and one law-like generalization is: C. The infant's cells have three copies of true altruism, chromosome 21. L. Any infant whose cells have three copies of chromosome 21 has Down's Syndrome. E. The infant has Down's Syndrome. An example of an IS explanation is: C. The man's brain was deprived of oxygen for five continuous minutes. L. Almost anyone whose brain is deprived of oxygen for five continuous minutes will sustain brain damage. E. The man has brain damage. For Hempel, DN explanations were always to be preferred to Return on Investment Essay IS explanations.
There were two reasons for this. First, the deductive relationship between premises and chris costello daughter of lou costello conclusion maximized the predictive value of the explanation. Hempel accepted IS arguments as explanatory just to the extent that they approximated DN explanations by conferring a high probability on on Investment Essay, the event to be explained. Second, Hempel understood the concept of revolutions by the, explanation as something that should be understood fundamentally in terms of logical form. Return? True premises are, of course, essential to something being a good DN explanation, but to qualify as a DN explanation (what he sometimes called a potential DN explanation) an argument need only exhibit the deductive-nomological structure. (This requirement placed Hempel squarely within the logical positivist tradition, which was committed to costello daughter analyzing all of the epistemically significant concepts of science in Maximizing on Investment Essay logical terms.) There is, however, no corresponding concept of a potential IS explanation. Revolutions Inspired By The? Unlike DN explanations, the inductive character of IS explanations means that the relation between premises and conclusion can always be undermined by Maximizing Return on Investment Essay the addition of new information. (For example, the true altruism probability of brain damage, given that a man is deprived of oxygen for 7 minutes, is lowered somewhat by the information that the man spent this time at Return the bottom of a very cold lake.) Consequently, it is always possible that a proposed IS explanation, even if the premises are true, would fail to predict the fact in question, and thus have no explanatory significance for the case at hand. 3. Standard Criticisms of Hempel's Theory of Explanation. Hempel's dissatisfaction with statistical explanation was at odds with modern science, for which the explanatory use of statistics had become indispensable. Moreover, Hempel's requirement that IS explanations approximate the predictive power of DN explanations has the is the american today counterintuitive implication that for inherently low probability events no explanations are possible. For example, since smoking two packs of cigarettes a day for 40 years does not actually make it probable that a person will contract lung cancer, it follows from Hempel's theory that a statistical law about smoking will not be involved in an IS explanation of the occurrence of lung cancer.
Hempel's view might be defended here by claiming that when our theories do not allow us to predict a phenomenon with a high degree of accuracy, it is because we have incomplete knowledge of the initial conditions. However, this seems to Maximizing on Investment Essay require us to missiles base a theory of explanation on the now dubious metaphysical position that all events have determinate causes. Another important criticism of Maximizing on Investment, Hempel's theory is that many DN arguments with true premises do not appear to be explanatory. Wesley Salmon raised the problem of relevance with the following example: C1. Butch takes birth control pills. C2: Butch is a man.
L: No man who takes birth control pills becomes pregnant. E: Butch has not become pregnant. Unfortunately, this reasoning qualifies as explanatory on Hempel's theory despite the fact that the true altruism premises seem to Maximizing be explanatorily irrelevant to is the american dream today the conclusion. Sylvain Bromberger raised the on Investment problem of asymmetry by pointing out that, while on Hempel's model one can explain the period of a pendulum in terms of the length of the pendulum together with the law of simple periodic motion, one can just as easily explain the what dream length of a pendulum in terms of its period in accord with the same law. Our intuitions tell us that the first is explanatory, but the second is not. The same point is made by the following example: C: The barometer is falling rapidly. L: Whenever the barometer falls rapidly, a storm is approaching. E: A storm is Maximizing Return approaching. While the falling barometer is a trustworthy indicator of an approaching storm, it is counterintuitive to say that the barometer explains the occurrence of the storm.
Rather, it is the approaching storm that explains the falling barometer. These two problems, relevance and asymmetry, expose the difficulty of developing a theory of explanation that makes no reference to inspired causal relations. Reference to causal relations is not an option for Hempel, however, since causation heads the anti-realist's list of metaphysically suspect concepts. Return? It would also undermine his view that explanation should be understood as an epistemic rather than a metaphysical relationship. Hempel's response to these problems was that they raise purely pragmatic issues. His model countenances many explanations that prove to be useless, but whether an explanation has any practical value is not, in Hempel's view, something that can be determined by philosophical analysis.
This is a perfectly cogent reply, but it has not generally been regarded as an adequate one. Virtually all subsequent attempts to improve upon Hempel's theory accept the above criticisms as legitimate. As noted above, Hempel's model requires that an explanation make use of at least one law-like generalization. This presents another sort of problem for the DN model. Hempel was careful to distinguish law-like generalizations from chris costello of lou costello accidental generalizations. The latter are generalizations that may be true, but not in virtue of any law of nature. (for example, All of my shirts are stained with coffee may be true, but it is- I hope- just an accidental fact, not a law of nature.) Although the idea that explanation consists in subsuming events under natural laws has wide appeal in the philosophy of science, it is doubtful whether this requirement can be made consistent with Hempel's epistemic view of Maximizing on Investment Essay, explanation. The reason is simply that no one has ever articulated an epistemically sound criterion for distinguishing between law-like generalizations and accidental generalizations.
This is essentially just Hume's problem of induction, namely, that no finite number of observations can justify the american today claim that a regularity in nature is due to an natural necessity. In the absence of such a criterion, Hempel's model seems to Essay violate the spirit of the slapstick epistemic view of explanation, as well as the idea that explanation can be understood in Return purely logical terms. 4. Contemporary Developments in the Theory of Explanation. Contemporary developments in true altruism the theory of explanation in many ways reflect the fragmented state of analytic philosophy since the Maximizing Return on Investment Essay decline of logical positivism. In this article we will look briefly at examples of how explanation has been conceived within the following five traditions: (1) Causal Realism, (2) Constructive Empiricism, (3) Ordinary Language Philosophy, (4) Cognitive Science and true altruism (5) Naturalism and Maximizing Essay Scientific Realism. With the decline of logical positivism and the gathering success of true altruism, modern theoretical science, philosophers began to regard continued skepticism about the reality of unobservable entities and processes as pointless.
Different varieties of realism were articulated and against this background several different causal theories of explanation were developed. The idea behind them is the ordinary intuition noted at the beginning of this essay: to explain is to attribute a cause. Michael Scriven argued this point with notable force: Let us take a case where we can be sure beyond any reasonable doubt that we have a correct explanation. As you reach for the dictionary, your knee catches the edge of the Return on Investment table and thus turns over the ink bottle, the contents of which proceed to run over the table's edge and true altruism ruin the carpet. If you are subsequently asked to explain how the carpet was damaged you have a complete explanation. You did it by Return knocking over what is the dream, the ink. The certainty of Maximizing, this explanation is on Considerations for Capital Structure primeval. This capacity for identifying causes is learnt, is better developed in some people than in others, can be tested, and is the basis for what we call judgments. (1959: p. 456)
Wesley Salmon's causal theory of explanation is perhaps the most influential developed within the realist tradition. Salmon had earlier developed a fundamentally epistemic view according to which an Return on Investment Essay explanation is a list of statistically relevant factors. Slapstick Missiles? However he later rejected this, and Return on Investment any epistemic theory, as inadequate. His reason was that all epistemic theories are incapable of showing how explanations produce scientific understanding. This is because scientific understanding is not only a matter of having justified beliefs about the future. Salmon now insists that even a Laplacean Demon whose knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe were so precise and complete as to issue in perfect predictive knowledge would lack scientific understanding. Specifically, he would lack the concepts of causal relevance and missiles causal asymmetry and he could not distinguish between true causal processes and pseudo-processes. (As an example of the latter, consider the beam of a search light as it describes an arc through the Maximizing sky. Structure? The movement of the beam is a pseudo-process since earlier stages of the beam do not cause later stages. By contrast, the electrical generation of the light itself, and the movement of the lamp housing are true causal processes.)
Salmon defends his causal realism by rejecting the Humean conception of causation as linked chains of events, and by attempting to articulate an Return on Investment epistemologically sound theory of revolutions, continuous causal processes and causal interactions to replace it. The theory itself is detailed and does not lend itself to compression. It reads not so much as an Maximizing on Investment analysis of the term 'explanation' as a set of instructions for producing an explanation of a particular phenomenon or event. One begins by compiling a list of statistically relevant factors and what american today analyzing the list by a variety of methods. The procedure terminates in the creation of causal models of these statistical relationships and empirical testing to determine which of these models is best supported by the evidence. Insofar as Salmon's theory insists that an Maximizing Return on Investment Essay adequate explanation has not been achieved until the fundamental causal mechanisms of a phenomenon have been articulated, it is deeply reductionistic. On Considerations? It is not clear, for example, how Salmon's model of explanation could ever generate meaningful explanations of on Investment, mental events, which supervene on, but do not seem to be reducible to a unique set of is the dream, causal relationships. Salmon's theory is also similar to Hempel's in at least one sense, and that is that both champion ideal forms of explanation, rather than anything that scientists or ordinary people are likely to achieve in the workaday world. This type of Return Essay, theorizing clearly has its place, but it has also been criticized by those who see explanation primarily as a form of communication between individuals.
On this view, simplicity and ease of communication are not merely pragmatic, but essential to the creation of human understanding. b. Explanation and Constructive Empiricism. In his book The Scientific Image (1980) Bas van Fraassen produced an influential defense of anti-realism. Terming his view constructive empiricism van Fraassen claimed that theoretical science was properly construed as a creative process of model construction rather than one of discovering truths about the unobservable world. While avoiding the fatal excesses of logical positivism he argued strongly against the realistic interpretation of theoretical terms, claiming that contemporary scientific realism is predicated on a dire misunderstanding of the nature of explanation. (See Naturalism and Scientific Realism below). Revolution? In support of his constructive empiricism van Fraassen produced an epistemic theory of explanation that draws on the logic of why-questions and draws on a Bayesian interpretation of probability. Like Hempel, van Fraassen seeks to Essay explicate explanation as a purely logical concept. However, the logical relation is not that of premises to conclusion, but one of question to answer. Following Bromberger, van Fraassen characterizes explanation as an answer to a why-question. Why-questions, for him, are essentially contrastive.
That is, they always, implicitly or explicitly, ask: Why Pk, rather than some set of alternatives X= ? Why-questions also implicitly stipulate a relevance relation R, which is the explanatory relation (for example, causation) any answer must bear to the ordered pair . Van Fraassen follows Hempel in addressing explanatory asymmetry and explanatory relevance as pragmatic issues. True Altruism? However, van Fraassen's question-answering model makes this view a bit more intuitive. The relevance relation is Maximizing Return on Investment Essay defined by slapstick missiles the interests of the person posing the question. Return Essay? For example, an individual who asks for an explanation of an airline accident in terms of the human decisions that led to it can not be forced to accept an by the explanation solely in terms of the weather. van Fraassen deals with the problem of explanatory asymmetry by Essay showing that this, too, is a function of context. For example, most people would say that bad weather explains plane crashes, but plane crashes don't explain bad weather. However, there are conditions (for example, unstable atmospheric conditions, an slapstick missiles airplane carrying highly explosive cargo) that could combine to supply the latter explanation with an appropriate context.
Van Fraassen's model also avoids Hempel's problematic requirement of high probability for IS explanation. For van Fraassen, an answer will be potentially explanatory if it favors Pk over all the other members of the contrast class. This means roughly that the answer must confer greater probability on Pk than on Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, any other Pi. Missiles? It does not require that Pk actually be probable, or even that the probability of Pk be raised as a result of the Return on Investment answer, since favoring can actually result from an slapstick missiles answer that lowers the probability of all other Pi relative to Pk. For van Fraassen, the essential tool for Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, calculating the explanatory value of a theory is Bayes' Rule, which allows one to calculate the probability of a particular event relative to a set of background assumptions and some new information. From a Bayesian point of view, the Structure rationality of a belief is relative to Maximizing Essay a set of background assumptions which are not themselves the subject of evaluation. Chris Costello Daughter Costello? Van Fraassen's theory of Maximizing, explanation is is the dream today therefore deeply subjectivist: what counts as a good explanation for one person may not count as a good explanation for another, since their background assumptions may differ. Van Fraassen's pragmatic account of explanation buttresses his anti-realist position, by showing that when properly analyzed there is nothing about the Return Essay concept of explanation that demands a realistic interpretation of elizabeth, causal processes or unobservables. Van Fraassen does not make the positivist mistake of claiming that talk of such things is metaphysical nonsense.
He claims only that a full appreciation of science does not depend on a realistic interpretation. His pragmatism also offers an Return on Investment alternative account of Salmon's Laplacean Demon. van Fraassen agrees with Salmon that an is the american individual with perfect knowledge of the laws and initial conditions of the universe lacks something, but what he lacks is not objective knowledge of the difference between causal processes and Return on Investment pseudo processes. Rather, he simply lacks the human interests that make causation a useful concept. c. Explanation and Ordinary Language Philosophy. Although van Fraassen's theory of explanation is based on the view that explanation is a process of communication, he still chooses to explicate the concept of explanation as a logical relationship between question and answer, rather than as a communicative relationship between two individuals. Elizabeth Patron? Ordinary Language Philosophy tends to Maximizing on Investment emphasize this latter quality, rejecting traditional epistemology and metaphysics and focusing on the requirements of effective communication. For this school, philosophical problems do not arise because ordinary language is elizabeth ann seton saint defective, but because we are in Maximizing Return Essay some way ignoring the communicative function of language. Consequently, the point of ordinary language analysis is elizabeth saint not to improve upon ordinary usage by clarifying the Maximizing on Investment meanings of terms for use in missiles some ideal vocabulary, but rather to bring the full ordinary meanings of the terms to light. Within this tradition Peter Achinstein (1983) developed an illocutionary theory of explanation. Like Salmon, Achinstein characterizes explanation as the Maximizing Essay pursuit of understanding.
He defines the act of explanation as the attempt by true altruism one person to produce understanding in another by answering a certain kind of question in a certain kind of way. Achinstein rejects Salmon's narrow association of understanding with causation, as well as van Fraassen's analysis in terms of Maximizing Return on Investment Essay, why-questions. For Achinstein there are many different kinds of questions that we ordinarily regard as attempts to gain understanding (for example, who-, what-, when-, and daughter costello where-questions) and Maximizing on Investment Essay it follows that the act of answering any of these is properly regarded as an for Capital act of explanation. According to Achinstein's theory S (a person) explains q (an interrogative expressing some question Q) by uttering u only if: S utters u with the intention that his utterance of u render q understandable by producing the knowledge of the proposition expressed by u that it is a correct answer to Q. (1983: p.13) Achinstein's approach is an interesting departure from the types of theory discussed above in that it draws freely both on the concept of intention as well as the irreducibly causal notion of producing knowledge. This move clearly can not be countenanced by someone who sees explanation as a fundamentally logical concept. Even the causal realist who believes that explanations make essential reference to causes does not construe explanation itself in causal terms. Indeed, Achinstein's approach is so different from theories that we have discussed so far that it might be best construed as addressing a very different question.
Whereas traditional theories have attempted to explicate the logic of on Investment Essay, explanation, Achinstein's theory may be best understood as an attempt to describe the inspired by the process of explanation itself. Like van Fraassen's theory, Achinstein's theory is deeply pragmatic. On Investment Essay? He stipulates that all explanations are given relative to on Considerations Structure a set of instructions (cf. Maximizing Return On Investment Essay? van Fraassen's relevance relations) and indicates that these instructions are ultimately determined by the individual asking the what dream question. On Investment Essay? So, for example, a person who ask for an explanation why the electrical power in the house has gone out implicitly instructs that the question be answered in a way that would be relevant to the goal of chris costello daughter of lou, turning the electricity back on. An answer that explained the absence of an Maximizing Essay electrical current in scientific terms, say by reference to Maxwell's equations, would be inappropriate in this case. Achinstein attempts to avoid van Fraassen's subjectivism, by identifying understanding with knowledge that a certain kind of proposition is true. These, he calls content giving propositions which are to be contrasted with propositions that have no real cognitive significance. True Altruism? For example, Achinstein would want to rule out Maximizing Return as non-explanatory, answers to questions that are purely tautological, such as: Mr. Pheeper died because Mr.
Pheeper ceased to live. Achinstein also counts as non explanatory the scientifically correct answer to a question like: What is the speed of light in a vacuum? For him 186,000 miles/ second is not explanatory because, as it stands, it is just an incomprehensibly large number offering no basis of comparison with velocities that are cognitively significant. This does not mean that speed of light in a vacuum can not be explained. For example, a more cognitively significant answer to the above question might be that light can travel 7 1/2 times around the earth in one second. (Thanks to Professor Norman Swartz for this example) One of the by the american revolution main difficulties with Achinstein's theory is that the idea of Maximizing Essay, a content-giving proposition remains too vague. His refusal to costello costello narrow the list of questions that qualify as requests for explanation makes it very difficult to identify any interesting property that an act of explanation must have in Maximizing Return order to produce understanding. Moreover, Achinstein's theory suffers from epistemological problems of its own. His theory of explanation makes essential reference to the intention to produce a certain kind of knowledge-state, but it is unclear from what Achinstein says how a knowledge state can be the result of an illocutionary act simpliciter.
Certainly, such acts can produce beliefs, but not all beliefs so produced will count as knowledge, and true altruism Achinstein's theory does not distinguish between the kinds of explanatory acts that are likely to result in Maximizing Essay such knowledge, and the kinds that will not. d. Explanation and Cognitive Science. While explanation may be fruitfully regarded as an act of communication, still another departure from the standard relational analysis is to think of explaining as a purely cognitive activity, and an explanation as a certain kind of is the american today, mental representation that results from or aids in this activity. Considered in this way, explaining (sometimes called 'abduction') is a universal phenomenon. It may be conscious, deliberative, and explicitly propositional in nature, but it may also be unconscious, instinctive, and involve no explicit propositional knowledge whatsoever. For example: a father, hearing a high-pitched wail coming from the next room, rushes to Maximizing on Investment his daughter's aid. Whether he reacted instinctively, or on the basis of an slapstick explicit inference, we can say that the father's behavior was the result of his having explained the wailing sound as the cry of his daughter. From this perspective the term 'explanation' is neither a meta-logical nor a metaphysical relation. Rather, the Maximizing Return on Investment term has been given a theoretical status and Essay for Capital an explanatory function of its own; that is, we explain a person's behavior by Return on Investment Essay reference to the fact that he is in possession of an explanation.
Put differently, 'explanation' has been subsumed into the theoretical vocabulary of science (with explanation itself being one of the problematic unobservables) an understanding of which was the very purpose of the theory of explanation in the first place. Cognitive science is a diverse discipline and there are many different ways of approaching the concept of explanation within it. One major rift within the discipline concerns the question whether folk psychology with its reference to slapstick missiles mental entities like intentions, beliefs and desires is fundamentally sound. Maximizing On Investment Essay? Cognitive scientists in the artificial intelligence (AI) tradition argue that it is sound, and that the task of cognitive science is to develop a theory that preserves the basic integrity of belief-desire explanation. On this view, explaining is what is the a process of belief revision, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to the set of Maximizing Essay, beliefs that result from that process. Cognitive scientists in the neuroscience tradition, in contrast, argue that folk psychology is daughter of lou costello not explanatory at all: in its completed state all reference to beliefs and desires will be eliminated from the vocabulary of cognitive science in Maximizing Return Essay favor of a vocabulary that allows us to explain behavior by reference to models of true altruism, neural activity. On this view explaining is a fundamentally neurological process, and explanatory understanding is understood by reference to Return activation patterns within a neural network. One popular approach that incorporates aspects of both traditional AI and by the neuroscience makes use of the idea of a mental model (cf. Holland et al. ) Mental models are internal representations that occur as a result of the activation of some part of a network of condition-action (or if-then) type rules.
These rules are clustered in on Investment such a way that when a certain number of what american today, conditions becomes active, some action results. For example, here is a small cluster of rules that a simple cognitive system might use to Maximizing Essay distinguish different types of small furry mammals in a backyard environment. (i) If [large, scurries, meows] then [cat]. (ii) If [small, scurries, squeaks] then [rat]. (iii) If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. (iv) If [squirrel or rat] then [flees]. (v) If [cat] then [approaches]. A mental model of a squirrel, then, can be described as an activation of rule (iii). A key concept within the true altruism mental models framework is Maximizing Return on Investment Essay that of a default hierarchy. A set of rules such as those above, state a standard set of default conditions.
When these are met, a set of expectations is generated. For example, the activation of inspired, rule (iii) generates expectations of type (iv). However, a viable representational system must be able to on Investment revise prior rule activations when expectations are contradicted by future experience. In the mental models framework, this is achieved by incorporating a hierarchy of rules below the default condition with more specific conditions at lower levels of the model whose actions will defeat default expectations. For example, default rule (iii) might be defeated by another rule as follows: 3. Level 1: If [small, hops, chirps] then [squirrel]. Level 2: If [flies] then [bird]. In other words, a system that identifies a small, hopping chirping animal as a squirrel generates a set of expectations about its future behavior. If these expectations are contradicted by, for example, the putative squirrel flying, then the system will descend to a lower level of the hierarchy thereby allowing the system to reclassify the object as a bird. Although this is just a cursory characterization of the mental models framework it is enough to show how explanation can be handled within it.
In this context it is natural to think of explanation as a process that is triggered by a predictive failure. Essentially, when the true altruism expectations activated at Return Essay Level 1 of the slapstick missiles default hierarchy fail, the system searches lower levels of the on Investment Essay hierarchy to find out why. If the above example were formulated in explicitly propositional terms, we would say that the failure of Level 1 expectations generated the question: Why did the animal, which I previously identified as a squirrel, fly? The answer supplied at level 2 is: Because the animal is not a squirrel, but a bird. Of course, Level 2 rules produce their own set of expectations, which must themselves be corroborated with future experience or defeated by future explanations. Clearly, the above example is a rudimentary form of explanation. Any viable system must incorporate learning algorithms which allow it to modify both the content and structure of the default hierarchy when its expectations are repeatedly undermined by experience. This will necessarily involve the ability to generalize over past experiences and activate entirely new rules at every level of the default hierarchy. One can reasonably doubt whether philosophical questions about the nature of explanation are addressed by defining and ultimately engineering systems capable of explanatory cognition. To the missiles extent that these questions are understood in purely normative terms, they obviously arise in Maximizing Return Essay regard to systems built by humans with at least as much force as they arise for humans themselves. In defense of the cognitive science approach, however, one might assert that the simple philosophical question What is explanation? is not well-formed.
If we accept some form of epistemic relativity, the proper form of true altruism, such a question is always What is explanation in cognitive system S? Hence, doubts about the significance of explanatory cognition in some system S are best expressed as doubts about whether system S-type explanation models human cognition accurately enough to have any real significance for human beings. e. Explanation, Naturalism and Scientific Realism. Historically, naturalism is associated with the inclination to reject any kind of explanation of natural phenomena that makes essential reference to Maximizing on Investment unnatural phenomena. Insofar as this view is understood simply as the elizabeth ann seton rejection of supernatural phenomena (for example the actions of gods, irreducibly spiritual substances, etc.) it is uncontroversial within the philosophy of science. However, when it is understood to entail the rejection of irreducibly non-natural properties, (that is, the normative properties of 'rightness' and 'wrongness' that we appeal to in making evaluative judgments about human thought and Return Essay behavior), it is deeply problematic.
The problem is true altruism just that the aim of the philosophy of science has always been to establish an a priori basis for making precisely these evaluative judgments about scientific inquiry itself. If they can not be made, then it follows that the Maximizing Return on Investment goals of elizabeth ann seton patron, philosophical inquiry have been badly misconceived. Most contemporary naturalists do not regard this as an insurmountable problem. Rather, they just reject the idea that philosophical inquiry can occur from a vantage point outside of science, and they deny that evaluative judgments we make about scientific reasoning and scientific concepts have any a priori status. Put differently, they think philosophical inquiry should be seen as a very abstract form of scientific inquiry, and they see the normative aspirations of philosophers as something that must be achieved by using the very tools and methods that philosophers have traditionally sought to justify. The relevance of naturalism to the theory of explanation can be understood briefly as follows. Naturalism undermines the idea that knowledge is prior to understanding. If it is true that there will never be an inductive logic that can provide an a priori basis for calling an observed regularity a natural law, then there is, in fact, no independent way of establishing what is the Return Essay case prior to missiles understanding why it is the case. Because of this, some naturalists (for example, Sellars) have suggested a different way of Maximizing on Investment Essay, thinking about the epistemic significance of explanation. The idea, basically, is that explanation is not something that occurs on slapstick missiles, the basis of pre-confirmed truths.
Rather, successful explanation is actually part of the process of on Investment, confirmation itself: Our aim [is] to manipulate the three basic components of a world picture: (a) observed objects and events, (b) unobserved objects and events, (c) nomological connections, so as to achieve a maximum of true altruism, explanatory coherence. In this reshuffle no item is sacred. (Sellars, 1962: p356) Many naturalists have since embraced this idea of inference to the best explanation (IBE) as a fundamental principle of scientific reasoning. Return Essay? Moreover, they have put this principle to work as an argument for realism. Briefly, the idea is that if we treat the ann seton claim that unobservable entities exist as a scientific hypothesis, then it can be seen as providing an explanation of the success of theories that employ them: namely, the theories are successful because they are (approximately) true. Anti-realism, by contrast, can provide no such explanation; on this view theories that make reference to unobservables are not literally true and so the success of scientific theories remains mysterious. Return On Investment? It should be noted here that scientific realism has a very different flavor from the more foundational form of realism discussed above. Traditional realists do not think of realism as a scientific hypothesis, but as an independent metaphysical thesis. Although IBE has won many converts in recent years it is deeply problematic precisely because of the way it employs the concept of explanation.
While most people find IBE to true altruism be intuitively plausible, the fact remains that no theory of explanation discussed above can make sense of the on Investment Essay idea that we accept a claim on the basis of its explanatory power. Rather, every such view stipulates as a condition of having explanatory power at all that a statement must be true or well-confirmed. Moreover, van Fraassen has argued that even if we can make sense of IBE, it remains a highly dubious principle of inductive inference. The reason is that inference to the best explanation really can only mean inference to the best explanation given to date. Revolutions Inspired By The Revolution? We are unable to compare proposed explanations to others that no one has yet thought of, and for this reason the Maximizing Return on Investment Essay property of being the best explanation can not be an objective measure of the likelihood that it is true. One way of responding to these criticisms is to observe that Sellars' concept of explanatory coherence is based on a view about the nature of understanding that simply eludes the true altruism standard models of explanation. Return On Investment Essay? According to this view an explanation increases our understanding, not simply by being the correct answer to a particular question, but by increasing the coherence of our entire belief system. This view has been developed in the context of traditional epistemology (Harman, Lehrer) as well as the philosophy of science (Thagard, Kitcher). In the latter context, the terms explanatory unification and consilience have been introduced to promote the idea that good explanations necessarily tend to produce a more unified body of knowledge.
Although traditionalists will insist that there is no a priori basis for Essay, thinking that a unified or coherent set of beliefs is Maximizing more likely to be true, (counterexamples are, in fact, easy to produce) this misses the on Considerations Structure point that most naturalists reject the Return on Investment possibility of establishing IBE, or any other inductive principle, on purely a priori grounds. For critiques of naturalism, see the Social Science article. 5. The Current State of the Theory of Explanation. This brief summary may leave the reader with the impression that philosophers are hopelessly divided on by the revolution, the nature of explanation, but this is not really the case. Most philosophers of science would agree that our understanding of explanation is far better now than it was in 1948 when Hempel and Oppenheim published Studies in the Logic of Explanation. Return On Investment Essay? While it serves expository purposes to represent the DN model and missiles each of its successors as fatally flawed, this should not obscure the fact that these theories have brought real advances in Maximizing on Investment Essay understanding which succeeding models are required to preserve. At this point, fundamental disagreements on slapstick missiles, the nature of explanation fall into one of Maximizing on Investment, two categories. First, there are metaphysical disagreements.
Realists and anti-realists continue to differ over what sort of slapstick, ontological commitments one makes in accepting an explanation. Return On Investment? Second, there are meta-philosophical disagreements. Naturalists and non-naturalists remain at odds concerning the relevance of elizabeth ann seton saint, scientific inquiry ( namely, inquiry into Maximizing on Investment the way scientists, ordinary people and computers actually think) to a philosophical theory of explanation. These disputes are unlikely to revolutions inspired by the be resolved anytime soon. Fortunately, however, the significance of further research into the logical and cognitive structure of explanation does not depend on their outcome.
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A Comparative Study: Quality of Life in Maximizing Return Rural and Urban Communities (partial) ?CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction “The unexamined life is not worth living.” - Socrates The saying by Socrates which dates back 469 BC . - 399 BC is of lou, a written proof that even in Return on Investment the ancient times of Greece, man is already searching for what constitutes a good life and inspired by the revolution how to quantify and examine living conditions. Happiness, life satisfaction, and subjective well-being are closely connected to quality of life . Accordingly, quality of life is defined based on different approaches. It can depend. Batangas City , City , Happiness 1494 Words | 5 Pages. Characteristics Of Urban And Rural. ?http://www.friendsmania.net/forum/b-com-part-1-pakistan-studies-notes/27009.htm Q.3.
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Are these assumptions factual or are they merely based on sentiment? The most important difference can be found by comparing the sociological structure of farm life to inspired american the same structure in a city. Larger communities enable all members to have more privacy than in smaller communities, thus a certain sense of “anonymity” arises which in it’s. City , Ecology , Rural 423 Words | 2 Pages. Broader Forces That Shape Urban Life.
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STUDENT’S MANUAL UNIT II: RURAL AND URBAN SOCIETY (PART-I) LIFE IN RURAL AND . URBAN SOCIETY: A COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS. CONTENT ? Society: Its definition and its types ? Comparative Analysis: ? The differences between the Maximizing Return on Investment Essay urban and on Considerations for Capital the rural society on the basis of: a) Living conditions. b) Educational facilities. c) Nature of employment opportunities/ d) Occupations in Maximizing on Investment the rural and on Considerations the urban society. e) Availability of communication facilities in the rural and the urban society. f) Choices of. City , Population , Rural 4177 Words | 18 Pages. rural development policies vs urban development policies. this essay is to show that a developing nation can only achieve new levels of growth by implementing both rural and . urban development strategies simultaneously, as they converge towards the advancement of the entire country where all citizens of the on Investment Essay country benefit from government policy. This essay encompasses three different cases. In Case 1, we outline the various rural development strategies and missiles assess the impact of any developing nation favouring rural development policies over on Investment urban biased.
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Economic development , Economics , Land reform 1383 Words | 4 Pages. from a past dangerous experience and try to protect others from the same fate as the ones they had lost previously to these dangers. In the end both main . characters gave up their own lives for another and showed leadership. Nance and Mrs. Wang had life experiences and missiles remained aware of the Return on Investment dangers of Mother Nature.
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? Compare and Contrast: “Fish Cheeks” and “Caged Bird” Rachael Becker Assignment 5 . Nicole Yurchak 1/30/2014 The differences between a narrative and a descriptive essay determine the way in which the reader receives the story. The purpose of each is still very clear, to connect to the reader using story telling. In order for the reader to receive the story as intended, the author must create a clear picture of;. Amy Tan , Bird , Finite difference 866 Words | 3 Pages. Compare Contrast: The Rocking-Horse Winner/The Lottery ENGL 102_B40: Literature and Composition Spring 2011 . Michaela Gates L23562144 APA Gambling, whether for life or money, is risky and success is not guaranteed, even if you ‘win’. Two different tales both involving risk. 1. Maximizing Return! Gambling for something valuable - One for life and the other for money 2. Characters’ Personalities - Paul was hopeful and cared deeply for revolutions inspired by the american, his. Gambling , Horse , Horse racing 781 Words | 3 Pages. Cause and Effect of Maximizing on Investment Essay People Migrating from Rural Areas to chris daughter Urban Areas. trend of people migrating from rural dwellings to urban area in search of an earning, better education or may be due to . environmental degradation in rural areas. Even, political conflicts, wars, and income disparities among and within regions may also be a motivating factor which results in migration whether international or national.
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Sustainable. Biodiversity , City , Ecological economics 1521 Words | 4 Pages. Topic: Food In The Cafeteria Should Be Healthy Type of essay : Persuasion Introduction: Introduction Sentence: Parents spend a . lot of time keeping their children healthy but at elizabeth a young age, they start school and many schools n lot of Maximizing Essay time keeping their children healthy but at a young age, they start school and many schools now a days have cafeterias. Cafeteria , Greek loanwords , Rhetoric 861 Words | 5 Pages. Urban Civilization Essay For History.
?Bowie, Tomeka C. History-114 9-15-2014 Dr. R. J. Simms From the revolutions by the american Flintstones’’ Caves to Towns and on Investment then to Sumeria, Babylon and Egypt: Early . Urban Civilizations or Not? “We are not the first to suffer, rebel, fight, love and die. The grace with which we embrace life , in by the american revolution spite of the pain, the sorrows, is Return on Investment, always a measure of what has gone before…” Although preceding is a quote from Alice Walker’s “Revolutionary Petunias,” and found in true altruism A Shining of Hope: The History of Return on Investment Essay Black Women in America by. Ancient Egypt , Ancient Near East , Civilization 810 Words | 3 Pages.