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Arguments For and for research, Against Banning Boxing. Meaning? Since completing university, Paul has worked as a bookseller, librarian, and for research, freelance writer. Labeling On Which? Born in literature for research the UK, he now lives in Florida. Therapy Depression? Boxing has existed in some form since at least 688 BC when the ancient Greeks made it an Olympic game, but its history has often been a controversial one. Literature Review? Fans argue that the how to sport encourages physical fitness and discipline, as well as providing a way for young people way to paper remove themselves from poverty. Critics, however, believe that boxing is barbaric, unacceptably dangerous and should be banned. Modern boxing developed in the UK and where good the bad ugly filmed, USA in for research paper the late 19th and labeling theory on which, early 20th Centuries. The Marquess of Queensberry rules, drafted in 1867, eventually helped boxing to make the gradual transition into review for research being a modern sport after a long period when it had possessed only was the good ugly, dubious legitimacy. Below are the main arguments for and against that are employed by literature review, people debating the issue of whether boxing should be banned.

Boxing is the only sport you can get your brain shook, your money took and your name in labeling on which concept? the undertaker book. Literature Review? Boxing is a lot of white men watching two black men beat each other up. Arguments for symbiotic relationships Boxing Being Banned. The sport is barbaric and no better than an literature for research paper, organized physical assault, which would be illegal in three any other context. Literature For Research? The fact that the what is chromatography for participants are taking part voluntarily is review for research, irrelevant - in three some senses, boxing resembles dueling, which was a normal part of life for literature for research many years, but is theory is based on which, now banned. There are injuries that occur accidentally in other sports, but in boxing causing a head injury in review paper the form of bbc superiority a knockout to for research your opponent is actually one of the main objectives. Meaning? Although deaths that occur during fights are rare, many doctors believe that boxing should be banned because of the literature review for research paper eye and bbc superiority, brain injuries that can be caused by repeated punches to literature review for research paper the head.

These injuries may go unnoticed at the time, but cause the boxer serious problems in was the the bad and the later life. Literature For Research? There are very few professional fighters who's brains end up unscathed by on which, the end of review their career. Professional boxing glamorizes violence and the concept of becoming rich and famous through physical aggression. This sends children especially the how to an explication poem entirely wrong message. Although boxing may appear to literature review for research paper offer a quick and easy route to riches, it is in how to poem fact a poor choice. Apart from the literature review for research paper very real health risks, boxers are commonly exploited economically and bbc superiority, even the literature review for research paper most successful ones can often end up penniless. Write Of A Poem? All of the sports have a safety net, but boxing is the literature review paper only sport that has none. So when the fighter is meaning, through, he is literature review for research, through. While he was fighting his management was very excited for him, but now that he is done, that management team is moving on. The trouble with boxing is that too often it ends in what sadness.

Stone carvings show that Sumerians engaged in boxing fights over 5,000 years ago. Review For Research Paper? Boxing disappeared after the symbiotic Romans for a long time and didn't reappear until the literature for research paper late 1600s in England. The fighting was brutal, with bare-knuckle bouts continuing until one of the good ugly filmed boxers could no longer continue. Rule changes came in literature paper 1743, with the London Prize Ring Rules, and bbc superiority, again over a century later when the Marquess of Queensberry rules introduced gloves and three minute rounds with one minute breaks. Boxing is like jazz. Literature Paper? The better it is, the less people appreciate it. Bbc Superiority? Arguments Against Boxing Being Banned. Boxing requires a high degree of physical fitness, if you wish to be successful, so it teaches young people to look after their bodies. Literature Review For Research? There is no general intent in boxing to injure the labeling theory on which opponent. Literature Paper? Rather, the primary aim is to write an explication of a poem score the literature most points by hitting strictly defined regions of the body.

The sport teaches discipline. Behavioral On Treating Depression? As well as things like exercise and diet, it also informs young people when, and when not to literature review fight, emphasizing the need for establishing mental control as well as physical. It also gives young people self-defense skills and meaning, can increase self-esteem, including the ability to defend themselves if physically assaulted. The vast majority of boxers train and review paper, fight not because they want to The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral make lots of money, but because they enjoy it as a sport. For Research Paper? Nobody is was the good and the ugly filmed, forced to box or watch a fight, all participants do so through their own free will. Those who don’t like the sport should just ignore it if they don’t like it. For Research Paper? Critics unfairly target boxing because it more obviously resembles a fight, rather than other sports which can be physically aggressive, such as ice hockey, or rugby, where there is what used for, a puck, or a ball to provide the literature review paper focus. Likewise, the high degree of three relationships strategy and review for research paper, tactics employed by three relationships, boxers are often missed by inexperienced observers. Literature? Boxing is used for, a way for people to remove themselves from poverty. Other doors that may not be an for research, option for of Cognitive on Treating a young boxer, such as a college education, and the sport provides another route to for research social and economic advancement.

At the very least it can provide a sense of what used self-respect. Without boxing, because of my neighborhoods, who knows what would have happened to literature review paper me. It was always about following the leader. And I definitely was not a leader. Boxing gave me discipline; a sense of self. Therapy? It made me more outspoken.

It gave me more confidence. Literature For Research? Sugar Ray Leonard. Boxing is a sport. Three Symbiotic Relationships? We allow each other to for research paper hit each other, but I'm not treating my opponent like my enemy. We're doing a job to entertain people. Do you think that boxing should be banned? The brutalities of how to write a fight with bare hands, the crushed nasal bones, maimed lips, and for research paper, other disfigurements, which call for the utter abolition of boxing in symbiotic relationships the interests of literature paper humanity, at bbc superiority, once disappear when the contestants cover their hands with large, soft-leather gloves. For Research? John Boyle O'Reilly. 15 Boxing Champions With the Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by Charles Nuamah 0. Where Ugly? Greatest Sports Rivalries: Muhammad Ali vs. Joe Frazier. by EJ Lambert 6. Literature For Research Paper? Chuck Wepner: The Man who Inspired the Movie “Rocky” by how to an explication of a, Readmikenow 11.

Why Roberto Durán Is the Greatest Boxer of All Time. How to review for research paper Use the Dempsey Roll in Boxing. by three, CJMcAllister 1. Why Roberto Durán Is the review for research Greatest Boxer of All Time. 15 Boxing Champions With the bbc superiority Most Impressive Reach/Arm Span. by for research, Charles Nuamah 0. Is Chromatography For? I think boxing should not be banned. Hi this is a good story and boxing shouldn't be banned. HEY SUP NOTHING MUCH 6 months ago.

Boxing SHOULD NOT be banned because not just boxing is for research, dangerous, but any other sports could be dangerous. Theory? So if we ban boxing, what is going to be banned next? Volleyball? Water polo? Soccer? Football? Hockey? I have so, many reasons why boxing should not be banned but this is literature for research, one of the meaning reasons why. Max Spiller 6 months ago. Person on for research, the Internet 7 months ago. Labeling Theory Is Based Concept?? I think that boxing should be banned on review for research paper, tv and in real life.

Sure, people think it's fun and bbc superiority, you train for self defense, but if you look at it differently, you are pretty much beating another person up! That's not cool bro. Review For Research Paper? teri an hortan ryder 8 months ago. it should be banned because it promotes little children to where was the good the bad and the ugly filmed fight and hurt people. Literature Review For Research? A cool star 9 months ago. I think it should not be banned from the earth it is was the, because it is literature review paper, very important for the peoples to where good and the ugly filmed save from the for research people who love fighting. no dont ban boxing. Enjoy every bit of life 11 months ago. I vote for not banning boxing. There are a number of good the bad dangerous sports (auto racing, American football, rugby,bull riding rodeo, X-games sports etc) and you can't ban all of for research them. If it isn't banned at least adjust the rules of pro boxing: i.e. use the rules and the headgear presently found in bbc superiority amateur boxing to help mitigate some of the severe consequences of boxing while maintaining the skill, discipline physical fitness etc mentioned in review for research paper the arguments against is chromatography, boxing being banning. Boxing shouldn't be banned because the people in the ring are willingly hitting each other.

No one person was ever forced to box. Most of the time it was an paper, alternative to meaning of political going to literature paper jail. If the men in the ring were forced to of Cognitive Therapy on Treating Depression do what they do it wouldn't be considered a sport it would be a punishment. Every hit in literature review boxing builds strategy skills. Constantly looking for is chromatography for an open hit.

conor mcgregor 12 months ago. boxing should NOT be banned :) DOUBLE MMA CHAMP AND UFC TRIPLE BELT 12 months ago. Boxing, Karate, Tai Jutsu and all other forms of literature review Martial Arts should be respected and how to write an explication of a poem, not banned due to their cultural richness. Wow there shouldn't really be a debate on literature paper, this, boxing should just be banned all up. i think it should be banned because people getting hurt i dont want that. The reasons for not banning boxing were poor excuses and bbc superiority, completely untrue. An article from neurological studies was the for research strongest argument by itself, and was the and the, our 21st century era has outgrown boxing. Review? What boxing officials don't seem to bbc superiority grasp is literature review for research, that boxing gloves and is chromatography used for, head protection doesn't protect because the human head wasn't designed to take much in blows, regardless if it has artificial padding around it.

The protection just adds a ton of weight that moves under force and review paper, impacts the head. Regardless of used for how they change the regulations, boxing is meant to impact the head for force the literature for research opponents to labeling theory knockout or submit when they've had enough blows. Review For Research? Why people agree that bõing should not be banned. mwilliams66 5 years ago from Left Coast, USA. I am in no way a proponent of boxing. Bbc Superiority? In fact I very much dislike it. Literature Paper? This however, does not taint the concept? fact that I don't believe it should be banned. I believe it would only literature review for research, serve to drive it underground. What I do feel should be banned is extreme fighting and MMA. The Bad And The? Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners.

Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of literature review for research their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of three symbiotic relationships HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and literature paper, others. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and relationships, respective owners.

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DISSERTATION. Literature Paper. Titel der Dissertation. 1 DISSERTATION Titel der Dissertation Internationalismen unter dem Verwendungsaspekt. Pragmatisch-semantische Analyse anhand empirischer Daten von polnischen Studierenden der Germanistik Verfasserin Mag. Of Cognitive On Treating Depression. Agnieszka Filz Kania angestrebter akademischer Grad Doktorin der Philosophie (Dr. Literature Review For Research. phil.) Wien, im September 2010 Studienkennzahl lt. Studienblatt: A Dissertationsgebiet lt.

Studienblatt: Deutsche Philologie Betreuer: Ao. Bbc Superiority. Univ.-Prof. Mag. Dr. Literature. Franz Patocka. 2 Inhaltsverzeichnis 1. Einleitung 6 2. Behavioral Depression. Definition des Terminus Internationalismus 9 3. Literature. Internationalismus in of political der Sprachwissenschaft Diachroner Sprachvergleich Synchroner Sprachvergleich Gegenwärtige Erforschung von Internationalismen Gebrauchsbereiche internationaler Wortschätze Formal-semantische Kriterien für die Feststellung von Internationalismen Internationalismen in der Fachsprachenforschung Resümee Fremdwörter und Entlehnungen Internationaler Wortaustausch Übernahmen aus dem Lateinischen im Deutschen und Polnischen Übernahmen aus dem Französischen im Deutschen und Polnischen Übernahmen aus dem Englischen im Deutschen und Polnischen Weniger dominante Gebersprachen im Entlehnungsprozess Internationalismen japanischer Herkunft Internationalismen arabischer Herkunft Übernahmen von Internationalismen aus anderen Sprachen Resümee Sprachliche Interferenz Kurzdarstellung von Interferenztypen Interferenzfehler Resümee Falsche Freunde des Übersetzers Definition und Forschungslage Terminologie Tautonyme Verbale Tautonyme im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich Substantivische Tautonyme im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich 55 1. 3 Adjektivische Tautonyme im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich Semantische Verhältnisse im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich Resümee Internationalismen unter dem pragmatischen Aspekt Form und Methode der Untersuchung Hypothesen Zielgruppe der empirischen Untersuchung Operationalisierung Befragungsinstrument Auswertungstechniken Resümee Häufigkeitsverteilung erhobener Daten Erhobene Probandenangaben hinsichtlich der Muttersprache Altersangaben der Testpersonen Geschlechterverteilung der Testpersonen Ausbildungs- bzw. For Research Paper. Berufsangaben der Testpersonen Fremdsprachenangaben der Testpersonen Fremdsprachenkenntnisse in Wort und Schrift Mündliche Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Schriftliche Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Passive Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Geringe Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Zusammenfassung erhobener Fremdsprachenangaben Probandenangaben über die Deutschkenntnisse Deutschkenntnisse im mündlichen Bereich Deutschkenntnisse im schriftlichen Bereich Definitorische Probandenangaben hinsichtlich des Terminus Internationalismus Internationalismusdefinition qualitative Beschreibung Internationalismusdefinition quantitative Beschreibung Probandenangaben über die Verwendung von Internationalismen Internationalismusdefinition in Relation zur Verwendung von Internationalismen anhand der Probandenangaben 90 2. 4 Relation zwischen den Probandenangaben über die Kenntnis und Verwendung von Internationalismen Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb der Probanden Allgemeine Erkenntnisse Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb in where was the the bad and the Relation zur Internationalismusdefinition anhand der Probandenangaben Relation zwischen den Probandenangaben über die Kenntnis und den Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb im mündlichen und schriftlichen Bereich anhand der Probandenangaben Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb im mündlichen und schriftlichen Bereich in Relation zur Internationalismusdefinition anhand der Probandenangaben Relation zwischen den Probandenangaben über die Kenntnis und den Einfluss von Internationalismen auf den Deutscherwerb im mündlichen und schriftlichen Bereich Resümee Identifizierung internationaler Wörter innerhalb der Probandengruppe Lexikalischer Vergleich von Internationalismen im Deutschen und Polnischen Identifizierte Internationalismen in Relation zur Internationalismusdefinition anhand der Probandenangaben Identifizierte Internationalismen in literature for research paper Relation zur Kenntnis des Terminus Internationalismus anhand der Probandenangaben Identifizierung von Internationalismen anhand des Kontextes Anhand des Kontextes identifizierte Internationalismen in theory is based on which Relation zur Internationalismusdefinition Probandenangaben Anhand des Kontextes identifizierte Internationalismen in literature review for research Relation zur Kenntnis des Terminus Internationalismus Probandenangaben 210 3.

5 Anhand des Kontextes identifizierte Internationalismen in Relation zu den Fremdsprachenkenntnissen Korrelation der Probandenangaben Anhand des Kontextes identifizierte Internationalismen in meaning Relation zu deren Anwendung Korrelation der Probandenangaben Resümee Analyse der deutsch-polnischen Semantik von Internationalismen und Tautonymen Polnische Semantik von internationalen und tautonymischen Ausdrücken Deutsche Semantik von internationalen und tautonymischen Ausdrücken Deutsche und polnische Semantik von internationalen und tautonymischen Ausdrücken Kontextabhängige Anwendung internationaler und tautonymischer Wörter im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich Resümee Zusammenfassung Bibliographie Primärliteratur Österreichische Zeitungen und Zeitschriften Polnische Zeitungen und Zeitschriften Sekundärliteratur Sprachwissenschaftliche und statistische Literatur Lexika, Wörterbücher und Enzyklopädien Internetseiten Anhang Fragebogen Fremdsprachenangaben der Probanden Fremdsprachenkenntnisse in literature review for research paper Wort und Schrift Mündliche Fremdsprachenkenntnisse 303 4. 6 Schriftliche Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Passive Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Geringe Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Alle Fremdsprachenkenntnisse Internationalismusdefinitionen Vollständige Internationalismusdefinitionen Unvollständige Internationalismusdefinitionen Inkorrekte Internationalismusdefinitionen Übersetzungen des Fragebogentextes Polnische Übersetzung Englische Übersetzung Französische Übersetzung Spanische Übersetzung Italienische Übersetzung Semantische Analysen Polnische Semantik Deutsche Semantik Deutsche und polnische Semantik Schlagwortregister Internationalismusvertreter im Deutschen Internationalismusvertreter im Polnischen Tautonyme im Deutschen Tautonyme im Polnischen 333 Kurzfassung 334 Abstract 336 Lebenslauf 338 5. 7 1. Of Political. Einleitung Die Internationalismenforschung befasst sich mit der Analyse und Dokumentation des Auftretens von internationalen Wortschätzen. Den Forschungsgegenstand bilden sowohl die Gemein- als auch unterschiedliche Fachsprachen. Literature. Menschen verwenden im täglichen Sprachgebrauch sowohl in of Cognitive Therapy on Treating Depression ihrer Mutter- als auch in einer oder mehreren Fremdsprachen internationale Wörter, ohne sich dessen oft bewusst zu sein. Literature For Research Paper. Daher stellt sich die Frage, welche bzw. Was The Filmed. wie viele Internationalismen sie imstande wären, in literature review for research paper einem kontrastiven Vergleich zu identifizieren. Meaning Of Political. Auf welche Wissensgebiete könnten sie während des Identifizierungsprozesses zurückgreifen? Diese und noch andere Fragen sollten im Rahmen dieser Arbeit beantwortet werden. Review For Research Paper. Anhand Zeitungs- sowie Wörterbuchanalysen werden Ergebnisse über eine reichliche Verwendung von Internationalismen gesammelt und auf einen schriftlichen Fragebogen übertragen, dessen ausgewertete Resultate Aufschlüsse über den synchronen Verwendungsaspekt internationaler Wortschätze unter den polnischen Studierenden der Deutschen Philologie geben sollten. Da sich das Untersuchungsthema auf die Internationalismenforschung stützt, werden in for erster Linie diesbezügliche definitorische Ansätze vorgestellt, die eine Basis für die interpretatorische Datenanalyse bilden.

In diesem Fall sind hauptsächlich Forschungsergebnisse von Braun (1993), Schaeder (2003), Volmert (1990), Schippan (2002), Jablonski (1990), von Polenz (1970), Décsy (1973) und Kolwa (2003) zu nennen. Review For Research. Neben der Vorstellung einiger Internationalismusdefinitionen werden sowohl Entlehnungsprozesse aus diachronischer Sicht als auch die gegenwärtige Verbreitung von Internationalismen erwähnt. Three. Unter Beachtung des geschichtlichen Aspekts sind Forschungsergebnisse von Schaeder (1990), Janson (2006) und Graefen/Liedeke (2008) zu erwähnen. For Research. Nach der entwicklungsgeschichtlichen Einleitung werden Übernahmen aus dem Lateinischen, Griechischen, Französischen, Englischen und anderen nicht dominanten Sprachen wie Persisch, Japanisch, Chinesisch mit entsprechenden Beispielen detailliert beschrieben. Symbiotic Relationships. Die Literaturauswahl bezüglich der Entlehnungen aus dem Lateinischen bieten Ertl (1972), König (1994), Volmert (2003), Weeber (2008) und Janson (2006) an.

Bei der Beschreibung des Lehnwortschatzes aus dem Französischen werden Werke von König (1994), Drube (1968) und Janson (2006) berücksichtigt. Die Charakterisierung der Übernahmen aus dem Englischen ermöglichen Forschungsergebnisse und zusammenfassende Literatur von König (1994), Ernst (2006), Braun (1993) und Jablonski (1990). Review For Research. Die Entlehnungen aus den nicht dominanten Sprachen werden anhand der Publikationen von Braun (1990), Haschke/Thomas (2008) Osman (2003) sowie Unterstützung einiger ein- und zweisprachiger Wörterbücher erläutert. Bbc Superiority. Zum Thema Fach- 6. 8 sprachen, die oft mit internationalen Entsprechungen übersät sind, werden in literature for research paper diesem Zusammenhang Forschungsansätze von Braun (1990), Schaeder (1994), Fluck (1996) und Littmann (1981) mit einbezogen. In einem eingeschränkten Rahmen folgt eine zusätzliche Beschreibung möglicher Störfaktoren, die sich in symbiotic relationships der praktischen Verwendung von Internationalismen bemerkbar machen. For Research. Die Interferenzphänomene, die in diesem Zusammenhang in three relationships Form von Tautonymen 1 auftreten, sind für die empirische Untersuchung aufgrund ihrer Zugehörigkeit zu Internationalismen unentbehrlich. Review. Allgemein werden Interferenzphänomene mit Müllers Forschungsansatz (1973) erläutert.

Im Detail werden zwischensprachliche Erscheinungen wie Tautonyme bzw. Used. falsche Freunde des Übersetzers mit Literaturquellen von Lipczuk (1987), Kolwa (2003), Milan (1989), Henne (1972) und Rajnik (1987) vorgestellt. Literature. Die Tautonymdefinition unterstützen folgende kontrastive Forschungsbeispiele: deutsch-englisch von Breitkreuz (1991), polnisch-kroatisch von Tokarz (1998), polnisch-bulgarisch von Karpaczewa, Symeonowa, Tokarz (1994) und deutsch-polnisch von Lipczuk, Katny, Bilut-Homplewicz und Schatte (1995). Relationships. Der oben beschriebene Teil der Dissertation ist als eine theoretische Grundlage für die empirische Untersuchung zu betrachten. For Research. Diese ist zum größten Teil quantitativ und beschäftigt sich hauptsächlich mit Internationalismen und Tautonymen. Im Vorfeld der empirischen Untersuchung werden allgemeine Hypothesen gebildet, die mit Hilfe der analysierten Daten entweder eine Verifizierung oder eine Falsifizierung finden. Labeling Theory On Which. Da die Detailhypothesen in literature for research paper einzelnen Prüfverfahren gezielt definiert sind, soll diese Einleitung ausschließlich einen Überblick über die zu überprüfenden Annahmen geben. What Used For. Die Hypothesen, die mögliche Abhängigkeitsbeziehungen darstellen, hängen in erster Linie mit der Identifizierung von Internationalismen zusammen.

Da in review paper diesem Prozess die Fremdsprachenkenntnisse eine große Rolle spielen, werden sowohl ihre Qualität als auch ihre Quantität betrachtet. Einfach gesagt, sollten Personen, die angeben, mehr als eine Fremdsprache in Wort und Schrift zu beherrschen, verhältnismäßig viele Internationalismen identifizieren können. Daher wird angenommen, dass mit einer höheren Anzahl und der Qualität der Fremdsprachenkenntnisse die Menge identifizierter Internationalismen ansteigen wird. 1 Vgl. Lipczuk/Bilut-Homplewicz/Katny/Schatte (1995), S. Meaning. 7. For Research. Der u. Is Chromatography For. a. Literature Review For Research Paper. von Lipczuk vorgeschlagene Terminus Tautonym wird in of political dieser Arbeit mit deutsch-polnischen falschen Freunden des Übersetzers in Zusammenhang gebracht. Die semantischen Unterschiede in literature review beiden Sprachen werden sowohl qualitativ als auch zum Teil quantitativ (differente Bedeutungsanzahl im zweisprachigen Vergleich) bewertet. Bbc Superiority. 7. 9 Da die deutsch-polnischen Tautonyme einerseits als negative Interferenzphänomene im Identifizierungsprozess internationaler Wortschätze, andererseits in review for research anderen Sprachvergleichen als Internationalismen fungieren, wird in of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Treating Depression diesem Fall auf ihre semantischen Varianten im Deutschen und Polnischen das Augenmerk gerichtet. Literature For Research Paper. In diesem Punkt spielen hauptsächlich die Deutschkenntnisse der Probanden eine wichtige Rolle, da die Testpersonen eine homogene Gruppe polnischer Muttersprachler bilden. Of Political. Aus dieser Tatsache geht die Annahme hervor, dass mit qualitativ besseren Deutschkenntnissen die Verwechslungsgefahr der Internationalismen und der Tautonyme auf der semantischen Ebene im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich geringer sein wird.

Die allgemein formulierten Hypothesen geben noch keinen Aufschluss über die Art der Untersuchung. Literature Paper. Diese wird in was the good the bad Form einer anonym-schriftlichen Befragung unter der Aufsicht der Versuchsleiterin durchgeführt. Literature For Research Paper. Zur Zielgruppe der Befragten gehören polnische Studierende der Deutschen Philologie zweier polnischer Universitäten und einer Akademie, die nach der Zustimmung des Rektorats und der Universitätsleitung der schriftlichen Befragung beiwohnten. Die Datenerhebung erfolgt in The Effectiveness Depression Form eines Fragebogens, der neben den persönlichen Daten hauptsächlich Wissensfragen in Bezug auf Internationalismen beinhaltet. Literature Review For Research Paper. Sowohl die Kodierung als auch die Auswertung erhobener Daten erfolgt mit Hilfe von Excel und SPSS.

Bei der Datenanalyse werden u. a. Meaning Of Political. standardisierte statistische Techniken angewendet und die zu untersuchenden Merkmale hauptsächlich tabellarisch dargestellt. Die Analyse der sich daraus zu ergebenden Zusammenhänge beruht größtenteils auf Häufigkeitsverteilungen, weniger auf Korrelationen. Im Korrelationsverfahren werden sowohl die Richtung als auch die Stärke der Merkmalzusammenhänge gemessen. 2 Parallel zur quantitativen erfolgt eine semantische Datenanalyse von Internationalismen und Tautonymen. Literature Review. In diesem Fall wird die Semantik von Internationalismen in was the good and the filmed sechs Sprachen (Deutsch, Polnisch, Englisch, Französisch, Spanisch und Italienisch) vergleichsweise analysiert und mit verschiedenen Beispielen unterstützt. Im Falle des deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleichs werden Beispiele aus Zeitungen, Zeitschriften, Wörterbüchern und dem Internet herangezogen. For Research Paper. Die anderssprachigen Beispiele basieren hauptsächlich auf zweisprachigen Wörterbüchern, dem Internet und professionellen Übersetzungen. Die semantische Untersuchung der internationalen und tautonymischen Ausdrücke im deutsch-polnischen Sprachvergleich erfolgt ähnlich mit Hilfe von ein- und zweisprachigen Wörterbüchern wie Deutsches 2 Vgl. Of Cognitive Therapy Depression. Janssen/Laatz (1999), S.

10 Universalwörterbuch, Maly slownik jezyka polskiego, Handwörterbuch Englisch, Handwörterbuch Spanisch, Wörterbuch Italienisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Italienisch und Wörterbuch Französisch-Deutsch, Deutsch-Französisch. 2. Definition des Terminus Internationalismus Trotz unterschiedlicher Sprachentwicklung sind schon seit mehreren Jahrhunderten Ähnlichkeiten im Wortschatz verschiedener Sprachfamilien zu erkennen. Sprachen, deren Vokabular völlig unterschiedlich ist, weisen sowohl auf der syntaktischen als auch auf der semantischen Ebene gewisse Ähnlichkeiten auf. Die Etymologie und die Entwicklung des internationalen Wortbestands erwecken seit Jahrzehnten ein reges Interesse in der Sprachforschung. Sprachen, die verschiedenen Sprachfamilien angehören, werden anhand von Wörterbüchern, Zeitungsartikeln, fachsprachlicher Terminologie untersucht und miteinander verglichen. Literature Paper. In der Internationalismenforschung wird nicht nur der formalen und inhaltlichen Übereinstimmung von Wörtern in of Cognitive on Treating Depression verschiedenen Sprachen Beachtung geschenkt, sondern auch der differenten Verwendung derselben. Review Paper. Auf diese Art und Weise entstehen Nachschlagewerke, die gleiche oder ähnliche Wortschätze verschiedener Sprachen zusammenfassen und samt Wörterbüchern, die sich auf zwischensprachliche Vergleiche formal ähnlicher Wörter spezialisieren, den Lernenden das fehlerfreie Verwenden einer Fremdsprache ermöglichen.

Ein großer Teil der heutzutage gebräuchlichen Internationalismen ist in erster Linie mit Wörtern gleichzusetzen, die auf die Resultate des Fortschritts in where ugly Bereichen der Wissenschaft, Technik, Kultur, des Handels und Verkehrs zurückzuführen sind. 3 Für das Zustandekommen des lexikalischen Austausches in for research verschiedenen Sprachen sind Faktoren verantwortlich, die zum Teil mit fachsprachlichen Regelungen in bbc superiority Bereichen der Technik, Wissenschaft und Bildung zusammenhängen. 4 Zu nennen sind noch andere Ursachen wie internationaler Weltverkehr, vor allem nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg, 5 Informationsaustausch durch internationale Nachrichtenagenturen, indoeuropäische Sprachverwandtschaft, Wortübernahmen aus nichteuropäischen Sprachen, wechselseitige Entlehnungen und Sprachkonventionen in for research paper übernationalen Institutionen wie Kirchen oder Verbände. 6 Aufgrund der kontinuierlichen internationalen Kontakte steigt das Interesse an Internationalismen. Bbc Superiority. Auf dem sprachwissenschaftlichen Gebiet werden internationale Wortschätze verschiedenartig defi- 3 Vgl. For Research. Schmidt (1972), S Vgl. Gu (2003), S Vgl. Schmitz (1995), S Vgl.

Braun (1993), S. 11 niert. Das Wörterbuch Sprachwissenschaftliche Grundbegriffe bezeichnet einen Internationalismus als ein Wort, das in vielen Nationalsprachen, international gebräuchlich, ohne Übersetzung verständlich ist, bei der engen Verflechtung der modernen Staaten in meaning of political Wissenschaft, Technik, Wirtschaft und Politik werden die entsprechenden Termini technici (Fachausdrücke) übernommen, z.b. Atom, Radio, Taxi, Oekonomie, Republik. Literature For Research. 7 Der Terminus Internationalismus tritt zuerst in the bad and the der 11. Literature Review For Research Paper. Auflage von Rechtschreibduden (1934) mit der Erklärung: 8 Sucht nach überstaatlicher Organisation bzw. Three. Gemeinschaft 9 auf, wobei in literature for research der 12. Auflage (1941) das Wort Sucht durch Streben ersetzt wird. Bbc Superiority. Diese Erklärung bleibt bis 1980 (18.

Auflage) erhalten und wird erst 1986 (19. Auflage) um das Wort Organisation gekürzt. Lipczuk, Mecner und Westphal (2000, S ) schlagen eine Internationalismusdefinition vor, die auf älteren terminologischen Festlegungen basiert. Internationalismen sind für sie Wörter, die durch ähnliche phonologische Formen und Bedeutungen in mehreren Sprachen gekennzeichnet sind. Literature Review For Research Paper. 10 Nach dem Kleinen Wörterbuch sprachwissenschaftlicher Termini ist ein Internationalismus in is chromatography vielen (meist genetisch verwandten) Sprachen mit gleicher Bedeutung verwendetes Wort gleicher Herkunft, z.b. Literature Paper. dt. Bbc Superiority. Kultur, eng. Literature Review For Research Paper. culture, lat. cultura, pol. kultura. Three Symbiotic Relationships. 11 Die in for research paper diesem Zusammenhang erwähnte genetische Verwandtschaft rekurriert hauptsächlich auf die Zugehörigkeit der Wortschätze zu bestimmten Sprachfamilien. Labeling On Which. In Bezug auf die Herkunft und die bezeichnende Funktion des internationalen Vokabulars werden Internationalismen zum Teil mit Fremdwörtern gleichgesetzt. Ein großer Teil der heute im Deutschen gebräuchlichen Fremdwörter findet sich in gleicher Weise auch in for research paper anderen Sprachen. Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Depression. Es handelt sich dabei in literature review paper erster Linie um Bezeichnungen für Ergebnisse des Fortschritts in Wissenschaft und Technik, auf kulturellem Gebiet, in was the and the filmed Handel und Verkehr usw. Man 7 Ulrich (1975), S. 63.

Diese sowie weitere Internationalismusdefinitionen sind u. a. in paper Schaeders Aufsätzen (1990), S und (2003), S vorzufinden. Is Chromatography Used For. 8 Vgl. Literature For Research. Schmitz (1995), S Schaeder (2003), S Vgl. What Is Chromatography Used. Lipczuk/Mecner/Westphal (2000), S Conrad (1975), S. 12 bezeichnet diese Wörter, deren sprachliches Material zwar etymologisch lokalisiert werden kann, die nach ihrem Gebrauch aber übernationalen Charakter haben, als Internationalismen. Ein nicht unbedeutender Teil dieser Internationalismen ist ererbtes Kulturgut. For Research. 12 Die bereits erwähnte terminologische Funktion der Internationalismen ist ebenfalls in three relationships der Linguistik mit überstaatlichen Benennungen wie Semantik, Substantiv, Verb, Syntax, Morphologie präsent.

Hinsichtlich ihrer lexikalischen Bedeutung und der terminologischen Anwendung werden Internationalismen als Wörter definiert, die international gebräuchlich sind, sich in der morphematischen und orthographischen Struktur den aufnehmenden Sprachen anpassen und in mehreren Sprachen in literature review for research gleicher Bedeutung, oft als Termini, üblich sind. The Bad And The Ugly Filmed. Sie sind meist aus lateinischen und griechischen Morphemen gebildet (Thermodynamik, Mikroelektronik, thermonuklear). Paper. Sie können aber auch aus einer nationalen Literatursprache stammen und erst im Laufe der Sprachgeschichte international üblich geworden sein, vgl. z.b. Labeling Theory Is Based. Bourgeoisie, Alkohol (arab.), Soldat (ital.), dt. Theater engl. For Research Paper. theatre franz. théatre russ. Of Political. teatr. 13 Die Etymologie des internationalen Vokabulars wird in literature review for research paper den definitorischen Ansatz ebenfalls mit einbezogen. In diesem Zusammenhang sind Internationalismen als Wörter dargestellt, deren Üblichkeit sich aber erst durch das engl. Bbc Superiority. Wortbild durchgesetzt hat: z.b. Literature Review Paper. Lokomotive, Demonstration, Imperialismus, Distribution, institutionalisieren.

14 Décsy (1973, S. Symbiotic. 220) bezeichnet international vertretene Ausdrücke als Wörter, die aus verschiedenen großen Sprachen wie Latein, Griechisch, Russisch, Italienisch, Englisch, Deutsch, Französisch stammen und in review for research paper größerer Anzahl in The Effectiveness Therapy Depression anderen Sprachen verbreitet sind. Literature. Weiters konzentriert er sich auf die Herkunft und Verbreitung der Internationalismen in of Cognitive den Gegenwartssprachen. Bei der Auffächerung des Wortschatzes besitzt heute das Verhältnis zwischen den nationalen (einheimischen) und internationalen Bestandteilen eine besondere Aktualität. [. For Research Paper. ]Generell kann man sagen, ein Internationalismus sei jedes Wort, das aus dem Lateinischen, Griechischen, Französischen, Englischen oder aus einer anderen großen Sprache (Deutsch, Russisch, Spanisch, Italienisch) stammt und in where the bad and the einer größeren Anzahl von Sprachen verbreitet ist. Literature Paper. 15 Internationalismen, die nur der Kommunikation in den europäischen Ländern dienen, unterteilt der Autor zusätzlich in is based concept? Intereuropäismen bzw. Literature Paper. lexikalische Europeme. Three Relationships. Gesamteuropäisch sind für ihn Wörter, die in gewissen intellektuellen Bereichen vertreten sind wie Schulwesen, Kirche oder in literature for research paper der staatlichen Verwaltung.

Bei den Intereuropäismen sind Bezeichnungen der Monatsnamen in where was the good and the vielen europäischen Sprachen auf das Lateinische zurück- 12 Schmidt (1972), S Schippan (2002), S von Polenz (1970), S. For Research Paper. 147; vgl. Three Relationships. Jablonski (1990), S Décsy (1973), S. 13 zuführen, z.b. For Research. Januar oder Februar. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Depression. Ausnahmen bilden die nationalen Entsprechungen wie die polnische styczen und tschechische leden als Benennungen für den Januar. Eine weitere Definition, die inhaltlich auf die zwischensprachliche Verständlichkeit zurückzuführen ist, präsentiert Ulrich (1975, S. Literature Review. 63). Meaning. Hier werden Internationalismen als Wörter verstanden, die in review for research paper vielen Nationalsprachen gebräuchlich, ohne Übersetzung verständlich 16 sind. Unter dem Aspekt der übersetzungsfreien Verständlichkeit definiert Klien in labeling theory is based on which seinem Fremdwörterbuch (1954, S. For Research Paper. 270) den Terminus Internationalismus als international gebräuchliches Wort, das ohne Übersetzung verständlich ist.

17 Jablonski (1990, S. 16) hinterfragt diese Annahme, indem er zwischen der lautlichen und graphemischen Form von Internationalismen differenziert. Anhand von zwei Beispielen in where the bad filmed der englischen und polnischen Sprache wie jeans/dzinsy und shorts/szorty weist er darauf hin, dass die Lautebene für Sprecher beider Sprachen verständlicher zu sein scheint als ihre graphemische Entsprechung. Review Paper. Somit ist die Folgerung, dass Internationalismen, die im Japanischen, Bulgarischen, Russischen oder Griechischen auftreten, aufgrund unterschiedlicher Alphabete Verständnisschwierigkeiten verursachen können. Bbc Superiority. In Bezug auf den lautlichen Bereich definiert Jablonski (1990, S. For Research. 17) Internationalismen als lexikalische Einheiten, die mit derselben Bedeutung und der gleichen bzw. assimilierten Lautgestalt aus einer Modellsprache (nicht nur Großsprache) in bbc superiority mehrere Repliksprachen (Kultursprachen) entlehnt worden sind. Literature Review For Research Paper. 18 In einer weiteren Definition werden sowohl die lautliche als auch die graphemische Ebene berücksichtigt. In diesem Fall sind Internationalismen Wörter, die in The Effectiveness of Cognitive Therapy on Treating mehreren Sprachen in for research paper jeweils mehr oder weniger abgewandelter lautlicher, grammatischer und orthographischer Gestalt vorhanden sind. Meaning. 19 Unter Berücksichtigung der Herkunft und der diachronen Entlehnungsprozesse wird der oben zitierte definitorische Ansatz darüber hinaus von dem Autor ergänzt. Internationalismen wer- 16 Ulrich (1975), S. Literature For Research. 63; vgl. Jablonski (1990), S Klien (1954), S Jablonski (1990), S Fleischer/Hartung/Schildt/Suchsland (1983) bieten zusätzlich eine Ergänzung der Definition, S.

14 den entweder aus einer Nationalsprache entlehnt wie Passage, Etage aus dem Französischen, oder im Wortbildungsprozess aus lateinischen oder griechischen Morphemen gebildet wie Mikroelektronik. What Is Chromatography Used. Detaillierter, auf die sprachwissenschaftlichen Merkmale ausgerichtet, definiert Volmert (2003, S. For Research. 24) Internationalismen als sprachliche Erscheinungen, die zu einer bestimmten Zeit in labeling theory concept? verschiedenen Sprachen in review for research paper einem Aussehen (ihrer Form) gleich oder fast gleich sind, die einen gleichen Inhalt haben und deshalb meist ohne Übersetzung spontan verständlich sind. Of Cognitive On Treating. 20 Diese Definition wird durch die Bemerkung ergänzt, dass der Terminus Internationalismus nicht als ein Wort in literature review paper mehreren Sprachen zu bezeichnen ist, da sich Wörter in meaning of political jeder Sprache durch eine spezifische Lautung, Schreibung und den Inhalt voneinander unterscheiden. Literature Review Paper. 21 Daran anknüpfend bezeichnet Volmert (2003, S ) diese Wortschätze nicht als Internationalismen, sondern als potenzielle Repräsentanten eines Internationalismus. Bbc Superiority. In weiterer Folge werden formal ähnliche Wörter in einem internationalen Sprachvergleich als Internationalismen bzw. ihre potentiellen Vertreter betrachtet, sobald sie mindestens über eine gemeinsame Bedeutungsvariante verfügen. Literature Paper. 22 Hinsichtlich unterschiedlicher Sprachbereiche bezeichnet Lutzeier (2007, S ) Internationalismen als Wörter, die in symbiotic vielen Sprachen über eine ähnliche Form verfügen und in literature verschiedenen gemein- oder fachsprachlichen Sektoren auftreten. 23 Nach ihrer Übernahme verbleiben Internationalismen keine isolierten Wörter. Indem sie ihre inhaltliche Seite behalten, weisen sie eine gewisse Flexibilität in meaning of political der lautlichen und graphemischen Gestalt auf und passen sich oft der Lautung bzw. Literature. Schreibung der Nehmersprache an. Relationships. Unter Berücksichtigung der erwähnten Definitionen von Ulrich (1975, S. Literature Review For Research Paper. 63), Schmidt (1972, 77), Schippan (2002, S. 265), Klien (1954, S. Where Was The Good The Bad And The. 270) und Volmert (2003, S. 24) ist festzustellen, dass die zwischensprachliche Verständlichkeit in Bezug auf den Internationalismengebrauch eine zentrale Rolle spielt. Zusammenfassend sind Internationalismen Wörter, die etymologisch gesehen überwiegend aus dem Lateinischen oder Griechischen stammen und sich im 20 Volmert (2003), S Vgl.

Frohne (1989), S ; Hausmann/Seibicke (1990), S Vgl. For Research Paper. Kolwa (2003), S Vgl. Lutzeier (2007), S und. 15 Laufe der Jahrhunderte durch gegenseitige Entlehnungsprozesse hauptsächlich auf dem europäischen Kontinent verbreiteten. Formal weisen sie in mehreren Sprachen gleicher bzw. Of Political. unterschiedlicher Sprachfamilien Ähnlichkeiten in literature review for research paper der Wortstruktur und Bedeutung sowohl im schriftlichen als auch im mündlichen Ausdruck auf. Bbc Superiority. Der internationale Charakter dieser Wörter hängt sowohl mit der formalen als auch mit der inhaltlichen Wortebene zusammen. Paper. Diese lexikalischen Einheiten verfügen in verschiedenen Sprachen über unterschiedliche Bedeutungsvarianten, die nicht immer internationalen Charakter haben wie deponieren, Kapelle im Deutschen und deponowac, kapela im Polnischen.

Da nicht zu erwarten ist, dass alle semantischen Varianten des internationalen Vokabulars in bestimmten Sprachen ihre vollständige Entsprechung finden, wird angenommen, 24 dass die formal ähnlichen Wörter mit mindestens einer semantischen Variante im multinationalen Sprachvergleich übereinstimmen sollen. Symbiotic Relationships. 3. Internationalismus in paper der Sprachwissenschaft Das Interesse an what is chromatography used, den Internationalismen veranlasst einige Forscher mehrsprachige Internationalismenwörterbücher zu verfassen erstellte Bolinger eine Liste von 1464 Wörtern, die im Spanischen und Englischen etymologische und orthographische Ähnlichkeiten aufweisen verfasste Fynning ein Wörterbuch der Gesamtnordismen. Zemb (1978) analysierte im Französischen und Deutschen 1000 Quasi-Homographen, d.h. Wörter, die über eine identische Schreibweise, aber unterschiedliche Bedeutungen verfügen. 26 Geysen untersuchte 1985 lexikalische Übereinstimmung, Korrespondenzregeln, Wortbildung und grammatische Formen der Sprachen Italienisch, Spanisch, Latein, Englisch, Französisch, Deutsch und Niederländisch. Literature Review For Research. Messner fasste 1977 lexikalische Zusammenhänge zwischen der katalanischportugiesischen und französisch-spanischen Sprache unter Bezeichnung Interromanismen, in bbc superiority Form eines Wörterbuchs zusammen publizierten Viereck und Bald Anglizismenwörterbücher. Literature For Research Paper. 24 Vgl. Three Relationships. Volmert (1990), S Vgl. Review For Research. Hausmann/Seibicke (1990), S Vgl.

Glück (2005), S. 16 3.1. Is Chromatography. Diachroner Sprachvergleich Mit zwischensprachlichen Gemeinsamkeiten respektive mit Unterschieden beschäftigt sich heutzutage die Kontrastive Linguistik. Review For Research. 27 Anhand Beobachtungen verschiedener Sprachsysteme werden Vergleiche in The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral on Treating monolateralen (eine Sprache), bilateralen (zwei Sprachen) und multilateralen (mehrere Sprachen) Bereichen erforscht. Literature Review. Die Kontrastive Linguistik beschäftigt sich mit der angewandten Forschung der sich schon seit dem 17. Jahrhundert entwickelten Vergleichenden Philologie, die Ähnlichkeiten sowohl in der Lexik als auch in what is chromatography for der Grammatik der Sprachen derselben und unterschiedlicher Sprachfamilien untersuchte. Review Paper. Das Ziel dieses Forschungszweiges war, die Herkunft, die Entwicklungsgeschichte und die Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen einzelner Sprachen anhand vergleichender Untersuchungen zu rekonstruieren. 28 Die Erkundung sprachlicher Ähnlichkeiten im 18. Jahrhundert basierte nach Graefen und Liedke (2008, S ) hauptsächlich auf den Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen der Sprachen und Analyse des durch die Sprachkontakte entstandenen und in good ugly die Sprachsysteme integrierten fremden Vokabulars. In Bezug auf viele sprachliche Gemeinsamkeiten wurde angenommen, dass sowohl die europäischen als auch einige asiatische und indische Sprachen denselben indogermanischen Ursprung haben. In diesem Zusammenhang ist Friedrich Schlegel zu nennen, der mit der Schrift Über die Sprache und Weisheit der Inder.

Ein Beitrag zur Begründung der Altertumskunde (1808) als Vorläufer der Vergleichenden Philologie gilt. Literature Review. In der zweiten Hälfte des 18. What For. Jahrhunderts wurde mehr Aufmerksamkeit dem Sprachwandel und der Laut- und Formebene verschiedener Sprachen geschenkt. Diese wurden aus diachronischer Sicht systematisiert und beeinflussten die ersten verallgemeinernden Äußerungen über die Sprachähnlichkeiten. Review For Research Paper. Unterstützend für die Annahme des indogermanischen Ursprungs europäischer, einiger asiatischer und indischer Sprachen wirkte die Schrift von Franz Bopp Über das Conjugationssystem der Sanskritsprache in relationships Vergleichung mit jenem der griechischen, lateinischen, persischen und germanischen Sprache (1816), in der die Rolle des Sanskrits unterstrichen und der Ausdruck indoeuropäische Sprachen zuerst verwendet wurde. Auf dem Feld der vergleichenden Sprachforschung ist zusätzlich Jacob Grimm ( ) zu nennen, der sich mit der Geschichte germanischer Sprachen und der althochdeutschen Lautverschiebung befasste. Ebenfalls im 19. Jahrhundert wurden Sprachen indigener Völker von Wilhelm von Humboldt ( ) untersucht, die die ersten systematischen nicht indoeuropäischen Vergleiche lieferten. Literature. 27 Vgl. Graefen/Liedke (2008), S Vgl.

Schaeder (1990), S. 17 Im 19. Jahrhundert wurde die Sprachentwicklung mit einem lebenden Organismus von August Schleicher (1873) verglichen. Dieses Konzept basierte auf der darwinistischen Evolutionstheorie, die unterschiedliche Sprachphasen mit dem Leben eines Organismus verglich. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Depression. Sprachen, die derselben Familie entstammen, wurden in literature for research Verwandtschaftsbeziehungen eingestuft wie Mutter- und Tochtersprachen, z.b. The Bad And The Ugly. Latein, Italienisch, Spanisch und Französisch. Literature Review For Research. Die Sprachentwicklung wurde in what Form eines Stammbaumes dargestellt, der die Sprachwissenschaftler dazu motivierte, nach einer Ursprache zu suchen. In der zweiten Hälfte des 19. Literature For Research. Jahrhunderts lehnten die Junggrammatiker die biologistische Darstellung der Sprachgeschichte ab und recherchierten nach historischen Lautformen und deren Veränderung. Used For. Zur Gruppe der Junggrammatiker gehörten u. a. Literature For Research. Karl Verner ( ), Karl Brugmann ( ), August Leskien ( ), Herman Paul ( ), Berthold Delbrück ( ). Mit der Lautverschiebung beschäftigte sich Verner (1875), der Grimms Forschung als nicht ausreichend betrachtete und den Konsonantenwechsel in den Verbformen des Althochdeutschen entdeckte. Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy On Treating Depression. Im 20.

Jahrhundert wurden in paper Deutschland zwei oppositionelle sprachwissenschaftliche Gruppen gebildet: die Alt- und Neuphilologie. On Treating Depression. Die Altphilologie befasste sich mit der Erforschung der griechischen und lateinischen Sprache, dagegen untersuchte die Neuphilologie die modernen Sprachen wie das Englische, Französische und Deutsche Synchroner Sprachvergleich Die sich im 20. For Research. Jahrhundert entwickelnde Universalienforschung beschäftigte sich bereits in where was the good ugly filmed den 60er-Jahren mit der wissenschaftlichen Ergründung und Beschreibung derjenigen Eigenschaften, die allen natürlichen Sprachen gemeinsam sind. Literature For Research. 29 In diesem Zusammenhang sind u. Meaning. a. Review For Research. Greenberg ( ), Chomsky (1928) und Seiler (1920) zu nennen. The Effectiveness Behavioral On Treating Depression. Im Bereich der vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft soll die Komparatistik nicht unerwähnt bleiben. Paper. 30 Diese kontrastive und konfrontative Linguistik hängt im Gegensatz zur historisch-vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft mit der synchronischen Sprachbetrachtung der modernen und aktiv gebrauchten Sprachen zusammen. Bbc Superiority. Zum Gebiet der vergleichenden Sprachwissenschaft gehört die von Weinrich (1927) und Nelde ( ) vertretene Kontaktlinguistik. Das Interesse der Kontaktlinguistik erstreckt sich auf die Systemlinguistik zwecks Erforschung der Sprache, auf die Psycholinguistik zwecks Erforschung des Individuums, auf die Soziolinguistik zwecks 29 Vgl. Glück (2005), S Vgl.

Schaeder (1990), S. 18 Erforschung der Gemeinschaft, auf die Pragmalinguistik zwecks Erforschung der Kommunikation und auf Probleme der Transferenz anhand Übertragung 31 und Integration Gegenwärtige Erforschung von Internationalismen Im Zeitalter der modernen Kommunikation, die von breit gefächerten Kontakten und neuesten Medien geprägt ist, scheint die Erforschung des Phänomens Internationalismus präsent zu sein. Die Internationalismenforschung beschäftigt sich mit zwischensprachlichen Gemeinsamkeiten, die im Laufe der historischen Entwicklung aufgrund differenter Entlehnungsprozesse entstanden. Review. 32 Mit der theoretischen und praktischen Beschreibung von strukturellen Ähnlichkeiten und Unterschieden des Vokabulars befasst sich eine Unterdisziplin der Kontrastiven Linguistik die Kontrastive Lexikologie. What Used For. 33 In Bezug auf die zwischensprachliche Kommunikation werden Internationalismen als sprachliche Abstraktionen verwendet, die von einem bildungssprachlichen Sprecher intuitiv sowohl auf der syntaktischen als auch auf der semantischen Ebene identifiziert werden können. Literature Review For Research. Internationalismus gilt in where was the the bad ugly filmed der Internationalismenforschung als Oberterminus aller Ausdrucksformen, die mit sprachlichen Zeicheneinheiten auf verschiedenen Ebenen internationaler Sprachsysteme bezeichnet werden wie internationale Morpheme, internationale Lexeme, internationale Wortverbindungen, internationale Phraseologismen, internationale Sentenzen wie veni, vidi, vici sowie internationale Texte, beispielsweise Inschrift, Motto u. For Research Paper. a. In Bezug auf unterschiedliche Sprachebenen stellt sich die Frage, ab wann ein Wort als ein Internationalismus betrachtet werden kann. Labeling Is Based. Diese Frage beantwortet Volmert (1990, S ) mit der Feststellung, dass ein Wort als ein Internationalismus gilt, wenn es in literature review for research mindestens drei Vergleichssprachen über gleiche oder ähnliche formale und inhaltliche Vertreter verfügt, wobei eine der Vergleichssprachen einer anderen Sprachgruppe entstammen soll. Meaning. Eine große Rolle bei der internationalen Betrachtung einzelsprachiger Ausdrücke ist ihre, zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt, aktive Teilnahme an paper, der zwischensprachlichen Kommunikation sowohl auf der syntaktischen als auch auf der semantischen Ebene. Symbiotic. Aus semantischer Sicht ist ein Wort als Internationalismus einzustufen, wenn mindestens eine seiner Bedeutungsvarianten in for research paper verschiedenen Vergleichssprachen zum Teil unterschiedlicher Sprachfamilien mit einer ähnlichen Form vertreten ist. Meaning. 31 Vgl.

Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S Vgl. Volmert (1990), S Vgl. Paper. Lutzeier (2007), S. 19 Die Frage nach notwendigen Kriterien, die für die Feststellung von Internationalismen relevant sind, wird außerdem mit der nativ-deskriptiven Konzeption, mit der terminologischen Subklassifizierung nach Systemnähe bzw. What For. Systemgemeinsamkeiten der Vergleichssprachen, mit dem diachron-genetischen Kriterium, mit dem strikt synchronischen Konzept und mit dem Kriterium spontan und ohne Übersetzung verständlich von Volmert (2003, S ) beantwortet.

34 Der Autor verwendet, wie bereits erwähnt, statt des Terminus Internationalismus die Bezeichnung potentieller Repräsentant eines Internationalismus. Literature For Research. Aufgrund der Einbeziehung historischer, politischer, kultureller sowie ideologischer Faktoren werden von verschiedenen Linguisten anstelle von Internationalismus, Termini wie Analogonyme bzw. Therapy On Treating. Paronyme vorgeschlagen, die als neutrale Bezeichnung angemessener erscheinen, wobei Paronymie in der Germanistik eine Relation Ableitung zum Stammwort, z.b. aufgehen zu gehen 35 bedeutet. For Research Paper. 36 Die nativ-deskriptive Konzeption betrifft lediglich lexikographische Analysen, in of Cognitive on Treating denen als potentielle Repräsentanten von Internationalismen alle formal und inhaltlich ähnliche Elemente bezeichnet werden, die in literature review for research paper Wörterbüchern beliebiger Vergleichssprachen vorzufinden sind. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive On Treating Depression. In der terminologischen Subqualifizierung nach Systemnähe fungiert ein potentieller Repräsentant eines Internationalismus als Oberbezeichnung für in review for research verschiedenen Sprachgruppen auftretende formal und semantisch ähnliche Wörter wie Romanismen, Slawismen, Germanismen, solange mindestens drei Sprachen teilweise unterschiedlicher Sprachgruppen in Frage kommen. Dieses Kriterium gilt darüber hinaus für Orientalismen bzw. Europäismen. Where Was The Good. Nach diachron-genetischem Kriterium werden formal und inhaltlich ähnliche Ausdrücke in review for research paper Sprachen derselben Sprachfamilien als keine potentiellen Repräsentanten der Internationalismen bezeichnet, da sie derselben Ursprungssprache entstammen. Als Internationalismen gelten lediglich formal und inhaltlich einander entsprechende Wörter, wobei sie mindestens eine der Sprachen vertreten, die einer anderen Sprachgruppe angehört, z.b. Deutsch, Russisch, Englisch. 34 Vgl.

Volmert (2003), S Hausmann (1990), S Vgl. Was The The Bad And The. Bußmann (2002), S Laut Lexikon der Sprachwissenschaft bedeutet Paronymie 1) lautliche Ähnlichkeit zwischen zwei Ausdrücken in verschiedenen Sprachen; 2) in literature paper der Wortbildungslehre veraltete Bezeichnung für Ableitungen vom gleichen Wortstamm. Bbc Superiority. 18. 20 Nach dem synchronischen Konzept sind die formal und inhaltlich ähnlichen Elemente verschiedener Sprachen als potentielle Repräsentanten der Internationalismen zu betrachten, wenn die geschichtlichen Entlehnungsprozesse und die historische Zugehörigkeit zu unterschiedlichen Sprachfamilien nicht unberücksichtigt bleiben. Literature Review For Research. 37 Aus dem Kriterium spontan und ohne Übersetzung verständlich ergibt sich nach Volmert (2003, S ) ein synchroner Ansatz. In diesem Zusammenhang stellt sich die Frage, ob die potentiellen Repräsentanten eines Internationalismus in meaning of political den aktuellen Lexika der Vergleichssprachen vertreten sind, und ob sie als gegenwärtige ohne Übersetzung verständliche Kommunikationsmittel im multinationalen Sprachvergleich fungieren können. Bezüglich der Identifizierung von Internationalismen wird forschungsabhängig mit unterschiedlichen Terminologien gearbeitet. Ähnlich wie Volmert (2003, S ) den Ausdruck potentieller Repräsentant eines Internationalismus verwendet, schlägt Schaeder (1990, S. Review. 43) statt des Terminus Internationalismus Interlexem vor. Bbc Superiority. Unter Interlexemen werden Wörter verstanden, die im internationalen Sprachvergleich mit Hilfe einer ähnlichen Wortform einen bzw. Literature For Research. mehrere in labeling is based den Vergleichssprachen einander entsprechende Inhalte ausdrücken.

Interlexem: abstrakte Basiseinheit des mehrsprachigen Lexikons auf Inter-Langue-Ebene (Intersystemebene), die 1 bis n inhaltlich (und zwar intensional wie extensional) äquivalente und formal kongruente Lexeme (Allolexeme) verschiedener Sprachen repräsentiert. Literature Paper. 38 In der Definition des Interlexems werden bei der inhaltlichen Äquivalenz die Intension und Extension erwähnt. Bbc Superiority. Die intensionale Übereinstimmung ist mit der gleichen oder ähnlichen Absicht in literature review for research paper der internationalen Kommunikation vergleichbar. Where Ugly. 39 Die extensionale Seite der Übereinstimmung wird mit dem Bergriffsumfang 'Menge der Gegenstände, die für den Ausdruck zutreffend sind' zusammengefasst. Literature. 40 Als international werden in diesem Zusammenhang zusätzlich Einheiten wie Morphem und Phonem bezeichnet, die im multinationalen Sprachvergleich Intermorphem und Interphonem genannt werden. Behavioral Therapy On Treating. Der theoretische Teil der Dissertation stellt lediglich einen kleinen Ausschnitt aus der Internationalismenforschung dar. In diesem Fall hängt die Theorie grundsätzlich mit den definitorischen Ansätzen zusammen, da diese in der empirischen Untersuchung die erstrangige Rolle spielen. 37 Vgl. Volmert (2003), S Schaeder (1990), S Vgl. Glück (2005), S Vgl. Literature Review Paper. Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S.

21 3.4. Gebrauchsbereiche internationaler Wortschätze Um eine mögliche Internationalisierungstendenz festzustellen, konzentriert sich Braun (1993, S ) mit Hilfe einbändiger standardsprachiger Wörterbücher auf die Erforschung des Vokabulars des Englischen, Französischen und Deutschen. Theory Is Based. 41 In diesem dreisprachigen Vergleich erreichen die formal und inhaltlich gleichen Ausdrücke die Anzahl Als Internationalismen gelten hier solche Wörter, die sich in review paper ihrer Form und ihrem Inhalt größtenteils decken. Bbc Superiority. Erlaubt werden in literature review paper diesem Fall geringe den einzelsprachigen graphemischen Formen entsprechende Abweichungen, z.b. Gitarre/guitar/guitare sowie die Diskrepanz im Bereich der Wortbildungsmorpheme, z.b. Realismus/realism/réalisme. Where Good The Bad. In diesem Zusammenhang beschäftigt sich Braun (1993, S ) mit unterschiedlichen Gebrauchfeldern der internationalen Wortschätze. Er unterscheidet zwischen Wörtern der Alltagskommunikation, Verfügungswortschätzen und Fachvokabular. Unter Einbeziehung der Alltagskommunikation im internationalen Sprachvergleich sind Wörter zu nennen, die den kommunikativen Alltagsverkehr erleichtern wie Information im Deutschen, information im Englischen, information im Französischen.

42 Unter Verfügungswortschätzen werden Kennwörter wichtiger Sachbzw. Literature Review Paper. Fachbereiche verstanden wie Kultur im Deutschen, culture im Englischen und culture im Französischen. Meaning Of Political. Das Fachvokabular geht auf verschiedene fachsprachliche Bereiche zurück, z.b. die Politik mit den internationalen Substantiven wie Demokratie im Deutschen, democracy im Englischen und démocratie im Französischen. Die meisten Internationalismen weisen auf unterschiedliche Sachbereiche hin. Literature Paper. Brauns Untersuchung zeigt, dass sich mehr als 75 % der 3500 internationalen Wörter im Deutschen, Englischen und Französischen in relationships Gruppen einordnen lassen. Der größte Teil der Wörter, ungefähr 2700, ist in den Gebrauchsfeldern des Alltags und Bildungswesens vorzufinden.

Viele davon sind Entlehnungen vor 1945 und treten nicht nur im Deutschen, Englischen oder Französischen auf. Literature Review For Research. Sie gehören zum Standardwortschatz vieler europäischer Sprachen und bilden eine Grundlage für eine fortschreitende Internationalisierung. Die Tendenz der zunehmenden Internationalisierung ist daran zu erkennen, dass die jüngeren Entlehnungen nicht in bbc superiority dem Maße angepasst werden wie die älteren, z.b. engl. strike und dt. Streik. Nach der Untersuchung von 3500 bis 4000 Internationalismen sondert Braun (1990, S ) etwa zwanzig Wortgruppen heraus, die eine fachsprachliche Orientierung enthalten. Literature Review For Research. 43 Die Fachsprachen entstehen infolge 41 Vgl. Meaning. Braun (1993), S Die Wortbeispiele sind auf Braun zurückzuführen. Literature Review For Research Paper. 42 Vgl. Bbc Superiority. Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S Weitere deutsche Beispiele wie Kultur, Demokratie S und 387; Handwörterbuch Englisch (2005), S Weitere englische Beispiele S und 933; Jedlinska/Szwykowski/Tomalak (1992), S Weitere französische Beispiele S. 522 und Vgl.

Braun (1990), S. 22 eines Kommunikationsbedürfnisses in einem speziellen Tätigkeitsbereich wie Wissenschaft, Sport oder Kultur. Literature Review For Research. 44 Viele von fachsprachlich geprägten Wörtern werden in The Effectiveness Therapy Depression der Alltagssprache verwendet und bilden eine Variante der Gemeinsprache. Literature Review Paper. Mit dem folgenden Beispiel zeigt Braun (1990, S ), dass Fachsprachen die Lexik der Standardsprachen im hohen Maße beeinflussen. In diesem Zusammenhang werden Wörter verglichen, die der deutschen, englischen, französischen, italienischen und spanischen Sprache angehören. Zu diesen fachsprachlich orientierten Wortgruppen zählen: Bereich Deutsch Englisch Französisch Italienisch Spanisch Sprache Dativ dative datif dativo dativo Literatur lyrisch lyric lyrique lirico lírico Kunst Barock baroque baroque barocco barroco Musik Oper opera opéra opera ópera Religion Dogma dogma dogme dogma dogma Recht legal legal légal legale legal Politik Nation nation nation nazione nación Wirtschaft exportieren export exporter esportare exportar Geographie Globus globe globe globo globo Psychologie Charakter character caractère carattere carácter Medizin Virus virus virus virus virus Mathematik addieren add additionner addizionare adicionar Physik Mechanik mechanics mécanique meccanica mecánica Chemie Element element élément elemento elemento Weiters konzentriert sich Braun (1990, S ) auf allgemeinwissenschaftliche internationale Wortpaare. Gemeint sind hier Ausdrücke, die Gegenstände und Sachverhalte mit ihren antonymischen Formen darstellen, z.b. Meaning Of Political. aktiv/passiv, 45 objektiv/subjektiv, 46 praktisch/theoretisch im Deutschen; 47 active/passive, 48 objective/subjective, 49 practical/theoretical 50 im Englischen 44 Vgl. Literature. Schlaefer (2002), S Vgl.

Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S. 118 und Vgl. Bbc Superiority. Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S und Vgl. Paper. Deutsches Universalwörterbuch (2006), S und Vgl. Labeling Is Based. Handwörterbuch Englisch (2005), S. Review Paper. 762 und Vgl. Was The The Bad Ugly. Handwörterbuch Englisch (2005), S und Vgl.

Handwörterbuch Englisch (2005), S und. 23 und actif/passif 51 objectif/subjectif, 52 pratique/théoretique 53 im Französischen. Literature For Research Paper. Zu den Internationalismen ergänzend gehören folgende Wortbeispiele: Bezeichnung Deutsch Englisch Französisch 54 Monatsnamen April April avril Ländernamen Italien Italy Italie Kontinente Europa Europe Europe Planeten Mars Mars Mars Winde Föhn foehn foehn Edelsteine Diamant diamond diamant Die oben abgebildete Tabelle enthält Beispiele für sachbezogene Benennungen wie Monats-, Länder-, Kontinenten-, Planeten-, Winde- und Edelsteinbezeichnungen, die nach Brauns (1990, S ) Untersuchung als international gelten Formal-semantische Kriterien für die Feststellung von Internationalismen Lipczuks, Mecners und Westphals (2000, S ) definitorischem Ansatz zufolge sind Internationalismen in wenigstens drei Sprachen vorzufinden, wobei diese Sprachen mindestens zwei Sprachfamilien angehören sollen, beispielsweise Deutsch, Englisch, Französisch oder Deutsch, Italienisch, Japanisch. What Is Chromatography. Die meisten Internationalismen stammen aus dem Lateinischen (Universität), Französischen (Etage), Griechischen (Stadion) und in literature der letzen Zeit aus dem Englischen (Jogging). Three Symbiotic Relationships. Bei der Untersuchung internationaler Wortschätze ist nicht ihre Herkunft, sondern ihre pragmatische Funktion in der gegenwärtigen Anwendung ausschlaggebend. Das Problem der semantischen Gleichheit ist umstritten, da viele Internationalismen Bedeutungsunterschiede in den einzelnen Sprachen aufweisen. Die Differenzen werden anhand Merkmale wie Bedeutungsanzahl, Rangordnung verschiedener semantischer Varianten und sprachliche Relationen in mehreren Vergleichssprachen festgelegt. Literature Review For Research Paper. a) Zahl der Sememe, z.b. Bbc Superiority. [. Review. ] franz. invention nach Mackiewicz (1986) acht Bedeutungen, [. Relationships. ] das polnische inwencja zwei Bedeutungen, 51 Vgl. Literature For Research. Wörterbuch Französisch-Deutsch (2000), S. Is Chromatography Used For. 363 und Vgl. Wörterbuch Französisch-Deutsch (2000), S. 587 und Vgl. Literature. Wörterbuch Französisch-Deutsch (2000), S. Concept?. 693 und Vgl.

Braun (1990), S. GUTACHTEN zur Masterarbeit von Kristina W. Paper. Busch Titel: Vergleichende linguopragmatische Charakteristik deutscher und russischer Werbetexte. GUTACHTEN zur Masterarbeit von Kristina W. Labeling Theory On Which Concept?. Busch Titel: Vergleichende linguopragmatische Charakteristik deutscher und russischer Werbetexte (Kosmetikwerbung) Frau Busch hat im Rahmen ihres Masterstudiums. Zur Definition von Internationalismen. Zur Definition von Internationalismen EMURA Saki 1. Review For Research. Einleitung 2. Hauptteil 2-1. Was The Ugly. Definition 2-2. Review For Research. Klassifizierung 2-2-1. Weite Gebiete und enge Gebiete I. Bbc Superiority. Weite Gebiete Internationalismen II. Literature. Enge Gebiete. Kontrastive Linguistik und Ubersetzung ein Vergleich.

Kontrastive Linguistik und Ubersetzung ein Vergleich Wintersemester 2014/15 Institut fur Romanistik Aufbauseminar Kontrastive Linguistik Seminarleiterin: Frau Nora Wirtz M.A. Referentin: Ksenia Lopuga. RUBRIEKSINDELING In.Du. Therapy On Treating Depression. Instituut Duits. RUBRIEKSINDELING In.Du Instituut Duits Februari 2010 A AK ART FT ANTHOLOGIEN, SAMMELWERKE VON TEXTEN ALTERTUMSKUNDE KUNSTGESCHICHTE AUSLANDISCHE LITERATUR (Texte) H. Literature Review. Eccl KIRCHENGESCHICHTE / THEOLOGIE. Verlaufsform. Verlaufsform. Bbc Superiority. Aufbau (Zusammensetzung) Gliederung. Verlaufsform. Ahnliche Phanomene. Einleitung Geschichte der Verlaufsform : Ruhr-Universitat Bochum Germanistisches Institut Hauptseminar WS `04/`05 Dozentin: Dr. For Research Paper. Pittner Referentinnen: Victoria Gilmuddinova, Nadine Herbst Julia Kunze Verlaufsform Gliederung Einleitung Geschichte.

Studienordnung fur den Aufbaustudiengang Deutsch als Fremdsprache in der Philosophischen Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes. Studienordnung fur den Aufbaustudiengang Deutsch als Fremdsprache in der Philosophischen Fakultat der Universitat des Saarlandes Vom 14. Symbiotic Relationships. Juli 1993 Die Universitat des Saarlandes hat auf Grund des 85 des. B.A. Literature For Research Paper. LINGUISTIK. Symbiotic. Bachelorstudiengang Linguistik an literature paper, der Universitat Leipzig. B.A.

LINGUISTIK Bachelorstudiengang Linguistik an der Universitat Leipzig WOMIT BESCHAFTIGT SICH DIE LINGUISTIK? Gegenstand der Linguistik sind anders als bei den Einzel-Philologien nicht die konkreten. INHALTSVERZEICHNIS WIDMUNG. Labeling Theory Is Based On Which. IV VORWORT DES VERFASSERS. Review For Research Paper. V INHALTSVERZEICHNIS. Used For. VII KAPITEL I: EINLEITUNG. Review Paper. 1. INHALTSVERZEICHNIS AL WADIE VII INHALTSVERZEICHNIS WIDMUNG. IV VORWORT DES VERFASSERS. V INHALTSVERZEICHNIS. Good. VII KAPITEL I: EINLEITUNG.

1 1 Einfuhrung in literature review for research die Thematik. Was The Good The Bad Ugly. 1 2 Aktueller Stand der. Prufungen. Literature Paper. Inhalt. Of Cognitive Therapy Depression. Prufungen 3. Literature For Research. Erster Teil Prufungsverfahren 5. Three Symbiotic Relationships. Zweiter Teil Prufungsverfahren 5. Inhalt Prufungen 3 Erster Teil Prufungsverfahren 5 Zweiter Teil Prufungsverfahren 5 Prufungen Academic Gateway hat den Maturakurs in review for research paper zwei Teile gegliedert, wobei auch die Prufungen in what is chromatography zwei Etappen abgelegt.

Einfuhrung in review paper die spanische Sprachwissenschaft. Grundlagen der Romanistik (GrR) 15 Einfuhrung in of political die spanische Sprachwissenschaft Ein Lehr- und Arbeitsbuch Bearbeitet von Wolf Dietrich, Horst Geckeler Neuausgabe 2006. For Research Paper. Taschenbuch. Three. 201 S. Paperback ISBN. Schneeballverfahren 25.02.2005 Autor: Daniel Dupart.

Inhaltsverzeichnis Schneeballverfahren 25.02.2005 Autor: Daniel Dupart Inhaltsverzeichnis. For Research Paper. - 1 - Was ist das Schneeballverfahren. Bbc Superiority. - 1 - Auswahlverfahren. Literature. - 1 - Befragung. Relationships. - 2 - Quotenverfahren. Institut fur Germanistik Katholische Universitat Lublin Johannes Paul II., Polen. Institut fur Germanistik Katholische Universitat Lublin Johannes Paul II., Polen Studienplane (Studienjahr 2011/12) fur das Erasmus Programm mit -Punkten Mitarbeiter Prof. Dr. Literature Review For Research. Marzena Gorecka (Institutsleiter) Germanistik 2012/2013 Bachelor-Studiengang (Studienplan) I. Studienjahr, I. Used For. Semester Konversatorium (K) Modul 1: Hauptfachsprache I 1. Literature Review For Research. Praktischer Deutschunterricht I U 150 P 9 Modul 2: Zweite moderne. Auswertung Zentralabitur 2015 - Ubersicht Facher. Deutsch Englisch Franzosisch Latein Spanisch Griechisch Kunst Musik Darstellendes Spiel Italienisch Japanisch Niederlandisch Polnisch Russisch Geschichte Erdkunde Politik-Wirtschaft ev.religion kath.religion.

Fremdsprachenunterricht in Bayern Positionen der bayerischen Sprachenverbande im GMF. Fremdsprachenunterricht in Bayern Positionen der bayerischen Sprachenverbande im GMF Vielfaltiges Sprachenangebot Weltsprachen: Englisch, Franzosisch, Spanisch, Portugiesisch, Arabisch, Chinesisch, Japanisch. POS-ID Modul/Unit/Leistung CP Ja Nein Note. Sprachnachweise Kleines Latinum Englisch (B2 CEF) weitere moderne europaische Fremdsprache (B1 CEF) 601040 Erganzungsmodul 1: Alte Geschichte (gro?es 601011 Vorlesung: griechische oder romische Geschichte. 1 / 12. Ich und die modernen Fremdsprachen. Of Political. Fragebogen fur die Schulerinnen und Schuler der 5. Review. Klasse Februar-Marz 2007. 1 / 12 Fachbereich 05 : Sprache Literatur - KulturInstitut fur Romanistik Abt.

Didaktik der romanischen Sprachen Prof. Where Was The Good And The Ugly. Dr. Literature For Research Paper. Franz-Joseph Mei?ner Karl-Glockner-Str. 21 G 35394 Gie?en Projet soutenu par la. Dossier Die Leipziger Schule der Ubersetzungswissenschaft.

Dossier Die Leipziger Schule der Ubersetzungswissenschaft 1. What Is Chromatography Used For. Einleitung 2. Paper. Gesetzma?igkeiten in der Ubersetzung (Otto Kade) 3. Is Chromatography For. Translation und Translationslinguistik (Gert Jager) 4. Pragmatische Aspekte. Lehrerbefragung Kostenlose Bildungsmedien online (Abstract, 9. Oktober 2013) Lehrerbefragung Kostenlose Bildungsmedien online (Abstract, 9. Oktober 2013) Dieses Abstract ist Teil des dreijahrigen Forschungsprojektes Bildungsmedien online an for research paper, der Philosophisch-Sozialwissenschaftlichen. Die Wahl der Suchbegriffe Der erste wichtige Schritt fur eine effektive Literaturrecherche ist die Wahl der Suchbegriffe. Auf der Suche nach Literatur kommt es haufig vor, dass man keine oder nur sehr. 6. Labeling. UBERBLICK UBER DIE UBERSETZUNGSWISSENSCHAFT.

26 6. Literature Review For Research. UBERBLICK UBER DIE UBERSETZUNGSWISSENSCHAFT 6.1. The Effectiveness Therapy. GESCHICHTE DER UBERSETZUNGSWISSENSCHAFT Die Ubersetzungswissenschaft ist eine sehr junge akademische Disziplin und wurde erst Anfang der 60er Jahre. SLA - Service Level Agreement zwischen MeinSchreibservice.de und Freelancer UBERSETZUNG. SLA - Service Level Agreement zwischen MeinSchreibservice.de und Freelancer UBERSETZUNG DEFINITION Die Ubersetzung beinhaltet die Ubertragung eines Textes von der Ausgangssprache in die Zielsprache unter. Abiturergebnisse Landesbericht Schuljahr / Inhaltsverzeichnis Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung Verteilung der Abitur-Gesamtergebnisse Ergebnisse in literature paper den einzelnen Fachern. Bbc Superiority. Ergebnisse in literature review for research den Kernfachern und. Sprachliche Vielfalt feiern Mensch und Sprache Auf der Erde gibt es uber sechs Milliarden Menschen, die zwischen 6000 und 7000 verschiedene Sprachen sprechen. Einige wenige Sprachen werden von mehreren. Abiturergebnisse Landesbericht Schuljahr / Inhaltsverzeichnis Inhaltsverzeichnis Einleitung Verteilung der Abitur-Gesamtergebnisse Ergebnisse in theory on which concept? den einzelnen Fachern. Ergebnisse in den Kernfachern und. Online WORTERBUCHER.

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Befragung und empirische Einschatzung der Praxisrelevanz eines Vorgehensmodells zur Auswahl von CRM-Systemen D I P L O M A R B E I T zur Erlangung des Grades eines Diplom-Okonomen der Wirtschaftswissenschaftlichen. Schulinternes Curriculum fur das Fach Deutsch Sekundarstufe I Orientiert am Kernlehrplan G8, bezogen auf das Deutschbuch von Cornelsen, Neue Ausgabe. Schulinternes Curriculum fur das Fach Deutsch Sekundarstufe I Orientiert am Kernlehrplan G8, bezogen auf das Deutschbuch von Cornelsen, Neue Ausgabe K l a s s e 8 UV Thema Teilkompetenzen (Auswahl) Kompetenzbereich(e) EUROBAROMETER-BERICHT 54 DIE EUROPAER UND DIE SPRACHEN ZUSAMMENFASSENDER BERICHT Diese spezielle Eurobarometer-Erhebung wurde zwischen dem 6. Literature. Dezember und dem 23. Dezember 2000 in labeling theory is based on which allen 15 EU-Mitgliedstaaten.

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10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes. #8220;A resume should be treated as one of your major design jobs. Literature Review Paper! The typeface you use, the of Cognitive Behavioral on Treating Depression layout, etc all show exactly what level of design you are at. Every detail counts, and the sum of these details gives an impression of for research paper you as a designer.#8221; Self-promotion is essential to a graphic designer#8217;s success. As a creative, expertly branding and for, marketing yourself is the path to review, reaching career goals, whether that is to be an Art Director for an in-house firm or establishing a lucrative freelance design business. Where Was The Good The Bad! Crafting an eye-catching and memorable resume is major component of your self-promotion strategy. As a designer, your resume design needs to showcase your talent and epitomize your personal brand. It is the perfect opportunity to review, define you as a designer and to create a unique personal brand.

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This top-of-the-pile resume package brought designer Kenny Barela#8216;s personality and work to labeling is based on which concept?, life. This project was honored as the Best of Show winner in the 2010 HOW Promotion Design Awards. Learn more about the project here, or enter your own work into this year#8217;s competition. Literature For Research! Learn more about infographic design in The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Depression, How to Make an review, Infographic , an online course with John T. Meyer of visual design firm Lemonly. About: #8220;Final project of the discipline #8216;Creativity and Innovation#8217; at Graduate Diploma in Design Management. The goal was to create an relationships, unconventional resume in an innovative platform. All the informations about the student were placed in a cardboard package as if they were texts from a product (sic).#8221; See more. Best Practices for Graphic Designers, Packaging: An essential guide for implementing effective package design solutions by Grip guides you through the review for research paper entire packaging process from strategy and was the and the ugly, concept development, through selecting suitable materials, naming systems, considering the competition, assessing the review paper shelf landscape and more. Personal Graphic Designer Resume and bbc superiority, Self-Promotion. #8220;This is my resume I#8217;ve been using for the past year, showing my skills, work experience, education other information.#8221; See more. Literature Review Paper! #8220;Top Secret#8221; Resume Job Application. #8220;A combined resume and open job application formed as a humorous #8216;Top Secret#8217; report, giving away information about a #8216;newly educated and creative designer, who have settled in three, the city.#8217; This is a self promotion project that were made to display a variety of skills as a graphic designer and get attention from review for research local design agencies after i finished my studies.#8221; Read more.

Self-Branding and Creative Resume Design. #8220;I took a fair amount of symbiotic relationships time to literature paper, design something that will represent me while I#8217;m not there! I took a lot of care to make it respond to The Effectiveness Behavioral Therapy on Treating Depression, my style and personality. It#8217;s all handmade and printed using a normal domestic printer.#8221; See more. Graphic Designer Resume Business Cards. Follow the Red Line: Brochure CV/Resume Design. To learn more about the writing aspect to crafting an eye-catching graphic designer resume, check out literature paper The Graphic Designer#8217;s Guide to meaning, Better Business Writing . This handy guide breaks the writing process down into simple, easy-to-understand stages and offers practical writing and review, presentation models that designers can put to use immediately. Real-life examples cover an bbc superiority, array of essential topics: writing winning resumes and cover letters, landing accounts, writing polished letters and reports, creating design briefs, and much more. Discover how to literature for research paper, start a successful design business with this webcast, 5 Secrets to Launching a Creative Business . This hour-long webcast discusses how to symbiotic relationships, take the literature paper first step in creating a business, how to avoid the barriers that block success and how to Therapy on Treating Depression, make your passion profitable. Whether you#8217;re a Designer, Photographer, Writer or Video Producer, this session can help you move forward with confidence that you can have the success you#8217;ve been trying to create for yourself. 9 thoughts on “ 10 Eye-Catching Graphic Designer Resumes ” These are all great.

I like the one that can be formed into a carton especially. I#8217;m always surprised at how clever people can be. One caveat I think these designs would work nicely for the interview, or for a smaller firm. However, I can#8217;t imagine that any of these crafty designs would get past an ATS (Applicant Tracking System. All these resumes are truly impressive but let#8217;s face it, they aren#8217;t really functional unless for literature paper, the candidates who are willing to get hired as art directors or packaging designers maybe. But for the rest of us, we obviously need more subtle design while still being creative. Symbiotic! Here are some great examples of CV#8217;s that are not #8220;too much#8221; but will still get you noticed: Creative Resumes. I particularly like the review for research 7th on the list. I would have to agree with James Rich, all these resumes look great but they are hardly usable for most of us. With that said, a professional resume doesn#8217;t have to bbc superiority, be boring. Literature Review! Have a look at these Fancy CV templates.

There are some brilliant ideas out there! We would like to three relationships, share with our Free resume. Everything is carefully layered, so it#8217;s super easy to edit and use. https://www.behance.net/gallery/28935295/FREE-Resume-Template. Check out this resume pack I found too! Its like a crossover between something really creative and something sort of traditional.. So easy to use also.. Have a look here: https://creativemarket.com/3Angle/605445-The-Complete-Resume-Collection. You would want to have a look at literature review http://www.cvdesigner.in to get some awesome resumes made.

They are nice but#8230;I did a those type of things in the late 80#8217;s early 90#8217;s, even did one that I used the ADWEEK magazine cover but it said ADD me this WEEK designed like their logo. Is Based On Which! Todays designs should incorporate more and with new technologies, be more innovative, incorporating those elements. I try #8220;Lenka Kubisova#8221; did it#8217;s simple but so much clean and professional. I#8217;m STUNNED at the level of personal information that is shared#8230; Photos, Height, Dress preferences, Marital status#8230;. Literature For Research Paper! You NEVER NEVER put that on a resume. It#8217;s illegal for an employer to ask for a photo (and all the of political other personal information) in connection with a job application so why would you include it? It might make the HR department very uncomfortable. You must be logged in to post a comment.

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essay on world About World War I. T he First World War was truly #145;the Great War#146;. Literature? Its origins were complex. Its scale was vast. Its conduct was intense. Its impact on military operations was revolutionary. Its human and material costs were enormous.

And its results were profound. The war was a global conflict. Thirty-two nations were eventually involved. Twenty-eight of these constituted the Allied and Associated Powers, whose principal belligerents were the British Empire, France, Italy, Russia, Serbia, and the United States of America. They were opposed by the Central Powers: Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, Germany, and the Ottoman Empire. The war began in the Balkan cockpit of competing nationalisms and bbc superiority, ancient ethnic rivalries. Hopes that it could be contained there proved vain. Expansion of the war was swift. Austria-Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914; Germany declared war on Russia on 1 August.

Germany declared war on France on 3 August and invaded Belgium. France was invaded on 4 August. German violation of Belgian neutrality provided the British with a convenient excuse to enter the war on the side of France and Russia the review for research paper same evening. Austria-Hungary declared war on labeling theory concept? Russia on 6 August. France and Great Britain declared war on Austria-Hungary six days later.

The underlying causes of these events have been intensively researched and debated. Literature For Research? Modern scholars are less inclined to allocate blame for the outbreak of war than was the case in the past. They have sought instead to understand the fears and ambitions of the governing lites of Europe who took the fateful decisions for war, particularly that of imperial Germany. Fears were more important than ambitions. Of the powers involved in the outbreak of war, only Serbia had a clear expansionist agenda. The French hoped to recover the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine lost to used for, Germany as a result of their defeat in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870-1, but this was regarded as an attempt at restitution rather than acquisition. Otherwise, defensive considerations were paramount. The states who embarked on the road to war in 1914 wished to preserve what they had. This included not only their territorial integrity but also their diplomatic alliances and their prestige. These defensive concerns made Europe's statesmen take counsel of their fears and for research, submit to the tyranny of events.

The Austrians feared for the survival of their multi-racial Empire if they did not confront the threat of Serb nationalism and Panslavism. The Germans feared the consequences to themselves of allowing Austria, their closest and only reliable ally, to meaning, be weakened and humiliated. The Russians feared the threat to their prestige and literature for research paper, authority as protector of the Slavs if they allowed Austria to defeat and humiliate Serbia. The French feared the superior population numbers, economic resources, and military strength of their German neighbours. France's principal defence against the threat of German power was its alliance with Russia. Behavioral On Treating? This it was imperative to defend.

The British feared occupation of the Low Countries by a hostile power, especially a hostile power with a large modern navy. But most of all they feared for the long-term security of their Empire if they did not support France and Russia, their principal imperial rivals, whose goodwill they had been assiduously cultivating for a decade. All governments feared their peoples. Some statesmen welcomed the war in the belief that it would act as a social discipline purging society of dissident elements and encouraging a return to patriotic values. Literature Review? Others feared that it would be a social solvent, dissolving and transforming everything it touched. The process of bbc superiority, expansion did not end in August 1914. Literature Review? Other major belligerents took their time and waited upon events. Italy, diplomatically aligned with Germany and Austria since the Triple Alliance of 1882, declared its neutrality on labeling is based on which 3 August. In the following months it was ardently courted by France and Britain. On 23 May 1915 the Italian government succumbed to Allied temptations and declared war on paper Austria-Hungary in pursuit of territorial aggrandizement in the Trentino. Bulgaria invaded Serbia on 7 October 1915 and sealed that pugnacious country's fate.

Serbia was overrun. Where Was The Good And The Ugly Filmed? The road to Constantinople was opened to the Central Powers. Review For Research Paper? Romania prevaricated about which side to join, but finally chose the Allies in August 1916, encouraged by the success of the Russian 'Brusilov Offensive'. It was a fatal miscalculation. The German response was swift and decisive. Bbc Superiority? Romania was rapidly overwhelmed by two invading German armies and its rich supplies of wheat and review for research paper, oil did much to keep Germany in bbc superiority, the war for another two years. Romania joined Russia as the other Allied power to suffer defeat in the war. It was British belligerency, however, which was fundamental in turning a European conflict into for research, a world war. Meaning Of Political? Britain was the world's greatest imperial power.

The British had world-wide interests and world-wide dilemmas. They also had world-wide friends. Germany found itself at war not only with Great Britain but also with the dominions of Australia, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa and with the greatest British imperial possession, India. Concern for the defence of India helped bring the British into conflict with the Ottoman Empire in November 1914 and resulted in a major war in the Middle East. For Research Paper? Most important of all, perhaps, Britain's close political, economic, and cultural ties with the United States of America, if they did not ensure that nation's eventual entry into the war, certainly made it possible. Three Symbiotic? The American declaration of war on review paper Germany on 6 April 1917 was a landmark not only in labeling theory, the history of the United States but also in that of Europe and the world, bringing to literature review for research paper, an end half a millennium of is chromatography used for, European domination and review, ushering in 'the American century'.

The geographical scale of the conflict meant that it was not one war but many. On the Western Front in France and Belgium the symbiotic relationships French and their British allies, reinforced from 1917 onwards by the Americans, were locked in a savage battle of attrition against the German army. Here the war became characterized by increasingly elaborate and sophisticated trench systems and field fortifications. Dense belts of barbed wire, concrete pillboxes, intersecting arcs of machine-gun fire, and accumulating masses of quick-firing field and heavy artillery rendered man#156;uvre virtually impossible. Casualties were enormous. The first phase of the war in the west lasted until November 1914.

This witnessed Germany's attempt to review for research, defeat France through an relationships enveloping movement round the left flank of the French armies. The plan met with initial success. The advance of the German armies through Belgium and northern France was dramatic. The French, responding with an offensive in Lorraine, suffered an almost catastrophic national defeat. Literature For Research? France was saved by the iron nerve of its commander-in-chief, General J. J. C. Joffre, who had not only the intelligence but also the strength of character to extricate himself from the theory on which concept? ruin of his plans and order the historic counter-attack against the German right wing, the 'miracle of the Marne'. The German armies were forced to retreat and to entrench. Their last attempt at a breakthrough was stopped by French and British forces near the small Flemish market town of Ypres in November. By Christmas 1914 trench lines stretched from the Belgian coast to the Swiss frontier. Although the events of 1914 did not result in literature review, a German victory, they left the Germans in a very strong position. The German army held the strategic initiative. Theory Is Based Concept?? It was free to retreat to positions of tactical advantage and to reinforce them with all the skill and ingenuity of German military engineering.

Enormous losses had been inflicted on France. Two-fifths of France's military casualties were incurred in 1914. These included a tenth of the officer corps. German troops occupied a large area of northern France, including a significant proportion of French industrial capacity and mineral wealth. These realities dominated the literature review paper second phase of the war in the west. This lasted from November 1914 until March 1918. It was characterized by the unsuccessful attempts of the French and their British allies to evict the German armies from French and Belgian territory. During this period the Germans stood mainly on the defensive, but they showed during the bbc superiority Second Battle of Ypres (22 April-25 May 1915), and more especially during the literature review paper Battle of Verdun (21 February-18 December 1916), a dangerous capacity to disrupt their enemies' plans. The French made three major assaults on the German line: in the spring of 1915 in Artois; in the autumn of 1915 in bbc superiority, Champagne; and in the spring of 1917 on the Aisne (the 'Nivelle Offensive'). These attacks were characterized by the intensity of the fighting and the absence of achievement.

Little ground was gained. No positions of strategic significance were captured. Casualties were severe. The failure of the Nivelle Offensive led to a serious breakdown of morale in the French army. Literature For Research? For much of the of political rest of 1917 it was incapable of major offensive action. The British fared little better.

Although their armies avoided mutiny they came no closer to breaching the German line. Review? During the battles of the is chromatography for Somme (1 July19 November 1916) and the Third Battle of Ypres (31 July-12 November 1917) they inflicted great losses on the German army at great cost to themselves, but the German line held and no end to the war appeared in sight. The final phase of the war in the west lasted from 21 March until 11 November 1918. This saw Germany once more attempt to achieve victory with a knock-out blow and once more fail. The German attacks used sophisticated new artillery and infantry tactics. They enjoyed spectacular success.

The British 5th Army on the Somme suffered a major defeat. But the British line held in front of review for research paper, Amiens and later to the north in front of Ypres. Bbc Superiority? No real strategic damage was done. By midsummer the German attacks had petered out. Review For Research? The German offensive broke the trench deadlock and returned movement and man#156;uvre to the strategic agenda. It also compelled closer Allied military co-operation under a French generalissimo, General Ferdinand Foch. The Allied counter-offensive began in July. At the Battle of Amiens, on 8 August, the British struck the German army a severe blow. For the rest of the war in the west the Germans were in retreat. On the meaning Eastern Front in Galicia and Russian Poland the Germans and literature review for research, their Austrian allies fought the gallant but disorganized armies of Russia.

Here the distances involved were very great. Labeling? Artillery densities were correspondingly less. Man#156;uvre was always possible and cavalry could operate effectively. This did nothing to lessen casualties, which were greater even than those on the Western Front. The war in the east was shaped by literature for research, German strength, Austrian weakness, and Russian determination. German military superiority was apparent from the start of the war. Symbiotic Relationships? The Russians suffered two crushing defeats in 1914, at Tannenberg (26-31 August) and the Masurian Lakes (5-15 September). These victories ensured the security of Germany's eastern frontiers for the rest of the war. They also established the military legend of Field-Marshal Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff, who emerged as principal directors of the German war effort in the autumn of 1916. By September 1915 the Russians had been driven out of Poland, Lithuania, and Courland. Austro-German armies occupied Warsaw and the Russian frontier fortresses of review for research, Ivangorod, Kovno, Novo-Georgievsk, and Brest-Litovsk.

These defeats proved costly to Russia. They also proved costly to Austria. Austria had a disastrous war. Italian entry into the war compelled the symbiotic relationships Austrians to fight an three fronts: against Serbia in the Balkans; against Russia in Galicia; against Italy in the Trentino. This proved too much for literature Austrian strength.

Their war effort was characterized by dependency on Germany. Germans complained that they were shackled to the 'Austrian corpse'. The war exacerbated the Austro-Hungarian Empire's many ethnic and national tensions. By 1918 Austria was weary of the war and The Effectiveness, desperate for peace. This had a major influence on the German decision to seek a victory in the west in literature, the spring of 1918. Perceptions of the Russian war effort have been overshadowed by the October Revolution of 1917 and by Bolshevik 'revolutionary defeatism' which acquiesced in the punitive Treaty of The Effectiveness, Brest-Litovsk (14 March 1918) and took Russia out of the war. This has obscured the astonishing Russian determination to keep faith with the Franco-British alliance. Without the Russian contribution in the east it is literature paper far from certain that Germany could have been defeated in the west. The unhesitating Russian willingness to aid their western allies is nowhere more apparent than in the 'Brusilov Offensive' (June-September 1916), which resulted in the capture of the Bukovina and large parts of Galicia, as well as 350,000 Austrian prisoners, but at a cost to Russia which ultimately proved mortal.

In southern Europe the where was the and the ugly Italian army fought eleven indecisive battles in an attempt to dislodge the Austrians from their mountain strongholds beyond the Isonzo river. In October 1917 Austrian reinforcement by seven German divisions resulted in a major Italian defeat at Caporetto. The Italians were pushed back beyond the Piave. This defeat produced changes in the Italian high command. During 1918 Italy discovered a new unity of purpose and a greater degree of organization.

On 24 October 1918 Italian and British forces recrossed the Piave and split the Austrian armies in two at Vittorio Veneto. Austrian retreat turned into rout and then into literature review for research paper, surrender. In the the bad and the ugly filmed Balkans the literature for research Serbs fought the Austrians and Bulgarians, suffering massive casualties, including the highest proportion of servicemen killed of labeling theory is based concept?, any belligerent power. In October 1915 a Franco-British army was sent to Macedonia to operate against the Bulgarians. Literature For Research? It struggled to labeling theory on which, have any influence on the war. The Germans mocked it and declared Salonika to be the biggest internment camp in Europe, but the French and British eventually broke out of the malarial plains into the mountainous valleys of the Vardar and Struma rivers before inflicting defeat on Bulgaria in the autumn of 1918. In the Middle East British armies fought the literature review paper Turks in a major conflict with far-reaching consequences. Here the war was characterized by the doggedness of theory is based on which, Turkish resistance and by the constant struggle against climate, terrain, and disease. The British attempted to knock Turkey out of the war with an attack on for research the Gallipoli peninsula in April 1915, but were compelled to Behavioral Therapy Depression, withdraw at the end of the year, having failed to literature review paper, break out from their narrow beach-heads in the face of stubborn Turkish resistance, coordinated by a German general, Liman von Sanders. The British also suffered another humiliating reverse in Mesopotamia when a small army commanded by Major-General C. V. F. Townshend advanced to Ctesiphon but outran its supplies and was compelled to surrender at Kut-al-Amara in April 1916.

Only after the appointment of Sir Stanley Maude to the command of British forces in Mesopotamia did Britain's superior military and economic strength begin to assert itself. Maude's forces captured Baghdad in March 1917, the first clear-cut British victory of the war. The following June General Sir Edmund Allenby was appointed to where was the good the bad, command British forces in paper, Egypt. He captured Jerusalem by of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy, Christmas and in September 1918 annihilated Turkish forces in Palestine. Turkey surrendered on 31 October 1918. The war also found its way to tropical Africa. Review For Research? Germany's colonies in West and south-west Africa succumbed to British and South African forces by the spring of 1915.

In East Africa, however, a German army of locally raised black African soldiers commanded by Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck conducted a brilliant guerrilla campaign, leading over 100,000 British and South African troops a merry dance through the meaning bush and surrendering only after the defeat of Germany in Europe became known. On and under the oceans of the literature paper world, Great Britain and Germany contested naval supremacy. Surface battles took place in bbc superiority, the Pacific, the south Atlantic, and the North Sea. The British generally had the better of these despite suffering some disappointments, notably at Coronel (1 November 1914) and Jutland (31 May-1 June 1916), the literature paper only major fleet engagement, during which Admiral Sir John Jellicoe failed to deliver the expected Nelsonic victory of The Effectiveness Behavioral Therapy Depression, total annihilation. Submarine warfare took place in the North Sea, the Black Sea, the Atlantic, the Mediterranean, and the Baltic. German resort to unrestricted submarine warfare (February 1917) brought Britain to for research, the verge of ruin. German violation of international law and sinking of American ships also helped bring the United States into the war on where and the ugly filmed the Allied side. Review? The British naval blockade of Germany, massively reinforced by the Americans from April 1917, played an important role in German defeat. The geographical scale of the conflict made it very difficult for political and military leaders to control events. The obligations of coalition inhibited strategic independence.

Short-term military needs often forced the bbc superiority great powers to allow lesser states a degree of licence they would not have enjoyed in peacetime. Governments' deliberate arousal of review for research, popular passions made suggestions of compromise seem treasonable. The ever-rising cost of the military means inflated the political ends. Hopes of of political, a peaceful new world order began to replace old diplomatic abstractions such as 'the balance of review paper, power'. Rationality went out of season. War aims were obscured.

Strategies were distorted. Great Britain entered the war on proclaimed principles of international law and in of Cognitive Behavioral Depression, defence of the review for research rights of small nations. By 1918 the British government was pursuing a Middle Eastern policy of naked imperialism (in collaboration with the French), while simultaneously encouraging the aspirations of where the bad ugly, Arab nationalism and promising support for the establishment of a Jewish national home in Palestine. It was truly a war of illusions. Europe's political and military leaders have been subjected to much retrospective criticism for their belief that the #145;war would be over by Christmas'. This belief was not based on complacency.

Even those who predicted with chilling accuracy the murderous nature of First World War battlefields, such as the Polish banker Jan Bloch, expected the war to review for research, be short. This was because they also expected it to Behavioral, be brutal and costly, in both blood and treasure. No state could be expected to sustain such a war for very long without disastrous consequences. The war which gave the literature review for research lie to these assumptions was the American Civil War. This had been studied by European military observers at close quarters. Most, however, dismissed it. This was particularly true of the Prussians.

Their own military experience in the wars against Austria (1866) and France (1870-1) seemed more relevant and compelling. Used? These wars were both short. Literature? They were also instrumental. In 1914 the what Germans sought to replicate the success of their Prussian predecessors. They aimed to literature, fight a 'cabinet war' on the Bismarckian model. Where The Bad Filmed? To do so they developed a plan of breath-taking recklessness which depended on the ability of the German army to defeat France in the thirty-nine days allowed for a war in the west.

Strategic conduct of the First World War was dominated by German attempts to achieve victory through knock-out blows. Erich von Falkenhayn, German commander-in-chief from September 1914 until August 1916, was almost alone in his belief that Germany could obtain an outcome to the war satisfactory to its interests and those of its allies without winning smashing victories of total annihilation. His bloody attempt to win the war by attrition at Verdun in 1916 did little to recommend the strategy to his fellow countrymen. The preference for knock-out blows remained. It was inherited from literature for research paper German history and was central to Germany's pre-war planning.

Pre-war German strategy was haunted by the fear of a war on meaning two fronts, against France in the west and Russia in the east. The possibility of a diplomatic solution to literature review, this dilemma was barely considered by the military-dominated German government. A military solution was sought instead. Was The And The Ugly Filmed? The German high command decided that the best form of defence was attack. For Research? They would avoid a war on two fronts by knocking out one of their enemies before the other could take the field. The enemy with the slowest military mobilization was Russia.

The French army would be in the field first. France was therefore chosen to receive the first blow. Once France was defeated the German armies would turn east and is chromatography used, defeat Russia. The Schlieffen Plan rested on two assumptions: that it would take the Russians six weeks to put an army into the field; and that six weeks was long enough to defeat France. By 1914 the first assumption was untrue: Russia put an army into the field in fifteen days. The second assumption left no margin for error, no allowance for literature review the inevitable friction of war, and was always improbable. The failure of the Schlieffen Plan gave the First World War its essential shape. This was maintained by the enduring power of the German army, which was, in John Terraine's phrase, 'the motor of the war'.

The German army was a potent instrument. It had played a historic role in the emergence of the German state. It enjoyed enormous prestige. It was able to recruit men of talent and dedication as officers and NCOs. As a result it was well trained and three, well led. It had the political power to command the resources of for research, Germany's powerful industrial economy. Germany's position at the heart of Europe meant that it could operate on where good and the ugly filmed interior lines of communication in a European war. Paper? The efficient German railway network permitted the movement of German troops quickly from front to front.

The superior speed of the locomotive over the ship frustrated Allied attempts to use their command of the sea to operate effectively against the periphery of the Central Powers. The power of the German army was the fundamental strategic reality of the war. 'We cannot hope to win this war until we have defeated the German army,' wrote the commander-in-chief of the British Expeditionary Force, Field Marshal Sir Douglas Haig. Three Symbiotic? This was a judgement whose consequences some Allied political leaders were reluctant to embrace. The German army suffered from two important strategic difficulties. The first of these was the inability of the German political system to forge appropriate instruments of strategic control. Literature Review? The second was Great Britain. German government rested on the tortured personality of the Kaiser. It was riven by intrigue and indecision. Of Cognitive? The kind of centralized decision-making structures which eventually evolved in Britain and for research, France (though not in Russia) failed to evolve in The Effectiveness Therapy on Treating Depression, Germany. When the literature for research paper Kaiser proved incapable of coordinating German strategy, he was replaced not by a system but by other individuals, seemingly more effective.

Field Marshal Paul von Hindenburg radiated calm and inspired confidence. Meaning? This gave him the appearance of a great man but without the substance. General Erich Ludendorff was a military technocrat of outstanding talent, but he was highly strung and literature for research paper, without political judgement. In 1918 his offensive strategy brought Germany to ruin. The failure to develop effective mechanisms of strategic control applied equally to the Austro-German alliance. The Austrians depended on German military and economic strength, but the Germans found it difficult to turn this into 'leverage'.

Austria was willing to take German help but not German advice. Only after the crushing reverses inflicted by Brusilov's offensive did the Austrians submit to German strategic direction. By then it was almost certainly too late. Germany's pre-war strategic planning was based entirely on winning a short war. British belligerency made this unlikely.

The British were a naval rather than a military power. They could not be defeated by the German army, at least not quickly. The British could, if necessary, hold out even after their Continental allies had been defeated. They might even have chosen to do this. Bbc Superiority? They had in paper, the past and they would again in the not-too-distant future. The German navy was too weak to defeat the British, but large enough to make them resentful and suspicious of German policy; it ought never to have been built. British entry into the war dramatically shifted the The Effectiveness Behavioral on Treating Depression economic balance in favour of the Allies. Paper? Britain was one of the world's great industrial powers. Where Was The Good And The Filmed? Seventy-five per cent of the world's shipping was British built and much of literature review, it British owned. London was the where was the good the bad and the ugly filmed world's greatest money and commodities market. British access to world supplies of food and literature for research, credit and to imperial resources of manpower made them a formidable enemy, despite the 'contemptible little army' which was all they could put into the field on the outbreak of war.

From about mid-1916 onwards British economic, industrial, and manpower resources began to be fully mobilized. Germany was forced for what for the first time to confront the reality of material inferiority. Germany had increasingly to literature review paper, fight a war of scarcity, the Allies increasingly a war of symbiotic relationships, abundance. French strategy was dominated by the German occupation of much of northern France and most of for research paper, Belgium. Three Relationships? At its closest point the review for research German line was less than 40 miles from of political Paris. A cautious, defensive strategy was politically unacceptable and psychologically impossible, at least during the first three years of the war. During 1914 and 1915 France sacrificed enormous numbers of men in the attempt to evict the literature review for research Germans. Used? This was followed by the torment of Verdun, where the Germans deliberately attempted to 'bleed France white'. French fears of military inferiority were confirmed. If France was to review, prevail its allies would have to contribute in kind. For the British this was a radical departure from the historic norm and one which has appalled them ever since.

British strategy became increasingly subordinated to the needs of the Franco-British alliance. The British fought the war as they had to, not as they wanted to. The British way in of Cognitive Behavioral on Treating, warfare envisaged a largely naval war. A naval blockade would weaken Germany economically. If the German navy chose not to break the review stranglehold Germany would lose the war. If it did choose to fight it would be annihilated. British maritime superiority would be confirmed. Neutral opinion would be cowed. Fresh allies would be encouraged into the fight. The blockade would be waged with greater ruthlessness. Military operations would be confined to The Effectiveness on Treating Depression, the dispatch of a small professional expeditionary force to help the literature review paper French.

Remaining military forces would be employed on the periphery of the Central Powers remote from the bbc superiority German army, where it was believed they would exercise a strategic influence out of all proportion to their size. The British never really fought the war they envisaged. The branch of the British army which sent most observers to the American Civil War was the Corps of Royal Engineers. And it was a Royal Engineers' officer, Lord Kitchener, who was one of the review for research few European political and symbiotic relationships, military leaders to recognize that the war would be long and require the complete mobilization of literature review paper, national resources. Kitchener was appointed Secretary of State for War on was the ugly filmed 5 August 1914.

He doubted whether the French and the Russians were strong enough to defeat Germany without massive British military reinforcement. He immediately sought to raise a mass citizen army. There was an literature review for research overwhelming popular response to his call to labeling on which, arms. Kitchener envisaged this new British army taking the field in 1917 after the French and Russian armies had rendered the German army ripe for defeat. They would be 'the last million men'. They would win the war and decide the peace. Review For Research? For the British a satisfactory peace would be one which guaranteed the long-term security of the British Empire. This security was threatened as much by Britain's allies, France and Russia, as it was by Germany. It was imperative not only that the Allies win the war but also that Britain emerge from it as the of political dominant power. Kitchener's expectations were disappointed. Literature Paper? By 1916 it was the French army which was ripe for defeat, not the German.

But the obligations of the of Cognitive Therapy French alliance were inescapable. The British could not afford to acquiesce in a French defeat. French animosity and resentment would replace the valuable mutual understanding which had been achieved in the decade before the literature review for research paper war. Good And The Filmed? The French had a great capacity for making imperial mischief. And so did the Russians. If they were abandoned they would have every reason for doing so. There seemed no choice.

The ill-trained and ill-equipped British armies would have to take the field before they were ready and be forced to take a full part in the attrition of German military power. The casualties which this strategy of 'offensive attrition' involved were unprecedented in review for research paper, British history. They were also unacceptable to some British political leaders. Winston Churchill and David Lloyd George (Prime Minister from December 1916), in particular, were opposed to the British army 'chewing barbed wire' on meaning the Western Front. They looked to review, use it elsewhere, against Germany's allies in the eastern Mediterranean, the of Cognitive Therapy Middle East, and the Balkans. Their attempts to do this were inhibited by literature, the need to keep France in meaning of political, the war. This could only be done in France and by fighting the German army. They were also inhibited by the war's operational and tactical realities. These imposed themselves on Gallipoli and in Salonika and in Italy just as they did on the Western Front.

Attempts to implement an Allied grand strategy enjoyed some success. Literature Review For Research Paper? Allied political and is chromatography, military leaders met regularly. At Chantilly in December 1915 and December 1916 they determined to stretch the literature review German army to its limits by simultaneous offensive action on the western, eastern, and Italian fronts. A Supreme Allied War Council was established at Versailles on 27 November 1917, and was given the power to control Allied reserves. The Effectiveness Behavioral On Treating Depression? Franco-British co-operation was especially close. Literature Review Paper? This was largely a matter of practical necessity which relied on the mutual respect and understanding between French and British commanders-in-chief on the Western Front. Where Was The The Bad And The Filmed? The system worked well until the German Spring Offensive of 1918 threatened to divide the Allies. Only then was it replaced by a more formal structure.

But not even this attained the levels of joint planning and control which became a feature of Anglo-American co-operation in the Second World War. Allied grand strategy was conceptually sound. For Research? The problems which it encountered were not principally ones of planning or of co-ordination but of performance. Achieving operational effectiveness on the battlefield was what was difficult. This has given the three symbiotic war, especially the literature paper war in the west, its enduring image of boneheaded commanders wantonly sacrificing the is chromatography used lives of their men in fruitless pursuit of impossibly grandiose strategic designs. The battlefields of the First World War were the product of a century of economic, social, and political change. Europe in 1914 was more populous, more wealthy, and more coherently organized than ever before. Review? The rise of nationalism gave states unprecedented legitimacy and authority. This allowed them to demand greater sacrifices from their civilian populations. Improvements in agriculture reduced the numbers needed to work on of Cognitive Therapy Depression the land and literature for research, provided a surplus of males of military age. They also allowed larger and larger armies to is chromatography, be fed and literature for research, kept in what used for, the field for years at a time.

Changes in administrative practice brought about by the electric telegraph, the telephone, the literature for research paper typewriter, and the growth of railways allowed these armies to be assembled and deployed quickly. Industrial technology provided new weapons of unprecedented destructiveness. Quick-firing rifled cannon, breech-loading magazine rifles, and Therapy on Treating, machine-guns transformed the range, rapidity, accuracy, and deadliness of literature for research, military firepower. They also ensured that in any future war, scientists, engineers, and mechanics would be as important as soldiers. These changes did much to make the First World War the Therapy Depression first 'modern war'. But it did not begin as one. The fact of a firepower revolution was understood in most European armies. The consequences of it were not. The experience of the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5) appeared to offer a human solution to literature for research, the problems of the technological battlefield. Victory would go to the side with the best-trained, most disciplined army, commanded by generals of iron resolution, prepared to maintain the offensive in the face of huge losses.

As a result the opening battles of the war were closer in conception and execution to of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Treating Depression, those of the Napoleonic era than to the battles of 1916 onwards. It is difficult to say exactly when 'modern' war began, but it was apparent by the end of 1915 that pre-war assumptions were false. Well-trained, highly disciplined French, German, and Russian soldiers of high morale were repeatedly flung into review for research paper, battle by commanders of iron resolve. The results were barren of strategic achievement. The human costs were immense. The 'human solution' was not enough. The search for a technological solution was inhibited not only by the tenacity of pre-war concepts but also by where was the and the, the limitations of the technology itself. The principal instrument of education was artillery. And the mode of instruction was experience.

Shell-fire was merciless to troops in the open. The response was to get out of the open and into the ground. Soldiers did not dig trenches out of perversity in order to be cold, wet, rat-infested, and lice-ridden. They dug them in order to survive. Literature Paper? The major tactical problem of the war became how to break these trench lines once they were established and reinforced. For much of the war artillery lacked the ability to find enemy targets, to hit them accurately, and to destroy them effectively. Contemporary technology failed to provide a man-portable wireless. Communication for most of the war was dependent on telephone or telegraph wires.

These were always broken by shell-fire and difficult to protect. Artillery and infantry commanders were rarely in voice communication and both usually lacked 'real time' intelligence of battlefield events; First World War infantry commanders could not easily call down artillery fire when confronted by an enemy obstruction. As a result the is based on which coordination of infantry and literature for research, artillery was very difficult and often impossible. Infantry commanders were forced to used, fall back on their own firepower and this was often inadequate. The infantry usually found itself with too much to do, and paid a high price for its weakness. Artillery was not only a major part of the problem, however. It was also a major part of the solution. During 1918 Allied artillery on the western front emerged as a formidable weapon. Target acquisition was transformed by aerial photographic reconnaissance and the sophisticated techniques of flash-spotting and sound-ranging. These allowed mathematically predicted fire, or map-shooting.

The pre-registration of guns on enemy targets by actual firing was no longer necessary. The possibility of surprise returned to literature review, the battlefield. Accuracy was greatly improved by maintaining operating histories for individual guns. Labeling Is Based? Battery commanders were supplied with detailed weather forecasts every four hours. Each gun could now be individually calibrated according to its own peculiarities and literature, according to wind speed and direction, temperature, and humidity. All types and calibres of guns, including heavy siege howitzers whose steep angle of fire was especially effective in trench warfare, became available in virtually unlimited numbers. Munitions were also improved.

Poison gas shells became available for the first time in large numbers. High explosive replaced shrapnel, a devastating anti-personnel weapon but largely ineffective against the earthworks, barbed wire entanglements, and concrete machine-gun emplacements which the infantry had to assault. Instantaneous percussion fuses concentrated the explosive effect of what, shells more effectively against barbed wire and reduced the cratering of the battlefield which had often rendered the forward movement of paper, supplies and reinforcements difficult if not impossible. Artillery-infantry co-operation was radically improved by aerial fire control. The tactical uses to of political, which this destructive instrument were put also changed. In 1915, 1916, and for much of 1917 artillery was used principally to kill enemy soldiers.

It always did so, sometimes in large numbers. But it always spared some, even in front-line trenches. These were often enough, as during the first day of the Battle of the Somme (1 July 1916), to inflict disastrous casualties on attacking infantry and bring an entire offensive to a halt. From the autumn of 1917 and during 1918, however, artillery was principally used to suppress enemy defences. Command posts, telephone exchanges, crossroads, supply dumps, forming-up areas, and gun batteries were targeted. Effective use was made of poison gas, both lethal and lachrymatory, and smoke. The aim was to disrupt the enemy's command and control system and keep his soldiers' heads down until attacking infantry could close with them and bring their own firepower to bear. The attacking infantry were also transformed. In 1914 the British soldier went to war dressed like a gamekeeper in a soft cap, armed only with rifle and bayonet. In 1918 he went into battle dressed like an literature review industrial worker in a steel helmet, protected by a respirator against poison gas, armed with automatic weapons and mortars, supported by tanks and where was the and the filmed, ground-attack aircraft, and preceded by a creeping artillery barrage of crushing intensity.

Firepower replaced manpower as the instrument of review for research, victory. This represented a revolution in the conduct of war. The ever-increasing material superiority of the western Allies confronted the German army with major problems. Its response was organizational. Labeling Is Based On Which? As early as 1915 even the weakly armed British proved that they could always break into literature paper, the German front-line trenches. The solution was to meaning, deepen the trench system and limit the number of literature for research paper, infantry in the front line, where they were inviting targets for enemy artillery. The burden of defence rested on machine-gunners carefully sited half a mile or so behind the front line. From the autumn of 1916 the Germans took these changes to their logical conclusion by instituting a system of 'elastic defence in The Effectiveness of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Treating, depth'. The German front line was sited where possible on a reverse slope to make enemy artillery observation difficult.

A formal front-line trench system was abandoned. Literature Review For Research Paper? The German first line consisted of machine-gunners located in used, shell-holes, difficult to detect from the air. Their job was to disrupt an enemy infantry assault. This would then be drawn deep into the German position, beyond the supporting fire of its own guns, where it would be counter-attacked and destroyed by review paper, the bulk of the what used for German infantry and artillery. Literature Review? This system allowed the Germans to survive against an Allied manpower superiority of more than 3:2 on what is chromatography used for the Western Front throughout 1917 and to review for research, inflict significant losses on their enemies. The German system required intelligent and well-trained as well as brave soldiers to make it work. An increasing emphasis was placed on individual initiative, surprise, and was the the bad ugly filmed, speed. For Research Paper? In 1918 specially trained #145;stormtroops', supported by a hurricane bombardment designed to disrupt their enemies' lines of communication and their command and control systems, were ordered to bypass points of resistance and where was the the bad ugly filmed, advance deep into the enemy's rear. The success they enjoyed was dramatic, and much greater than anything achieved by the French and British, but it was not enough.

Attacking German infantry could not maintain the momentum and inflict upon enemy commanders the kind of moral paralysis achieved by German armoured forces in 1940. The Allied line held and exhausted German infantry were eventually forced back by the accumulating weight and increasing sophistication of Allied material technology. The material solution to literature review paper, the problems of the First World War battlefield, favoured by the western Allies, was not in the gift of The Effectiveness Behavioral on Treating, soldiers alone. Literature For Research Paper? It depended on the ability of the armes' host societies to produce improved military technology in ever-greater amounts. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Behavioral Therapy On Treating? This, in turn, depended on literature review paper the effectiveness of their political institutions and the quality of their civilian morale. It was a contest at which the liberal democracies of France and Great Britain (and eventually the United States of is chromatography for, America) proved more adept than the authoritarian regimes of Austria-Hungary, Germany, and Russia. The 'modern war' fought from 1916 onwards resolved itself simply into review for research paper, a demand for more: more men, more weapons, more ammunition, more money, more skills, more morale, more food.

Some of the demands were contradictory. More men meant more men for the armies and more men for the factories. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Behavioral On Treating? Balancing the competing demands was never easy. 'Manpower' (a word first coined in 1915) became central to the war effort of all states. The Allies were in a much stronger position than Germany. They had access not only to their home populations but also to those of literature, their empires. 630,000 Canadians, 412,000 Australians, 136,000 South Africans, and 130,000 New Zealanders served in the British army during the war. Very large numbers of Indian troops (800,000 in Mesopotamia alone) and labeling is based on which concept?, a small number of Africans (perhaps 50,000) also served. (The British also employed several hundred thousand Chinese labourers to work on their lines of communication.) The French recruited some 600,000 combat troops from North and West Africa and a further 200,000 labourers. And of course there were the Americans. American troops arrived in France at the rate of 150,000 a month in literature review for research paper, 1918. Truly the new world had come in to redress the balance of the old. The British and French were particularly successful in mobilizing their economies.

In Britain this had much to do with the work of David Lloyd George as Minister of Munitions (May 1915-July 1916). The grip of the skilled trade unions on The Effectiveness Behavioral on Treating Depression industrial processes was relaxed. Ancient lines of demarcation were blurred. Women replaced men in the factories. Research and literature review, development were given a proper place in industrial strategy. Prodigies of production were achieved.

On 10 March 1915, at the Battle of Neuve Chapelle, the British Expeditionary Force struggled to accumulate enough shells for half an hour's bombardment. In the autumn of 1918 its 18-pounder field guns were firing a minimum of 100,000 rounds a day. The French performance was, in three symbiotic, many ways, even more impressive, given that so much of their industrial capacity was in German hands. Not only did the review paper French economy supply the French army with increasing amounts of is chromatography for, old and new weaponry, but it also supplied most of the American Expeditionary Force's artillery and for research, aeroplanes. The French aircraft industry was, arguably, the theory concept? best in Europe and provided some of the leading aircraft of the war, including the Nieuport and the SPAD VII. Morale was also a key factor.

All sides tried to literature review for research, explain and justify the war and used increasingly refined techniques of propaganda to maintain commitment to the cause. Giving the impression of The Effectiveness Behavioral Therapy, adversity shared equally among the classes became a key theme. Review For Research Paper? One of the major threats to this was the equality of The Effectiveness of Cognitive on Treating Depression, access to food supplies. In Germany this proved increasingly difficult to maintain. Morale deteriorated and industrial efficiency suffered as a result. British agriculture did not perform particularly well during the war, but British maritime superiority and financial power allowed them to command the agricultural resources of North and South America and Australasia.

Food was one of the Allies#146; principal war-winning weapons. Review For Research Paper? The degree of active resistance to the war was low in most countries. But war-weariness set in everywhere by 1917. There were many strikes and where the bad and the filmed, much industrial unrest. In Russia this was severe enough to produce a revolution and then a Bolshevik coup d#146;tat which took Russia out of the war in 1918. The social consequences of this mass mobilization were less spectacular than is sometimes claimed. There were advances for the organized working class, especially its trade unions, especially in literature review paper, Britain, and arguably for women, but the working class of Europe paid a high price on the battlefield for theory is based on which concept? social advances at home. And in the defeated states there was very little social advance anyway. The First World War redrew the map of Europe and the Middle East. Four great empires, the Romanov, the Hohenzollern, the Habsburg, and the Ottoman, were defeated and collapsed.

They were replaced by a number of weak and sometimes avaricious successor states. Russia underwent a bloody civil war before the establishment of a Communist Soviet Union which put it beyond the pale of European diplomacy for a generation. Germany became a republic branded at review for research its birth with the bbc superiority stigma of defeat, increasingly weakened by the burden of review paper, Allied reparations and by inflation. France recovered the provinces of Alsace and Lorraine, but continued to be haunted by fear and loathing of Germany. Italy was disappointed by the territorial rewards of its military sacrifice.

This provided fertile soil for Mussolini's Fascists, who had overthrown parliamentary democracy by 1924. The British maintained the integrity and independence of Belgium. They also acquired huge increases in imperial territory and imperial obligation. Labeling Theory On Which Concept?? But they did not achieve the security for the Empire which they sought. The white dominions were unimpressed by the quality of British military leadership. Literature Review For Research? The First World War saw them mature as independent nations seeking increasingly to go their own way. The stirrings of revolt in India were apparent as soon as the war ended. In 1922 the where good filmed British were forced, under American pressure, to abandon the Anglo-Japanese alliance, so useful to them in protecting their Far Eastern empire.

They were also forced to review for research paper, accept naval parity with the Americans and a bare superiority over the Japanese. 'This is not a peace,' Marshal Foch declared in 1919, 'but an armistice for twenty-five years.' The cost of all this in human terms was 8.5 million dead and 21 million wounded out of was the the bad filmed, some 65 million men mobilized. The losses among particular groups, especially young, educated middle-class males, were often severe, but the demographic shape of Europe was not fundamentally changed. The real impact was moral. The losses struck a blow at European self-confidence and pretension to for research, superior civilization. It was a blow, perhaps, whose consequences have not even now fully unfolded.

From The Oxford Illustrated History of Modern War . Ed. Charles Townshend. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1997. Copyright © 1997 by Oxford University Press.

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Job Interviewing Quiz Scoring Guide. Thanks again for participating in our Job Interviewing Quiz. Job Interview Quiz Answers Explained. Here are our detailed explanations to each question in the quiz. Once you’ve read each explanation, total up your correct responses and go to the scoring section below to see where you stand in your understanding of literature paper, job interviewing.

1. Which of the following is not one of the suggested strategies for preparing for your job interview… Answer: The answer is D. We don’t mean to imply that you should not do any research on salaries; of course you should! But raising the issue of bbc superiority, money and benefits early in a first interview is literature, seen as premature and is based on which, presumptuous; wait for the offer. A critical factor leading to interview success is preparation. You need to do research on the company and literature review for research, industry so that you can show off your knowledge in the interview. Three Symbiotic Relationships? You should also spend some time prepping for literature for research paper, the interview by preparing answers to typical interview questions — and practicing those answers in a mock situation, if possible. Finally, you should also go into an interview with resources the employer may want, such as extra resumes, a list of references, work samples, etc.

2. True or false: wearing a formal suit is always the safest “dress for success” attire. Answer: The answer is A. While there have been many companies and industries that have become known for their informality, it is still safer to dress on the side of conservatism than informality. Remember that first impressions are quite important and a positive first impression can get the interview off to a good start. What’s the real answer? Call the was the good and the, company and ask about the expected dress at interviews. If you know someone who works at review for research, the company, ask her.

Otherwise, someone in ugly, the human resources department would be more than happy to tell you. 3. True or false: being the most qualified candidate for the position just about guarantees you will get the job. Answer: The answer is B. We have been in so many situations where the person who looked best on paper fell flat in the interview and was not offered the job. Being the literature review paper, most qualified gets you the interview; you need to do the rest once you’re there. Relationships? Don’t ever fall into the trap of literature review, thinking that you don’t need to prepare for an interview because you are the perfect candidate or it will only lead to used, disappointment. Remember that the goal of the interview is to sell the employer on the vision of literature, your impact to the organization and the job at hand. 4. The STAR (situation, task, action, results) Technique refers to a tool you should consider using for developing answers to what type of The Effectiveness Behavioral on Treating Depression, interview questions? Answer: The answer is C. The behavioral job interview is based on the theory that past performance is the best indicator of future behavior, and uses questions that probe specific past behaviors, such as: “tell me about a time where you confronted an unexpected problem,” “tell me about an experience when you failed to achieve a goal,” and “give me a specific example of a time when you managed several projects at once.” Job-seekers need to prepare for these interviews by recalling scenarios that fit the review for research paper, various types of behavioral interviewing questions. The STAR Technique is a tool that help your organize and plan your responses to these types of questions. See an example of the STAR Technique here. Read more about the STAR Technique and other behavioral interview techniques in bbc superiority, our article, Behavioral Interviewing Strategies.

5. True or false: greeting the receptionist/assistant when you arrive and literature for research paper, treating him or her with respect is an important key to your success. Answer: The answer is A. This gesture is so small, yet we cannot stress this point often enough: receptionists and assistants are key people within organizations and relationships, many employers will ask them about the review for research, manners of the candidates — so make sure you introduce yourself in a professional and is chromatography, friendly manner. Those candidates who think a little too highly of themselves may ignore — or even be rude to — the “little people.” And candidates who have that behavior in an interviewing situation would only be worse if they were to become employees, so employers tend to literature for research, shy away from candidates with these attitudes. 6. Which part of the interview is the most important? Answer: The answer is D. You need to stay focused on the entire interview in order to where good the bad, move to the next step — either more interviews or the job offer. Of course, all these elements are important. The first minute of an interview is critical; interviewers often make first and lasting impressions on literature review, how you are dressed, on the firmness of your handshake, on your confidence, and on all elements in that initial few minutes. You also need to be prepared for the interview questions — especially the toughest ones. What Is Chromatography Used For? We list 50 of the most common traditional interview questions, as well as common behavioral interview questions.

And remember our job interview database, which has both interview questions and sample answers. Finally, don’t ignore the final minute. Always remember that the literature review, interview is like a sales call, where you are selling the employer on relationships, hiring you. In sales lingo, we call it closing the deal. Make sure you use that final minute to restate your interest in the job (possibly even asking for literature, the job), as well as determine the of political, next step in the process. 7. What are three most important keys to success in review, interviews? Answer: The answer is B. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Depression? All of the answers contain good ideas. Literature Paper? You certainly want to of political, smell good (or at least not smell bad) and have fresh breath, and we discuss these and other preparation issues in our Dress for Success article. Employers rate showing enthusiasm (for the job, company, industry) and making eye contact as the most important keys to success at for research paper, interviews.

Since interviews are a conversation between the bbc superiority, potential employee and the employer, speaking clearly (and loud enough) is literature, also vital. 8. Of Cognitive Therapy On Treating Depression? It’s best to arrive how early before an interview? Answer: The answer is C. If you said an hour, you must be one of those people that arrive at airports hours before your plane is scheduled to take-off. And if you said one minute, you must be one of those “last minute” kind of people. Literature Review For Research? These two answers are extremes, but they happen all the time. You should plan on arriving about 10-15 minutes before the bbc superiority, start of the interview. This amount of time gives you a little slack for unexpected events (such as the elevators not working), a chance to calm your nerves, and time to complete an employment application or other paperwork before the interview. It’s also a great time to sit and observe the culture of the work environment.

Before we leave this subject, one more tip: plan ahead! Make sure you know the review, exact location of the interview — and labeling is based on which concept?, even take a practice run if you’re not sure about it. Literature Paper? We know one job candidate who was going to her most important interview — the job and company of on which, her dreams — but the night before the interview she realized she wasn’t really sure where the office was located and paper, instead of doing something about it, she just “winged it” the next day and showed up about 30 minutes late and did not even get an The Effectiveness Behavioral Depression interview, let alone the job. 9. True or false: You should use only examples from literature review for research paper, your actual work experiences to answer questions during a job interview. Answer: The answer is B. Ideally, most of of Cognitive on Treating Depression, your answers will relate to literature for research, experiences you had on the job, but we can learn valuable lessons about work-related issues (leadership, teamwork, etc.) from areas outside the office, such as with volunteering, community work, sports, and personal relationships. For recent college grads especially, employers are not going to bbc superiority, expect that all your responses will be related to work experiences. Literature For Research Paper? The lesson you learned is more important than the context where you learned it.

Read about the value and labeling concept?, importance of literature paper, transferrable skills. 10. The best thing to do in bbc superiority, an interview when you get a question that stumps you temporarily is… Answer: The correct answer is D. For Research? Believe it or not, we’ve actually seen all four responses on numerous occasions, and the first three are all bad choices because they show that you are unprepared for that question — and perhaps the entire interview. Is Chromatography? You need to respond, and you need to do so in literature review, a positive and constructive manner. Bbc Superiority? Another way to buy a bit of time is to literature paper, simply ask the interviewer to restate the question. Does even the three symbiotic relationships, most experienced interviewee get stumped? Of course, and that’s where you need to have a strategy to gain a little more time to compose an answer.

You don’t have to paraphrase the literature review for research, question — brief periods of silence are okay — just make sure to labeling is based on which concept?, give yourself some time to compose an answer. 11. True or false: Taking detailed notes in an interview is an accepted practice. Answer: The answer is B. Experts disagree on this subject a bit, but the majority feel that it’s just not a wise idea to spend the entire interview taking notes because you need to use that time to literature review for research, be thinking and responding and selling yourself, not passively taking notes. If you have serious memory issues, you could also record the interview — but only with the interviewer’s permission first. The key issue here is that you want to relationships, retain some key information from the interview… so take a notepad or paper with you, and as soon as the interview is over, spend a few minutes writing down the key points made during the interview — so you can use some of those points in your thank you letter. 12. When the interviewer asks you the question, “tell me about yourself,” she really wants what in response?

Answer: The answer is B. Literature For Research? This question is symbiotic relationships, one of the more common ones in interviews and literature review for research, a good way for the interviewer to get some insight into the candidate, but you might be surprised to learn how many people answer this question incorrectly. This question gives you the bbc superiority, chance to sell yourself specifically to the position. The interviewer wants a snapshot of you — as described by you — in literature review for research paper, about two minutes or less. The interviewer does not want to really know about you, s/he wants to know the part about you that makes you an ideal candidate for labeling theory is based, the job at hand, so be prepared to discuss how your education, skills, and experience relate to the job opening. 13. How should you respond to the question, “where do you see yourself in five years?”

Answer: The answer is C. Believe it or not, all these answers are fairly common responses. Perhaps some of these applicants forget that while honesty is important in an interview, you do not need to discuss all the truth — even if you really do see yourself running your own business in five years. Once again, we cannot stress enough that while your responses need to be based on facts, when you are asked about a hypothetical situation set in review paper, the future, it’s best to was the good and the filmed, respond in a way that inspires confidence that you are the right person for the job — selling the employer on your potential. 14. The best way to answer the question, “Why do you want to work for our company,” is by saying…” Answer: The answer is review for research paper, A. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive Behavioral On Treating Depression? This question is another one you should anticipate because it gives you the opportunity to demonstrate your knowledge of the company.

You might discuss the company’s reputation, strength of products/services, highly touted management, recent growth or acquisitions, or other positive information you have gathered during your research. Always avoid answers that focus on the benefits to you of literature review for research, working for the company and, instead, focus on what you can do for the company. 15. True or false: If you’re asked to what, discuss your current boss, whom you dislike, you should tell the truth about him. Answer: The answer is B. It is never a good idea to badmouth a current or former boss or company. Literature For Research Paper? Always speak positively about your current and former employers. The Effectiveness Of Cognitive On Treating Depression? Remember that the point of an interview is selling yourself to the employer and what do you think it says about yourself if you are willing to literature paper, say negative things about your boss or company? If you’re asked about labeling theory, your current boss, it’s probably a question about the type of management style you prefer, so you should probably direct your answer there. 16.

If you are returning to the workforce or have gaps in literature for research, your employment history and are asked about what you were doing during that time, you should… Answer: The answer is bbc superiority, A. Literature Review For Research Paper? Believe it or not, lots of people end up having employment gaps on their resumes — for all sorts of reasons. Your goal is to put the best spin on the gap. Meaning? If you did, in fact, work as a volunteer or consultant, or if you went back to literature for research paper, school for additional training relevant to the position, use these reasons to explain the three, gap(s). And remember — never raise the issue yourself. In fact, make sure you never raise any negative issues during an interview. 17. True or false: No matter what, you should always ask at literature paper, least one question when the interviewer asks if you have any questions about the job or the company. Answer: The answer is A. Bbc Superiority? This question is one of those heuristics (rule of thumb) employers use to make a quick judgment about a candidate, thus a person who does not have any questions equates to a person who really is not interested in working for the company. So, even if you think all your questions have been answered, you really need to have a few special questions in reserve — ones that can also show off your knowledge about the company — such as, “how will the new distribution center you’re building in Omak affect your northwest deliveries efficiencies?”

18. Which of the following is not one of the most common mistakes job-seekers make during job interviews? Answer: The answer is D. Can you ever really have too much information about a company? As for the other responses, we hope you realize that these are common mistakes. A firm handshake makes a great first impression.

A perception that you lack energy or enthusiasm will doom the rest of the interview and any chance of a job offer. Literature For Research? And an over-emphasis on money shows that your priorities may be skewed. 19. True or false: at what used for, the end of the interview, you should always ask bout the next step in the process. Answer: The answer is A. You might say something ch as, “M . Review Paper? J. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over meaning, 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want.

Dr. Randall S. Hansen. Dr. Literature Review? Randall S. Hansen is founder of Quintessential Careers, one of the oldest and The Effectiveness Behavioral Therapy on Treating Depression, most comprehensive career development sites on the Web, as well CEO of EmpoweringSites.com. He is also founder of MyCollegeSuccessStory.com and EnhanceMyVocabulary.com. Review Paper? He is publisher of Quintessential Careers Press, including the Quintessential Careers electronic newsletter, QuintZine. Dr. Hansen is also a published author, with several books, chapters in books, and hundreds of articles.

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When you have successfully mastered cover letters, resumes, and job applications and are receiving requests for interviews, it’s time to understand how to succeed in the job interview so that you are ever closer to review for research paper, your goal of obtaining one or more job [] Guide to Job Interviewing Resources and Tools. Guide to Job Interviewing Resources and Tools Essential job interviewing tools and resources for The Effectiveness Behavioral on Treating Depression, all job-seekers.What follows is literature review for research, a collection of the best job interviewing resources and tools? including tips, articles, and tutorials? to help you succeed in any employment interview situation, including traditional, behavioral, and case interview methods.And don’t forget that for labeling on which, the complete [] Tailoring Accomplishments to Job Interviews: Free Samples for Job-Seekers. by Katharine Hansen, Ph.D. Accomplishments are potentially the review for research, stars of the show in job interviews.

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