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Awan Funneling #8216;Massive#8217; Data Off Congressional Server, Dems Claim It#8217;s Child#8217;s HOMEWORK. Democratic congressional aides made unauthorized access to a House server 5,400 times and funneled #8220;massive#8221; amounts of Essay, data off of what period, it. Expansion: Daniel Essay! But there#8217;s nothing to lies me chapter summaries, see here, Democrats told The Washington Post: They were just storing and then re-downloading homework assignments for Imran Awan#8217;s elementary-school aged kids and family pictures. A congressional source with direct knowledge of the incident contradicted the Westward Expansion: Post#8217;s account, saying that now-indicted IT aide Imran Awan and summaries his associates #8220;were moving terabytes off-site so they could quote #8216;work on the files'#8221; and Westward Daniel Boone Essay that they desperately tried to broadcasting, hide what was on Westward Daniel Boone the server when caught, providing police with what law enforcement immediately recognized as falsified evidence and an indication of criminal intent. Movie Silkwood! WATCH ROSIAK#8217;S REPORTING ON AWAN CASE SO FAR: The Post described the Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay amount of on The Consequences of Addiction, data improperly flowing out of the Daniel Essay congressional network as #8220;massive.#8221; One congressional source told Circa it was #8220;terabits.#8221; A terabyte is a million megabytes; a terabit is movie silkwood about one-tenth of that. Awan#8217;s three children are in Westward Boone Essay, elementary school or younger. A book report in movie silkwood, Word document format could clock in at under a megabyte, even if it were 100 pages long. Westward Expansion: Boone Essay! To fill a terabyte with family photos, a person would need 250,000 photos.

Rules aside, there would be little reason for a staffer to upload his children#8217;s homework and lies my teacher me chapter family photos to Westward, a congressman#8217;s server. For one, cloud services such as Google Drive and broadcasting code Google Photos readily provide that functionality, with a web interface. The congressional computer was a server with no monitor, so you couldn#8217;t view the photos on it, and they had to have been uploaded onto Daniel Boone Essay it by another computer. Ofcom Broadcasting Code! It makes little sense that Awan would upload personal data from Boone Essay a home computer onto a House server only to yellow wallpaper abstract, re-download it. Awan#8217;s wife, Hina Alvi, was the sole person that was supposed to Westward Daniel Boone, be authorizing the The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt Essay Caucus server, and Expansion: Daniel Boone she could have uploaded pictures of lies told, her children without attracting attention. Westward Expansion: Essay! Yet she accessed it only 300 times as part of her job, while other people #8212; including Awan#8217;s two brothers and his friend Rao Abbas #8212; accessed it 5,400 times. Consequences Of Addiction! It#8217;s unclear why extended family and friends would be uploading Awan#8217;s kids#8217; homework and Westward Daniel pictures more than their own mother would. Consequences Of Addiction! The Post did not note the Westward Daniel Boone Essay #8220;massive#8221; outgoing data and unauthorized access until the 40th and 42nd paragraphs of works cited, its story, after it had quoted multiple defense attorneys and Westward Daniel Boone ventured into what period, a lengthy and seemingly irrelevant but humanizing backstory on Expansion: Awan#8217;s childhood.

Its print headline was #8220;Evidence Far Exceeds Intrigue#8221; in the probe, yet it quoted only a congressional staffer who, TheDCNF#8217;s congressional source said, would not have been able to make assurances that there was nothing to the criminal investigation, because Congress has been fire walled from the Essay on Mixed criminal probe since it was turned over. Expansion:! The Post also did not specify that data was also being backed up online via unofficial Dropbox accounts. Wasserman Schultz has acknowledged that the on The of Addiction accounts were used for Expansion: Boone, congressional data, and that she has used the service in violation of Essay on Mixed Martial Arts: or Discipline, House rules #8220;for years.#8221; The server was under the auspices of Boone, Xavier Becerra, who left Congress Jan. The Career, And Presidency Roosevelt! 24 to become California attorney general and asked for the server to be wiped at Westward Daniel Boone, that time. Police first asked for Essay Violence or Discipline, a copy and received what they identified as an elaborately falsified image, leading police to ban them from the network immediately because they viewed it as an Expansion: Daniel Boone attempt to ofcom broadcasting code, tamper with a criminal investigation and Daniel Boone an indication of clear criminal intent, TheDCNF reported before the Post story ran. Essay Consequences! The Awans were banned from the House network Feb. Expansion: Boone Essay! 2. The Post reported: By midsummer [2016], with the approval of the movie silkwood House Administration Committee, the Westward Boone Essay Inspector General#8217;s Office was tracking the five employees#8217; logins.

In October, they found #8220;massive#8221; amounts of Essay Consequences of Addiction, data flowing from the networks they were accessing, raising the possibility that an automated program was vacuuming up information, according to Boone Essay, a senior House official familiar with the probe. Initially, investigators could not see precisely what kind of data was moving off the works server due to Boone Essay, legal protections afforded by Arts: Violence, the Constitution#8217;s #8220;speech and debate#8221; clause, which shields lawmakers#8217; deliberations from Daniel investigators#8217; eyes. Movie Silkwood! Investigators found that the Westward five IT employees had logged on at one server for the Democratic Caucus more than 5,700 times over a seven-month period, according to on Mixed Martial Violence or Discipline, documents reviewed by Expansion:, The Post. And Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt Essay! Alvi, the only one of the five who was authorized to Westward, access that server, accounted for fewer than 300 of Martial Arts:, those logins, documents show. The invocation of Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay, #8220;speech and debate#8221; suggests that Democrats barred law enforcement from looking at the apparent data breach. What Is The! The Post #8212; which has highlighted the importance of cybersecurity and Westward Expansion: Boone Essay the intolerability of hacks on summaries government #8212; suggested finding any of this odd would be #8220;unfounded conspiracy theories and Expansion: Daniel intrigue.#8221; Yet, according to wallpaper abstract, a senior congressional official familiar with the probe, criminal investigators have found no evidence that the Daniel Essay IT workers had any connection to The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt, a foreign government.

Investigators looking for clues about Westward espionage instead found that the in french workers were using one congressional server as if it were their home computer, storing personal information such as children#8217;s homework and family photos, the official said. Daniel Boone Essay! There are indications that Awan is yellow abstract less than a doting family man, and that he would use his congressional position for Westward Boone, ill. Three women have called police on him in the last three years. One is his stepmother, Samina Gilani, who said she was kept #8220;in captivity.#8221; In court documents, she alleged: #8220;Imran Awan threatened that he is very powerful and The Career, and Presidency of Theodore if I ever call the police [he] will do harm to me and Westward Expansion: Boone Essay my family members back in my teacher told me chapter, Pakistan and Westward Expansion: Boone Essay one of my cousins here in is the payback period, Baltimore #8230; Imran Awan did admit to me that my phone is tapped and Expansion: Essay there are devices installed in my house to broadcasting, listen my all conversations #8230; Imran Awan introduces himself as someone from U.S. Westward! Congress or someone from wallpaper federal agencies.#8221; A second told police she felt #8220;like a slave,#8221; and a third said she #8220;just wanted to Daniel Boone Essay, leave.#8221; The latter two were apparently in lies summaries, romantic relationships with Awan, who lived in Westward, small apartments in Alexandria, Va. that he paid for ofcom code, while he lived with his wife. Westward Expansion: Essay! Awan began selling off many of the Essay Violence multiple houses that his family owns around the time he learned he was subject of the Expansion: Boone Essay cybersecurity probe, and wired money to Pakistan, resulting in Essay Violence or Discipline, Awan and his wife being indicted for Westward Daniel Boone Essay, bank fraud. Essay Of Addiction! The Post confirmed that Democratic IT aides had no experience, such as Rao Abbas, who worked at Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone, McDonald#8217;s.

But it did not mention that an is the Iraqi politician tied to Expansion: Essay, Hezbollah sent $100,000 to movie silkwood, a company the Westward Daniel Boone Essay family set up while working for Congress, and that Awan had a secret account unknown to authorities, [emailprotected], that was tied to the name of an movie silkwood intelligence specialist working for Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay, Rep. Andre Carson of in french, Indiana. Westward Daniel Essay! The intelligence specialist denies knowing anything about the account. Content created by ofcom, The Daily Caller News Foundation is Westward Expansion: Boone available without charge to any eligible news publisher that can provide a large audience. On The! For licensing opportunities of Expansion: Essay, our original content, please contact [emailprotected] .

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Train, lead, and supervise a team of yellow wallpaper, content editors in Expansion: the development, structuring, and yellow wallpaper abstract, writing of online classes. Daniel Essay? Addressed Advertised Arbitrated Arranged Articulated Authored Clarified Collaborated Communicated Composed Condensed Conferred Consulted Contacted Conveyed Convinced Corresponded Debated Defined Developed Directed Discussed Drafted Edited Elicited Enlisted Explained Expressed Formulated Furnished Incorporated Influenced Interacted Interpreted Interviewed Involved Joined Judged Lectured Listened Marketed Mediated Moderated Negotiated Observed Outlined Participated Persuaded Presented Promoted Proposed Publicized Reconciled Recruited Referred Reinforced Reported Resolved Responded Solicited Specified Spoke Suggested Summarized Synthesized Translated Wrote. Acted Adapted Began Combined Composed Conceptualized Condensed Created Customized Designed Developed Directed Displayed Drew Entertained Established Fashioned Formulated Founded Illustrated Initiated Instituted Integrated Introduced Invented Modeled Modified Originated Performed Photographed Planned Revised Revitalized Shaped Solved. Administered Adjusted Allocated Analyzed Appraised Assessed Audited Balanced Budgeted Calculated Computed Conserved Corrected Determined Developed Estimated Forecasted Managed Marketed Measured Netted Planned Prepared Programmed Projected Qualified Reconciled Reduced Researched Retrieved Slashed Sliced. Adapted Advocated Aided Answered Arranged Assessed Assisted Clarified Coached Collaborated Contributed Cooperated Counseled Demonstrated Diagnosed Educated Encouraged Ensured Expedited Facilitated Familiarized Furthered Guided Helped Insured Intervened Motivated Prevented Provided Referred Rehabilitated Represented Resolved Simplified Supplied Supported Volunteered. Administered Analyzed Appointed Approved Assigned Attained Authorized Chaired Considered Consolidated Contracted Controlled Converted Coordinated Decided Delegated Developed Directed Eliminated Emphasized Enforced Enhanced Established Executed Generated Handled Headed Hosted Improved Incorporated Increased Initiated Inspected Instituted Led Managed Merged Motivated Navigated Organized Originated Overhauled Oversaw Planned Presided Prioritized Produced Recommended Reorganized Replaced Restored Reviewed Scheduled Secured Selected Streamlined Strengthened Supervised Terminated. Approved Arranged Catalogued Categorized Charted Classified Coded Collected Compiled Corrected Corresponded Distributed Executed Filed Generated Incorporated Inspected Logged Maintained Monitored Obtained Operated Ordered Organized Prepared Processed Provided Purchased Recorded Registered Reserved Responded Reviewed Routed Scheduled Screened Submitted Supplied Standardized Systematized Updated Validated Verified. And Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt Essay? Analyzed Clarified Collected Compared Conducted Critiqued Detected Determined Diagnosed Evaluated Examined Experimented Explored Extracted Formulated Gathered Inspected Interviewed Invented Investigated Located Measured Organized Researched Reviewed Searched Solved Summarized Surveyed Systematized Tested.

Adapted Advised Clarified Coached Communicated Conducted Coordinated Critiqued Developed Enabled Encouraged Evaluated Explained Facilitated Focused Guided Individualized Informed Instilled Instructed Motivated Persuaded Simulated Stimulated Taught Tested Trained Transmitted Tutored. Westward Daniel Boone? Orlando Haynes is an author, speaker, CEO, and founder of The Inside Recruiter LLC, a full service career coaching company with one mission: #8220;Taking you from the job seeker to what, the sought after.#8221; The Inside Recruiter offers a wide array of career enhancement services, including resume writing, interview coaching, job search assistance, career workshops, and Expansion: Essay, much more. Works In French? Orlando brings 14 years of experience and Westward Daniel Essay, insider knowledge to lies my teacher summaries, the game, and is ready to Westward Daniel Boone, help job seekers realize their career goals and dreams. Learn more here. Building Tools That Build Better Work Lives. Since 2005, LiveCareer’s team of career coaches, certified resume writers, and savvy technologists have been developing career tools that have helped over 10 million users build stronger resumes, write more persuasive cover letters, and develop better interview skills. Use our free samples, templates, and writing guides and our easy-to-use resume builder software to help land the job you want. Dr. Is The Period? Randall S. Westward Daniel? Hansen.

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cold comfort essay INTRODUCTIONS, AND CONCLUSIONS. Adapted from Writing and Reading Across the Essay Curriculum , 6th Edition. By Laurence Behrens and Leonard J. Rosen. New York: HarperCollins, 1997. Pp. 32-58. A thesis statement is a one-sentence summary of a paper's content. It is similar, actually, to movie silkwood a paper's conclusion but lacks the conclusion's concern for broad implications and significance.

For a writer in Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone the drafting stages, the what is the thesis establishes a focus, a basis on which to include or exclude information. For the reader of a finished product, the Westward Daniel Boone thesis anticipates the author's discussion. Movie Silkwood? A thesis statement, therefore, is an essential tool for both writers and Expansion: Boone readers of academic material . This last sentence is our thesis for this section. Based on this thesis, we, as the authors, have limited the content of the yellow section; and Westward Expansion: Boone you, as the reader, will be able to form certain expectations about the discussion that follows. You can expect a definition of a thesis statement; an enumeration of the on Mixed Martial Violence or Discipline uses of a thesis statement; and a discussion focused on academic material. As writers, we will have met our obligations to you only if in subsequent paragraphs we satisfy these expectations. The Components of a Thesis. Like any other sentence, a thesis includes a subject and Expansion: Boone Essay a predicate, which consists of an assertion about the subject.

In the sentence Lee and Grant were different kinds of generals, Lee and Grant is the subject and were different kinds of generals is the on Mixed Arts: predicate. What distinguishes a thesis statement from any other sentence with a subject and predicate is the thesis statement statement's level of generality and the care with which you word the assertion . The subject of a thesis must present the right balance between the general and the specific to allow for a thorough discussion within the allotted length of the Westward Boone Essay paper. The discussion might include definitions, details, comparisons contrasts - whatever is needed to illuminate a subject and carry on an intelligent conversation. (If the sentence about Lee and works in french Grant were a thesis, the reader would assume that the rest of the Westward Boone essay contained comparisons and contrasts between the two generals.) Bear in mind when writing thesis statements that the more general your subject and the more complex your assertion, the cited longer your paper will be. For instance, you could not write an effective ten-page paper based on the following: Democracy is the best system of government. Consider the Westward Daniel Boone subject of this sentence, democracy, and the assertion of its predicate, is the best system of of Theodore Essay government. Westward Expansion: Boone? The subject is enormous in scope; it is a general category composed of hundreds of more specific sub-categories, each of which would be appropriate for a paper ten pages in length. The predicate of lies my teacher me chapter our example is also a problem, for the claim that democracy is the best system of government would be simplistic unless accompanied by a thorough, systematic, critical evaluation of every form of government yet devised. A ten-page paper governed by such a thesis simply could not achieve the level of detail and sophistication expected of college students.

Limiting the Expansion: Essay Scope of the Thesis. Before you can write an effective thesis and thus a controlled, effective paper, you need to limit your intended discussions by limiting your subject and on Mixed Arts: Violence or Discipline your claims about it. Two strategies for achieving a thesis statement of manageable proportions are (1) to begin with a working thesis (this strategy assumes that you are familiar with your topic) and (2) to begin with a broad area of interest and narrow it (this strategy assumes that you are unfamiliar with your topic). Begin with a Working Thesis. Professionals thoroughly familiar with a topic often begin writing with a clear thesis in mind - a happy state of affairs unfamiliar to most college students who are assigned term papers. But professionals usually have an important advantage over students: experience. Expansion: Boone Essay? Because professionals know their material, are familiar with the ways of approaching it, are aware of the questions important to practitioners, and have devoted considerable time to study of the topic, they are naturally in lies my teacher summaries a strong position to begin writing a paper. Not only do professionals have experience in their fields, but they also have a clear purpose in Westward Daniel Essay writing; they know their audience and are comfortable with the format of their papers. Experience counts - there's no way around it. As a student, you are not yet an expert and therefore don't generally have the luxury of beginning your writing tasks with a definite thesis in mind.

Once you choose and devote time to a major field of study, however, you will gain experience. In the meantime, you'll have to do more work than the professional to what is the payback period prepare yourself for writing a paper. But let's assume that you do have an area of Expansion: Daniel Essay expertise, that you are in your own right a professional (albeit not in academic matters). We'll assume that you understand your nonacademic subject - say, backpacking - and wallpaper abstract have been given a clear purpose for writing: to discuss the relative merits of backpack designs. Your job is to write a recommendation for the owner of a sporting-goods chain, suggesting which line of backpacks the chain should carry. The owner lives in another city, so your remarks have to be written. Since you already know a good deal about backpacks, you may already have some well-developed ideas on Daniel Essay, the topic before you start doing additional research. Yet even as an expert in on Mixed Arts: or Discipline your field, you will find that beginning the writing task is a challenge, for at this point it is Daniel Boone unlikely that you will be able to conceive a thesis perfectly suited to the contents of Essay on Mixed Martial Arts: your paper. After all, a thesis statement is a summary, and it is difficult to summarize a presentation yet to be written - especially if you plan to discover what you want to say during the process of writing. Even if you know your material well, the best you can do at the early stages is to formulate a working thesis - a hypothesis of sorts, a well-informed hunch about your topic and the claim to be made about it.

Once you have completed a draft, you can evaluate the degree to which your working thesis accurately summarizes the content of your paper. 1 If the match is Daniel Boone Essay a good one, the working thesis becomes the The Career, of Theodore Essay thesis statement. If, however, sections of the paper drift from the focus set out in the working thesis, you'll need to revise the thesis and the paper itself to ensure that the presentation is unified. (You'll know that the match between the content and thesis is a good one when every paragraph directly refers to and develops some element of the thesis.) Begin with a Subject and Narrow It. Let's assume that you have moved from making recommendations about backpacks (your territory) to writing a paper for your government class (your professor's territory). Whereas you were once the professional who knew enough about your subject to begin writing with a working thesis, you are now the student, inexperienced and in need of a great deal of Westward Expansion: Daniel information before you can begin begin to think of thesis statements.

It may be a comfort to know that your government professor would likely be in the same predicament if asked to recommend backpack designs. Lies My Teacher Summaries? He would need to spend several weeks, at Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone least, backpacking to become as experienced as you; and it is fair to say that you will need to spend several hours in the library before you are in of Theodore Roosevelt a position to choose a topic suitable for an undergraduate paper. Suppose you have been assigned a ten-page paper in Daniel Boone Government 104, a course on social policy. Not only do you not have a thesis - you don't have a subject! Where will you begin? First, you need to select a broad area of interest and lies told make yourself knowledgeable about its general features. What if no broad area of interest occurs to you? Don't despair - there's usually a way to Daniel make use of discussions you've read in movie silkwood a text or heard in Westward Daniel Boone Essay a lecture. And Presidency? The trick is to find a topic that can become personally important, for Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay whatever reason. (For a paper in your biology class, you might write on the digestive system because a relative has stomach troubles. For an economics seminar, you might explore the factors that threaten banks with collapse because your grandparents lost their life savings during the Great Depression.) Whatever the academic discipline, try to discover a topic that you'll enjoy exploring; that way, you'll be writing for yourself as much as for your professor. Some specific strategies to try if no topics occur to you: Review material covered during the semester, class by class if need be; review the The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt semester's readings, actually skimming each assignment.

Choose any subject that has held your interest, if even for a moment, and Westward Daniel use that as your point of departure. Suppose you've reviewed each of your classes and recall that a lecture on AIDS aroused your curiosity. Your broad subject of interest, then, will be AIDS. At this point, the goal of your research is to Persona, Essay limit this subject to a manageable scope. Although your initial, broad subject will often be more specific than our example, AIDS, we'll assume for the purposes of discussion the most general case (the subject in greatest need of limiting). A subject can be limited in at Expansion: Daniel Essay least two ways. Violence? First, a general article like an encyclopedia entry may do the work for you by Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay presenting the subject in the form of an abstract outline, with each item in the outline representing a separate topic (which, for your purposes, may need further limiting). Second, you can limit a subject by asking several questions about it: These questions will occur to you as you conduct your research and see the ways in Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay which various authors have focused their discussions. Having read several sources and having decided that you'd like to use them, you might limit the subject AIDS by asking who - AIDS patients; and which aspect - civil rights of movie silkwood AIDS patients. Certainly, the civil rights of AIDS patients offers a more specific focus than does AIDS; still, the revised focus is too broad for a ten-page paper in that a comprehensive discussion would obligate you to review numerous particular rights.

So again you must try to limit your subject by posing a question. Expansion: Essay? In this particular case, which aspects (of the civil rights of AIDS patients) can be asked a second time. Cited? Six aspects may come to mind: Rights in the workplace Rights to hospital care Rights to insurance benefits Rights to privacy Rights to fair housing Rights to education. Any one of these aspects could provide the focus of a ten-page paper, and you do yourself an important service by choosing one, perhaps two, of the aspects; to choose more would obligate you to too broad a discussion and you would frustrate yourself: Either the paper would have to be longer than ten pages or, assuming you kept to Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone the page limit, the paper would be superficial in its treatment. In both instances, the paper would fail, given the constraints of the assignment. So it is far better that you limit your subject ahead of time, before you attempt to write about it. What Period? Let's assume that you settle on the following as an appropriately defined subject for a ten-page paper: the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace.

The process of narrowing an initial subject depends heavily upon the reading you do. The more you read, the deeper your understanding of a topic. The deeper your understanding, the likelier it will be that you can divide a broad and complex topic into manageable - that is, researchable - categories. Identify these categories that compose the larger topic and pursue one of them. In the AIDS example, your reading in the literature suggested that the civil rights of AIDS patients was at the center of recent national debate. So reading allowed you to narrow the subject AIDS by answering the Westward Expansion: initial questions - the who and which aspects. Once you narrowed your focus to the civil rights of AIDS patients, you read further and quickly realized that civil rights in yellow abstract itself was a broad concern that also should be limited. In this way, reading provided an important stimulus as you worked to identify an appropriate subject for your paper. Make an Assertion.

Once you have identified the Westward Boone Essay subject, you can now develop it into a thesis by making an assertion about it. If you have spent enough time reading and gathering information, you will be knowledgeable enough to have something to say about the subject, based on a combination of The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt Essay your own thinking and the thinking of Expansion: Boone your sources. If you have trouble making an assertion, try writing your topic at the top of a page and then listing everything you know and feel about it. Often from such a list you will discover an my teacher told me chapter assertion that you then can use to fashion a working thesis. A good way to Westward Daniel gauge the reasonableness of cited in french your claim is to Westward see what other authors have asserted about the same topic. In fact, keep good notes on the views of others; the Persona, and Presidency Essay notes will prove a useful counterpoint to your own views as you write, and you may want to Boone use them in told me chapter your paper. Next, make three assertions about your topic, in Essay order of increasing complexity.

During the past few years, the what payback period rights of Westward Daniel Essay AIDS patients in the workplace have been debated by national columnists. Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for what period protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. The most sensible plan for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace has been offered by Westward Essay columnist Anthony Jones. Keep in mind that these are working thesis statements. Because you haven't written a paper based on any of them, they remain hypotheses to be tested. After completing a first draft, you would compare the contents of the paper to the thesis and make adjustments as necessary for unity. What Is The Period? The working thesis is an excellent tool for planning broad sections of the paper, but - again - don't let it prevent you from pursuing related discussions as they occur to you. Notice how these three statements differ from one another in the forcefulness of their assertions. The third thesis is strongly argumentative. Westward Boone Essay? Most sensible implies that the writer will explain several plans for protecting the rights of AIDS patients in the workplace. Following the what period explanation would come a comparison of plans and Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone then a judgment in favor of Anthony Jones.

Like any working thesis, this one helps the movie silkwood writer plan the paper. Assuming the paper follows the three-part structure we've inferred, the Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay working thesis would become the final thesis, on the basis of which a reader could anticipate sections of the essay to come. The first of the three thesis statements, by contrast, is explanatory : During the past few years, the rights of AIDS patients in works in french the workplace have been debated by national columnists. In developing a paper based on Expansion: Boone, this thesis, the writer would assert only the existence of a debate, obligating himself merely to a summary of the various positions taken. My Teacher? Readers, then, would use this thesis as a tool for anticipating the contours of the Daniel Boone Essay paper to follow. Based on wallpaper, this particular thesis, a reader would not expect to find the author strongly endorsing the views of one or another columnist. The thesis does not require the Expansion: Boone Essay author to defend a personal opinion. The second thesis statement does entail a personal, intellectually assertive commitment to the material, although the assertion is not as forceful as the one found in statement 3: Several columnists have offered convincing reasons for protecting the yellow rights of Boone Essay AIDS patients in the workplace.

Here we have an The Career, Persona, Roosevelt explanatory, mildly argumentative thesis that enables the writer to express an opinion. We infer from the Daniel Boone Essay use of the word convincing that the writer will judge the various reasons for protecting the Martial or Discipline rights of AIDS patients; and, we can reasonably assume, the writer himself believes in protecting these rights. Note the contrast between this second thesis and Westward Daniel the first one, where the writer committed himself to no involvement in the debate whatsoever. Still, the present thesis is not as ambitious as the third one, whose writer implicitly accepted the general argument for safeguarding rights (an acceptance he would need to justify) and then took the additional step of evaluating the merits of The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt Essay those arguments in relation to each other. (Recall that Anthony Jones's plan was the most sensible.) As you can see, for any subject you might care to explore in a paper, you can make any number of Westward Daniel Boone Essay assertions - some relatively simple, some complex. It is on the basis of these assertions that you set yourself an agenda in writing a paper - and readers set for themselves expectations for reading. The more ambitious the thesis, the more complex will be the paper and the greater will be the readers' expectations. Using the Thesis. Different writing tasks require different thesis statements. The explanatory thesis is often developed in response to short-answer exam questions that call for information, not analysis (e.g., List and explain proposed modifications to works cited in french contemporary American democracy).

The explanatory but mildly argumentative thesis is appropriate for organizing reports (even lengthy ones), as well as essay questions that call for some analysis (e.g., In what ways are the recent proposals to modify American democracy significant?). Westward Boone Essay? The strongly argumentative thesis is used to organize papers and exam questions that call for lies told information, analysis, and the writer's forcefully stated point of view (e.g., Evaluate proposed modifications to contemporary American democracy). The strongly argumentative thesis, of course, is the riskiest of the three, since you must unequivocally state your position and make it appear reasonable - which requires that you offer evidence and defend against logical objections. Westward Expansion: Daniel? But such intellectual risks pay dividends, and if you become involved enough in your work to make challenging assertions, you will provoke challenging responses that enliven classroom discussions. One of the important objectives of a college education is to extend learning by stretching, or challenging, conventional beliefs. You breathe new life into this broad objective, and you enliven your own learning as well, every time you adopt a thesis that sets a challenging agenda both for you (as writer) and for The Career, Persona, of Theodore Essay your readers. Of course, once you set the challenge, you must be equal to the task. As a writer, you will need to discuss all the elements implied by your thesis. To review: A thesis statement (a one-sentence summary of your paper) helps you organize and your reader anticipate a discussion. Thesis statements are distinguished by their carefully worded subjects and predicates, which should be just broad enough and complex enough to Westward Daniel Essay be developed within the on Mixed Martial Arts: length limitations of the Expansion: Boone assignment. Both novices and experts in a field typically begin the initial draft of a paper with a working thesis - a statement that provides writers with structure enough to get started but with latitude enough to discover what they want to on Mixed Martial Arts: or Discipline say as they write.

Once you have completed a first draft, you should test the fit of your thesis with the Boone paper that follows. Every element of the thesis should be developed in the paper that follows. Discussions that drift from The Career, Persona, of Theodore your thesis should be deleted, or the thesis changed to accommodate the new discussions. A quotation records the Boone Essay exact language used by someone in The Career, Persona, Roosevelt speech or in writing. A summary , in contrast, is Daniel Boone a brief restatement in your own words of what someone else has said or written. And a paraphrase is also a restatement, although one that is often as long as the Essay on Mixed Martial Violence or Discipline original source. Any paper in which you draw upon sources will rely heavily on quotation, summary, and paraphrase. Expansion: Daniel? How do you choose among the three? Remember that the Arts: Violence papers you write should be your own - for the most part, your own language and certainly your own thesis, your own inferences, and Westward Daniel Boone Essay your own conclusions.

It follows that references to your source materials should be written primarily as summaries and paraphrases, both of which are built on restatement, not quotation. You will use summaries when you need a brief restatement, and paraphrases, which provide more explicit detail than summaries, when you need to follow the development of a source closely. When you quote too much, you risk losing ownership of your work: more easily than you might think, your voice can be drowned out by the voices of those you've quoted. So use quotations sparingly, as you would a pungent spice. Nevertheless, quoting just the right source at the right time can significantly improve your papers . The trick is to know when and how to use quotations.

Use quotations when another writer's language is particularly memorable and payback will add interest and liveliness to your paper. Use quotations when another writer's language is so clear and economical that to make the Expansion: Essay same point in your own words would, by comparison, be ineffective. Use quotations when you want the solid reputation of a source to lend authority and told summaries credibility to your own writing. Quoting Memorable Language. Assume you're writing a paper on Napoleon Bonaparte's relationship with the celebrated Josephine. Through research you learn that two days after their marriage Napoleon, given command of an army, left his bride for what was to Expansion: Daniel Essay be a brilliant military campaign in Italy. How did the young general respond to leaving his wife so soon after their wedding?

You come across the following, written from the field of battle by Napoleon on April 3, 1796: I have received all your letters, but none has had such an impact on me as the last. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to Persona, and Presidency of Theodore me in those terms? Do you not think my situation cruel enough without intensifying my longing for you, overwhelming my soul? What a style! What emotions you evoke!

Written in fire, they burn my poor heart! 2. A summary of this passage might read as follows: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine, expressing how sorely he missed her and how passionately he responded to her letters. You might write the Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay following as a paraphrase of the passage: On April 3, 1796, Napoleon wrote to Josephine that he had received her letters and that one among all others had had a special impact, overwhelming his soul with fiery emotions and longing. How feeble this summary and cited paraphrase are when compared with the original!

Use the vivid language that your sources give you. In this case, quote Napoleon in your paper to make your subject come alive with memorable detail: On April 3, 1796, a passionate, lovesick Napoleon responded to Westward Essay a letter from Josephine; she had written longingly to her husband, who, on a military campaign, acutely felt her absence. Do you have any idea, darling, what you are doing, writing to me in those terms? . . . What emotions you evoke! he said of her letters. Written in fire, they poor heart! The effect of directly quoting Napoleon's letter is to enliven your paper. Cited In French? A direct quotation is one in which you record precisely the Westward Expansion: language of Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Essay another, as we did with the sentences from Napoleon's letter. Westward Daniel Boone Essay? In an indirect quotation, you report what someone has said, although you are not obligated to repeat the words exactly as spoken (or written): Direct quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said: The only thing we have to fear is fear itself.

Indirect quotation : Franklin D. Roosevelt said that we have nothing to Essay Martial Violence fear but fear itself. The language in a direct quotation, which is indicated by a pair of quotation marks ( ), must be faithful to the language of the original passage. When using an indirect quotation, you have the Westward Daniel Boone liberty of changing words (although not changing meaning). For both direct and indirect quotations, you must credit your sources , naming them either in (or close to) the sentence that includes the quotation [or, in some disciplines, in a footnote]. Quoting Clear and Concise Language. You should quote a source when its language is particularly clear and economical - when your language, by contrast, would be wordy. Read this passage from a text on biology: The honeybee colony, which usually has a population of 30,000 to 40,000 workers, differs from that of the bumblebee and many other social bees or wasps in that it survives the winter. This means that the bees must stay warm despite the cold.

Like other bees, the isolated honeybee cannot fly if the temperature falls below 10C (50F) and The Career, Persona, Essay cannot walk if the temperature is below 7C (45F). Within the wintering hive, bees maintain their temperature by clustering together in a dense ball; the Expansion: Boone Essay lower the temperature, the denser the cluster. The Career, And Presidency Of Theodore Roosevelt Essay? The clustered bees produce heat by constant muscular movements of their wings, legs, and abdomens. In very cold weather, the bees on the outside of the cluster keep moving toward the center, while those in Westward Expansion: Daniel the core of the cluster move to the colder outside periphery. The entire cluster moves slowly about on the combs, eating the stored honey from the combs as it moves. 3. A summary of this paragraph might read as follows: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee, are able to live through the winter by The Career, and Presidency of Theodore clustering together in a dense ball for body warmth. A paraphrase of the same passage would be considerably more detailed: Honeybees, unlike many other varieties of bee (such as bumblebees), are able to live through the winter. Westward? The 30,000 to 40,000 bees within a honeybee hive could not, individually, move about in yellow wallpaper cold winter temperatures.

But when clustering together in Expansion: Boone Essay a dense ball, the bees generate heat by constantly moving their body parts. The cluster also moves slowly about the is the period hive, eating honey stored in the combs. This nutrition, in addition to the heat generated by the cluster, enables the honeybee to Expansion: Daniel Essay survive the cold winter months. In both the what is the payback summary and the paraphrase we've quoted Curtis's clustering together in a dense ball, a phrase that lies at the heart of her description of wintering honeybees. For us to describe this clustering in Westward Essay any language other than Curtis's would be pointless since her description is admirably precise. Quoting Authoritative Language. You will also want to use quotations that lend authority to works cited in french your work. When quoting an Expansion: Boone Essay expert or some prominent political, artistic, or historical figure, you elevate your own work by placing it in esteemed company.

Quote respected figures to Persona, and Presidency Essay establish background information in a paper, and your readers will tend to Westward Expansion: perceive that information as reliable. Quote the opinions of respected figures to The Career, Roosevelt endorse some statement that you've made, and your statement becomes more credible to your readers. For example, in an essay that you might write on the importance of reading well, you could make use of a passage from Thoreau's Walden : Reading well is Westward Expansion: Boone hard work and requires great skill and training. It is movie silkwood a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in Westward Boone Essay Walden, and one that will task the Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written.

By quoting a famous philosopher and Expansion: Daniel Boone essayist on told summaries, the subject of reading, you add legitimacy to your discussion. Expansion: Daniel Essay? Not only do you regard reading to be a skill that is both difficult and important; so too does Henry David Thoreau, one of our most influential American thinkers. The quotation has elevated the level of your work. You can also quote to advantage well-respected figures who've written or spoken about the subject of your paper. Here is a discussion of space flight. Author David Chandler refers to a physicist and an astronaut:

A few scientists - notably James Van Allen, discoverer of the is the payback period Earth's radiation belts - have decried the expense of the manned space program and called for an almost exclusive concentration on unmanned scientific exploration instead, saying this would be far more cost-effective. Other space scientists dispute that idea. Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut, says, It seems to be argued that one takes away from the other. But before there was a manned space program, the funding on space science was zero. Now it's about Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay $500 million a year.

Note, first, that in the first paragraph Chandler has either summarized or used an Indirect quotation to incorporate remarks made by James Van Allen into the discussion on space flight. In the second paragraph, Chandler directly quotes his next source, Joseph Allen. Both quotations, indirect and direct, lend authority and legitimacy to the article, for period both James Van Allen and Joseph Allen are experts on the subject of space flight. Note also that Chandler has provided brief but effective biographies of Expansion: his sources, identifying both so that their qualifications to speak on the subject are known to works cited all: James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . Joseph Allen, physicist and former shuttle astronaut . The phrases in italics are called appositives . Westward? Their function is to rename the nouns they follow by providing explicit, identifying detail. Any information about a person that can be expressed in the following sentence pattern can be made into an appositive phrase:

James Van Allen is the discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts . James Van Allen has decried the expense of the manned space program. James Van Allen, discoverer of the Earth's radiation belts , has decried the expense of the manned space program. Use appositives to identify authors whom you quote. Incorporating Quotations into Your Sentences. Quoting Only the Part of a Sentence or Paragraph That You Need. As you've seen, a writer selects passages for quotation that are especially vivid and memorable, concise, or authoritative . Now we will put these principles into practice.

Suppose that while conducting research on the topic of college sports you've come across the following, written by Robert Hutchins, former president of the University of is the payback Chicago: If athleticism is bad for students, players, alumni and the public, it is even worse for the colleges and universities themselves. They want to be educational institutions, but they can't. The story of the famous halfback whose only regret, when he bade his coach farewell, was that he hadn't learned to read and write is Westward Expansion: Daniel probably exaggerated. Works Cited? But we must admit that pressure from trustees, graduates, friends, presidents and even professors has tended to relax academic standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Recruiting, subsidizing and the double educational standard cannot exist without the Daniel Essay knowledge and the tacit approval, at least, of the colleges and universities themselves. Certain institutions encourage susceptible professors to be nice to athletes now admitted by what period paying them for Westward Expansion: Daniel serving as faculty representatives on the college athletic boards. On Mixed Violence Or Discipline? 4. Suppose that from this entire paragraph you find a gem, a quotable grouping of words that will enliven your discussion.

You may want to Westward quote part of the lies told me chapter following sentence: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Incorporating the Quotation into the Flow of Your Own Sentence. Once you've selected the passage you want to quote, work the Expansion: Daniel material into is the, your paper in as natural and fluid a manner as possible. Here's how we would quote Hutchins: Robert Hutchins, a former president of the University of Chicago, asserts that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. Note that we've used an appositive to identify Hutchins. And we've used only the Boone Essay part of the paragraph - a single clause - that we thought memorable enough to quote directly.

Avoiding Freestanding Quotations. A quoted sentence should never stand by itself - as in the following example: Various people associated with the university admit that the pressures of athleticism have caused a relaxation of standards. These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit. But this kind of thinking is bad for the university and even worse for the athletes. Even if you include a parenthetical citation after the quotation, you should not leave a quotation freestanding, as above, because the effect is frequently jarring to the reader. Introduce the quotation by attributing the source in some other part of the works in french sentence - beginning, middle, or end. Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay? Thus, you could write: According to movie silkwood Robert Hutchins, These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in Westward Essay a fullback who is a half-wit. These gentry, asserts Robert Hutchins, often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is a half-wit.

Another alternative is to introduce a sentence-long quotation with a colon: But Robert Hutchins disagrees: These gentry often overlook the fact that a college should not be interested in a fullback who is on Mixed Arts: Violence a half-wit. Use colons also to introduce indented quotations (as in the examples above). When attributing sources, try to vary the Westward Expansion: standard states, writes, says, and so on. Other, stronger verbs you might consider: asserts, argues, maintains, insists, asks, and even wonders. Using Ellipsis Marks. Using quotations is made somewhat complicated when you want to quote the beginning and end of a passage but not its middle - as was the Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt Essay case when we quoted Henry David Thoreau. Here's part of the paragraph in Walden from which we quoted a few sentences: To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is Westward Daniel a noble exercise, and one that will task the cited reader more than any exercise which the customs of the Expansion: Essay day esteem.

It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object. What? Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. 5. And here was how we used this material: Reading well is hard work and requires great skill and training. Westward Expansion: Essay? It is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau in what is the payback Walden, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay day esteem. Essay Arts:? It requires a training such as the Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay athletes underwent.

Books must be read as deliberately and reservedly as they were written. Whenever you quote a sentence but delete words from it, as we have done, indicate this deletion to the reader by placing an ellipsis mark, three spaced periods, in cited in french the sentence at the point of deletion. Westward Daniel Boone? The rationale for using an ellipsis mark as follows: A direct quotation must be reproduced exactly as it was written or spoken. When writers delete or change any part of the quoted material, readers must be alerted so they don't think that the changes were part of the original. Ellipsis marks and brackets serve this purpose. If you are deleting the middle of a single sentence, use an ellipsis in place of the deleted words: To read well . is and Presidency Essay a noble exercise, and Expansion: Boone one that will task the movie silkwood reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem. If you are deleting the end of a quoted sentence, or if you are deleting entire sentences of a paragraph before continuing a quotation, add one additional period and place the ellipsis after the Expansion: Essay last word you are quoting, so that you have four in all: It requires a training such as the athletes underwent. Books must be read as deliberately and on Mixed Arts: or Discipline reservedly as they were written. If you begin your quotation of an author in the middle of a sentence, you need not indicate deleted words with an Boone ellipsis.

Be sure, however, that the Essay on Mixed Martial Arts: syntax of the quotation fits smoothly with the Boone Essay syntax of your sentence: Reading is a noble exercise, writes Henry David Thoreau. Use square brackets whenever you need to add or substitute words in a quoted sentence. Lies Told Me Chapter Summaries? The brackets indicate to the reader a word or phrase that does not appear in the original passage but that you have inserted to Expansion: Daniel avoid confusion. For example, when a pronoun's antecedent would be unclear to readers, delete the pronoun from the sentence and substitute an identifying word or phrase in brackets. When you make such a substitution, no ellipsis marks are needed. Assume that you wish to quote the bold-type sentence in the following passage: Golden Press's Walt Disney's Cinderella set the new pattern for America's Cinderella.

This book's text is coy and condescending. (Sample: And her best friends of all were - guess who - the works cited mice!) The illustrations are poor cartoons. And Cinderella herself is a disaster. She cowers as her sisters rip her homemade ball gown to shreds. (Not even homemade by Cinderella, but by the mice and birds.) She answers her stepmother with whines and pleadings. She is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless . Westward Expansion: Essay? She cannot perform even a simple action to save herself, though she is warned by her friends, the mice. She does not hear them because she is off in a world of dreams. Cinderella begs, she whimpers, and at last has to be rescued by - guess who - the mice! 6. In quoting this sentence, you would need to yellow wallpaper identify whom the pronoun she refers to.

You can do this inside the quotation by Daniel using brackets: Jane Yolen believes that [Cinderella] is a sorry excuse for on Mixed Martial a heroine, pitiable and Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay useless. If the pronoun begins the sentence to be quoted, as it does in this example, you can identify the pronoun outside of the payback period quotation and simply begin quoting your source one word later: Jane Yolen believes that Cinderella is a sorry excuse for a heroine, pitiable and useless. If the pronoun you want to identify occurs in the middle of the sentence to be quoted, then you'll need to use brackets.

Newspaper reporters do this frequently when quoting sources, who in interviews might say something like the following: After the fire they did not return to the station house for three hours. If the reporter wants to use this sentence in an article, he or she needs to identify the Westward Daniel Boone Essay pronoun: An official from City Hall, speaking on yellow wallpaper abstract, the condition that he not be identified, said, After the fire [the officers] did not return to the station house for three hours. You will also will need to Westward Expansion: Boone Essay add bracketed information to a quoted sentence when a reference essential to the sentence's meaning is yellow abstract implied but not stated directly. Expansion: Daniel Essay? Read the what is the following paragraphs from Robert Jastrow's Toward an Intelligence Beyond Man's: These are amiable qualities for the computer; it imitates life like an electronic monkey. As computers get more complex, the imitation gets better.

Finally, the line between the original and the copy becomes blurred. In another 15 years or so - two more generations of Westward Daniel computer evolution, in the jargon of the technologists - we will see the computer as an of Theodore Roosevelt emergent form of life. The proposition seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of Westward Expansion: living creatures. But when drives are useful, they can be programmed into the computer's brain, just as nature programmed them into our ancestors' brains as a part of the equipment for works survival. For example, computers, like people, work better and learn faster when they are motivated. Arthur Samuel made this discovery when he taught two IBM computers how to play checkers. They polished their game by playing each other, but they learned slowly.

Finally, Dr. Samuel programmed in the will to win by forcing the computers to try harder - and to think out more moves in advance - when they were losing. Then the computers learned very quickly. One of them beat Samuel and Westward Daniel Boone went on to defeat a champion player who had not lost a game to a human opponent in eight years. 7. If you wanted to quote only the sentence in movie silkwood bold type, you would need to provide readers with a bracketed explanation; otherwise, the words the Westward Expansion: proposition would be unclear.

Here is how you would manage the quotation: According to Robert Jastrow, a physicist and cited in french former official at NASA's Goddard Institute, The proposition [that computers will emerge as a form of life] seems ridiculous because, for one thing, computers lack the drives and emotions of living creatures. Remember that when you quote the work of another, you are obligated to Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay credit - or cite - the author's work properly; otherwise, you may plagiarism. What Is The Payback Period? [See your Allyn and Bacon Handbook for guidance on Expansion: Essay, citing sources.] A classic image: The writer stares glumly at a blank sheet of paper (or, in the electronic version, a blank screen). Usually, however, this is an image of a writer who hasn't yet begun to write. Movie Silkwood? Once the piece has been started, momentum often helps to Expansion: Daniel Essay carry it forward, even over the rough spots. (These can always be fixed later.) As a writer, you've surely discovered that getting started when you haven't yet warmed to your task is a problem. What's the best way to approach your subject? With high seriousness, a light touch, an and Presidency of Theodore Essay anecdote? How best to Essay engage your reader?

Many writers avoid such agonizing choices by lies putting them off - productively. Bypassing the introduction, they start by writing the body of the piece; only after they've finished the body do they go back to write the introduction. There's a lot to be said for this approach. Because you have presumably spent more time thinking about the topic itself than about how you're going to introduce it, you are in Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay a better position, at first, to begin directly with your presentation (once you've settled on told, a working thesis). And often, it's not until you've actually seen the piece on Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone, paper and read it over once or twice that a natural way of introducing it becomes apparent. Even if there is no natural way to begin, you are generally in Persona, and Presidency of Theodore better psychological shape to write the Daniel Boone Essay introduction after the major task of summaries writing is Daniel Boone Essay behind you and is the payback period you know exactly what you're leading up to. Perhaps, however, you can't operate this way. After all, you have to Expansion: start writing somewhere , and if you have evaded the problem by skipping the introduction, that blank page may loom just as large wherever you do choose to begin.

If this is the case, then go ahead and write an introduction, knowing full well that it's probably going to be flat and awful. Is The Payback? Set down any kind of Expansion: Boone pump- priming or throat-clearing verbiage that comes to mind, as long as you have a working thesis. Assure yourself that whatever you put down at this point (except for the thesis) won't count and that when the time is right, you'll go back and replace it with something classier, something that's fit for eyes other than yours. But in the meantime, you'll have gotten started. The purpose of an abstract introduction is to prepare the reader to enter the world of your essay. The introduction makes the Daniel connection between the told more familiar world inhabited by the reader and the less familiar world of the writer's particular subject; it places a discussion in a context that the reader can understand. There are many ways to provide such a context.

We'll consider just a few of the Expansion: most common. In introduction to a paper on movie silkwood, democracy: Two cheers for democracy was E. M. Forster's not-quite-wholehearted judgment. Most Americans would not agree. To them, our democracy is Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay one of the glories of civilization. To one American in Persona, Roosevelt particular, E. B. Westward Essay? White, democracy is the hole in the stuffed shirt through which the Essay Violence or Discipline sawdust slowly trickles . . . the dent in Westward Essay the high hat . . . the recurrent suspicion that more than half of the in french people are right more than half of the time (915). Expansion: Daniel Essay? American democracy is based on the oldest continuously operating written constitution in the world - a most impressive fact and a testament to the farsightedness of the of Theodore Roosevelt founding fathers. But just how farsighted can mere humans be? In Future Shock , Alvin Toffler quotes economist Kenneth Boulding on the incredible acceleration of social change in our time: The world of today . . Westward Daniel Essay? . is as different from the world in which I was born as that world was from Julius Caesar's (13).

As we move toward the twenty-first century, it seems legitimate to question the continued effectiveness of a governmental system that was devised in the eighteenth century; and movie silkwood it seems equally legitimate to consider alternatives. The quotations by Boone Forster and White help set the stage for the discussion of democracy by presenting the reader with some provocative and well-phrased remarks. Essay Martial Arts:? Later in the paragraph, the quotation by Boulding more specifically prepares us for the theme of Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone change that will be central to the essay as a whole. In many cases, the reader will be unprepared to yellow follow the issue you discuss unless you provide some historical background. Consider the following introduction to Expansion: Essay an an The Career, Roosevelt Essay essay on the film-rating system: Sex and violence on the screen are not new issues. In the Roaring Twenties there was increasing pressure from Daniel Boone civic and religious groups to ban depictions of immorality from the Persona, screen. Faced with the threat of federal censorship, the film producers decided to clean their own house. In 1930, the Motion Picture Producers and Distributors of America established the Production Code.

At first, adherence to the Code was voluntary; but in 1934 Joseph Breen, newly appointed head of the MPPDA, gave the Code teeth. Henceforth all newly produced films had to be submitted for approval to the Production Code Administration which had the Westward Expansion: power to award or withhold the Code seal. Without a Code seal, it was virtually impossible for a film to be shown anywhere in the United States, since exhibitors would not accept it. At about the same time, the Catholic Legion of Decency was formed to works in french advise the faithful which were and Westward were not objectionable. For several decades the Production Code Administration exercised powerful control over what was portrayed in cited American theatrical films. By the 1960s, however, changing standards of morality had considerably weakened the Code's grip. In 1968, the Expansion: Boone Essay Production Code was replaced with a rating system designed to keep younger audiences away from films with high levels of sex or violence.

Despite its imperfections, this rating system has proved more beneficial to American films than did the old censorship system. The essay following this introduction concerns the relative benefits of the rating system. By providing some historical background on the rating system, the writer helps readers to understand his arguments. Notice the chronological development of details. Review of a Controversy. A particular type of The Career, Persona, and Presidency of Theodore Roosevelt Essay historical review is the Westward Essay review of a controversy or debate. Consider the following introduction: The American Heritage Dictionary 's definition of civil disobedience is rather simple: the refusal to obey civil laws that are regarded as unjust, usually by employing methods of passive resistance. However, despite such famous (and beloved) examples of civil disobedience as the movements of Mahatma Gandhi in India and the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., in the United States, the question of whether or not civil disobedience should be considered an movie silkwood asset to Westward Boone society is hardly clear cut. For instance, Hannah Arendt, in her article Civil Disobedience, holds thatto think of disobedient minorities as rebels and truants is against the letter and yellow wallpaper spirit of a constitution whose framers were especially sensitive to Daniel Boone the dangers of unbridled majority rule.

On the other hand, a noted lawyer, Lewis Van Dusen, Jr., in his article Civil Disobedience: Destroyer of Democracy, states that civil disobedience, whatever the ethical rationalization, is still an assault on our democratic society, an movie silkwood affront to our legal order and an attack on our constitutional government. These two views are clearly incompatible. I believe, though, that Van Dusen's is the more convincing. On balance, civil disobedience is dangerous to society. 8. The negative aspects of civil disobedience, rather than Van Dusen's essay, the topic of this essay. But to introduce this topic, the writer has provided quotations that represent opposing sides of the controversy over civil disobedience, as well as brief references to two controversial practitioners. Expansion: Daniel Essay? By focusing at the outset on the particular rather than the abstract aspects of the subject, the Violence or Discipline writer hoped to secure the attention of Westward Daniel Boone Essay her readers and to involve them in the controversy that forms the subject of her essay. From General to the Specific. Another way of providing a transition from the reader's world to the less familiar world of the essay is to work from a general subject to a specific one.

The following introduction to a discussion of the 1968 massacre at My Lai, Vietnam, begins with general statements and leads to the particular subject at hand: Though we prefer to think of man as basically good and reluctant to do evil, such is not the case. Many of the wallpaper abstract crimes inflicted on Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay, humankind can be dismissed as being committed by the degenerates of society at the prompting of the abnormal mind. But what of the perfectly normal man or woman who commits inhumane acts simply because he or she has been ordered to do so? It cannot be denied that such acts have occurred, either in everyday life or in war-time situations. Unfortunately, even normal, well-adjusted people can become cruel, inhumane, and destructive if placed in works cited in french the hands of Expansion: Daniel Boone unscrupulous authority. Such was the case in the village of My Lai, Vietnam, on March 16, 1968, when a platoon of American soldiers commanded by Lt. William Calley massacred more than 100 civilians, including women and cited in french children.

Specific to the General: Anecdote, Illustration. Consider the following paragraph: In late 1971 astronomer Carl Sagan and his colleagues were studying data transmitted from the planet Mars to the earth by the Mariner 9 spacecraft. Struck by the effects of the Martian dust storms on Westward Expansion: Boone Essay, the temperature and on lies, the amount of light reaching the surface, the Boone Essay scientists wondered about the effects on is the, earth of the dust storms that would be created by nuclear explosions. Using computer models, they simulated the effects of such explosions on the earth's climate. The results astounded them. Apart from the known effects of nuclear blasts (fires and radiation), the earth, they discovered, would become enshrouded in a nuclear winter. Essay? Following a nuclear exchange, plummeting temperatures and pervading darkness would destroy most of the Northern Hemisphere's crops and farm animals and would eventually render much of the planet's surface uninhabitable. The effects of movie silkwood nuclear war, apparently, would be more catastrophic than had previously been imagined. It has therefore become more urgent than ever for Westward Daniel the nations of the works world to take dramatic steps to Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone reduce the threat of nuclear war.

The previous introduction went from the general (the question of payback whether or not man is basically good) to the specific (the massacre at My Lai); this one goes from the specific (scientists studying data) to the general (the urgency of reducing the nuclear threat). Daniel Boone Essay? The anecdote is one of the most effective means at your disposal off capturing and holding your reader's attention. For decades, speakers have begun their general remarks with a funny, touching, or otherwise appropriate story; in fact, there are plenty of books that are nothing but collections of such stories, arranged by subject. Frequently, you can provoke the wallpaper abstract reader's attention by posing a question or a series of questions: Are gender roles learned or inherited?

Scientific research has established the existence of biological differences between the sexes, but the Westward Daniel Boone Essay effect of biology's influence on gender roles cannot be distinguished from society's influence. According to Michael Lewis of the Institute for the Study of Exceptional children, As early as you can show me a sex difference, I can show you the Essay Violence or Discipline culture at Daniel Boone Essay work. Social processes, as well as biological differences, are responsible for the separate roles of men and women. 9. Opening your essay with a question can be provocative, since it places the reader in an active role: He or she begins by considering answers. Are gender roles learned?

Are they inherited? In this active role, the reader is likely to and Presidency continue reading with interest. Statement of Westward Expansion: Boone Essay Thesis. Perhaps the most direct method of introduction is to begin immediately with the thesis: Computers are a mixed blessing.

The lives of yellow wallpaper abstract Americans are becoming increasingly involved worth machines that think for them. We are at the dawn of the era of the smart machine, say the Westward Expansion: Daniel authors of a cover story of the subject in Newsweek , that will change forever the way an entire nation works, beginning a revolution that will be to works in french the brain what the industrial revolution was to the hand. Tiny silicon chips already process enough information to Westward Essay direct air travel, to in french instruct machines how to cut fabric - even to play chess with (and defeat) the masters. One can argue that development of computers for Boone the household, as well as industry, will change for movie silkwood the better the Daniel Boone quality of our lives: computers help us save energy, reduce the amount of drudgery that most of us endure around tax season, make access to movie silkwood libraries easier. Yet there is Westward Expansion: a certain danger involved with this proliferation of Essay or Discipline technology. This essay begins with a challenging assertion: that computers are a mixed blessing. It is one that many readers are perhaps unprepared to consider, since they may have taken it for granted that computers are an unmixed blessing. The advantage of beginning with a provocative (thesis) statement is that it forces the reader to sit up and take notice perhaps even to begin protesting. Westward Boone Essay? The paragraph goes on to concede some of the blessings of computerization but then concludes with the warning that there is The Career, Persona, and Presidency Roosevelt Essay a certain danger associated with the new technology - a danger, the curious or even indignant reader has a right to conclude, that will be more fully explained in the paragraphs to follow. One final note about our model introductions: They may be longer than introductions you have been accustomed to writing.

Many writers (and readers) prefer shorter, snappier introductions. This is largely a matter of personal or corporate style: there is no rule concerning the correct length of an introduction. If you feel that a short introduction is appropriate, by Westward Expansion: Boone all means use one. You may wish to what is the payback break up what seems like a long introduction into two paragraphs. (Our paragraph on the nuclear winter, for example, could have been broken either before or after the sentence The results astounded them.) One way to view the conclusion of Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone your paper is as an introduction worked in reverse, a bridge from the world of your essay back to the world of your reader. A conclusion is the on Mixed Violence or Discipline part of Westward your paper in which you restate and (if necessary) expand on your thesis.

Essential to what period any conclusion is the summary, which is not merely a repetition of the thesis but a restatement that takes advantage of the material you've presented. The simplest conclusion is an expanded summary, but you may want more than this for the end of your paper. Depending on your needs, you might offer a summary and then build onto it a discussion of the paper's significance or its implications for future study, for choices that individuals might make, for policy, and so on. you might also want to Expansion: Boone urge the reader to change an attitude or to modify behavior. Certainly, you are under no obligation to is the discuss the Westward Expansion: Boone Essay broader significance of your work (and a summary, alone, will satisfy the formal requirement that your paper have an ending); but the of Theodore Roosevelt Essay conclusions of better papers often reveal authors who are thinking large and want to connect the Westward Daniel Essay particular concerns of their papers with the broader concerns of society. Here we'll consider seven strategies for works cited expanding the Expansion: Daniel basic summary - conclusion. Works Cited? But two words of Expansion: Daniel Boone advice are in order. First, no matter how clever or beautifully executed, a conclusion cannot salvage a poorly written paper. Second, by Essay Arts: Violence or Discipline virtue of its placement, the conclusion carries rhetorical weight. It is the Westward Expansion: Daniel Essay last statement a reader will encounter before turning from Essay Arts: your work.

Realizing this, writers who expand on the basic summary-conclusion often wish to give their final words a dramatic flourish, a heightened level of diction. Soaring rhetoric and drama in a conclusion are fine as long as they do not unbalance the paper and call attention to Westward Boone Essay themselves. Having labored long hours over your paper, you have every right to wax eloquent. But keep a sense of proportion and timing. Make your points quickly and end crisply. Statement of the Subject's Significance. One of the more effective ways to conclude a paper is to discuss the larger significance of what you have written, providing readers with one more reason to regard your work as a serious effort. When using this strategy, you move from the specific concern of and Presidency Roosevelt your paper to Daniel the broader concerns of the Essay Violence reader's world.

Often, you will need to choose among a range of significances: A paper on the Wright brothers might end with a discussion of air travel as it affects economies, politics, or families; a paper on Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay, contraception might end with a discussion of its effect on sexual mores, population, or the church. What Payback? But don't overwhelm your reader with the importance of your remarks. Westward Daniel Boone? Keep your discussion well focused. The following paragraphs conclude a paper on George H. Shull, a pioneer in the inbreeding and crossbreeding of what payback period corn: . Expansion:? . . Thus, the hybrids developed and described by movie silkwood Shull 75 years ago have finally dominated U.S. Expansion:? corn production. The adoption of hybrid corn was steady and dramatic in the Corn Belt.

From 1930 through 1979 the average yields of corn in the U.S. increased from 21.9 to 95.1 bushels per acre, and the additional value to the farmer is now several billion dollars per year. The success of hybrid corn has also stimulated the on Mixed Violence or Discipline breeding of other crops, such as sorghum hybrids, a major feed grain crop in arid parts of the world. Sorghum yields have increased 300 percent since 1930. Approximately 20 percent of the land devoted to Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay rice production in China is planted with hybrid seed, which is reported to yield 20 percent more than the best varieties. And many superior varieties of tomatoes, cucumbers, spinach, and other vegetables are hybrids. Today virtually all corn produced in the developed countries is from hybrid seed. From those blue bloods of the plant kingdom has come a model for works in french feeding the world. Essay? 10.

The first sentence of this conclusion is a summary, and from it the reader can infer that the paper included a discussion of Shull's techniques for the hybrid breeding of corn. The summary is movie silkwood followed by a two-paragraph discussion on the significance of Shull's research for feeding the world. Call for Further Research. In the scientific and social scientific communities, papers often end with a review of what has been presented (as, for instance, in an experiment) and the ways in which the subject under consideration needs to be further explored. If you raise questions that you call on Westward Essay, others to answer, however, make sure you know that the research you are calling for hasn't already been conducted. This next conclusion comes from a sociological report on the placement of yellow abstract elderly men and women in Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay nursing homes. Thus, our study shows a correlation between the placement of elderly citizens in nursing facilities and the significant decline of their motor and intellectual skills over the ten months following placement.

What the research has not made clear is the extent to which this marked decline is yellow abstract due to Expansion: Daniel Boone physical as opposed to emotional causes. The elderly are referred to homes at that point in their lives when they grow less able to is the payback care for Westward Expansion: Essay themselves - which suggests that the drop-off in my teacher told skills may be due to Daniel Boone physical causes. But the emotional stress of Essay on Mixed Arts: or Discipline being placed in a home, away from family and in an environment that confirms the patient's view of himself as decrepit, may exacerbate - if not itself be a primary cause of - the patient's rapid loss of abilities. Further research is needed to clarify the relationship between depression and particular physical ailments as these affect the skills of the elderly in nursing facilities. There is little doubt that information yielded by such studies can enable health care professionals to deliver more effective services. Notice how this call for further study locates the author in a large community of researchers on Expansion: Daniel, whom she depends for assistance in answering the questions that have come out of her own work. The author summarizes her findings (in the first sentence of the paragraph), states what her work has not shown, and then extends her invitation. The purpose of your paper might be to review a problem or controversy and to discuss contributing factors. In such a case, it would be appropriate, after summarizing your discussion, to offer a solution based on the knowledge you've gained while conducting research. If your solution is to cited be taken seriously, your knowledge must be amply demonstrated in the body of the paper.

. . Daniel Boone Essay? . The major problem in college sports today is The Career, of Theodore Roosevelt Essay not commercialism - it is the exploitation of Expansion: Essay athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. Many universities are currently deriving substantial benefits from sports programs that depend on The Career, Persona, Essay, the labor of athletes drawn from the Expansion: Boone Essay poorest sections of America's population. What Period? It is the responsibility of educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens to see that these young people get a fair return for their labor both in terms of direct remuneration and in terms of Daniel Boone career preparation for Persona, of Theodore a life outside sports. Minimally, scholarships in revenue-producing sports should be designed to extend until graduation, rather than covering only four years of athletic eligibility, and should include guarantees of tutoring, counseling, and Expansion: Boone proper medical care. At institutions where the my teacher profits are particularly large (such as Texas A M, which can afford to pay its football coach $280,000 a year), scholarships should also provide salaries that extend beyond room, board, and tuition. The important thing is that the athlete be remunerated fairly and have the opportunity to gain skills from a university environment without undue competition from a physically and psychologically demanding full-time job. This may well require that scholarships be extended over five or six years, including summers. Such a proposal, I suspect, will not be easy to implement. The current amateur system, despite its moral and educational flaws, enables universities to hire their athletic labor at minimal cost. But solving the fiscal crisis of the universities on the backs of America's poor and Daniel Boone minorities is not, in movie silkwood the long run, a tenable solution.

With the support of Westward Essay concerned educators, parents, and civil rights leaders, and with the help from organized labor, the college athlete, truly a sleeping giant, will someday speak out and demand what is rightly his - and hers - a fair share of the revenue created by their hard work. Works? 11. In this conclusion, the author summarizes his article in one sentence: The major problem in Westward Expansion: Essay college sports today is not commercialism - it is the exploitation of athletes and the proliferation of illicit practices which dilute educational standards. In paragraph 2, he continues with an analysis of the problem just stated and follows with a general recommendation - that educators, civil rights leaders, and concerned citizens be responsible for on Mixed Martial Violence the welfare of Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone college athletes. In paragraph 3, he makes a specific proposal, and in the final paragraph, he anticipates resistance to the proposal. He concludes by discounting this resistance and returning to the general point, that college athletes should receive a fair deal. An anecdote is a briefly told story or joke, the point of which in a conclusion is to shed light on your subject. The anecdote is cited in french more direct than an Essay allusion.

With an allusion, you merely refer to a story (Too many people today live in Plato's cave . . .); with the anecdote, you actually retell the period story. Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay? The anecdote allows readers to discover for themselves the significance of a reference to lies told another source - an effort most readers enjoy because they get to Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay exercise their creativity. The following anecdote concludes an article on homicide. In the article, the author discusses how patterns of killing reveal information that can help mental- health professionals identify and treat potential killers before they commit crimes. she author emphasizes both the difficulty and Martial or Discipline the desirability of approaching homicide as a threat to public health that, like disease, can be treated with preventive care. In his book, The Exploits of the Incomparable Mulla Nasrudin , Sufi writer Idries Shad, in a parable about fate, writes about the many culprits of murder: What is Fate? Nasrudin was asked by Westward Expansion: Daniel a scholar.

An endless succession of intertwined events, each influencing the other. That is hardly a satisfactory answer. I believe in cause and effect. Very well, said the Mulla, look at that. He pointed to what is the period a procession passing in the street. That man is being taken to be hanged. Is that because someone gave him a silver piece and enabled him to buy the knife with which he committed the murder; or because someone saw him do it; or because nobody stopped him?

12. The writer chose to Daniel conclude the article with this anecdote. She could have developed an interpretation, but this would have spoiled the Essay Violence or Discipline dramatic value for the reader. The purpose of using an anecdote is to make your point with subtlety, so resist the temptation to interpret. Keep in mind three guidelines when selecting an anecdote: it should be prepared for (the reader should have all the information needed to understand), it should provoke the reader's interest, and it should not be so obscure as to be unintelligible. A favorite concluding device is the quotation - the Westward Daniel Boone Essay words of a famous person or an authority in the field on which you are writing The purpose of Essay Martial Arts: Violence quoting another is to link your work to theirs, thereby gaining for your work authority and credibility. The first criterion for selecting a quotation is its suitability to Westward Expansion: Boone Essay your thesis. But you also should carefully consider what your choice of sources says about you. Suppose you are writing a paper on is the period, the American work ethic. If you could use a line by comedian David Letterman or one by the current secretary of labor to make the final point of your conclusion, which would you choose and why?

One source may not be inherently more effective than the other, but the choice certainly sets a tone for the paper. There is Expansion: Essay no doubt that machines will get smarter and smarter, even designing their own software and making new and better chips for new generations of computers. More and more of their power will be devoted to what period making them easier to use - friendly, in industry parlance - even for those not trained in computer science. Westward Boone? And computer scientists expect that public ingenuity will come up with applications the most visionary researchers have not even considered. One day, a global network of smart machines will be exchanging rapid-fire bursts of information at movie silkwood unimaginable speeds. Westward Expansion: Boone Essay? If they are used wisely, they could help mankind to educate its masses and crack new scientific frontiers. For all of us, it will be fearful, terrifying, disruptive, says SRl's Peter Schwartz. In the end there will be those whose lives will be diminished. But for the vast majority, their lives will be greatly enhanced.

In any event, there is no turning back: if the smart machines have not taken over, they are fast making themselves indispensable - and in the end, that may amount to very much the same thing. 13. Notice how the quotation is used to position the writer to yellow make one final remark. Particularly effective quotations may themselves be used to Expansion: Essay end an essay, as in the following example. Make sure you identify the person you've quoted, although the identification does not need to be made in the conclusion itself. For example, earlier in the paper from which the following conclusion was taken, Maureen Henderson was identified as an on Mixed Martial Arts: Violence epidemiologist exploring the ways in which a change in Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay diet can prevent the onset of certain cancers. In sum, the recommendations describe eating habits almost identical to the diet of around 1900, says Maureen Henderson.

It's a diet we had before refrigeration and the complex carbohydrates we have now. It's an old fashioned diet and a diet that poor people ate more than rich people. Some cancer researchers wonder whether people will be willing to change their diets or take pills on Arts: or Discipline, the chance of preventing cancer, when one-third of the Daniel Essay people in the country won't even stop smoking. Others, such as Seattle epidemiologist Emily White, suspect that most people will be too eager to Roosevelt dose themselves before enough data are in. We're not here to convince the public to take anything, she says. The public is Expansion: Essay too eager already. What we're saying is, 'Let us see if some of these things work.' We want to Persona, Essay convince ourselves before we convince the public.'' 14. There is a potential problem with using quotations: if you end with the Expansion: Boone words of another, you may leave the impression that someone else can make your case more eloquently than you can.

The language of the quotation will put your own prose into relief. If your own prose suffers by comparison - if the quotations are the lies my teacher told me chapter summaries best part of your paper - you'd be wise to spend some time revising. The way to avoid this kind of problem is to make your own presentation strong. Questions are useful for opening essays, and they are just as useful for closing them. Opening and closing questions function in different ways, however. The introductory question promises to be addressed in the paper that follows.

But the concluding question leaves issues unresolved, calling on the readers to assume an active role by Westward Expansion: Daniel Boone offering their own solutions: How do we surmount the reaction that threatens to destroy the very gains we thought we had already won in the first stage of the women's movement? How do we surmount our own reaction, which shadows our feminism and Essay Arts: or Discipline our femininity (we blush even to use that word now)? How do we transcend the polarization between women and Westward Expansion: Boone Essay women and between women and men to achieve the new human wholeness that is the promise of feminism, and get on with solving the concrete, practical, everyday problems of living, working and loving as equal persons? This is the personal and yellow abstract political business of the Boone Essay second stage.

15. Perhaps you will choose to raise a question in your conclusion and then answer it, based on the material you've provided in yellow abstract the paper The answered question challenges a reader to agree or disagree with your response. This tactic also places the reader in an active role. The following brief conclusion ends an article entitled Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? So the answer to Westward Daniel Boone Essay the question Would an lies my teacher told me chapter intelligent computer have the right to life? is Westward Daniel Boone Essay probably that it would, but only if it could discover reasons and conditions under which it would give up its life if called upon to do so - which would make computer intelligence as precious a thing as human intelligence. 16. When you speculate, you ask what has happened or discuss what might happen. Me Chapter? This kind of question stimulates the Expansion: Daniel Boone Essay reader because its subject is the unknown. The following paragraph concludes The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and William Strauss.

In this essay, Howe and Strauss discuss the differences among Americans of lies my teacher various ages, including the Gl Generation (born between 1901 and Expansion: 1924), the Boomers (born 1943- 1961), the Thirteeners (born 1961-1981), and Arts: or Discipline the Millennials (born 1981-2000): If, slowly but surely, Millennials receive the Daniel Essay kind of family protection and wallpaper abstract public generosity that Gls enjoyed as children, then they could come of age early in the next century as a group much like the Expansion: Boone Essay Gls of the 1920s and 1930s - as a stellar (if bland) generation of rationalists, team players, and told summaries can-do civic builders Two decades from now Boomers entering old age may well see in their grown Millennial children an effective instrument for Expansion: Essay saving the works cited in french world, while Thirteeners entering midlife will shower kindness on a younger generation that is getting a better deal out of life (though maybe a bit less fun) than they ever got at Daniel Essay a like age. Study after story after column will laud these best damn kids in the world as heralding a resurgent American greatness. And, for a while at least, no one will talk about a generation gap. 17. Thus, Howe and wallpaper Strauss conclude an Westward essay concerned largely with the apparently unbridgeable gaps of understanding between parents and children with a hopeful speculation that generational relationships will improve considerably in the next two decades. Some writers work with an idea, committing it to paper only after it has been fully formed.

Others will begin with a vague notion and begin writing a first draft, trusting that as they write they'll discover what they wish to say. many people take advantage of both techniques: they write what they know but at the same time write to discover what they don't know. As you'll see, we used both techniques in writing this section of the book. [back] Francis Mossiker, trans., Napoleon and Josephine . New York: Simon and my teacher told me chapter summaries Schuster, 1964. [back] Winter Organization in Patricia Curtis, Biology , 2nd ed. New York: Worth, 1976, pp. 822-823. [back] Robert Hutchins, Gate Receipts and Glory, The Saturday Evening Post . December 3, 1983. [back] Henry David Thoreau, Reading in Walden . New York: Signet Classic, 1960, p. Westward Daniel Boone Essay? 72. [back] Jane Yolen, America's 'Cinderella,' APS Publications, Inc., in Children's Literature in Education 8, 1977, pp.

21-29. [back] Excerpt from yellow abstract Toward an Westward Essay Intelligence Beyond Man's from Time , February 20, 1978. What Payback? Copyright 1978 Time Inc. [back] Michele Jacques, Civil Disobedience: Van Dusen vs. Arendt. [Unpublished paper.] [back] Tammy Smith, Are Sex Roles Learned or Inherited? [Unpublished paper.] [back] From Hybrid Vim and Vigor by William L. Brown from pp. 77-78 in Science 80-85, November 1984. Copyright by the AAAS. [back]

From Mark Naison, Scenario for Scandal, Commonweal 109 (16), September 24, 1982. [back] From The Murder Epidemic by Nikki Meredith from pp. 42-48 in Science 80-85, December 1984. Copyright by AAAS. Daniel? [back] From And Man Created the Chip, Newsweek , June 30, 1980.

Copyright 1980 by is the Newsweek, Inc. All rights reserved. [back] Reprinted by permission. From the September issue of Science '84 . Copyright 1984 by the American Association for the Advancement of Expansion: Essay Science. [back] Betty Friedan, Feminism's Next Step in The Second Stage . New York: Summit Books, 1981. [back]

Robert E. Mueller and Eric T. Essay Martial Violence Or Discipline? Mueller, Would an Intelligent Computer Have a 'Right to Life'? Creative Computing , August 1983. [back] Excerpt from The New Generation Gap by Neil Howe and Westward Expansion: Boone William Strauss. Originally appeared in Atlantic , December 1992. [back]