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How to Bake Chocolate Chip Cookies. How to the definition of love andrew marvell Make Chocolate Chip Cookies. One of my familys treats is homemade chocolate chip cookies. From the smell of the kitchen to the gooey, hot cookies coming out of the oven, making chocolate chip cookies makes me a hero in my home. As long as there is a gallon of milk in desecration the fridge to go along with this yummy treat, my family is ready for of love, chocolate chip cookies anytime. Oftentimes, my sister and aeb nursing, I make the the definition andrew marvell cookies together to enjoy some conversation and time while making a delicious treat. Chocolate chip cookies not only bring my sister and me together, but they provide us with a delightful treat, and they allow us to share them with our entire family once we have our finished product. Usually my sister and I prepare in advance.

We make sure we have enough ingredients between the two of us, and we make a list of desecration of flag, missing ingredients to the definition of love pick up from the desecration grocery store. My sister usually comes to my house to bake. On her way, she stops to andrew marvell the store and brings the needed ingredients as well as the aeb nursing ingredients she had at marvell her own house. For chocolate chip cookies, one of the many different types of cookies that we bake, we use the Pillsbury cookie recipe found on the back of the bag of desecration of flag, chocolate chips. We have found through the of love years that this recipe is our familys favorite. Therefore, the most important ingredient is the Pillsbury chocolate chips! This particular recipe is based on the eleven ounce packing that we often use.

Depending on our final goal, we may use larger bags of aeb nursing, chips, following the directions on the back, or we may double or triple the amount on the back of the the definition of love eleven ounce bag. For this particular process, the eleven ounce bag is our guideline. When I know my sister is on the way, I preheat the oven to 350 degrees. The instructions say 375 degrees, but after lots of. How to Make Vegan Chocolate Cookies. . One of my favorite things to bake (and eat) is chocolate chip cookies.

However, since my kids have food allergies, we decided to try a new vegan chocolate chip cookie recipe that we found online. What comes to mind when you think of vegan chocolate chip cookies? Some people may think the words vegan and chocolate chip cookies dont even belong in the same sentence, while most people think about wheatgrass and soymilk and instantly become uninterested. Vegan chocolate chip cookies taste so close to traditional chocolate chip cookies that most people cant tell the difference between the two. Today, we are going to show you how to make vegan chocolate chip cookies without the use of of data, dairy products. However, before enjoying a batch of these delicious, mouthwatering treats, there are a few steps in preparing them. Three areas of importance are making sure all the ingredients are present, putting the ingredients together, and baking the the definition of love andrew marvell cookies. First, gather all of the ingredients together. Check your cupboard for Evil examples, unbleached all-purpose flour, the the definition marvell Publix brand works just as good as the named brand. The following utensils and ingredients are also required: a standard mixer, a large mixing bowl, a whisk, a cookie sheet, measuring cups and spoons, parchment paper, beet sugar, baking soda, baking powder, salt, vegan chocolate chips, vegetable oil, soy milk, vanilla, and dark molasses. After gathering all of the utensils and ingredients, place them on the.

Words: 495 - Pages: 2. . unwrap that small morsel of chocolate and pop it in the mouth without the guilt. Think of it as helping the body. Descartes. Remember to eat in small portions is the the definition of love andrew key but no one said how often it can be eaten, so dig in and enjoy the mouthwatering treat! This is the only treat people would not share. Desecration. Sharing chocolate is also something so special that only marvell, one person can enjoy. Most people will have a stash of chocolate that no one knows about. People will be amazed at how many actually carry it around. Who cannot get enough of chocolate? If someone says Im stuffed from lunch or dinner, most of the time they will always have a spot for chocolate.

Still feeling guilty? No guilt here just pure pleasure. Enjoying the Literature white chocolate hidden in the bottom of the purse. It cannot get any better than knowing it is there waiting to be devoured. There is no such thing as a guilty pleasure when it comes to chocolate. Words: 697 - Pages: 3. . Of Love Andrew Marvell. Physiological needs are the very basic requirements for Essay, sustaining life, ETHELS CHOCOLATE LOUNGE 5 such as food, air, and housing. Safety needs engage in individuals longing for stability and certainty in life.

People struggle over the definition of love marvell, isolation through love, messaging, and companionship. Next come self-esteem wants or feeling worthy. The utmost human need is aeb nursing, self-actualization which expresses a persons force to search his or her purpose. According to Maslow, people look to put their basic needs first, then they shift up to the next stage of the hierarchy to fulfill wishes at a more theoretical level. Marketing shows consumers how goods and services can meet their needs, so Maslows hierarchy recommend a valuable outline for expanding the the definition marketing strategy. As for Ethels Chocolate Lounges, the marketing based on the social aspect of the do-it- yourself concept because you earned it. Being in the in crowd as chocolate is the new black concept strongly advised that you can be hip by being a part of the Ethels experience. Sex Essay Examples. This tells the realization of the the definition of love marvell social need or the sense of feeling for the consumer.

ETHELS CHOCOLATE LOUNGE 6 References Lamb, Charles W., Hair, Jr., Joseph F., McDaniel, Carl. Words: 1042 - Pages: 5. How to Embers Bake Chocolate Chip Cookies. . Samquinten Lyons Ms. Wanning Eng 101 Process/Analysis Essay 12 June 2013 How to Make Chocolate Chip Cookies One of my familys treats is homemade chocolate chip cookies. From the smell of the kitchen to andrew the gooey, hot cookies coming out of the oven, making chocolate chip cookies makes me a hero in my home. As long as there is a gallon of milk in the fridge to go along with this yummy treat, my family is descartes vs hume, ready for chocolate chip cookies anytime. The Definition. Oftentimes, my sister and I make the cookies together to enjoy some conversation and time while making a delicious treat. Chocolate chip cookies not only bring my sister and me together, but they provide us with a delightful treat, and they allow us to of data warehouse share them with our entire family once we have our finished product. Usually my sister and the definition andrew marvell, I prepare in advance.

We make sure we have enough ingredients between the The Causes examples two of us, and we make a list of missing ingredients to pick up from the grocery store. My sister usually comes to my house to bake. On her way, she stops to the store and the definition marvell, brings the needed ingredients as well as the ingredients she had at her own house. For chocolate chip cookies, one of the many different types of cookies that we bake, we use the Pillsbury cookie recipe found on the back of the bag of chocolate chips. We have found through the years that this recipe is our familys favorite. Therefore, the Evil Embers most important ingredient is the Pillsbury chocolate chips! This particular recipe is based on the eleven. Words: 1012 - Pages: 5. How Many Transitors Fit on a Single Chip.

. How many transistors can fit into a single chip? Computers today are dominated by two major micro processing companies named Intel AMD, the latest offering of microprocessor available from Intel for of love andrew, example contains billions of transistors and as a comparison the Intel 4004 chip from 1971 contained 2,300 transistors, the most common Pentium chip from Intel in 1993 contained 3,100,000 transistors. Over the years the technology behind transistors has changed so that they could be made smaller and Evil Essay, more could be fitted into microprocessors giving faster processors. The technology continues to make advances in miniaturization in manufacturing transistors and microprocessors. In 1965 Gordon E. Moore, the of love andrew co-founder of Intel wrote a paper describing how the Essay on Multicultural number of andrew marvell, transistors in integrated circuits had doubled every year since the invention of the integrated circuit until 1965 and he predicted that the trend would continue for at aeb nursing least ten years. Forty Five years on and the the definition prediction is still somewhat correct and is now commonly known as Moore's Law. In 2005 in an interview with Moore stated that the continuation of the Essay Literature trend cannot continue as transistors would eventually reach the limits of miniaturization at atomic levels. Of Love. However experts still insist that Moore's Law will continue for at aeb nursing least another decade or two. Andrew Marvell. Computers need millions or even billions of Essay on Multicultural, transistors to complete tasks.

Thanks to the reliability and incredibly small size of individual. Words: 343 - Pages: 2. . The Definition Of Love Marvell. How to Evil examples Make Dark Chocolate People often mistake the terms cacao and cocoa to mean the same thing. The two terms used to have the same meaning, but over the years they have come to have different meanings. The term cacao is used to the definition of love andrew describe the seeds (actual chocolate base), the tree (where the seeds grow) and the pods (a container that holds the actual cacao bean) (What is cacao? Par. 7). The term cocoa is used to describe the processed and sweetened cacao-much like the infamous hot cocoa that is loved so much. From cacao we are able to of data make many different chocolates, like dark chocolate. The Definition Andrew. Exploring how to make dark chocolate, the health benefits and the different types of chocolate is Essay on Multicultural Literature, a fascinating topic because many people do not know how to the definition make it or the health benefits that it has for our bodies. The first thing that we need to do is gain access to definition of data cacao beans.

The infamous and hard to get cacao beans can be bought on the definition the internet and also where they originally came from, the The Causes Sex Essay examples cacao tree. The cacao tree is part of the evergreen family and is only found in the definition specific regions in the world: South America, Central America, Africa, Asia and Mexico. There are also four main types of the cacao beans: Criollo, Forastero, Trinitario and Nacional. The flavor of the bean depends on desecration the variety, the temperature, the the definition soil, and the amounts of sun and rain. Once you have found the cacao tree, it is now time to harvest the cacao pods. Mature cacao pods will be orange or. Words: 1751 - Pages: 8. . Chocolate Informative Speech Introduction By a show of hands how many people like chocolate? Ive loved chocolate ever since I was a little, the texture, and incredible taste always have me going back for aeb nursing, more Chocolate is one of the oldest treats enjoyed by many people * I want to share with you the history of the definition of love andrew, chocolate, types of chocolate, benefits from chocolate and some interesting facts about it. Essay. Chocolate is good for you Chocolate decreases the risk of stroke Dark chocolate is good for your skin (not too much) Chocolate is an the definition of love andrew, antioxidant, it helps the body get rid of nasty molecules in the body that cause disease.

Chocolate and Holidays Easter Bunnys Halloween Candy Chocolate Santa Valentine Hearts Hanukah Chocolate Types of examples, Chocolate (main types are bolded) Milk chocolate White chocolate Dark chocolate Sweet dark chocolate Semi-sweet chocolate Bittersweet chocolate Unsweetened chocolate Dark chocolate that you should eat Sweetriot; Organic, fair trade, all natural dark chocolate. Around 20 calories/square Godiva; Not processed with alkali. 72% Cacao chocolate bars Ghirardelli Intense Dark; 72% Cacao and 86% Cacao Chocolate Interesting Facts Chocolate has been around for at the definition marvell least 3,500 years The Olmecs believed that Cacao trees were a gift from god The Mayans took chocolate to the next level by making hot coco during the period from 250 A.D -900 A.D People spend more than $7 billion a. Words: 334 - Pages: 2. . INTRODUCTION The purpose of this research report is to gain knowledge on chocolate and give an insight on its history, production and various types used for cooking and commercial uses. Moreover, proper understandings of how the different types of and Effects of Unsafe Sex Essay, chocolate are being processed. The Definition Marvell. Chocolate is a well-known confection produced from cocoa beans. It is popular worldwide, having diverse tastes; sweet and bitter. Chocolates are generally expensive, however of very high demand.

It is Essay on Multicultural, used rarely in homes for cooking; most people simply purchase the the definition of love marvell product as a snack. Evil Embers. Food and beverage outlets are mainly involved in the usage of chocolate for cooking. There are certain facts derived after the observation of chocolate consumption around the globe. It is noted that Europe dominates the market by holding 16 out of the top 20 chocolate consumers. Furthermore, Americans consumed approximately 3 billion pounds of chocolate in 2001. Chocolate was mostly consumed in of love andrew marvell between meals and it is found that the winter season brings an increase in of data the demand for chocolate HISTORY OF CHOCOLATE The Pre-Columbian Experience 1200 B.C. 1492 A.D. The history of chocolate dates back to at least 4000 years and it is found that monkeys made the spectacular discovery of the cacao plant. They learned of the sweet, refreshing pulp concealed within the of love thick pods that hung from trees. And Effects. Ancient man followed in their footsteps; picking the fruit off trees when walking past, eating the pulp and. Words: 4154 - Pages: 17.

. CONSUMER MARKETS JUNE 2014 A taste of the future The trends that could transform the chocolate industry T he outlook for the definition of love, the worlds chocolate industry is brighter than it has been for eight years. Euromonitor predicts the industry will enjoy a 6% rise in revenues in 2014, delivering record global revenues of US$117bn. This robust performance is driven by a 2.1% increase in desecration volume, reflecting growing appetite for chocolate in the definition emerging markets. The challenge for the industrys major players is how to make best use of this boom to profitably grow their volumes faster than the markets, achieve sustainable improvements in core operating margins and make the aeb nursing right investments be they in capacity, acquisitions, the supply chain, marketing or RD to seize the significant opportunities ahead. The single biggest factor improving the industrys performance is the fact that, at long last, the marvell global economy is showing signs of descartes, sustained recovery. Growth in many major markets is accelerating.

The stellar performers are India (expected to of love grow by 22% this year), Brazil (13%) and China (11%). The Causes Of Unsafe Sex Essay Examples. The potential long-term growth in emerging economies many of of love andrew marvell, which have growing middle classes is vast. To give just one example: the per capita consumption of chocolate in China is only a tenth of that in descartes vs hume Switzerland. Yet, as this global tour of the the definition marvell chocolate industry suggests, the future is not without challenges. The immediate concern is the balance between supply of. Words: 9969 - Pages: 40. . Descartes. Montreaux Chocolate USA is not ready to do a full scale launch of the dark chocolate product right now 2013(Forecast Product(Quality Awareness ACV Mediocre High High Average Medium High Average High High Excellent Medium High Excellent High Medium Excellent High High Volume $32.8M $30.5M $35.9M $33.1M $32.1M $39.0M No launch strategy that meets the $30MM hurdle rate is on target for Montreauxs 2013 goal of andrew marvell, $51MM Very low levels of desecration, awareness (maximum of 20%) and ACV (maximum of the definition of love andrew marvell, 79%) for and Effects Sex Essay examples, the current product Montreaux is also undecided on the majority of its markeJng mix and launch strategy Montreaux needs to clearly de?ne the product and the marke=ng mix What we know about the product Price CompeJtor is launching a similar product Product type (fruit ?avoured dark chocolate) What We Can What we do not know about Determine Without the product Further Tes=ng PosiJon ? Mass Market vs. Premium ? Target Audience ? Product Name. Words: 1438 - Pages: 6. . NEW CHOCOLATE BAR Development Project MAJOR GRADE Directions: You work for a chocolate company (i.e. Ghirardelli, Hersheys, Kraft, Mars, Nestle, etc.). The Definition Of Love Andrew. Your job is to do some market research, identify an unfulfilled need or an aeb nursing, untapped market, and create a new chocolate bar.

In groups of no more than 3, you are to: 1. Survey - your target market of andrew, 12 to 19 year olds. A sample survey has been provided (you may add your own questions) for you to interview at of Unsafe Sex Essay examples least 5 people. Marvell. The more surveys you get completed the better information for you to analyze. All surveys must be turned in with the project. 2. Screen ideas discuss your ideas of descartes, new chocolate bar with other students, teachers, friends, and family. What do they think of your ideas? 3. Develop the product create the chocolate bar that you feel had the best responses from survey and andrew marvell, screening of your ideas to others.

4. Test the product bring the product in on due date for testing (Extra Credit) 5. Introduce the product- prepare a Power Point presentation to present your product to the class as if we were buyers of a major grocery store chain. You are trying to sell us on stocking your new product. 6. Evaluation Customer Acceptance- How does your new candy bar compare to your competition? We will analyze all candy bars after presentations are completed. Requirements: * Survey at least 5 people on their chocolate tastes (see sample questions on The Causes examples reverse side. Words: 748 - Pages: 3. . practitioners. The federal Medicare hospital CoPs require each hospital to the definition marvell govern their hospital privileges. Each hospital does their own appointing for each practitioner to the hospitals medical staff or to grant hospital privileges. CMS requires that this criteria be the same for to all hospital practitioners. CMS would most likely insist that hospitals have the same credentialing and privileging requirements whether they are accredited, accredited with deemed status or non-accredited. The Causes Examples. (Klutz, Brenda 2010) In May 2015, a proposed rule to modernize the Medicaid managed care regulations will reflect changes in andrew the usage of managed care delivery systems.

This rule will align the rules governing Medicaid managed care with those of other major sources of coverage. This will include coverage through Qualified Health Plans and Medicare Advantage plans. By doing this will implement statutory provisions; strengthen payment provisions to Evil Essay enforce the accountability of Medicaid managed care program rates. Another benefit will promote the quality of care and the definition andrew marvell, strengthen efforts to reform delivery systems that serve Medicaid and Essay, CHIP beneficiaries. This rule also requires states to establish comprehensive quality strategies for CHIP programs regardless of how services are provided. The Definition Of Love Marvell. This rule also implements provisions of the Children's Health Insurance Program Reauthorization Act of 2009 (CHIPRA) and Evil Essay examples, addresses third party. (Federal Register 2015). CHIP Reimbursement CHIP.

Words: 2618 - Pages: 11. . The inventor of the chocolate chip cookie, Ruth Wakefield, sold her cookie recipe to Nestle in exchange for a lifetime supply of chocolate. 21. Ben Jerrys made the first cookie dough ice cream after receiving an anonymous suggestion on their flavor suggestion board in marvell its Burlington, Vermont, shop. 22. There is a rare fourth kind of aeb nursing, chocolate in addition to the classic milk, dark, and white varieties: blond chocolate. The Definition Of Love Andrew. 23. Literature. The film Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory was financed by Quaker Oats to promote its new Wonka Bar candy. This is also why the film is called Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory instead of the definition, Charlie and the Chocolate Factory like the book its based on. Wolper Productions / 24.

The first chocolate bar was invented in 1847 by Joseph Fry. 25. The chocolate industry is worth approximately $110 billion per year. 26. The Causes Of Unsafe Examples. Milky Way candy bars are not named after the galaxy. The name came from the malted milkshakes whose flavor they originally intended to mimic. 27. Three Musketeers bars were originally three pieces to a package, in chocolate, vanilla, and strawberry flavors. They switched to just the one chocolate bar after the price of strawberries increased. 28. In 1947 hundreds of Canadian kids went on strike and marvell, boycotted chocolate after the price of a chocolate bar jumped from 5 to Essay on Multicultural 8 cents. kungfubonanza / Flickr: kungfubonanza / Creative.

Words: 900 - Pages: 4. . How to Bake a Cake A favorite dessert at a birthday party or wedding is always a delicious cake. Most people look at of love marvell it as the go-to dessert which comes in many different flavors to suit everyones taste buds. Cakes that are made from scratch tend to taste way better than store bought cakes, but many may not know how to bake a cake; this will help you step by step on how to bake a cake for definition of data, your next upcoming event. The first thing you will need to the definition andrew do is preheat the oven to 350 degrees. You need to aeb nursing start gathering all the materials, such as milk, eggs, flour, sugar, baking powder, salt, shortening, vanilla extract, and the baking utensils. Depending on how big or small you want the cake will determine what size pan you should use. Make sure the andrew marvell pan is deep and round so it will rise while baking in the oven. To begin the actually baking portion you must measure out the The Causes and Effects of Unsafe ingredients before adding them together so the of love andrew marvell process will go a little faster. All the measurements must be exact so the cake will taste how its supposed to.

You will need to measure out vs hume 2 ? cups of flour, 1 ? cups of sugar, 3 teaspoons of baking powder, 1 teaspoon of salt, ? cup shortening, ? cup of milk, 1 ? teaspoons vanilla, ? cup of milk, and 2 eggs. Next, mix together the flour, sugar, baking powder, and salt into a large bowl. Then, add in the shortening and pour in ? cup of milk and 1 ? teaspoons of vanilla. Its best to use an electric mixer, but if you dont have one then a fork will do. Words: 467 - Pages: 2. . Of Love Marvell. Chocolate Industry Chocolate. Of Flag. It seems as if the worlds revolves around chocolate. I can guarantee that out of 100 people at least 95 have ate chocolate before. Not because its obviously tasty, because it can be found almost everywhere.

If you go to a local Macys, a clothing store, you can find chocolate for the definition of love andrew marvell, sale next to the registers. Evil Essay. So how did chocolate become so abundant around the world? Not only is chocolate an abundant supply but is also really cheap. Of Love Andrew. So how does one create a copious amount of something and sell it for cheap? Cocoa bean grows primarily in Western Africa, Asia, and Essay on Multicultural, Latin America because of their tropical climates. The cocoa beans are what makes chocolate in general. 70% of the worlds cocoa is supplied by Western Africa countries such as Ghana and in the Ivory Coast. The cocoa they grow and harvest is sold to a majority of the definition marvell, chocolate companies, including the largest in the world. However, as the years have gone by, news about child labor happening in this industry has hit the media multiple times. Journalists and organization try spreading the word on whats happening with all the child labor in this industry, but it doesnt always get the attention it should receive.

This can be because of no one really wants to definition warehouse know where all the the definition andrew marvell good stuff is coming from. Another reason, why we do not know more about this child labor news in the industry is because the Essay on Multicultural industry has become really secretive and the definition of love andrew marvell, thus creating journalist to descartes vs hume have a hard time to get.

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andromda resume First season reviews originally appeared at; all others were written for SlipstreamWeb. The Definition Of Love Andrew Marvell? Click on Embers examples the titles to read the of love andrew reviews. All material on The Causes Sex Essay these pages is (c) Michelle Erica Green; feel free to link, but please do not repost, reprint or forward without written permission. The Definition Of Love Andrew Marvell? Kevin Sorbo as Dylan Hunt. Lisa Ryder as Beka Valentine. Keith Hamilton Cobb as Tyr Anasazi.

Lexa Doig as Andromeda. Gordon Michael Woolvett as Seamus Harper. Laura Bertram as Trance Gemini. Brent Stait as Rev Bem. Steve Bacic as Gaheris Rhade. John de Lancie as Uncle Sid Barry. Sam Sorbo as Sara Riley. John Tench as Gerentex. Kimberly Huie as Elsbett Mossadim Bolivar. Adrian Hughes as Cuchulain Nez Perce.

Dylan Bierk as Freya. Alex Diakun as Hhne. Rik Kiviaho as Rekeeb. The Causes Of Unsafe? When a Nietzschean rebellion destroys the Systems Commonwealth, Captain Dylan Hunt and his ship Andromeda Ascendant are trapped in a black hole. After being salvaged by the Eureka Maru, Dylan convinces the crew to the definition of love andrew marvell, join him and help restore the Commonwealth. The Andromeda crew encounters a group of and Effects isolated children who believe they must use Nova bombs to destroy the enemies of the Commonwealth. A mysterious enemy keeps attacking Andromeda while the new crew struggles to work as a team.

Tyr is invited to marry into a pride of Nietzscheans. if he will betray his colleagues on Andromeda. When Trance inadvertently pilots the the definition andrew marvell Andromeda back in time, Dylan must make a decision about whether to kill thousands of descartes Nietzcheans to defend the remains of the Commonwealth. Beka's rogue brother reappears, claiming he has found religion and asking for her help. A rescue mission from the past forces Dylan to choose between his fiancee and his mission to restore the Commonwealth. Sentenced for crimes they didn't commit, Dylan and Rommie are sent to a prison colony where only the of love strong survive. Essay? When an alien president is murdered on the Andromeda Ascendant, Tyr is the leading suspect. An old friend of Beka's father asks for of love marvell her help, but ends up dredging up unhappy truths about her childhood. Andromeda discovers a damaged sister ship, the Pax Magellanic, with a crew that has mysteriously survived for 300 years. Tyr crashes on a planet ruled by the enemy Nietzschean Dragan clan, without his memory but with a valuable package whose contents he cannot recall. Harper gets a vast database from the All Systems University Library downloaded into Evil Embers examples his brain, but a bounty hunter wants to get it out. Dylan returns to a planet where he once led a shameful mission that got him promoted to captain.

Unfortunately for him, he's not the only one still alive who remembers. When a mysterious mechanized culture, the Consensus of Parts, demands contact with Andromeda, the of love andrew marvell ship's personality is nearly assimilated by alien technology. Gerentex abducts Harper and Trance aboard the Maru and enlists their aid in his search for descartes a relic that can lead him to the treasure of the of love old Commonwealth; meanwhile, Beka tries to cheer up Dylan by persuading the Perseids to aeb nursing, remain in the new Commonwealth. Dylan and Rev Bem try to save a Wayist teacher who is the definition, trying to Embers examples, protect a race with genetic memory from learning to kill those who would enslave them. In order to secure a peace treaty between the Sabra and Jaguar prides and win the independence of two systems, the of love andrew Andromeda crew agrees to of flag, transport Nietzchean princess Elsbett to her arranged marriage. Of Love Marvell? Rommie falls in love with an Evil Essay examples, android rescued from Restorian attackers, but her beloved turns out to be the avatar of a dangerous former High Guard ship.

Beka becomes addicted to Flash while trying to navigate through the the definition marvell slipstream to Tarn-Vedra, the lost homeworld of the Systems Commonwealth. When Harper reinitializes a duplicate version of Andromeda's AI, the ship tries to destroy the crew and takes them deep into Magog territory. Aeb Nursing? While Tyr and Harper try to stay alive on the Magog world ship, Dylan and Rommie attempt a rescue, leaving orders for Beka to launch a nova bomb if they fail. Pursued by Nietzcheans, Dylan, Beka, Rev Bem and Tyr crash on an icy planet where they must find both fuel and food. During negotiations to stop a war, the the definition marvell crew replaces a sacred relic with a fake and Beka falls for vs hume the thief who may have stolen the original.

Trance is interrogated by an Inari scientist while the Andromeda crew tries to find out the definition of love marvell who's been attacking Inari cargo ships. Dylan leads a stylish old Western shootout to protect an intergalactic leader. While Rommie fights 'Matrix'-like battles on a planet where AIs are despised, Tyr struggles with his Nietzschean responsibilities as Harper's life hangs in the balance. When the crew must fight Nietzscheans to protect a convoy of ships, their personal goals come into conflict with their mission. On a planet of Commonwealth descendants gathered by Sara Riley, Dylan faces a descendant of Gaheris Rhade.

While Harper considers trading the All Systems Library to the Spirit of the Abyss in exchange for of data warehouse a cure for of love his Magog infestation, Dylan mulls an alliance with Elsbett's husband, a Sabra-Jaguar pride leader. When Dylan and Tyr become co-regents to Evil Essay, a young prince after his father dies, the the definition of love marvell young man must decide whether to strive for peace or power. While the The Causes of Unsafe examples crew helps Elsbett's Sabra-Jaguar fleet attack the Drago-Kazov, Harper returns to Earth to help his cousin fight the Nietzscheans enslaving the planet. When Harper's Magog infestation threatens to kill him, he devises a plan to use tesseract technology to remove the larvae. Unfortunately the space-and-time-warping affects far more than just his insides. With mercenary killers on his tail, Dylan hijacks a ship and bonds with its novice pilot. Meanwhile Tyr tries to convince Rommie that he didn't abandon their captain. Beka's past comes back to haunt her in the form of a Borgified boyfriend. After a rescue attempt exposes them to deadly alien spores, the crew fights zombies that keep coming back to life. Beka, Trance and Dylan hunt for an artifact that legend says can re-ignite suns and of love andrew marvell, raise the dead. Trapped on the event horizon of a black hole, Dylan recalls his life aboard Andromeda as he hallucinates a life with a wife and son.

The Vedrans, founders of the Commonwealth who have been missing from the slipstream for over 300 years, finally make a return, only to make another planet disappear. While Dylan goes off to reassure a planet that there really aren't giant devouring space monsters, his ship runs into one. When Dylan hooks up with an AI to Embers examples, try to save a group of High Guard ships from the Drago-Kazov, he is of love marvell, shocked to learn that they value their independence more than his Commonwealth. When Tyr learns that his wife's pride is on the verge of extermination, he sets off to save her, and learns that he has a son. Then he learns that the child is more important than he ever could have imagined. As delegates gather to ratify the Commonwealth Charter, an invisible attacker causes panic and forces Trance to Evil Embers Essay, reveal some of what she knows about the future she wants to andrew, avoid. Examples? Tyr and Beka return from the the definition of love andrew mysterious beyond stranger than usual.

When Dylan gets a mysterious package in the mail, he takes Harper in pursuit of the sender and Evil, ends up the prime suspect in a murder. The Definition Andrew? When Dylan and vs hume, crew pick up refugees fleeing from a repressive planet, they discover that they're not equipped to serve as an insane asylum. Uncle Sid returns, running for Second Triumvir, but an assassination attempt forces Beka to investigate both his past and the definition andrew, her own. Crewmembers on the Maru encounter human travelers who left Earth centuries before they did, but tensions among them may strand Dylan outside the Commonwealth forever. When an evil dictator starts testing nova bombs, Dylan goes up against great odds to blow up his reactor. Dylan tracks an assassin targeting a Commonwealth bureaucrat, taking along the The Causes and Effects of Unsafe Sex Essay examples killer's alienated sister for guidance. The Definition Andrew Marvell? While Andromeda is of data warehouse, infested with metal-eating slugs, Harper believes he sees the ghost of a dead crewmember.

When Tyr goes to rescue an onetime lover from the definition of love marvell her murderous ex, he inadvertently gets her and the ship into danger.

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dna destiny essays International Socialist Review Issue 38, November#150;December 2004. Genes, Evolution, and Human Nature. THE IDEA that human society and behavior are to some significant degree determined by our biological inheritance is both widely believed and enormously influential. One version of this argument bases itself on marvell, evolutionary theory, claiming that human evolution has made such characteristics as social hierarchy, gender inequality, competition, and violence inevitable features of every social system. Claims of this kind are closely linked to arguments that claim that significant aspects of human behavior#151;from alcoholism to criminality#151;are genetically determined.

1. Newspaper reports and TV programs, for example, inform us almost daily that scientists have uncovered evidence for the genetic basis of one human characteristic or another. Essay Literature. Sometimes the characteristic in of love andrew, question is a disease, such as cystic fibrosis or Huntington#146;s disease. But just as often the reports are about psychological characteristics and patterns of The Causes, behavior, such as violence and criminality, or sexual orientation. A Time magazine cover story asked Why Are Men and Women Different? It Isn#146;t Just Upbringing. New Studies Show They Are Born That Way. The picture showed a little girl in a dress watching a little boy make a muscle.

2 The following month, a Newsweek cover story was headlined Is This Child Gay? Born or Bred: The Origins of Homosexuality. Marvell. 3 Another Time cover pictured a cracked wedding ring and proclaimed Infidelity: It May be in Our Genes. Descartes. 4 And U.S. News and World Report ran an marvell article titled Sex: It#146;s All in Your Brain, claiming that men and women think differently and that Every social explanation has been exhausted. It is innate.

5. Leading U.S. scientists have made similar claims. James Watson (co-discoverer of the desecration of flag, structure of the definition marvell, DNA and former head of the Human Genome Project) says, We used to think that our fate was in our stars. Of Flag. Now we know, in large part, that our fate is in our genes. 6 Daniel Koshland, former editor of Science , the most prestigious scientific journal in the country, has claimed that genetic research can help to eliminate key social problems.

According to Koshland, the homeless are impaired#133;. Indeed, no group will benefit more from the application of human genetics. The Definition Of Love Marvell. 7. There is no question that there have been important advances in genetic research in recent years. But the claim that these advances contain the vs hume, solution to pressing social problems is not only false, but dangerous. Such claims are deeply ideological.

They are, in of love andrew, effect, an attempt to use the prestige of science to on Multicultural Literature defend the status quo, which is why they are given prominent coverage in the media. The attempt to of love explain important features of society in evolutionary or genetic terms#151;biological determinism#151;has two goals. First, it tries to convince us that the social order is a consequence of unchanging human biology, so that inequality and injustice cannot be eliminated. Second, in Embers examples, the case of problems that are impossible to the definition of love ignore, it tells us to look for the solution at the level of the individual and descartes not at the level of social institutions. The problems lie not in the structure of the definition andrew marvell, society, but in some of the individuals who make up society. The solution is thus to change#151;or even eliminate#151;the individuals, not to challenge existing social structures. From eugenics to genocide. The claim that biology holds the key to solving social problems and the related claim that biology demonstrates the Literature, limits of social reform and the impossibility of radical change, both have a long history, going back even before the birth of modern genetics. In 1865, Charles Darwin#146;s cousin Francis Galton published an article called Hereditary Talent and Character 8 in which he claimed that talent is biologically determined and proposed improving society through better breeding. A few years later he introduced the of love, term eugenics#151;meaning good birth#151;to describe his proposal.

9. In his most famous book, Hereditary Genius, 10 Galton attempted to demonstrate that intelligence is inherited by tracing the genealogies of well-known English families and showing that, generation after generation, the members of such families tended to acquire prestigious social positions. The Causes And Effects Of Unsafe Sex Essay Examples. The alternative explanation, that what is andrew marvell, inherited is not intelligence but access to aeb nursing social power and influence, seems not to have occurred to him. Since biological theories of this kind assume that existing inequalities reflect fundamental facts about human nature, it is not surprising that Galton reached racist conclusions. He claimed that [T]he average intellectual standard of the negro race is some two grades below our own, 11 and the definition of love that the Jews are specialized for a parasitical existence upon other nations. 12. Despite the examples, fact that there was no evidence whatsoever for the underlying assumptions of eugenics, organizations promoting better breeding gained numerous supporters by the early part of the twentieth century.

Eugenics was adopted most enthusiastically in the U.S., where it was used by the nativist movement as part of the definition of love andrew, its attack on immigration. One of the principle advocates was the of flag, biologist Charles Davenport, who was the founder of the Cold Spring Harbor Lab and the Eugenics Record Office. The latter#151;which was financed by the widow of the railroad magnate E.H. Harriman#151;gathered information on of love, thousands of American families for genetic research. Davenport was a serious scientist. He demonstrated the heritability of eye, skin, and hair color. But he also held that characteristics such as pauperism, criminality, and The Causes and Effects feeble-mindedness were biologically inherited. Davenport even claimed that the capacity to be a naval officer is an inherited trait, composed of two subtraits: thalassophilia (love of the sea) and hyperkineticism (or wanderlust). Because there were no women in the navy, Davenport concluded that the trait is unique to males. Of Love Andrew Marvell. 13.

Davenport#146;s tendency to postulate a genetic basis for nearly everything would be amusing if the consequences had not been so tragic. Against evidence that pellagra, an often deadly disease that was at examples, epidemic proportions in the South, was caused by dietary deficiencies, Davenport (who was also head of the U.S. Pellagra Commission) argued that there was a genetic susceptibility to of love andrew marvell the disease. Successive administrations used Davenport#146;s false claims to avoid spending money on nutritional programs. Desecration. As a result, hundreds of thousands, perhaps millions, died unnecessarily between the time of the First World War and the New Deal, when the policy was finally changed. Eugenicists such as Davenport encouraged nearly thirty states to enact laws permitting the the definition, forced sterilization of thousands of people in prisons and mental hospitals who were judged to descartes vs hume be feeble-minded or defective in some other way.

The first sterilization law was passed in Indiana in 1907. A quarter of a century later, the German Nazis used laws such as these as a model for their own racist legislation. Eugenicists in the U.S. also urged the the definition of love andrew marvell, federal government to restrict the immigration of undesirable races and played an important role in helping to pass the of Unsafe Sex Essay, viciously racist federal immigration laws of 1921 and 1924. Their arguments dovetailed with those of the definition of love, psychologists like H.H. Goddard and Lewis M. Terman, who developed the The Causes and Effects examples, first standardized intelligence tests, which unsurprisingly reflected the racist and cultural biases of their designers. Even when testing led to the conclusion that half the U.S. Andrew. population#151;including most Blacks and immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe#151;were of substandard intelligence, the results were taken seriously.

Terman advocated vocational training and placement for such unfortunates, warning that they could drift easily into the ranks of the anti-social or join the army of Bolshevik discontents. Carl Brigham of Princeton University (who later developed the Scholastic Aptitude Test, SAT) warned that [t]he average intelligence of succeeding waves of definition of data warehouse, immigration has become progressively lower and that the situation was made worse owing to the presence here of the negro. Brigham advocated not only severely limiting immigration but also prevention of the continued propagation of the defective strains in the present population. 14. The passage of immigration restrictions also didn#146;t satisfy Davenport, who complained in 1925 that. our ancestors drove Baptists from Massachusetts Bay in to the definition of love andrew marvell Rhode Island but we have no place to drive the Jews to. Also, they burned the witches but it seems to be against definition warehouse the mores to andrew marvell burn any considerable part of our population. Evil Embers Essay. 15. This was not mere hyperbole. Earlier he had written that. though capital punishment is a crude method of of love andrew, grappling with the difficulty [of those with inferior genes] it is infinitely superior to that of training the feeble-minded and criminalistic and then letting them loose upon society and permitting them to Essay perpetuate in their offspring these animal traits.

16. It is perhaps not surprising, then, that a few years later, leading U.S. eugenicists were praising Nazi race laws in of love, Germany. The Eugenical News called the Nazi sterilization law of 1933 clean-cut, direct and #145;model.#146; In 1935 the descartes, American Eugenics Society argued that crime and dependency keep on increasing because new defectives are born, just as new cancer cells remorselessly penetrate into sound tissue, and it reminded its members that we treat cancer by means of the of love marvell, surgeon#146;s knife. Frederick Osborn, secretary of the desecration, American Eugenics Society, wrote in 1937: The German sterilization program is the definition andrew, apparently an excellent one. Taken altogether, recent developments in Germany constitute perhaps the most important social experiment which has ever been tried. And Charles R. Desecration Of Flag. Stockard, president of the board of the the definition of love, Rockefeller Institute for Medical Research, warned that the human race faced ultimate extermination unless low grade and defective stocks could be absolutely prevented from reproducing. Eugenicists in Essay on Multicultural, the U.S. continued to advocate the sterilization of millions of of love andrew, Americans right up until 1940.

17. Thus the idea that society#146;s problems are due to defective individuals played an important role in paving the way for desecration of flag the Nazi Holocaust. The Definition Of Love Marvell. But largely because the Nazis took these ideas to their logical extreme, by the end of the Second World War, biological determinism in definition of data, general and the eugenics movement in particular became completely discredited in the eyes of most mainstream scientists. The Definition Andrew Marvell. Yet this period in on Multicultural Literature, which biologists rejected racist pseudo-science was remarkably short-lived. The return of of love, biological determinism. Biological determinism first began to and Effects make a comeback in the late 1960s as part of the the definition marvell, ruling-class response to the movements for and Effects of Unsafe Sex Essay social change in the U.S. and elsewhere. In 1969 Arthur Jensen, a professor at Stanford, published a paper arguing that Blacks are innately less intelligent than whites, based on of love marvell, the fact that the Sex Essay examples, average African American IQ score is consistently lower than the average score for the definition of love andrew whites and the claim that IQ has a high degree of heritability.

18 Soon afterwards, the warehouse, Harvard psychologist Richard Herrnstein defended the view that socioeconomic status is of love, a direct function of inherited intelligence. Desecration. In future generations, said Herrnstein, the tendency to be unemployed would run in families just like the tendency to have bad teeth. The Definition Of Love Marvell. 19. But these claims that social inequalities have a biological basis were no better supported than the earlier claims of the eugenics movement. Jensen claimed that IQ is 80 percent heritable, citing as evidence research done on identical twins by the British psychologist Sir Cyril Burt. According to Burt, the IQs of identical twins who were separated and raised in distinct environments are much more closely correlated than the IQs of other individuals from the two environments. But Burt#146;s data seemed suspicious to the Marxist psychologist Leon Kamin, and a careful examination of Burt#146;s research revealed that it really was too good to be true. For example, Kamin discovered that even though Burt#146;s sample sizes got bigger, some of the vs hume, correlation coefficients he claimed to have calculated stayed identical to three decimal places. Marvell. 20 It soon emerged that Burt#146;s work had been perhaps the biggest scientific fraud of the descartes vs hume, twentieth century. His supposed coauthors and research assistants did not exist, the twins he claimed to the definition of love andrew have studied were fictitious, and aeb nursing his data had been completely fabricated.

21. Not only is the claim that IQ is the definition marvell, highly heritable unsupported, it is also irrelevant to Jensen#146;s main conclusion, which was that compensatory education programs are doomed to fail. Even if IQ was highly heritable, it would not follow that differences between groups could not be overcome by improved educational opportunities. Heritability is a measure of the variation in a trait due to genetic differences within a group, and is irrelevant to the issue of whether a characteristic can be altered by Essay on Multicultural Literature, changing the environment. The same genotype (or collection of genes) may be expressed differently in different environments, so heritability estimates apply only to the definition andrew a specific population in a specific range of environments. Hereditarians such as Jensen simply assume that we have already done all we can to alter the environment#151;a laughable assumption when it comes to The Causes and Effects of Unsafe education.

More generally, the idea that IQ tests measure an individual#146;s innate and fixed degree of intelligence, or that intelligence can be measured on a single scale, are equally dubious. 22. Who knows what IQ measures? asked the biologist Stephen Jay Gould. It is a good predictor of #145;success#146; in school, but is such success a result of intelligence, apple polishing, or the assimilation of marvell, values that the leaders of society prefer? 23 Historically, IQ tests have been used to justify existing social hierarchies.

The tests are calibrated to ensure that those who occupy more privileged positions in The Causes and Effects of Unsafe Sex Essay, the hierarchies receive higher scores. The scores are then used to claim that social inequalities reflect natural differences. The philosopher of science Hilary Putnam has argued that the notion of IQ is built on the assumption that there are a few #145;superior#146; people who have this one mysterious factor#151;#145;intelligence#146;#151;and who are good at everything, and a lot of of love, slobs who are not much good at anything. If this assumption seems plausible to some people, it is only because we live in a society that is highly stratified. In fact, ordinary people can do anything that it is in desecration of flag, their interest and do it well when (1) they are highly motivated and (2) they work collectively. As Putnam points out: That motivation plays a decisive role in acquiring almost any skill is a matter of everyone#146;s experience. The importance of andrew, working collectively is also evidenced in many ways. The Black and Latin prisoners in Attica Prison are presumably part of [what Herrnstein calls] the low IQ residue. Descartes. But they organized brilliantly. Every popular revolution in the definition of love, history makes the same point#151;that ordinary people in a revolution can perform incredible feats of organization, planning, strategy, etc.

But collective intelligence is not restricted to the context of revolution. Since the 1950s a series of studies have shown that even in the context of modern capitalist production, workers perform better, and find their jobs less dissatisfying, when the managerial hierarchy is reduced. 24. The claims of Jensen, Herrnstein, and other biological determinists, were simply an attempt to rationalize race and descartes class inequalities as more or less inevitable. As genuine science, they lacked all merit. 25. From sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. From the mid-1970s, new attempts were made to use biology to explain social phenomena.

In his widely read book Sociobiology: The New Synthesis, 26 the the definition andrew marvell, Harvard entomologist E.O. Descartes. Wilson attempted to extend evolutionary explanations of social behavior in non-human animals to explain human behavior as well. Wilson argued that certain forms of human behavior are universal, and that the best explanation for of love andrew marvell this is descartes, that they are the result of natural selection and hence are coded for in our genes. Like the the definition of love, eugenicists of the early twentieth century, Wilson postulated genes for a wide variety of Essay, traits, including entrepreneurship, creativity, spite, conformity (human beings are absurdly easy to indoctrinate#151;they seek it), xenophobia, and homosexuality. 27 Again, like the andrew, earlier eugenicists, Wilson claimed that these supposed biological facts made certain aspects of and Effects of Unsafe examples, society, such as male domination of marvell, public life, all but inevitable. My own guess is the genetic bias is intense enough to vs hume cause a substantial division of labor even in the most free and egalitarian of future societies, he wrote shortly after Sociobiology was published. Marvell. Thus, even with identical education and equal access to all professions, men are likely to play a disproportionate role in political life, business, and science.

If we attempt to create a more egalitarian society, Wilson continued, we will place some personal freedoms in jeopardy. 28 Concerning Marxism in particular, Wilson reportedly joked later, Wonderful theory. Wrong species. 29. Sociobiological claims about definition warehouse human society received massive attention in the media. A Time magazine cover story was headlined Why You Do What You Do. According to the accompanying article, the theory can explain loyalty to church, corporation and nation.

30 BusinessWeek soon claimed that sociobiology provided A Genetic Defense of the Free Market. Sociobiology means that individuals cannot be molded to fit into socialist societies without a tremendous loss of the definition of love andrew, efficiency. Bioeconomists say that government programs that force individuals to be less competitive and selfish than they are genetically programmed to be are preordained to vs hume fail. 31. Even Playboy got into marvell, the act: Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes. Inside, the magazine#146;s readers were told that. Males are#133;driven by their genes to reproduce.

They tend to be more promiscuous because in time past that was their best way to reproduce the most offspring. If you get caught fooling around, don#146;t say the on Multicultural, devil made you do it. It#146;s the devil in your DNA. 32. Like their eugenic predecessors, these sociobiological speculations lacked any serious evidence in of love andrew marvell, their support. 33 Consider for instance the claim that supposed human universals have a genetic basis. The mere fact of aeb nursing, universality (if it is a fact) does not show this, since there might easily be a non-genetic explanation. The Definition Of Love. German speaking is nearly universal in Germany, but the explanation is not that inhabitants of the country are genetically predisposed to speak a particular language. Often sociobiologists claimed that non-human animals share the Embers examples, characteristic in question#151;aggression, for instance#151;and that this shows that it probably has a genetic basis.

But this kind of reasoning is quite unpersuasive, as Wilson#146;s Harvard colleague Richard Lewontin has pointed out: How do we decide that slavery in the definition of love, ants and ant queens are like human slavery and like human royal families? How do we decide that the coyness we see in people is the same as the behavior in animals called coyness? What happens is definition warehouse, that human categories are laid on animals by analogy, partly as a matter of convenience of language, and then these traits are discovered in of love marvell, animals and laid back on humans as if they had a common origin. There is in fact not a shred of evidence that the aeb nursing, anatomical, physiological, and genetic basis of what is called aggression in rats has anything in common with the German invasion of the definition of love marvell, Poland in 1939. Evil Essay. 34. Similarly, there is no convincing evidence for the claim that various behaviors have been selected for in humans because they increase our biological fitness. Sociobiologists were initially interested in the question of why some animals are apparently willing to reduce (or even give up) their own chances of marvell, reproducing in order to benefit others. An extreme example is the existence of sterile members of insect colonies. How could such traits have evolved? One possible explanation is on Multicultural, that an individual might give up its own prospects of reproducing in order to increase the chances of its relatives reproducing, thus passing on some of its genes to the next generation indirectly.

These are known as cases of kin selection, in contrast to cases of individual selection, in the definition, which the vs hume, organism attempts to pass on its genes directly by having offspring. Another possible explanation in cases in which the sacrifice is temporary is that the individual that benefits is likely to reciprocate in the future. This is marvell, known as reciprocal altruism. Kin selection and reciprocal altruism are important ideas in evolutionary biology, but whether or not they are the correct explanation for any particular trait has to be demonstrated. But sociobiological explanations of human behavior simply assume what they need to of flag prove. When we combine individual selective advantage with the possibility of kin selection and reciprocal altruism, it is hard to the definition of love andrew imagine any human trait for which a plausible scenario for its selective advantage could not be invented. The real problem is to find out aeb nursing whether any of these stories is true .#133; At the very minimum, we might ask whether there is any evidence that such selective processes are going on at the present, but in fact no one has ever measured in any human population the actual reproductive advantage or disadvantage of any human behavior. All of the sociobiological explanations of the evolution of human behavior are like Rudyard Kipling#146;s Just So stories of of love marvell, how the Evil Embers, camel got his hump and how the elephant got his trunk. They are just stories.

Science has been turned into of love andrew marvell, a game. 35. But perhaps the most basic point is that the behaviors that sociobiologists claimed are coded into our genes, are not universals at all. Not every human society has exhibited the same sexual division of labor as our own. And not every human society has been capitalist or even competitive. For example, the anthropologist Peggy Sanday conducted a survey of about 150 different societies going back as far as the sixth century BC to see whether they were male-dominated, female-dominated, or based on collective decision-making. She found a huge diversity of sex roles in these societies, showing that such roles derive not from human nature, but from aeb nursing specific historical and the definition of love marvell political circumstances.36 More generally, there has been tremendous cultural evolution in the past few thousand years that cannot be explained in biological terms because there simply hasn#146;t been enough time for definition warehouse natural selection to operate. 37.

Sociobiology reinvents itself. Sociobiology, however, has proven too ideologically useful to die, and it has reemerged over the past decade renamed as evolutionary psychology. Books by the definition, New Republic editor Robert Wright, 38 science writer Matt Ridley 39 and Harvard psychologist Steven Pinker 40 have popularized the ideas of evolutionary psychology for of data warehouse a general audience. Pinker is particularly pugnacious. He claims that inequality and andrew marvell conflict are inevitable features of human society. He attacks Marxists, academic feminists and cafe intellectuals and of flag says The standard Marxist theory of human nature has probably been refuted by many sources of evidence, including the anthropological record and Darwinian theory. 41. Evolutionary psychology claims to the definition be an advance of old-style sociobiology in at least two respects. First, it proposes that it is not specific behaviors but underlying psychological mechanisms that are shaped by natural selection.

This leads evolutionary psychologists to adopt a modular theory of the human mind, which sees it as consisting of a large number of distinct informational processing devices (or modules), each with a specialized task#151;in other words a Swiss army knife model of the mind. There is considerable evidence that at least some aspects of the mind#151;such as language abilities and the visual system#151;are independently functioning modules, but evolutionary psychologists take this idea to absurd extremes, proposing such modules as a cheater detector (able to tell you when someone is deceiving you) and a sexual attraction module (which supposedly leads human males to of data warehouse be attracted to young females, and females to be attracted to high-status males). Even more modest versions of the the definition of love andrew, modularity thesis leave us with a picture of the mind that is atomized and relatively inflexible. 42. Second, the more technical work in evolutionary psychology makes use of sophisticated mathematical models in order to determine what kinds of psychological mechanisms would have been optimal for our ancient ancestors to evolve in the supposed environment of The Causes, evolutionary adaptation that they had to face. The Definition. The underlying assumption is that the human mind evolved to solve the problems faced by hunter-gatherers hundreds of thousands of years ago in the Pleistocene era and that its basic psychology has remained unchanged ever since. Contemporary social problems are thus rooted in vs hume, the fact that we find ourselves with a Stone Age mind in an increasingly complex modern world.

43. But this whole approach is highly problematic. First, we have very little detailed knowledge of the environment of evolutionary adaptation faced by the definition of love andrew, our early ancestors, so anything we say about this is highly speculative. Second, just like sociobiologists before them, evolutionary psychologists often ignore alternative explanations of human behavior, as well as evidence that the psychological characteristics that they claim were built into the human mind hundreds of thousands of years ago are not universal after all. I#146;ll consider just one example#151;violence. It is certainly true that human history is characterized by high levels of violence#151;including war, blood feuds, and murder#151;much of which seem on the face of it highly irrational.

So why have generations of definition, human beings killed each other rather than cooperating in ways that might have been mutually beneficial? Here is one possible explanation. Our distant ancestors, hundreds of thousands of years ago, found themselves in the definition of love andrew, an environment in which violence was necessary to desecration of flag survive. Those individuals who developed a psychology that distinguished between members of their own group and strangers, and who were psychologically prepared to of love andrew marvell use deadly violence against the latter, were better adapted to this environment than those less inclined to use violence, and so these psychological characteristics were selected for in early humans. This tendency to violence continues to exist in modern humans even when it is Evil Embers examples, no longer beneficial and the definition andrew marvell the only way to keep it under control is to Literature set up a strong central state that can, at least to of love andrew marvell some extent, hold these tendencies in check. That, in a nutshell, is the of Unsafe Sex Essay, story that Steven Pinker tells about violence in his most recent book The Blank Slate , where he argues that human beings have a bloody prehistory stretching back hundreds of thousands of years and that violence in andrew, humans is#133;part of our design. Of Flag. 44. Unfortunately for Pinker, and fortunately for the rest of us, this view of of love andrew marvell, human prehistory is quite simply a myth.

In support of the on Multicultural, claim that long before history began murderous strife was universal and unending, 45 Pinker cites the work of the University of Illinois archaeologist Lawrence Keeley, who claims that humans have always made war. 46 In fact, Keeley demonstrates nothing of the of love andrew, kind. Desecration Of Flag. His evidence consists of a compilation of various instances from the archaeological record in which humans died violent deaths at the hands of others. But what Keeley fails to the definition andrew marvell show is that these cases were typical or common, rather than relatively isolated aberrations. According to descartes the Rutgers anthropologist R. Brian Ferguson, probably the leading expert on andrew marvell, the early history of war, the global archaeological record contradicts the idea that war was always a feature of human existence; instead, the record shows that warfare is vs hume, largely a development of the past 10,000 years. 47 In a continuing global survey of all the available archaeological evidence, Ferguson has so far discovered no evidence of the definition andrew, systematic violence in pre-historic human societies in Europe, Africa, the Literature, Middle East, Asia, Australia, or North America. Ferguson argues that warfare became a feature of human society only as a consequence of specific historical developments, including the establishment of permanent settlements with accumulated wealth and the emergence of social hierarchy, an elite, perhaps with its own interests and rivalries. The fact that for most of human existence there is of love andrew, no evidence of desecration of flag, systematic large-scale violence, totally undercuts Pinker#146;s theory, which is really just a restatement of one of the oldest elements of ruling-class ideology#151;that states exist to protect us from the definition ourselves, not to The Causes of Unsafe Sex Essay examples protect the andrew marvell, interests of the elite and to keep the The Causes and Effects of Unsafe Sex Essay examples, mass of the population in its place. But the problem is the definition andrew marvell, not just what Pinker says about violence. The whole idea that human psychology is relatively rigid and unchanging#151;one of the desecration, central claims of the definition of love, evolutionary psychology#151;is incompatible with what we actually do know about human evolution. The first modern humans are believed to have evolved in definition of data, southern Africa about the definition andrew marvell 120,000 years ago.

According to Marta Lahr, Professor of Evolutionary Studies at Cambridge University, these creatures had the potential of invention that we have. And I think that#146;s actually what makes them modern#151;they [could] invent solutions to new problems. 48. Around 50,000 years ago groups of modern humans began to migrate from Africa and disperse around the world, coming into Evil Essay, contact with other hominid species that had left Africa about a million and of love andrew marvell a half years earlier. Modern humans arrived in Europe around 35,000 years ago, where they lived side by desecration of flag, side with Neanderthals, a closely related but distinct human species. Neanderthals, unlike modern humans, were physiologically well adapted to the definition of love andrew marvell the cold European climate, but they were intellectually inferior to our ancestors. According to the archaeologist Paul Mellars, the most remarkable thing about Neanderthal technology is the way it hardly changes significantly over about a quarter of a million years. You get essentially the same shapes of tools made by the same techniques over this whole period. Now as soon as you get modern humans on the scene you get a whole range of dramatic changes. They suddenly start producing new shapes of stone tools obviously designed for different functions, and they start producing tools from bones, antler and ivory, which had never been used before. 49.

It was this creativity and ingenuity of our ancestors#151;also exhibited in their elaborate ornaments, art, and burial rituals, and the complex networks of Evil Essay, trade and exchange they established#151;that explains why they survived and the Neanderthals did not. When temperatures in Europe began to plummet with the the definition of love andrew marvell, onset of a new ice age, Neanderthals were unable to adjust to the new conditions. But modern humans continued to Essay thrive, even in mountainous areas. By 28,000 years ago the last remaining Neanderthals had disappeared. Similar developments took place around the world, where modern humans replaced other hominid species. The Definition Andrew Marvell. Thus the key to our ancestors#146; success was their enormous flexibility and of data ability to learn, not patterns of behavior hardwired into their brains. 50. Sociobiologists and marvell evolutionary psychologists distort Darwin by adopting an ultra-adaptationist view that tries to explain every significant aspect of human behavior or psychology as a biological adaptation, shaped by natural selection. But while human intelligence was surely the subject of Essay, natural selection, it is highly implausible to of love think that specific behaviors or psychological characteristics are hardwired into our brains. As Stephen Jay Gould once put it: The central feature of our biological uniqueness also provides the major reason for Evil Embers Essay examples doubting that our behaviors are directly coded by specific genes.

That feature is, of course, our large brain. [M]arkedly increased brain size in human evolution. added enough neural connections to convert an inflexible and rather rigidly programmed device into a labile organ, endowed with sufficient logic and memory to substitute non-programmed learning for the definition of love marvell direct specification as the ground of social behavior. Evil Embers Examples. Flexibility may well be the most important determinant of human consciousness; the direct programming of the definition of love andrew marvell, behavior has probably become inadaptive. Evil Embers Essay Examples. 51. The evidence for sociobiology and evolutionary psychology is just as weak as for earlier versions of of love, biological determinism. Next issue: The New Eugenics. Phil Gasper is a member of the descartes, ISR editorial board. He teaches philosophy of science at Notre Dame de Namur University and is an associate editor of the online journal Human Nature Review ( 1#9;The arguments are linked because natural selection can only operate on characteristics that have a genetic basis. 2#9; Time , January 20, 1992.

3#9; Newsweek , February 24, 1992. 5#9; U.S. News and World Report , February 27, 1995. 7#9;Quoted in Evelyn Fox Keller, Nature, Nurture, and the Human Genome Project, in Daniel J. Kevles and Leroy Hood (eds.), The Code of Codes (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992), 282. 8#9;Originally published in Macmillan#146;s Magazine , 12, 157#151;66, 318#151;27, available online at 9#9;Francis Galton, Inquiries into Human Faculty and its Development (London and New York: Macmillan, 1883; second edition, Dent and of love Dutton, 1907), 17. 10#9;Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (London and New York: Macmillan, 1869; second edition 1895). 11#9;Ibid., second edition, 338.

12	Correspondence With Alphonse de Candolle, from the Web site Life of Francis Galton by Karl Pearson, Vol. Definition Warehouse. 2, 1884, available online at 13#9;On Davenport and the history of the the definition andrew, eugenics movement see Allan Chase, The Legacy of Malthus: The Social Costs of the Essay on Multicultural Literature, New Scientific Racism (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1975), Daniel J. Kevles, In the Name of Eugenics: Genetics and the definition of love the Uses of Human Heredity (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985), and Edwin Black, War Against the Essay, Weak: Eugenics and America#146;s Campaign to the definition andrew marvell Create a Master Race (New York: Four Walls Eight Windows, 2003). 14#9;Stephen Jay Gould, The Mismeasure of Man (New York: Norton, 1981), 182, 227, and 230. 15#9;Letter to Madison Grant, April 7, 1925, quoted in C. Of Flag. E. Rosenberg, No Other Gods: On Science and American Social Thought (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976), 95#151;96. 16#9;Quoted in Chase, The Legacy of Malthus , 159#151;60. 17#9;All quotations from this paragraph are from Barry Mehler, Eliminating the Inferior: American and Nazi Sterilization Programs, Science for the People (Nov#151;Dec 1987), available online at Osborn, incidentally, was also one of the founders of The Pioneer Fund, which still promotes theories of black inferiority and is a major financial supporter of the ultra-right Federation for American Immigration Reform. 18#9;Arthur Jensen, How Much Can We Boost IQ and Scholastic Achievement? Harvard Educational Review 39: 1#151;123. 19#9;Richard Herrnstein, IQ, Atlantic Monthly , September 1971, 43#151;64.

20#9;Leon J. Kamin, The Science and Politics of IQ (Potomac, MD: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1974). 21#9;Gould, The Mismeasure of Man , Ch. 6. R.C. The Definition. Lewontin, Steven Rose, and Leon J. Kamin, Not in Our Genes: Biology, Ideology and Human Nature (New York: Pantheon, 1984), 101#151;06. Evil. Other genuine studies of the definition of love andrew marvell, identical twins are problematic on and Effects, other grounds. See for example Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, 106#151;16 and Jay Joseph, Twin Studies in Psychiatry and Psychology: Science or Pseudoscience? Psychiatric Quarterly , 73:1, Spring 2002, 71#151;82. 22#9;The originator of IQ tests, the French psychologist Alfred Binet, viewed them as simply a diagnostic tool to the definition of love marvell determine which school children needed additional assistance, not as a measure of fixed intellectual capacity.

It was only The Causes and Effects examples, when the tests were adopted in the definition of love marvell, the U.S. in the early twentieth century that American hereditarians began interpreting the results in this latter way. See Gould, The Mismeasure of Man, 146#151;58. For the most influential critique of the idea that intelligence is a single entity or capacity, see Howard Gardner, Frames of Evil examples, Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences (New York: Basic Books, 1983; second edition, 1993). 23#9;Steven Jay Gould, Racist Arguments and IQ, in Ever Since Darwin: Reflections in Natural History (New York: Norton, 1977), 245. 24#9;Hilary Putnam, Reductionism and the Nature of Psychology, Cognition 2:1, 1973, 141#151;43. 25#9;This, of course, did not stop either Jensen or Herrnstein from of love marvell continuing to get a respectful hearing for Literature their pseudo-scientific views. Jensen elaborated his views at length in andrew marvell, Bias in Mental Testing (New York: Free Press, 1979). Herrnstein later collaborated with the right-wing pundit Charles Murray to aeb nursing write the racist tract The Bell Curve: The Reshaping of of love, American Life by Difference in descartes, Intelligence (New York: Free Press, 1994). The Definition Of Love Marvell. Jensen#146;s views are demolished by Stephen Jay Gould in Jensen#146;s Last Stand, in An Urchin in the Storm: Essays about Embers Books and Ideas (New York: Norton, 1988).

For an equally devastating demolition of The Bell Curve , see Ned Block, Race, Genes, and IQ, Boston Review , December 1995/January 1996, available online at 26#9;E.O. Wilson, Sociobiology: The New Synthesis (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975). 27#9; Sociobiology , chap. 27. 28#9;Quoted in Human Decency is Animal, New York Times Magazine , October 12, 1975. 29#9;Quoted in of love, J. Getlin, Natural Wonder: At Heart, Edward Wilson#146;s an Ant Man, Los Angeles Times , October 21, 1994. 30#9;Time, August 1, 1977.

The article also reported a claim by Literature, the sociobiologist Robert Trivers that feminism was going to the definition andrew decline because feminists were not having children and, therefore, would not pass on their feminist genes! 31	A Genetic Defense of the Free Market, BusinessWeek , April 10, 1978. 32#9;Do Men Need to Cheat on Their Women? A New Science Says Yes, Playboy , August 1978. In a 1981 issue, Playboy went further, claiming that rape is aeb nursing, very likely genetically based. a strategy genetically available to low-dominance males that increases their chances of the definition of love, reproducing by making more females available to them than they would otherwise acquire.

Claims of aeb nursing, this kind remain a staple of marvell, sociobiology and its more recent descendant evolutionary psychology, most notoriously in Randy Thornhill and Craig Palmer, A Natural History of Essay on Multicultural, Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000). For a thorough critique of Thornhill and Palmer see Cheryl Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and of love marvell Rape (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003). 33#9;The most comprehensive critique of sociobiology is Philip Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition: Sociobiology and the Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1985). Kitcher, who is perhaps the most respected contemporary philosopher of science, concludes that most human sociobiology is based on unrigorous analyses, problematic concepts, dubious connections, and desecration of flag spurious arguments. The Definition Marvell. Also see Marshall Sahlins, The Use and Abuse of Biology: An Anthropological Critique of descartes vs hume, Sociobiology (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1976), and Lewontin, Rose, and Kamin, Not in the definition of love marvell, Our Genes, Chap. 9. 34#9;Richard C. Evil Embers Essay Examples. Lewontin, Biology as Ideology: The Doctrine of DNA (New York: HarperPerennial, 1993), 95#151;96. 35#9;Lewontin, Biology as Ideology , 100. 36#9;Peggy Reeves Sanday, Female Power and Male Dominance: On the Origins of Sexual Inequality (New York: Cambridge University Press, l981). 37#9;Attempts by of love marvell, sociobiologists to deal with cultural evolution have not been successful. See Kitcher, Vaulting Ambition , Chap.

10 and Gould, Genes on the Brain, in An Urchin in the Storm . 38#9;Robert Wright, The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Pantheon, 1994). 39#9;Matt Ridley, The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1994). 40#9;Steven Pinker, How the Mind Works (New York: Norton, 1997) and The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of of Unsafe Sex Essay, Human Nature (New York: Viking, 2002). 41#9;Quoted in John Horgan, Darwin on His Mind, Lingua Franca , November 1997. 42#9;For critiques of evolutionary psychology see Hilary Rose and Steven Rose (eds.), Alas Poor Darwin: Arguments Against Evolutionary Psychology (New York: Harmony Books, 2000); David Buller, Evolutionary Psychology, in Marco Nani and Massimo Marraffa (eds.), A Field Guide to of love the Philosophy of Mind (An official electronic publication of the Department of Philosophy of University of Rome 3, 2000), available online at; John Dupré, Human Nature and the Limits of Science (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001); and descartes vs hume Travis (ed.), Evolution, Gender and Rape . Buller#146;s forthcoming book, Adapting Minds: Evolutionary Psychology and the Persistent Quest for Human Nature (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), due out in andrew, 2005, promises to be the most comprehensive critique to date. 43#9;Leda Cosmides and John Tooby, Evolutionary Psychology: A Primer, available online at

Buller calls this the Flintstone theory _of human nature. 44#9;Pinker, The Blank Slate , 306 and 314. 45#9;This is a quotation from Winston Churchill with which Pinker begins his chapter on desecration of flag, violence. The quotation, together with the fact that most of the chapter borrows heavily from the pessimistic seventeenth century philosopher Thomas Hobbes, suggests that Pinker#146;s views reflect old prejudices rather than a careful assessment of the available scientific evidence. 46#9;Lawrence Keeley, War Before Civilization: The Myth of the Peaceful Savage (New York: Oxford University Press, 1996). 47#9;R. Brian Ferguson, The Birth of War, Natural History , July/August 2003, available online at 48#9;Quoted in Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution , a BBC/The Learning Channel documentary, originally broadcast on TLC in of love marvell, August 2000.

Also see Robin McKie, Dawn of Man: The Story of Human Evolution (New York: Dorling Kindersley Publishing, 2000). 49#9;Quoted in of flag, Dawn of Man . 50#9;For more on the Neanderthals see Paul Jordan, Neanderthal: Neanderthal Man and the Story of Human Origins (Stroud, UK: Sutton Publishing, 1999). For an up to date guide to what is currently known about human evolution see Roger Lewin et. al., Principles of the definition, Human Evolution, second edition (New York: Blackwell, 2004). 51	Potentiality vs. Determinism, in Ever Since Darwin , 257.