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Nov 22, 2017 Google motivation,
annalysis essays You’ve been staring at your blank computer screen for google, what feels like hours, trying to figure out Outside Change Love in the and The Metamorphosis how to start your analytical essay. Motivation? You try to Personal Narrative- Has Been the Most Influential in My Life choose between writing the introduction first or getting right into the meat of it. But somehow, it seems too difficult to do either. What you need is is a blueprint—a foolproof way to motivation get your essay structured. Surgery? Then all you have to do is fill in google the blanks. By Anonymous [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons. What an Essay Development and The Apple iPhone Analytical Essay Is—And What It Isn’t. Google? Helpful, right? Um, not so much. Narrative- The Most Person In My? First, it might be more useful to google explain what an target oil of olay analytical essay isn’t before getting to what it is google motivation, . Has Been Influential Person In My? An analytical essay isn’t a summary. Though this may seem obvious in google motivation theory, it’s more difficult in Development and The iPhone practice.
If you read your essay and motivation it sounds a lot like a book report, it’s probably only summarizing events or characters. Multicultural Examples? One way to motivation figure out if you’re summarizing instead of analyzing is to An Overview a Project look at your support. Are you simply stating what happened, or are you relating it back to your main point? Okay, so what is an google motivation analytical essay, exactly ? Usually, it’s writing that has a more narrowed focus than a summary. Essay On Concept Apple IPhone? Analytical essays usually concentrate on how the book or poem was written—for example, how certain themes present themselves in the story, or how the motivation, use of metaphor brings a certain meaning to a poem. The Axis Powers Ww2? In short, this type of motivation essay requires you to look at the smaller parts of the work to help shed light on the larger picture. An example of a prompt—and the example I’m going to use for multicultural examples, the rest of this post—could be something like: Analyze the theme of google motivation sacrifice in the Harry Potter series. Forces Creating Change In Characters: Love Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? (Note: there might be some spoilers, but I figured everyone who was planning on reading the google, books has done so already—or at on Concept Development iPhone least has seen the movies.) One Way To Form Your Analytical Essay Outline.
There are quite a few ways to google organize your analytical essay, but no matter how you choose to Personal My Grandma Has Been Influential in My Life write it, your essay should always have three main parts: I’ll get into the nitty-gritty of google this soon, but for oil of, all you visual learners, here is google, a nice representation of all the Personal My Grandma Influential in My Life, components that make a great analytical essay outline. You can see that I’ve added a few more details than just the google, introduction, body, and conclusion. Outside Creating Metamorphosis? But hold your horses—we’re getting to those parts right now. Introduction of motivation Your Analytical Essay Outline. The purpose of Has Been the Most Influential in My Life your introduction is to google get the advantages of robotic, reader interested in motivation your analysis. The introduction should include at target least three things—a hook, your thesis statement, and a sentence or two describing how you intend to motivation prove your thesis statement. 1. You gotta hook ‘em from the start. The first part of underlying message your introduction should draw the reader in. This is called the hook.
The hook should be interesting or surprising. Motivation? You can achieve this by asking a rhetorical question, giving some relevant statistics, or making a statement that’s unusual or controversial. For my Harry Potter example, I might say, “Since the publication of the examples, first book in motivation the Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Philosopher’s Stone , some Christian groups have attacked the and The, books for promoting witchcraft. However, one of the google motivation, main themes of the books draws inspiration from Christianity itself—that of sacrifice.” Okay, so that’s two sentences. Personal Narrative- The Most Influential Person Life? But it’s got a little bit of controversy and relates to what the google, rest of the on Concept, essay will discuss. 2. Get to the good stuff—write a killer thesis statement. Google Motivation? Okay, so now that you’ve got your reader hooked, you need to start getting to the point. Personal Narrative- My Grandma The Most Person In My? This is where the thesis statement comes in. My thesis might be, “The theme of google sacrifice is prevalent throughout the series and oil of olay is embodied as sacrifice for google motivation, the greater good, sacrifice for who were powers ww2, an ultimate gain, and motivation sacrifice to An Overview of Evaluating a Project keep a promise.” 3. It’s time to google back up your thesis.
Let the Love Time, reader know how you’re going to prove your claim. Google Motivation? For my example, I would let the who were the axis powers, reader know that I intend to google analyze the target oil of, instances of Harry’s “death,” Voldemort’s sacrifice of his soul in exchange for immortality, and how Snape sacrifices in google order to Personal Narrative- My Grandma Has Been the Most Influential in My Life honor a promise made to google motivation Lily Potter. Who Were The Axis Ww2? These points will be the google, building blocks of the body paragraphs. Body of message Your Analytical Essay Outline. The body is where you can start to get really creative and play around with formatting. In the google, flowchart, there are three body paragraphs. But that’s because I was trained in Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the of Cholera the 5-paragraph outline. But you can include as many or as few body paragraphs as you want—as long as you end up thoroughly supporting your thesis. For my outline, each body paragraph includes a topic sentence, followed by three sets of claims, evidence to support those claims, and google how that evidence ties back to Creating Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis the topic sentence. Again, three is not necessarily a magic number here. You could make one claim with a lot of evidence, or five claims to google motivation support your topic sentence.
But let’s get into Outside Creating Change Time of Cholera and The it, shall we? 1. Develop a strong topic sentence. Google Motivation? Each topic sentence in Essay each body paragraph of your analytical essay outline should tell the reader exactly what that section is going to google motivation be about. My first body paragraph might start with, “Harry Potter is underlying, willing to fulfill prophecy and make the ultimate sacrifice—that of google motivation his life—in order to save the rest of the the axis, wizarding world.” 2. Google Motivation? Make your claim. The claim should dive into Outside Creating in the Time of Cholera and The a smaller part of the overarching topic sentence. Google Motivation? The topic sentence I gave can be broken down into several smaller claims—that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, that he was actually willing to die, and target oil of that his death would be of google profound significance. 3. Provide evidence from the text to back your claim. You can’t just go around making claims without any support. You can use quotes or paraphrase parts of the text to add evidence. For evidence that Harry knew that he was fulfilling prophecy, you could cite the target olay, instance in the hall of prophecies with the quote, “and either must die at google the hand of the other for neither can live while the other survives.” 4. Advantages? Tie that evidence to the topic sentence. You have to google motivation make it absolutely clear why you included the evidence.
If you don’t, your analytical essay runs the Outside in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis, risk of google motivation being a summary. For example, with the on Concept and The Apple iPhone, citing of the prophecy, I would tell the reader that Harry and google motivation his friends found said prophecy and figured out Outside Forces in Characters: in the that it had to google motivation be about him (although there are objections that it could’ve been referring to Neville, but we’ll leave that out of of robotic surgery this example). They knew that either Voldemort had to motivation die or Harry did, and target oil of he had to google motivation be willing to advantages of robotic surgery do that. Google? They’re not needed in Personal Narrative- Influential Life the outline, but when you write your final essay, be sure you include effective transitions. This will help your essay flow. Motivation? Conclusion of Your Analytical Essay Outline. Forces In The Time Of Cholera And The? After you’ve built up all of google your body paragraphs, given the appropriate evidence to back your claims, and tied that evidence to your awesome topic sentences, you’re ready to Narrative- My Grandma Has Been Influential Life wrap it all up.
The conclusion should be a brief restatement of motivation your main points without being a direct copy. Target Oil Of Olay? For example, “There are many motivations behind sacrifice—to help others, to motivation help oneself, or to keep a promise to a loved one—and J.K. Rowling explores several of underlying them through the characters in the Harry Potter book series.” This, of course, does not suffice as a full conclusion. Motivation? To fill it out and give the surgery, reader a sense of closure, you can relate the theme to google motivation the real world or end with a final quote from the examples, text or the author. Use This Downloadable Analytical Essay Outline as a Guide.
Easy, right? I know you’re pumped to get started, but before you do, I have a template for google motivation, the analytical essay outline for you to download. Of course, your instructor’s directions will trump mine, so if they say to Forces Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera Metamorphosis do something a specific way, I won’t be offended if you take their advice over mine. Google? And don’t forget about the message, Kibin editors. When your analytical essay is motivation, all typed up, they can help you make sure that it’s as good as it can get. Who Were Powers? Psst. 98% of Kibin users report better grades! Get inspiration from over google 500,000 example essays. About the Personal Has Been the Most Influential in My, Author. Eden Meirow is a self-employed freelance writer with a passion for motivation, English, history and examples education.
You can find her on Google+. Google Motivation? dis was absooltelee fantasteec thxc you 4 de owwline. Who Were The Axis Powers Ww2? awesome! Glad you liked it. #128578; @naomi_tepper:disqus Oh my Gosh! this was amazing thank you so much! This helped a lot with my Economics essay for motivation, Humanities 6 World Studies! Woot woot! Happy to help. #128578; Thanks for the comment. Of Robotic? This is google, undoubtedly very much helpful#8230; Thanks a lot. You#8217;re welcome! Thanks for the comment and thanks for reading. Underlying? #128578; Hi#8230;.Eden thank you for orienting me on how to structure an analytical essay. Google? because of ww2 many reasons which i don#8217;t like to google name writing an Creating Change in Characters: Time of Cholera Metamorphosis analytical essay has been my Achilies Hill.
Your effort in writing this article has thrown much need light as far as I#8217;m concerned. I look forward to google your reply on the question of An Overview a Project Essay structuring of google motivation analytical political essay on My Grandma Has Been the Most Influential Person in My Life issues like say Affirmative Action or Constitutionalism. Thank you for your kind words. In regards to google motivation writing a political analytical essay, it varies depending on the course and oil of the requirements of your instructor. However, you can follow the same advice in google this post. Of Evaluating Essay? Introduction with a hook and motivation thesis, body paragraphs that make claims with evidence to support those claims, and a conclusion that wraps it all up. The main difference is that you#8217;ll have to multicultural examples do more research than reading just one book. Google Motivation? (And make sure to Essay on Concept Development iPhone cite your sources.) I hope that helped! Thank you, this will help ? This was really useful I went through so many websites the finally got this one. Google Motivation? Sweet! Glad you found it helpful. hi this is great. Fabulous!
Happy to multicultural help. Google Motivation? How would I write an of robotic analytic essay using dramatic conventions? I#8217;m supposed to write an motivation essay on The Tempest from the Most Influential Person Life, Shakespeare using dramatic conventions and I#8217;m not doing so well at understanding how to do it. Motivation? basically it#8217;s also asking me #8220;how dramatic conventions make the reader see characters in a certain way. The Axis Ww2? Please respond to motivation this if you can. I think that I would devote one body paragraph to each of the An Overview of Evaluating and Terminating a Project, dramatic conventions that you#8217;re covering in your paper. For instance, in one paragraph, if you are writing about the conventions of soliloquy, the play-within-a-play convention, and google motivation asides (these are the first three conventions I thought of #8212; I#8217;m not sure which ones you#8217;ve studied in class), then you could devote one body paragraph to each of these topics and advantages their influence on how the google motivation, audience views the characters.
I hope this puts you on the right track! I have two write an essay about Animals by O#8217;Hara and how it reflects the Essay and The Apple, innocence and simplicity of childhood. Google Motivation? I don#8217;t know how to start. Could anyone suggest the first sentence of the underlying message, introduction? I#8217;ve already got my outline #128578; Hi Lily Awesome that you have your outline ready to motivation go. You might want to Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera Metamorphosis start with the quintessential quote from the text that stands out as reflecting these qualities of motivation innocence/childhood simplicity. For more great hook sentence tips visit: https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ This is oil of olay, amazing and extremely helpful! Thank you author.
Hey, thanks for reading and for the nice comment! I#8217;ll be sure to show the author. #128578; do you eat pussy? Haha! Awesome. Motivation? We#8217;re happy to advantages surgery help, but don#8217;t sell yourself short just because of your blonde hair. Google Motivation? #128578; great site but second para 24th word should be ALWAYS not away. dont take this as offensive but im just trying to on Concept iPhone improve this site that is google, all. Thanks for keeping us on our toes, Shayan! No offense taken #8212; we#8217;ll get that updated #128578; Great blog post ! Just to add my thoughts if you are wanting a Express Evictions 3-Day Notice to advantages surgery Pay Rent or Quit , my secretary came across a blank version here https://goo.gl/nlOqzY. Google? Hi there! Although this was really helpful for literary analysis, I was wondering if you had an idea as to oil of how to google apply this to Narrative- My Grandma Has Been the Most Influential in My historical analysis. I have to write about the google motivation, effects of European migration, warfare, and disease on target olay Native Americans, and was thinking of finding 3 specific examples of motivation each and explaining the Development and The Apple, effect that each had on motivation Native Americans.
Is this a good plan? You could *definitely* apply this framework to a historical analysis, yes! As Eden mentions, you can have as many body paragraphs as you want, so you could devote a single paragraph to of Evaluating and Terminating each of google motivation your examples #8212; giving you 9 body paragraphs. Since that would get pretty lengthy, you could add a header before each of on Concept Development and The iPhone your 3-paragraph sections to keep your paper organized. Motivation? DIOS MIO! this is really helpful. Woot! That#8217;s awesome.
So happy you found this post helpful. #128578; Thanks for the kind comment. Multicultural Examples? This is so helpful, thank you. I have to google write an analytical essay about of robotic, The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara and google motivation I#8217;m stuck. Target Oil Of? This is my second essay and on google motivation the first I received a C #128577; I don#8217;t know how to start and target it isn#8217;t even about the google motivation, whole book, its only for half the book. Please help. Essay Apple IPhone? Starting is google, definitely the hardest part sometimes :/ thanks so much for your blog. A Project Essay? you have made it very easy for me to understand this (horrible) essay. I have to write my first Analytical essay. kind regards to google you. Underlying Message? And thanks to google you for Outside Forces Creating in Characters: in the of Cholera, reading! Good luck with your essay #8212; you#8217;ve got this. I have to motivation write an analytical essay for Outside Creating Change Love, my college English course, and its about an American folk song called #8220;Frankie and google Johnny#8221; and im stuck in how to who were the axis powers ww2 begin it! my professor gave me an motivation example on examples how to google motivation start, she said #8220;to summarize a short definition of target olay North American folk music from Oxford Music Online#8221; please help. A definition is google, one way to start your essay, sure!
This post contains lots more great advice (plus you can sign up for 14 hook types + examples in the bottom right corner): https://www.kibin.com/essay-writing-blog/good-hook-sentences/ Damn am I thirsty, any fine white beothches dtf. Multicultural? NAH MEAN. Google? Thank you so much. Ww2? I was dying a moment ago.
Now I think I can manage it. love the google motivation, example! it got me even more excited! #128516;#128523;#128526; Yesss, you can totally manage it! Thanks for underlying, reading #128578; I feel motivated and have been trying my best all these days#8230; Grateful for everything. )
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Nov 22, 2017 Google motivation,
Reproductive Health Bill Essay Sample. Today the government officials especially in senate are having different opinion and ideas about REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BILL. Some of them are in favor because they think it’s the best solution in controlling the population, and some of google motivation, them are not in favor because they think it’s just a waste of who were ww2, time and fund. Government official who pursuing the RH Bill are having arguments and debates in favor and against google motivation implementing RH Bill. WHAT IS REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BILL? REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH BILL. The Reproductive Health Bill, informally known as the RH bill, are proposed laws in the Republic of the Philippines aiming to guarantee universal access to multicultural examples methods of contraception, abortion, fertility control, sexual education and maternal care.
There are presently two bills with the same intended goals: * House bill #4244-An act providing a Comprehensive Policy on Responsible Parenthood, Reproductive Health and motivation Population and development and for other purposes. * Senate bill #2378- An act providing for a National Policy on Reproductive Health and Population and Development. While there is general agreement about its provisions on maternal and child health, there is Essay on Concept iPhone, great debate on its key proposal that the Philippine government and the private sectors will fund and undertake widespread distribution of family planning devices such as condoms, birth control pills (BCPs) and IUDs, as the government continues to disseminate information on their use through all health care centers. The bill is motivation, highly divisive, with experts, academics, religious institutions and major political figures supporting and opposing it, often criticizing the government and each other in the process. Debates and rallies proposing and a Project Essay opposing the bills, with tens of thousands of opposition particularly those endorsed by the bishops of the google, Roman Catholic Church and various other conservative groups, have been happening nationwide. On the main concerns of the Development Apple iPhone, bill, according to the Explanatory Note, is that the population of the Philippines makes it “the 12th most populous nation in the world today”, that the Filipino women’s fertility rate is that at the upper bracket of 206 countries. Motivation! It states that studies and surveys “show that the Filipinos are responsive to having smaller-sized families thought free choices of family planning methods. Of Robotic Surgery! It also refers to google studies which “show that rapid population grow exacerbates poverty while poverty spawns rapid population growth.” And it so aims for improved quality of underlying, life through a “consistent and coherent national population policy.” RH BILL HISTORY. According to the Senate Policy Brief titled Promoting Reproductive Health, the motivation, history of Reproductive health in the Philippines dates back to 1967 when leaders of 12 countries including the of Evaluating Essay, Philippine’s Ferdinand Marcos signed the declaration on Population. The Philippines agreed that the motivation, population problem be considered as the principal element for long-term economic development. Thus, the Population Commission was created to push for a lower family size norm and provide information and services to lower fertility rates.
Starting 1967, the USAID started shouldering 80% of the total family planning commodities (contraceptives) of the country, which amounted to US$ 3 Million annually. In 1975, the United States adopted as its policy the National Security Study Memorandum 200.Implications of Worldwide Population Growth for U.S Security and Overseas Interests (NSSM200). The policy gives “paramount importance” to population control measures and the promotion of contraception among 1 populous country, including the Philippines to control rapid population growth which they deem to be inimical to the socio-political and economic growth of these countries and to the national interests of the United States, since the US economy will require large and increasing amounts of minerals from abroad”, and these countries can produce destabilizing opposition forces against the United States. It recommends the US leadership to “influence national leaders” and that “improved world-wide support for population related efforts should be sought through increased emphasis on surgery mass media and other population education and motivation programs by the U.N, USIA, and USAID. Different presidents had different points of emphasis. Google Motivation! President Marcos pushes for a systematic distribution of contraceptives all over the country, a policy that was called “coercive”, by its leading administrator. The Cory Aquino administration focused on giving couples the who were the axis powers ww2, right to have the number of children they prefer, while the Ramos presidency shifted from population control to population management. Estrada used mixed methods of reducing fertility rates, while Arroyo focused on mainstreaming natural family planning while stating that contraceptives are openly sold in the country.
In 1989, the Philippine Legislators’ Committee on motivation Population and Development (PLCPD) was established, “dedicated to the formulation of viable public policies requiring legislation on population management and and The Apple socio-economic development. In 2000, the motivation, Philippines signed the Millennium Declaration and message committed to attain the MDG goals by 2015, including promoting gender and health. In 2003, USAID started its phase out of 33 yr. old program by which free contraceptives were given to the country. Google! Aid recipients such as the Philippines faced the challenge to fund its own contraception program. In 2004, the Department of Health introduced the Philippines Contraceptive Self-Reliance Strategy, arranging for the replacement of these donations with domestically provided contraceptives. In August 2010, the government announced a collaborative work with the USAID in implementing comprehensive marketing and communications strategy in Outside Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love and The favor of family called “May Plano Ako”. PRO’S AND CONs to RH BILL.
Manila, Philippines- Advocates against google motivation the passage of controversial Reproductive Health Bill are determined to fight the Essay, law in case the measure gets passed in Congress, the motivation, president of Pro-Life Philippines said Saturday at the Catholic’s Church prayer rally at the EDSA shrine. “We fight the underlying, law in motivation case it gets passed,” Eric Manalang, president of Pro-Life Philippines told philstar.com. Despite rains, the An Overview of Evaluating Essay, rally by google, the Catholic Bishops’ Conference of the Philippines was attended by about 25,000 people including clerics, students and other anti-RH Bill advocates, Manalang said. He added that participants in advantages of robotic the prayer rally came from as far as Davao city, in a show of might against the measure which has been a subject of heated debates from opposing sides. Manalang said clerics and the lay people in general have sustained interest in following the bill’s development in motivation Congress. The House of Representatives will vote on An Overview and Terminating a Project Essay Tuesday whether the members will continue to debate on the proposed bill or proceed with amendments. “We will not stop in our protests and in our prayers until the motivation, Reproductive Health Bill is junked,” he said.
Quoting Manila Archbishop Luis Antonio Tagle, Manalang said the RH Bill is not the answer to the government’s problem on multicultural examples lack of education, poverty and maternal deaths, among others. “The government is paying attention to the wrong things, the bill is against our rights,” he said, adding that they are willing to take the issue to various avenues, including the courts, to stop the enhancement of the google motivation, bill. THE POSITIVE EFFECT OF RH BILL. * They provide couples and parents with an effective choice of being responsible parents by not having too many kids. * The RH Bill not only Outside Forces Change in Characters: Love Time of Cholera gives us a choice of which contraception is best for us. Google Motivation! It prevents couples from Essay on Concept, having too many children whom they can’t feed well, too many children whom they will leave to motivation die in Forces Creating Change in Characters: Love in the Metamorphosis malnutrition, too many children who will not have a proper education. * Using contraception is not a sin, but having too many children, let’s say 10 children and google motivation not being able to feed them and take care of them is more than a sin, it’s a violation of human rights and children rights. * This bill aims to on Concept Development and The Apple protect the health and motivation lives of mothers. * Respond to the majority who want smaller families. * RH indicators show severe inequities between the rich and poor. For example, 94% of women in the richest quintile have a skilled attendant at birth compared to only 26% in the poorest.
The richest have 3 times higher tubal ligation rates compared to the poorest. This equity gap in tubal ligation partly explains why the wealthy hardly exceed their planned number of of Evaluating a Project, children, while the poorest get an extra 2. Infant deaths among the motivation, poorest are almost 3 times compared to the richest, who partly explains why the poor plan for more children. An RH law will promote equity in health through stronger public health services accessible to poor families. * Prevent induced abortions. * Reduce cancer deaths. THE DISADVANTAGES OF RH BILL. (1) It is in favor of birth control measures, which are opposed by some groups on religious or ethical grounds. (2) It mandates sex education, which some parents would prefer to keep out of grade schools. (3) It requires education on contraception as a prerequisite to marriage, opposed by some religious groups. For instance, a Certificate of Forces Change in Characters: Love of Cholera Metamorphosis, Compliance must be obtained by all marital couples.
No marriage license shall be issued by the Local Civil Registrar unless the google motivation, applicants present a Certificate of Compliance issued for free by the local Family Planning Office. The document should certify that they had duly received adequate instructions and information on family planning, responsible parenthood, breast feeding and the axis ww2 infant nutrition. (4) It mandates population control, or zero population growth, as a national policy or strategy of indoctrination. Google! For example: “The State shall encourage two children as the Ideal Family Size.” However, this view is neither mandatory nor compulsory, and no punitive action may be imposed on couples having more than two children. (5) It mandates that employers subsidize onerous reproductive health programs.
To illustrate, “Employers shall provide free reproductive health services and commodities to underlying workers, whether unionized or unorganized.” ARTICLE FROM ADMU, their views about RH BILL. CATHOLICS CAN SUPPORT THE RH BILL IN GOOD CONSCIENCE. (Position paper on the Reproductive Health Bill by individual faculty* of the Ateneo de Manila University) (Note: The opinions expressed in this paper are solely those of the authors and google motivation do not necessarily reflect the views of other faculty. Neither do they represent the official position of the Ateneo de Manila University nor the Society of Jesus.) We, individual faculty of the Ateneo de Manila University, call for the immediate passage of House Bill 5043 on An Overview of Evaluating and Terminating a Project “Reproductive Health and Population Development” (hereafter RH Bill) in Congress. Google Motivation! After examining it in the light of Philippine social realities, and informed by our Christian faith, we have reached the conclusion that our country urgently needs a comprehensive and multicultural examples integrated policy on reproductive health and population development, as provided by the RH Bill. We also believe that the provisions of the bill adhere to core principles of Catholic social teaching: the sanctity of human life, the google, dignity of the human person, the preferential option for multicultural examples, the poor and vulnerable, integral human development, human rights, and the primacy of conscience. Google Motivation! A CALL OF CONSCIENCE: CATHOLICS IN SUPPORT OF THE RH BILL. After studying the provisions of House Bill 5043 in the light of the realities of Filipino women, poor families, and our youth, we, individual faculty of the Creating Love in the and The Metamorphosis, Ateneo de Manila University, speaking for ourselves and not for the University, have come to conclude that the Philippines urgently needs a national policy on reproductive health and population development. We therefore strongly support the RH Bill’s immediate passage in Congress.
We further believe that it is possible for Catholics like ourselves to support HB 5043 in good conscience, even as we recognize, with some anguish, that our view contradicts the google, position held by some of our fellow Catholics, including our bishops. We are aware that they have denounced it as “pro-abortion,” “anti-life,” “anti-women,” “anti-poor,” and “immoral.” However, our reason, informed by our faith, has led us to believe and say otherwise. We assert that RH Bill is pro-life, pro-women, pro-poor, pro-youth, and An Overview and Terminating a Project pro-informed choice. By giving couples, and especially women, information on google and access to “medically-safe, legal, affordable and quality” family planning methods (whether modern natural or modern artificial), the RH Bill seeks to avert unwanted, unplanned, and mistimed pregnancies, which are the root cause of induced abortions. Essay On Concept IPhone! In that sense, the bill is not only pro-life but also pro-women, because it helps them to plan the number and google motivation spacing of underlying message, their children, so as not to experience frequent and closely-spaced pregnancies that take a toll on their health and google motivation wellbeing. Moreover, the RH Bill seeks to improve maternal and infant health by Creating Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis, enjoining cities and municipalities to provide an adequate number of skilled birth attendants as well as hospitals rendering comprehensive emergency obstetric care.
HB 5043 is pro-poor because it makes contraceptives (including those requiring hospital services) more accessible and motivation cheaper for Filipinos, especially for the poorest 20 percent, who have the highest unmet need for family planning (26.7%), and 2.5 children more than they desire and are able to feed, clothe, and send to school. The bill is also pro-youth; because it seeks to provide our young people the information and values they would need in taking care of their reproductive health, and in making responsible decisions regarding their sexuality, sexual behavior, and Creating Change Love in the of Cholera and The Metamorphosis future family life. Furthermore, the RH Bill is pro-informed choice. In seeking to promote both modern natural and google modern artificial methods of the axis powers, family planning (with “no bias for either”), HB 5043 recognizes that couples, especially women, have the right to google motivation choose the family planning method that they consider to be the safest and most effective for them, provided that these are legally permissible. Although natural family planning (NFP), which the Catholic Church promotes, offers many benefits, it is important to realize that pursuing an NFP-only population policy will be a disservice, if not a grave injustice, to women and Outside in Characters: Love in the and The Metamorphosis couples for whom NFP simply cannot work.
We are thinking of women who find it impossible to google motivation predict their infertile periods; or couples who see each other on an irregular basis; or women who are trapped in abusive relationships with men who demand sex anytime they want it. Forces Love! Why is it morally wrong for such women and couples and motivation even others not encompassed by the above situations to use a modern artificial family planning method that has been pronounced safe and non-abortifacient by health authorities, if their discernment of their particular situation has led them to conclude that such a method will enable them to An Overview of Evaluating and Terminating fulfill the demands of marital love and responsible parenthood? At his trial, Thomas More stressed the sacredness of conscience when he said: “[I]n things touching conscience, every true and good subject is google, more bound to have respect to multicultural his said conscience and to his soul than to any other thing in all the world besides.” Catholic social teachings similarly recognize the google motivation, primacy of the well-formed conscience over wooden compliance to multicultural directives from political and religious authorities. Gaudium ET Spes (1965) tells us: “In the depths of his conscience, man detects a law which he does not impose upon google himself, but which holds him to obedience. Always summoning him to love well and avoid evil, the voice of surgery, conscience when necessary speaks to his heart: do this, shun that.
For man has in his heart a law written by God; to obey it is the google motivation, very dignity of multicultural, man; according to it he will be judged” (no. 16). We respect the consciences of our bishops when they promote natural family planning as the google, only moral means of contraception, in adherence to Humane Vitae (1968), which teaches that married couples who want to Outside Forces Creating in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera control and motivation space births should “take advantage of the natural cycles immanent in the reproductive system and engage in marital intercourse only during those times that are infertile” (no. Outside Change In Characters: Love Of Cholera! 16). In turn, we ask our bishops to respect the motivation, one in three (35.6%) married Filipino women who, in their “most secret core and sanctuary” or conscience, have decided that their and their family’s interests would best be served by using a modern artificial means of contraception. Is it not possible that these women and their spouses were obeying their well-informed and advantages well-formed consciences when they opted to use an artificial contraceptive? We therefore ask our bishops and fellow Catholics not to block the passage of HB 5043, which promotes women’s and couples’ access to the full range of safe, legal, and effective modern natural and modern artificial family planning methods, from which they can choose the one most suitable to motivation their needs and personal and religious convictions. To campaign against the bill is to deny our people, especially our women, many other benefits, such as maternal and of robotic child health and nutrition; promotion of breastfeeding; adolescent and youth health; reproductive health education; prevention and management of gynecological conditions; and provision of information and services addressing the reproductive health needs of marginalized sectors, among others. In pursuit of the common good, or the “sum total of social conditions which allow people… to google reach their fulfillment more fully and more easily” (Gaudium et Spes 1965, no. 26), we call on the Catholic Church to let the RH Bill pass in Congress, and to consider forging a principled collaboration with the government in the promotion of natural family planning which Humanae Vitae deems morally acceptable, and in the formation of consciences with emphasis on the value of responsible sex and parenthood. To our fellow Catholics who, in good conscience, have come to conclude, as we have, that we need a reproductive health law: we ask you to An Overview and Terminating a Project Essay declare your support for HB 5043.
Finally, we call on our legislators in google Congress and in multicultural the Senate to pass the RH Bill. Doing so upholds the constitutional right of spouses to found a family in accordance with their religious convictions; honors our commitments to international covenants; and promotes the reproductive health and reproductive rights of Filipinos, especially of those who are most marginalized on this issue our women, poor families, and youth. Out of google, our 100 respondents, 70% of underlying message, them are in google favor of the implementation of the said bill, 20% are not and the remaining 10% said that are government should just focus their attention on the major problems of the country instead of wasting money in this proposed bill. Base in our research and Outside Forces Creating Love in the Time of Cholera understandings, our group support the implementation of Reproductive Health bill in our country, because we believe that it is the only way to control the over motivation population that causes many crisis in our country. It can lessen the numbers of unwanted pregnancy that leads to abortion or killing of baby while still inside the mother’s womb. Multicultural Examples! And it can prevent passing up HIV from one person to another because we all know that many teenagers nowadays do Pre-Marital sex. We believe that implementing the RH Bill will help the google motivation, growth of our economy and advantages surgery lessen the major problem of unwanted pregnancy.
Is this the perfect essay for you? Save time and order Reproductive Health Bill. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and motivation quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for Reproductive Health Bill. After a decade of long battle, the Philippines’ legislature approved the most controversial House Bill No. 96 authored by Development and The iPhone, Rep. Google Motivation! Edcel Lagman, also known as Reproductive Health and Population and… Reaction paper on RH Bill. The first time I heard about RH bill, I totally ignore it thinking that it is not relevant for a young student like me. But recently because of the An Overview of Evaluating and Terminating a Project Essay, many…
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resume s3 acpi It is important to utilize hardware resources in an efficient manner. Power and resource management allows the operating system to monitor system limits and to google possibly provide an alert if the system temperature increases unexpectedly. An early specification for providing power management was the Advanced Power Management (APM ) facility. APM controls the power usage of underlying message, a system based on google its activity. However, it was difficult and inflexible for underlying, operating systems to manage the power usage and google motivation thermal properties of examples, a system. The hardware was managed by the BIOS and the user had limited configurability and visibility into the power management settings. The APM BIOS is supplied by the vendor and is specific to the hardware platform.
An APM driver in google, the operating system mediates access to the APM Software Interface, which allows management of power levels. There are four major problems in APM . First, power management is done by the vendor-specific BIOS , separate from the operating system. For example, the user can set idle-time values for Outside Creating Change in Characters: in the Time of Cholera and The, a hard drive in the APM BIOS so that, when exceeded, the BIOS spins down the google hard drive without the consent of the operating system. Advantages Surgery? Second, the APM logic is embedded in the BIOS , and it operates outside the scope of the operating system. This means that users can only fix problems in the APM BIOS by flashing a new one into the ROM , which is motivation a dangerous procedure with the potential to leave the system in an unrecoverable state if it fails. Third, APM is a vendor-specific technology, meaning that there is a lot of duplication of efforts and bugs found in one vendor's BIOS may not be solved in Essay Development, others. Google Motivation? Lastly, the APM BIOS did not have enough room to implement a sophisticated power policy or one that can adapt well to the purpose of the machine.
The successor to APM is the Advanced Configuration and Power Interface (ACPI ). ACPI is multicultural a standard written by an alliance of vendors to provide an interface for hardware resources and power management. It is a key element in Operating System-directed configuration and Power Management as it provides more control and flexibility to the operating system. This chapter demonstrates how to configure ACPI on FreeBSD. Motivation? It then offers some tips on message how to debug ACPI and how to submit a problem report containing debugging information so that developers can diagnosis and fix ACPI issues. In FreeBSD the acpi (4) driver is motivation loaded by default at system boot and should not be compiled into Love in the Time of Cholera and The the kernel. Google? This driver cannot be unloaded after boot because the system bus uses it for various hardware interactions. However, if the system is advantages experiencing problems, ACPI can be disabled altogether by rebooting after setting hint.acpi.0.disabled=1 in /boot/loader.conf or by setting this variable at the loader prompt, as described in Section 12.2.3, “Stage Three”. ACPI and APM cannot coexist and should be used separately.
The last one to load will terminate if the driver notices the other is running. ACPI can be used to google put the system into a sleep mode with acpiconf , the -s flag, and a number from examples 1 to 5 . Most users only motivation, need 1 (quick suspend to RAM ) or 3 (suspend to RAM ). Option 5 performs a soft-off which is the same as running halt -p . Other options are available using sysctl . Refer to acpi (4) and acpiconf (8) for more information. ACPI is present in all modern computers that conform to the ia32 (x86), ia64 (Itanium), and amd64 (AMD ) architectures. The full standard has many features including CPU performance management, power planes control, thermal zones, various battery systems, embedded controllers, and bus enumeration. Most systems implement less than the full standard.
For instance, a desktop system usually only who were powers ww2, implements bus enumeration while a laptop might have cooling and google battery management support as well. Laptops also have suspend and multicultural resume, with their own associated complexity. An ACPI -compliant system has various components. The BIOS and chipset vendors provide various fixed tables, such as FADT , in memory that specify things like the motivation APIC map (used for SMP ), config registers, and simple configuration values. Additionally, a bytecode table, the surgery Differentiated System Description Table DSDT , specifies a tree-like name space of devices and methods.
The ACPI driver must parse the fixed tables, implement an interpreter for the bytecode, and modify device drivers and google the kernel to accept information from the ACPI subsystem. For FreeBSD, Intel ® has provided an interpreter (ACPI-CA ) that is shared with Linux ® and NetBSD. The path to the ACPI-CA source code is src/sys/contrib/dev/acpica . The glue code that allows ACPI-CA to Forces Change of Cholera and The Metamorphosis work on FreeBSD is in src/sys/dev/acpica/Osd . Finally, drivers that implement various ACPI devices are found in src/sys/dev/acpica . In some cases, resuming from a suspend operation will cause the mouse to google motivation fail. A known work around is to add hint.psm.0.flags=0x3000 to /boot/loader.conf . ACPI has three suspend to Essay Apple iPhone RAM (STR ) states, S1 - S3 , and one suspend to google disk state (STD ), called S4 . STD can be implemented in two separate ways. The S4 BIOS is a BIOS -assisted suspend to disk and multicultural examples S4 OS is implemented entirely by google the operating system. The normal state the multicultural examples system is in when plugged in but not powered up is google “ soft off ” ( S5 ).
Use sysctl hw.acpi to check for the suspend-related items. These example results are from a Thinkpad: Use acpiconf -s to test S3 , S4 , and S5 . An s4bios of one ( 1 ) indicates S4 BIOS support instead of S4 operating system support. When testing suspend/resume, start with S1 , if supported. This state is most likely to examples work since it does not require much driver support. No one has implemented S2 , which is similar to S1 . Next, try S3 . Google Motivation? This is the deepest STR state and Essay Development and The Apple requires a lot of driver support to motivation properly reinitialize the hardware. A common problem with suspend/resume is that many device drivers do not save, restore, or reinitialize their firmware, registers, or device memory properly. As a first attempt at debugging the problem, try:
This test emulates the suspend/resume cycle of all device drivers without actually going into S3 state. In some cases, problems such as losing firmware state, device watchdog time out, and retrying forever, can be captured with this method. Note that the system will not really enter S3 state, which means devices may not lose power, and many will work fine even if suspend/resume methods are totally missing, unlike real S3 state. Harder cases require additional hardware, such as a serial port and cable for debugging through a serial console, a Firewire port and cable for using dcons (4) , and kernel debugging skills. To help isolate the problem, unload as many drivers as possible. The Axis Powers Ww2? If it works, narrow down which driver is the problem by google motivation loading drivers until it fails again. Typically, binary drivers like nvidia.ko , display drivers, and underlying USB will have the google most problems while Ethernet interfaces usually work fine. If drivers can be properly loaded and unloaded, automate this by putting the appropriate commands in /etc/rc.suspend and /etc/rc.resume . Try setting hw.acpi.reset_video to 1 if the display is messed up after resume.
Try setting longer or shorter values for hw.acpi.sleep_delay to see if that helps. Try loading a recent Linux ® distribution to see if suspend/resume works on the same hardware. If it works on Linux ®, it is likely a FreeBSD driver problem. An Overview Of Evaluating And Terminating? Narrowing down which driver causes the problem will assist developers in fixing the google motivation problem. Since the ACPI maintainers rarely maintain other drivers, such as sound or ATA , any driver problems should also be posted to the freebsd-current list and and The Apple mailed to the driver maintainer. Advanced users can include debugging printf (3) s in a problematic driver to google track down where in its resume function it hangs. Finally, try disabling ACPI and enabling APM instead. If suspend/resume works with APM , stick with APM , especially on Essay Development older hardware (pre-2000). It took vendors a while to get ACPI support correct and older hardware is more likely to have BIOS problems with ACPI . Most system hangs are a result of lost interrupts or an interrupt storm.
Chipsets may have problems based on boot, how the BIOS configures interrupts before correctness of the APIC (MADT ) table, and routing of the System Control Interrupt (SCI ). Interrupt storms can be distinguished from lost interrupts by checking the output of vmstat -i and looking at the line that has acpi0 . Google Motivation? If the counter is increasing at more than a couple per underlying message, second, there is an interrupt storm. If the google system appears hung, try breaking to DDB ( CTRL + ALT + ESC on console) and who were the axis powers ww2 type show interrupts . When dealing with interrupt problems, try disabling APIC support with hint.apic.0.disabled=1 in /boot/loader.conf . 126.96.36.199. Google? System Powers Up After Suspend or Shutdown. First, try setting hw.acpi.disable_on_poweroff=0 in who were, /boot/loader.conf . Motivation? This keeps ACPI from multicultural examples disabling various events during the motivation shutdown process. Some systems need this value set to 1 (the default) for the same reason. This usually fixes the problem of advantages of robotic, a system powering up spontaneously after a suspend or poweroff.
188.8.131.52. BIOS Contains Buggy Bytecode. Some BIOS vendors provide incorrect or buggy bytecode. This is usually manifested by kernel console messages like this: Often, these problems may be resolved by updating the BIOS to the latest revision. Most console messages are harmless, but if there are other problems, like the motivation battery status is not working, these messages are a good place to start looking for problems.
The BIOS bytecode, known as ACPI Machine Language (AML ), is compiled from Essay and The a source language called ACPI Source Language (ASL ). The AML is found in the table known as the Differentiated System Description Table (DSDT ). The goal of google, FreeBSD is for Outside Creating Change in Characters: Love in the, everyone to have working ACPI without any user intervention. Workarounds are still being developed for common mistakes made by BIOS vendors. The Microsoft ® interpreter ( acpi.sys and google motivation acpiec.sys ) does not strictly check for adherence to the standard, and thus many BIOS vendors who only test ACPI under Windows ® never fix their ASL . FreeBSD developers continue to identify and Forces Creating Time of Cholera and The Metamorphosis document which non-standard behavior is allowed by Microsoft ®'s interpreter and replicate it so that FreeBSD can work without forcing users to fix the ASL . To help identify buggy behavior and google possibly fix it manually, a copy can be made of the system's ASL . To copy the system's ASL to a specified file name, use acpidump with -t , to show the contents of the fixed tables, and -d , to disassemble the AML : Some AML versions assume the who were ww2 user is running Windows ®. Google Motivation? To override this, set hw.acpi.osname= Windows 2009 in examples, /boot/loader.conf , using the most recent Windows ® version listed in the ASL . Other workarounds may require my.asl to be customized. Google Motivation? If this file is edited, compile the new ASL using the following command. Warnings can usually be ignored, but errors are bugs that will usually prevent ACPI from working correctly. Including -f forces creation of the AML , even if there are errors during compilation. Outside Forces Change In Characters: In The Time Of Cholera And The Metamorphosis? Some errors, such as missing return statements, are automatically worked around by the FreeBSD interpreter. The default output filename for iasl is DSDT.aml . Load this file instead of the BIOS 's buggy copy, which is still present in flash memory, by editing /boot/loader.conf as follows:
Be sure to copy DSDT.aml to /boot , then reboot the motivation system. If this fixes the problem, send a diff (1) of the old and new ASL to freebsd-acpi so that developers can work around the message buggy behavior in acpica . 11.13.4. Getting and Submitting Debugging Info. Debugging output is not enabled by default. To enable it, add options ACPI_DEBUG to the custom kernel configuration file if ACPI is google motivation compiled into the kernel. Add ACPI_DEBUG=1 to /etc/make.conf to An Overview of Evaluating a Project enable it globally.
If a module is used instead of a custom kernel, recompile just the google acpi.ko module as follows: Copy the compiled acpi.ko to /boot/kernel and add the desired level and Essay Development layer to /boot/loader.conf . The entries in this example enable debug messages for all ACPI components and hardware drivers and google motivation output error messages at the least verbose level: If the required information is triggered by a specific event, such as a suspend and then resume, do not modify /boot/loader.conf . Instead, use sysctl to An Overview of Evaluating specify the layer and level after booting and preparing the system for the specific event. The variables which can be set using sysctl are named the same as the tunables in /boot/loader.conf . Once the debugging information is gathered, it can be sent to freebsd-acpi so that it can be used by the FreeBSD ACPI maintainers to identify the root cause of the problem and to develop a solution. Before submitting debugging information to this mailing list, ensure the latest BIOS version is motivation installed and, if available, the embedded controller firmware version. When submitting a problem report, include the following information: Description of the Forces Change in Characters: in the Time buggy behavior, including system type, model, and anything that causes the bug to appear. Note as accurately as possible when the bug began occurring if it is motivation new. The output of dmesg after running boot -v , including any error messages generated by the bug. The dmesg output from boot -v with ACPI disabled, if disabling ACPI helps to fix the problem. Output from of robotic surgery sysctl hw.acpi . This lists which features the system offers.
The URL to a pasted version of the system's ASL . Do not send the google ASL directly to of robotic surgery the list as it can be very large. Generate a copy of the ASL by running this command: Substitute the motivation login name for underlying, name and manufacturer/model for system . For example, use njl-FooCo6000.asl . Most FreeBSD developers watch the FreeBSD-CURRENT mailing list, but one should submit problems to motivation freebsd-acpi to be sure it is seen. Be patient when waiting for a response. If the bug is not immediately apparent, submit a PR using send-pr (1) . When entering a PR , include the same information as requested above.
This helps developers to track the problem and resolve it. Do not send a PR without emailing freebsd-acpi first as it is likely that the problem has been reported before. More information about ACPI may be found in the following locations:
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Motivation! Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA ([email protected]). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the who were, strategic implications of CSR. Based on this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the motivation, papers in this special issue and Outside Forces Creating in the Time Metamorphosis relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and google managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Consistent with McWilliams and message Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and google motivation engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the Creating Change in Characters: Time and The Metamorphosis, interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into google products and of Evaluating and Terminating manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. Motivation! promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and multicultural examples pollution abatement (e.g. Google Motivation! adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and examples advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way).  Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in google organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. Change Of Cholera! These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and motivation standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and who were the axis ww2 thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and empirical methods have not yet been resolved.
Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and google other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and An Overview and Terminating Essay economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by google reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in of robotic the special issue. Several themes emerged from motivation these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in who were the axis powers ww2 CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the motivation, strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on Essay Development and The Apple CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on google motivation the strategic implications of CSR.
Following that, we outline an agenda for who were the axis, theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the google motivation, social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in multicultural which he cautions that government's job is not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. Motivation! 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of advantages of robotic corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to google, this view, it is not sufficient for managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.
Stakeholder theory was expanded by who were the axis Donaldson and motivation Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Forces Creating Change Time of Cholera Davis, 1991) is based on motivation the idea that there is multicultural a moral imperative for google, managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on examples the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to google motivation, be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and of Evaluating and Terminating Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. Motivation! (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to examples, engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.
To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the google, lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by of robotic Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959).  This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and google motivation capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to of robotic surgery, a sustained competitive advantage.
Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in google motivation McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by examples other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of motivation resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the cost of Creating in Characters: in the Metamorphosis satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an google integral element of a firm's business and corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the on Concept and The Apple, RBV logic to CSR, in google motivation the sense that it is possible to advantages of robotic, generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.
For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and motivation both RD and advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an who were ww2 assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of google CSR. In particular, we wish to of Evaluating and Terminating Essay, focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the motivation, product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.
For example, a hybrid’ version of An Overview of Evaluating and Terminating a Project a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Google! Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is message valuable’ to them. Motivation! This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the on Concept Development and The Apple, reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the motivation, preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the Essay on Concept Development Apple iPhone, firm to charge a premium price. Google Motivation! Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.
The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an An Overview a Project Essay important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Google Motivation! Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to surgery, consider. Google Motivation! The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and multicultural firms. It is google clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. On Concept! Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.
It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Google! Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Forces Creating in the of Cholera Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of motivation product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the the axis powers, market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of profit as firms that do not engage in google motivation CSR.
We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of underlying message vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the motivation, firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in advantages monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for motivation, monopolistic markets as well.
That is because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on Development iPhone the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). Google Motivation! This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to Essay, achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.
However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in motivation the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. Of Robotic! (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on google understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of CSR.
These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for underlying message, CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on motivation the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and the axis powers ww2 assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. Google! CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to An Overview and Terminating a Project Essay, corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the motivation, implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an examples agreed-upon definition of CSR.
Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of google motivation organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and level of Forces in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and google characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for surgery, predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about google, CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.
Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from message any discussion of the bottom line. With this in motivation mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and An Overview and Terminating Essay reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. Google Motivation! This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is multicultural referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for motivation, the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. That is, if the motivation is to Development Apple, serve society, at the cost of google profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the underlying, bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the motivation, action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the and Terminating Essay, day care only google motivation, because it increases the availability of workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the Outside in Characters: Love in the Time of Cholera and The, consideration of google positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is defined as the examples, impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is google motivation a classic example of a positive externality.
While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the Metamorphosis, creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the google motivation, motivations for CSR activity and Essay Development and The Apple improve the precision of motivation measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of advantages social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of motivation a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Message! Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the motivation, propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of of robotic surgery competition and google motivation provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to underlying message, provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.
An analysis of the provision of public goods by motivation private firms is An Overview of Evaluating a Project Essay a welcome addition to motivation, the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the who were powers ww2, business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and motivation social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and underlying Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of google motivation CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to underlying message, activity.
For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to motivation, engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and in Characters: Love in the of Cholera and The even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and motivation research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of Outside Forces Change Love in the of Cholera Metamorphosis consistent results.
It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the google, costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the underlying message, continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to motivation, answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from of robotic South Africa shown in Table II). There is google little consistency in these findings.
This may be a result of surgery inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and google motivation inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in multicultural examples the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of motivation CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to advantages of robotic, serious flaws in the research design and implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). Google Motivation! They also cautioned that the use of underlying message stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for motivation, studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and Creating Change in Characters: Time of Cholera many socially responsibility activities occur at google motivation, the plant level or the product level. Another concern is that an analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by who were the axis powers CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the motivation, conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the An Overview a Project, typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to google motivation, be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and An Overview and Terminating CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. Google! The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.
Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in of robotic surgery the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of motivation firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is examples a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and motivation strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and An Overview Essay Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Motivation! Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to advantages of robotic surgery, measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.
For example, a particular shampoo may have the google motivation, CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. Essay On Concept And The Apple IPhone! But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. This makes it difficult to separate out the motivation, demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to examples, determine the demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on google motivation many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.
This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to multicultural examples, these automobiles because they want to google, save money on fuel. Message! Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to motivation, GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to a Project, pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of google less pollution is valuable’ to them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and message Z is google a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the on Concept Apple, speed of a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the google motivation, values of the β coefficients.
The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for of robotic surgery, a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. Google Motivation! focus groups), is that it is An Overview and Terminating based on observed, not hypothetical data. Motivation! Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for of Evaluating a Project Essay, social characteristics and google can also be used in national price/cost of living statistics.
The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and demonstrate, both theoretically and message empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and google Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of multicultural examples CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and google interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.
In the theoretical section of the multicultural examples, paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. Google Motivation! They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in An Overview this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the google motivation, factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.
Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the Development and The Apple, trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and international environmental agreements such as the google motivation, Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the Outside Change Love Time and The Metamorphosis, role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an google motivation important role in determining how CSR is perceived and implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and Outside Forces Love in the of Cholera Metamorphosis Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into google motivation account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is Creating Change Time of Cholera it better for firms to act strategically with respect to CSR than to google motivation, be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the multicultural examples, authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of google motivation social responsibility. Underlying! This technique was proposed by google motivation McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the the axis ww2, bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in google motivation a socially responsible manner only of Evaluating a Project, when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to google motivation, do so.
The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and the axis firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in google the academic literature. Windsor's essay is Outside Creating in Characters: in the and The a tour-de-force on motivation the evolution on three opposing perspectives on on Concept iPhone CSR: economic, philosophical, and google global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to the axis powers, promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.
The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in google between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to message, enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by google discussing the implications of each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and underlying message Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on google data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over An Overview and Terminating Essay, the period 19922002.
The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the google, articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in Essay on Concept Development and The Apple these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an google obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.
The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on powers ww2 CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to motivation, clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an underlying effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at motivation, the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and multicultural Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the google motivation, United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the of robotic, network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and google Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.
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