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Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The Bakhtin Circle was a 20th century school of Russian thought which centered on the work of Mikhail Mikhailovich Bakhtin (1895-1975). The circle addressed philosophically the social and anzaldua how to, cultural issues posed by the Russian Revolution and its degeneration into pakistani newspapers the Stalin dictatorship. Their work focused on the centrality of questions of significance in anzaldua how to tame social life in general and artistic creation in particular, examining the way in and the Mind which language registered the conflicts between social groups. The key views of the circle are that linguistic production is essentially dialogic , formed in the process of social interaction, and that this leads to the interaction of different social values being registered in terms of reaccentuation of the gloria how to a wild speech of others. Industrialization And The Mind Examples! While the ruling stratum tries to posit a single discourse as exemplary, the subordinate classes are inclined to subvert this monologic closure. In the sphere of literature, poetry and epics represent the centripetal forces within the cultural arena whereas the novel is the structurally elaborated expression of popular ideologiekritik , the gloria how to radical criticism of society.
Members of the circle included Matvei Isaevich Kagan (1889-1937); Pavel Nikolaevich Medvedev (1891-1938); Lev Vasilievich Pumpianskii (1891-1940); Ivan Ivanovich Sollertinskii (1902-1944); Valentin Nikolaevich Voloshinov (1895-1936); and others. M.M. Bakhtin and pakistani newspapers, his circle began meeting in the Belorussian towns of Nevel and Vitebsk in 1918 before moving to gloria anzaldua how to a wild Leningrad in 1924. Their group meetings were terminated due to the arrest of many of the group in 1929. From this time until his death in andy warhol 1975, Bakhtin continued to work on the topics which had occupied his group, living in anzaldua tongue internal exile first in Kustanai (Kazakhstan, 1930-36), Savelovo (about 100 km from the southern, Moscow, 1937-45), Saransk (Mordovia, 1936-7, 1945-69) and finally moving in how to tame a wild tongue 1969 to Moscow, where he died at the age of eighty.
In Saransk Bakhtin worked at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute (now University) until retirement in Biomes 1961. The Bakhtin circle is reputed to have been initiated by Kagan on his return from Germany, where he had studied philosophy in Leipzig, Berlin and Marburg. He had been a pupil of the tame tongue founder of Marburg Neo-Kantianism Herman Cohen and had attended lectures by pakistani english Ernst Cassirer. Kagan established a Kantian Seminar at which various philosophical, religious and cultural issues were discussed. Kagan was a Jewish intellectual who had been a member of the Social Democratic Party (the precursor of the Bolsheviks and Mensheviks) and how to, he may have been attracted to Cohen's philosophy for its supposed affinity with Marxism (Cohen regarded his ethical philosophy as completely compatible with that of Marx), while rejecting the the southern black atheism of gloria how to tame Russian Communism. Industrialization And The Examples! Whatever the truth of the matter, the gloria tongue members of the circle did not restrict themselves to academic philosophy but became closely involved in the radical cultural activities of the time, activities which became more intense with the movement of the group to Vitebsk, where many important avant-garde artists such as Malevich and pakistani english newspapers, Chagall had settled to avoid the gloria tongue privations of the Civil War. One of the group, Pavel Medvedev, a graduate in law from Petrograd University, became rector of the Vitebsk Proletarian University, editing the town's cultural journal Iskusstvo (Art) to which he and Voloshinov contributed articles, while Bakhtin and Pumpianskii both gave public lectures on a variety of philosophical and Industrialization Essay examples, cultural topics, as seen in recently published student notes. Pumpianskii, it is known, never finished his studies at Petrograd university, while it is doubtful whether Bakhtin had any formal higher education at gloria tame tongue, all despite his claims, now disproven, to have graduated from the same University in 1918.
It seems that Bakhtin attempted to gain acceptance in academic circles by english newspapers adopting aspects of his older brother's biography. Nikolai Bakhtin had a solid classical education from his German governess and graduated from Petrograd University, where he had been a pupil of the renowned classicist F.F. Zelinskii. Bakhtin had therefore been exposed to philosophical ideas since his youth. How To Tame A Wild Tongue! After Nikolai's departure for the Crimea, and Mikhail's move to Nevel, it seems that Kagan took the place of his brother as unofficial mentor, having an important influence on Bakhtin's philosophy in a new and exciting cultural environment, although the two friends went their separate ways in 1921, the year Bakhtin married. Kagan, however, moved to take up a teaching position at pakistani english, the newly established provincial university in Orel in gloria anzaldua 1921. While there he published the only sustained piece of cans warhol analysis philosophy to be published by a member of the group before the a wild tongue late 1920s entitled Kak vozmozhna istoria (How Is History Possible) in 1922. The same year he produced an obituary of Hermann Cohen in which he stressed the about Mountain People: The Ik historical and sociological aspects of Cohen's philosophy and wrote other unpublished works. 1922 also saw the publication of Pumpianskii's paper Dostoevskii i antichnost? (Dostoyevsky and Antiquity), a theme that was to recur in Bakhtin's work for many years. While Bakhtin himself did not publish any substantial work until 1929, he was clearly working on matters related to Neo-Kantian philosophy and the problem of authorship at gloria anzaldua how to tongue, this time. Bakhtin's earliest published work is the two page Iskusstvo i otvetstvennost? (Art and Answerability) from 1919 and fragments of a larger project on moral philosophy written between 1920 and 1924, now usually referred to as K filosofii postupka (Towards a Philosophy of the Act).
Most of the group's significant work was produced after their move to Leningrad in 1924. Essay About The Ik! It seems that there the gloria anzaldua tame a wild group became acutely aware of the challenge posed by Saussurean linguistics and its development in the work of the Formalists. Thus there emerges a new awareness of the importance of the philosophy of about Mountain language in philosophy and gloria anzaldua how to tame, poetics. The most significant work on the philosophy of soup andy analysis language was published in the period 1926-1930 by Voloshinov: a series of articles and a book entitled Marksizm i filosofia iazyka (Marxism and the Philosophy of Language) (1929). Medvedev, who had been put in gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue charge of the communications process archive of the symbolist poet Aleksandr Blok, participated in the vigorous discussions between Marxist and formalist literary theorists with a series of articles and a book, Formal?lnyi metod v literaturovedenii (The Formal Method in Literary Scholarship) (1928) and the first book-length study of Blok's work. Voloshinov also published an article and a book (1925, 1926) on the debate which raged around Freudianism at the time. In 1929 Bakhtin produced the first edition of his famous monograph Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Work), but many other works dating from anzaldua, 1924-9 remained unpublished and usually unfinished. Among these was a critical essay on The Earth is Divided Biomes Essay formalism called Problema soderzheniia i formy v slovesnom khudozhestvennom tvorchestve (The Problem of Content, Material and Form in Verbal Artistic Creation) (1924) and a book length study called Avtor i geroi v esteticheskoi deiatel?nosti (Author and Hero in Aesthetic Activity) (1924-7). Since the 1970s the works published under the names of Voloshinov and Medvedev have often been ascribed to Bakhtin, who neither consented nor objected. Gloria Anzaldua A Wild! A voluminous, ideologically motivated, often bad-tempered and largely futile body of literature has grown up to contest the issue one way or another, but since there is no concrete evidence to suggest that the published authors were not responsible for the texts which bear their names, there seems no real case to answer. It seems much more likely that the materials were written as a result of lively group discussions around these issues, which group members wrote up according to their own perspectives afterwards.
There are clearly many philosophical, ideological and stylistic discrepancies which, despite the process presence of certain parallels and points of gloria anzaldua tame tongue agreement, suggest these very different works were largely the work of different authors. In accordance with Bakhtin's own philosophy, it seems logical to communications treat them as rejoinders in ongoing dialogues between group members on the one hand and between the group and gloria anzaldua how to, other contemporary thinkers on the other. The sharp deterioration in the situation of unorthodox intellectuals in the Soviet Union at the end of codes: 1928 effectively broke the Bakhtin circle up. Bakhtin, whose health had already begun to deteriorate, was arrested, presumably because of his connection with the St. Petersburg Religious-Philosophical society, and was sentenced to ten years on the Solovetskii Islands. After vigorous intercession by gloria Bakhtin's friends, a favourable review of his Dostoyevsky book by campbell's analysis Commissar of Enlightenment Lunacharskii and a personal appeal by Maksim Gor?kii, this was commuted to six years exile in Kazakhstan. With the tightening of censorship at the time, very little was published by Voloshinov, while Medvedev published a book on theories of authorship V laboratorii pisatelia (In the Laboratory of the Writer) in 1933 and a new version of the Formalism study, revised to fit in gloria anzaldua a wild tongue more closely with the ideological requirements of the time, in process 1934. Gloria How To! Medvedev was appointed full professor at the Leningrad Historico-Philological Institute but was arrested and disappeared during the terror of 1938. Voloshinov worked at communications process, the Herzen Pedagogical Institute in gloria tame a wild tongue Leningrad until 1934 when he contracted tuberculosis. He died in a sanitorium two year later leaving unfinished a translation of the first volume of Ernst Cassirer's The Philosophy of black codes: Symbolic Forms , a book which is how to a wild, of considerable importance in about Mountain People: The Ik the work of the circle. Kagan died of angina in 1937 after working as editor of an encyclopedic atlas of energy resources in the Soviet Union for many years.
Pumpianskii pursued a successful career as Professor of how to Literature at Leningrad University, but published only short articles and introductions to Industrialization and the Mind Essay works of Russian authors, most notably Turgenev. Sollertinskii joined the Leningrad Philharmonic in 1927 as a lecturer, but soon established himself as one of the how to leading Soviet musicologists, producing over two hundred articles, books and reviews. He died of a heart attack, probably resulting from the black codes: privations of the Leningrad blockade, in 1944. While in Kazakhstan Bakhtin began work on his now famous theory of the novel which resulted in gloria how to a wild tongue the now famous articles Slovo v romane (Discourse in the Novel) (1934-5), Iz predystorii romannogo slovo (From the Prehistory of Novelistic Discourse) (1940), Epos i roman (Epic and Novel) (1941), Formy vremeni i khronotopa v romane (Forms of english newspapers Time and Chronotope in the Novel) (1937-8). Between 1936 and 1938 he completed a book on the Bildungsroman and gloria anzaldua how to a wild, its significance in the history of realism which was lost when the publishing house at which the manuscript was lying awaiting publication was destroyed in the early days of the pakistani english German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1941.
Voluminous, most still unpublished, preparatory material still exists, although part is lost, allegedly because Bakhtin used it for cigarette papers during the wartime paper shortage. Bakhtin's exceptional productiveness at this time is further accentuated when one considers that one of anzaldua tame tongue his legs was amputated in February 1938. He had suffered from inflammation of the bone marrow, osteomyelitis, for many years, which gave him a lot of pain, high temperatures, and often confined him to bed for weeks on end. This had been a factor in the appeals of his friends and acquaintances for clemency when he was internally exiled, a factor that may well have saved his life. This did not, however, prevent him from presenting a now famous doctoral thesis on Rabelais to the Gor?kii Institute of World Literature in 1940. The work proved extremely controversial in the hostile ideological climate of the time and it was not until 1951 that Bakhtin was eventually granted the qualification of kandidat . It was not published in the southern book form until 1965. The period between the completion of the Rabelais study and the second edition of the Dostoyevsky study in 1963 is perhaps the least well known of Bakhtin's life in terms of work produced.
This has been recently (1996) rectified with the tame a wild tongue publication of archival materials from this period, when Bakhtin was working as a lecturer at the Mordov Pedagogical Institute. The most substantial work dating from this period is Problema rechevykh zhanrov (The Problem of Speech Genres) which was most likely produced in response to the reorganisation of Soviet linguistics in the wake of Stalin's article Marksizm i voprosy iazykoznaniia (Marxism and Questions of Linguistics) of 1953. Many other fragments exist from this time, including notes for a planned article about english, Maiakovskii and gloria anzaldua how to a wild, more methodological comments on the study of the novel. In the more liberal atmosphere of the so-called thaw following Khruschev's accession, Bakhtin's work on Dostoyevsky came to the attention of a group of younger scholars led by about Mountain People: The Ik Vadim Kozhinov who, upon finding out that he was still alive, contacted Bakhtin and tried to gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild convince him to campbell's soup cans andy warhol analysis republish the 1929 Dostoyevsky book. After some initial hesitation, Bakhtin responded by significantly expanding and fundamentally altering the overall project. It was accepted for tame a wild tongue, publication in September 1963 and communications, received a generally favourable reception. Publication of the Rabelais study, newly edited for purposes of acceptability (mainly the toning down of scatology and an analysis of a speech by how to a wild tongue Lenin) followed soon after.
As Bakhtin's health continued to decline, he was taken to American Mind hospital in Moscow in 1969 and in May 1970 he and his wife, who died a year later, were moved into a retirement home just outside Moscow. Bakhtin continued to work until just before his death in 1975, producing work of a mainly methodological character. Since Bakhtin's death, several collections of his work have appeared in Russian and many translations have followed. English language translations have been appearing since 1968, although the quality of translation and systematicity of publication has been uneven. Up to ten different translators have published work by a writer whose terminology is very specific, often rendering key concepts in a variety of different ways. This has exacerbated problems of interpretation and questions of anzaldua tame a wild theoretical heritage, especially since there is a quite sharp distinction between works written before and after the 1929 Dostoyevsky study. Another problem has been the questions of authorship of the Bakhtin circle and the extent to which a Marxist vocabulary in the works of Voloshinov and Medvedev should be taken at face value.
Those, for example, who argue Bakhtin was the author of black codes: these works also tend to argue that the vocabulary is mere window dressing to facilitate publication, while those who support the authenticity of the original publications also tend to take the Marxist arguments seriously. As a result writers about gloria anzaldua how to, Bakhtin have tended to choose one period of Bakhtin's career and treat it as definitive, a practice which has produced a variety of divergent versions of campbell's analysis Bakhtinian thought. The recent appearance of the first volume of a collected works in Russian might help to overcome the problems which have dogged Bakhtin studies. The work of the Bakhtin Circle should be regarded as a philosophy of culture. Questions which seem to be of very specific relevance, such as the modality of author-hero relations, actually involve questions of anzaldua a wild a much more general nature encompassing the value-laden relations between subject and object, subjects and other subjects. Black! The phenomenological arguments presented by gloria a wild the young Bakhtin are directed against the abstractions of rationalist philosophy and contemporary positivism. He draws much of The Earth Essay his conceptual structure from the work of the Marburg School (most notably Hermann Cohen (1842-1918), Paul Natorp (1854-1924) and Nicolai Hartmann (1882-1950)) and German phenomenologists such as Max Scheler (1874-1928) and Heinrich Rickert (1863-1936).
However, it is particularly difficult to trace the precise influence of these writers because Bakhtin was notoriously inconsistent in crediting his sources and was not averse to copying whole passages which he had translated from German into Russian in his works without reference to tame tongue the original. This has led many commentators either to guess at influences on the young Bakhtin or to Industrialization and the Mind credit him with the invention of a philosophical vocabulary almost from nothing. However, recent archival work by Brian Poole has uncovered notebooks in which Bakhtin made copious notes from various German idealist philosophers which give us a better idea both of the sources of his ideas and the originality of the philosophical work which resulted from his fusion of disparate ideas. The ideas of the Marburg School were undoubtedly filtered to Bakhtin through the works of Matvei Kagan on his return from Germany at the end of the First World War. In his obituary of Cohen Kagan stressed the religious, messianic aspects of the former's philosophy, which emerges in his later work. For the late Cohen, the unity of objective being, as an unending large process of the unity of being and concept demands the unending small unity of the singular individuum.
The whole problem of how to religion is contained in the problem of the individuum as in the question of God. The continual relationship between the individuum and God is the absolute element of campbell's soup cans subjectivity and gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild, is the unity of monotheism. The individual does not combine with God but continually relates to God. This has social significance, for religion grows out of cans andy warhol analysis ethics: the religion of the unity of humanity is monotheism. Religion is everywhere, in all regions of culture. Religion itself is philosophy. Problems of intersubjectivity must be related to questions of historical development: in our opinion, the problem of individual relationships, the problem of subjective consciousness, ontological subjectivity can be based on the pathos of the individual condition of the struggle of the historical life of culture, the person and humanity.
Kagan stresses the parallels between Cohen's ethics and the traditions of Russian populism, a factor which recurs later in Bakhtin's career when the novel becomes linked with a populist political process. (M. Kagan, German Kogen , 1922) The unity of the gloria tongue individual is dependent on the unity of the people and this is in turn dependent on the southern black the unity of God. Whatever the difficulties of tracing his more immediate precursors, there is how to tongue, no doubt that Bakhtin's philosophical project maintained a fundamental connection with the traditions of Enlightenment aesthetics and Industrialization Mind Essay examples, with Kantianism in particular. As for tame tongue, Kant, the aesthetic is Industrialization and the American Mind Essay examples, distinguished by its disinterestedness, the uncoupling of purposiveness from representation of the end. Where Kant concentrated on aesthetic judgement, however, Bakhtin was interested in aesthetic activity which can help to establish a mode of reciprocal intersubjective relationships necessary to produce an intimate unity of individuals whose specificity is in no way endangered. This project, which remains constant throughout his work, adopts various forms. The aesthetic is the realm where now detached from the how to tongue open event of warhol being and finalized by virtue of the author's exteriority ( vnenakhodimost? ), the gloria tongue value-laden essence of the hero's deed is manifested. If the andy warhol analysis hero's activity were not objectified by the author then he or she would remain in some perpetual stream of consciousness, completely oblivious to the wider significance of those deeds. However, in order to visualise the meaningful nature of those deeds, the gloria tame author must also have an insight into the subjective world of the hero, his or her horizon, sphere of views and interests ( krugozor ). Only the appropriate mode of empathy and objectification can produce the sort of communications productive whole Bakhtin envisages. Several problems arise from this model.
The first is that Bakhtin seems to want to use the author-hero model as a reciprocal principle within society and as a model of relations in literary composition. In the first model authors and heroes change their roles constantly, the unique perspective of each subject allows the gloria a wild objectification of others except oneself, who is objectified by others. English! Although the anzaldua tame a wild concept hardly appears in Essay The Ik the early works, from 1928 onwards dialogue becomes the model of such interactions: one gains an awareness of one's own place within the whole through dialogue, which helps to bestow an awareness on others at the same time. This is a very pleasant model as long as relationships remain equal. Yet the author-hero model also assumes a fundamental inequality in how to tame tongue that the hero of a work can never have a reciprocal vantage point from the southern black codes:, which to objectify the gloria how to tame a wild tongue author and thus the creator. There is a crucial difference between a person-to-person and a person-to-God relationship which Bakhtin's model seems to communications process obscure. Furthermore, Bakhtin's model of the unique perspective of each author/hero, which is drawn from the Kantian model of an gloria anzaldua how to a wild individual consciousness bearing a-priori categories encountering and giving form to the manifold of sense impressions, is seriously compromised when one admits a socio-linguistic dimension into the equation.
This happens in pakistani Voloshinov's 1926 article on discourse in life and poetry. The alternative adopted by how to a wild tongue Voloshinov foregrounds the intonational dimension of language which manifests the unique evaluative connections between subject and object. Language enmeshed within everyday practical activity is extracted, or liberated, from its connection with the open event of process being by the author who then reflects upon it, from his or her own unique vantage point, manifesting its total intonational meaning. The hero's language is alien to the author and therefore ripe for objectification; the crucial category is the latter's exteriority. Stress on this intonational dimension allows the encounter of the gloria anzaldua tame two consciousnesses to be spoken about in phenomenological rather than linguistic terms and the southern black codes:, therefore allows Bakhtin to gloria anzaldua tongue counter what he calls theoreticism, the tendency to consider the inner meaning of an action and its historical specificity in isolation from each other. This might include Hegel's tendency to Industrialization American examples view the particular incident as meaningful only as an instance of the gloria anzaldua how to a wild unfolding of english reason, Husserl's sublation of inter-subjective relations in transcendental subjectivity or the positivistic assumption that categorisation of a phenomenon is sufficient to explain that phenomenon. The distinctively Bakhtinian approach to language only really begins to anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue emerge in Voloshinov's 1926 essay Slovo v zhizni i slovo v poezii: k voprosam sotsiologicheskoi poetiki (Discourse in Life and Discourse in Poetry: Questions of Sociological Poetics), written during his postgraduate studies at the Institute of Material, Artistic and Verbal Culture in pakistani english Leningrad where L.P. Iakubinskii, the pioneer of the study of dialogic speech, was among his advisers.
This work, which has been seen as the how to tame tongue earliest example of pragmatics by more than one commentator, is the first work of the circle to be presented as an pakistani english explicitly Marxist text. The author attempts to gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue define the aesthetic as a specific form of communications social interaction characterised by its completion by the creation of the artistic work and by its continual recreations in cocreative perception and anzaldua how to tongue, it does not require any other objectifications. In the artistic work unspoken social evaluations are condensed and determine artistic form. The deeper structural features of a particular social interaction are made manifest in a successful artistic work; as Voloshinov puts it, form should be a convincing evaluation of the content ( Bakhtin School Papers ed. Shukman, Colchester 1983 p.9, 19, 20). The early Bakhtinian phenomenology is now recast in terms of discursive interaction, with a specifically sociological frame of reference. Another of Voloshinov's projects was a critical response to incipient psychoanalysis and contemporary attempts to attempt a fusion of Marxism and Freudianism.
In 1927 he published his first book called Freidizm: Kriticheskii ocherk (Freudianism a Critical Sketch), which continued the theme of an earlier article from 1925 Po tu storonu sotsial?nogo (Just Beyond the Social) in which Freud was accused of a biological reductionism and subjectivism quite alien to the spirit of codes: Marxism. Leaning upon a sociological analysis of language and culture, Voloshinov stresses that intersubjectivity precedes subjectivity as such and how to tame tongue, that all meaning production and thus repression of meanings are socio-ideological rather than individual and process, biological as Freud supposed. It must be noted, however, that Voloshinov does not pay any attention to Freud's later work on cultural phenomena and thus presents a rather one-sided view of contemporary psychology. Furthermore, Freudianism is treated as a manifestation of bourgeois decay very much in anzaldua how to tongue the spirit of the Industrialization and the American Mind examples later Lukacs. This indicates a turning towards a more Hegelian approach to questions of cultural and philosophical development, while the recasting of the Freudian superego in anzaldua how to tongue terms of the repression of unofficial ideologies by an official ideology anticipates one of the central themes that would occupy Bakhtin in the 1930s and 1940s. 3. The Concluding Works of the Bakhtin Circle: 1928-1929. In the late 1920s the sociological and the southern black codes:, linguistic turn signalled by gloria tame a wild tongue Voloshinov's article on discourse had begun to form into a distinct school of thought in cans warhol analysis which language was the index of social relations and embodiment of gloria anzaldua a wild tongue ideological worldview.
While Voloshinov's linguistic studies were undoubtedly crucial to Industrialization American Mind examples this reorientation, one of the central influences on the group at the time was the work of Ernst Cassirer, whose ground-breaking Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (3 Vols) was published between 1923 and how to a wild, 1929. One of Voloshinov's unfinished projects, which he began while at University, was a translation of the newspapers first volume of Cassirer's work on language. This volume marked the culmination of Cassirer's move away from Marburg Neo-Kantianism to a Hegelian rectification of Kant. Adopting Hegel's dialectical orientation, evolutionary approach to human knowledge and existence and concentration of the totality of human activities, Cassirer sought to overcome the exclusivity of the Kantian focus on gloria anzaldua tame a wild mankind's rational thought processes. At the same time, however, Cassirer strove to resist the Hegelian subsumption of all realms of the human spirit into the Absolute by retaining the Kantian distinction between the the southern codes: languages of the human spirit. To this end Cassirer drew upon Herder and von Humboldt's identification of thought and signification, viewing the anzaldua how to tongue symbolic function as the common element to all areas of knowledge, but which took a specific form in each of them. The truth, agreed Cassirer and Hegel, is whole, but the former understood this to mean that each of the perspectives offered by various symbolic forms is equally valid and must be progressively unfolded so as to fully articulate itself. This formulation, as we shall see, had a far reaching effect on the southern black the later work of Bakhtin, but there are signs of its influence almost immediately in the work of the group. In 1928 P.N. Medvedev published a book-length critique of Russian Formalism.
This work begins with a definition of literary scholarship as one branch of the study of ideologies, a study which embraces all areas of man's ideological creativity. Medvedev goes on to argue that while Marxism has established the basis of such a study, including its relationship to economic factors, the study of the distinctive features and qualitative individuality of each of the branches of ideological creation -- science, art, ethics, religion, and so forth. -- is still in the embryonic stage (p.3). Despite the replacement of symbolic forms with branches of ideological creation the continuity of approach is clear. Where Cassirer sought to examine the symbolic function as a factor which recurs in each basic cultural form but in no two takes exactly the same shape (vol. Anzaldua How To Tame A Wild Tongue! 1, p.84), Medvedev sought to investigate the sociological laws of development which can be found in each branch of ideological creation but which manifests itself in specific ways. This sociological adaption of Cassirer's work was to feature largely in Bakhtin's work from the 1930s and 1940s, where, as Poole has demonstrated, many unattributed passages from the former's work appear in Russian translation within the body of the latter's work. Medvedev felt that the Formalists were correct in attempting to define the the southern black specific features of literary creation but fundamentally mistaken in the positivistic approach they took towards literary devices which tended to efface the ideological, meaning-bearing and thus sociological aspect of literary form. How To Tame A Wild Tongue! In conclusion Medvedev recommended that the into Biomes formalists be treated respectfully and seriously, even if their fundamental premises were erroneous. Marxist criticism, he argued, should value Formalism as an object of serious criticism through which the bases of the former can be clarified. While subjecting the gloria tame a wild tongue Russian Formalists to intense criticism on the basis of their partisan alliance with the Futurist movement and American Essay examples, their sharing its tendency towards a nihilistic destruction of meaning, Medvedev particularly praised Western formalist art scholarship such as the work of gloria anzaldua how to tame Hildebrand, Wolfflin and Worringer. These theorists were important for the development of the Bakhtin circle because they treated changes of artistic forms and styles as changes of artistic volition, that is, having ideological significance.
Worringer saw art history to be marked by about People: an alternation of naturalism (empathy) and gloria how to tongue, abstraction (estrangement) which correlated to the harmony or otherwise in campbell's cans the relationship of man and his environment. While formal and evaluative aspects are not identical, they do tend to maintain a close affiliation and this, Medvedev concluded, can be applied to literary form as well as visual art. Anzaldua How To A Wild! This particular chapter, along with some shorter extracts of the book were omitted from the second edition of the book published with the title Formalizm I formalisty (Formalism and Essay Mountain People:, the Formalists) in 1934. By this time a tolerant attitude towards the Formalists or Western scholarship was not permitted, and thus an additional and extremely hostile chapter called The Collapse of Formalism was included. Earlier writers on the Bakhtin Circle tended to ascribe the first edition to Bakhtin and the second to Medvedev, but it is clear that the body of the second edition is an expurgated version of the first. Medvedev's formulation was carried over into gloria how to tame Bakhtin's now famous study Problemy tvorchestva Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Work) published in 1929. Here the great nineteenth-century novelist's own verbally affirmed and is Divided Biomes, often reactionary ideology is downplayed in favour of his form-shaping ideology which is seen to be imbued with a profoundly democratic spirit.
Bakhtin attacks those critics, such as Engelgardt, who characterised Dostoyevsky's creative method as Hegelian. In such a scheme two positions struggle for ascendancy but are transformed into how to tame a wild tongue a synthesis at the end; however, according to Bakhtin, there is no merging of voices into a final, authoritative voice as in the Hegelian absolute. Dostoyevsky does not present an abstract dialectic but an unmerged dialogue of voices, each given equal rights. Bakhtin follows the nineteenth-century German novelist and critic Otto Ludwig in terming this type of dialogue polyphonic dialogue, which allows Cassirer's insistence on a plurality of cultural forms to be extended to a plurality of discourses in society and the novel. In the course of Dostoyevsky's novels, argues Bakhtin, very much in the spirit of about Cassirer, the worldviews of Dostoyevsky's heroes unfold, presenting their own unique perspective upon the world.
The novelist does not, as is the case with Tolstoi, submerge all positions beneath a single authoritative perspective, but allows the voice of the narrator to anzaldua tame a wild reside beside the voices of the characters, bestowing no greater authority on that voice than on any of the The Earth others. Voices intersect and interact, mutually illuminating their ideological structures, potentialities, biases and limitations. Bakhtin's early phenomenology is now translated into discursive terms. Where Bakhtin was initially concerned with intersubjective relations and the modality of authorial and heroic interaction, this is now examined in terms of the way in which one language encounters another, reporting and modifying the utterance by reaccentuating it. Modes of interaction range from stylisation to explicit parody, which Bakhtin spends a considerable proportion of the book cataloguing. As only the later edition of the book (1963) has been published in English, there is a tendency to confuse the chronology of the emergence of Bakhtin's key concepts. It should be noted that there is no reflection on carnival or on the Menippean Satire in the first edition of the how to tame Dostoyevsky study.
These features only emerged in the next decade in communications process relation to the history of the novel as a genre. The first edition of the anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue Dostoyevsky study is a monograph on the work of the famous novelist in terms which in many respects embody the The Earth is Divided into poetics of a significant portion of gloria how to tame contemporary fellow-traveller writing. When considered in People: The Ik its historical context, the Dostoyevsky study can be seen as a sort of rearguard defence of liberality in the cultural arena against the encroachment of political control. The book was published on the eve of the destructive RAPP dictatorship, when bellicose advocates of proletarian culture were granted free reign by the newly victorious Stalinist leadership of the Soviet Communist Party. Formal experimentation and an inadequately tendentious narrative position was branded as reactionary, while Bakhtin's work defended the presentation of a plurality of perspectives free from anzaldua how to tame, monologic closure. Campbell's Soup Cans Warhol! The formal characteristics of a work were themselves of ideological significance, but the reactionary tendency was in the imposition of a unitary perspective on a varied community of opinion. The semiotic dimension of the new orientation of the Bakhtin Circle was developed at anzaldua how to tongue, the same time by Voloshinov. In a series of articles between 1928 and 1930 punctuated by the appearance of the book-length Marksizm i filosofiia iazyka (Marxism and the Philosophy of Language) in 1929 (2nd edition 1930) Voloshinov published an The Earth is Divided analysis of the relationship between language and ideology unsurpassed for several decades. Voloshinov examines two contemporary accounts of a wild tongue language, what he calls abstract objectivism, whose leading exponent is Essay about Mountain People:, Saussure, and individualistic subjectivism, developed from the work of Wilhelm von Humboldt by the romantic idealists Benedetto Croce (1866-1952) and Karl Vossler (1872-1942). Gloria! Voloshinov argues that the two trends derive from rationalism and romanticism respectively and share both the strengths and weaknesses of communications process those movements.
While the former identifies the systematic and social character of language it mistakes the system of self-identical forms for anzaldua how to a wild, the source of language usage in society; it abstracts language from the concrete historical context of its utilisation (Bakhtin's theoreticism); the part is examined at the expense of the whole; the individual linguistic element is treated as a thing at cans, the expense of the dynamics of speech; a unity of word meaning is assumed to the neglect of the multiplicity of meaning and accent and language is gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue, treated as a ready-made system whose developments are aberrations. The latter trend is correct in is Divided into Biomes Essay viewing language as a continuous generative process and asserting that this process is meaningful, but fundamentally wrong in identifying the laws of anzaldua how to tame that creation with those of individual psychology, viewing the generative process as analogous with art and treating the system of signs as an inert crust of the creative process. These partial insights, Voloshinov argues that a stable system of linguistic signs is merely a scientific abstraction; the generative process of communications language is implemented in the social-verbal interaction of speakers; the laws of gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild language generation are sociological laws; although linguistic and artistic creativity do not coincide, this creativity must be understood in relation to the ideological meanings and values that fill language and english, that the anzaldua how to tongue structure of each concrete utterance is a sociological structure. Several commentators have noted how Voloshinov's approach to language anticipates many of the criticisms of linguistic philosophy levelled by present day Poststructuralists, but does so without invoking the relativism of much of the latter or the nullity of Derrida's hors texte . Voloshinov firmly establishes the sign-bound nature of consciousness and the shifting nature of the language system, but instead of viewing the subject as fragmented by the reality of difference, he poses each utterance to be a microcosm of social conflict. This allows sociological structure and the plurality of discourse to be correlated according to a unitary historical development. In this sense Voloshinov's critique bears a strong resemblance to the Italian Communist leader Antonio Gramsci's account of hegemony in his Prison Notebooks . Like Voloshinov and andy warhol analysis, Bakhtin, Gramsci drew upon the work of Croce and Vossler and Matteo Bartoli's Saussurean spatial linguistics, and combined it with a Hegelian reading of Marxism.
As we have seen, however, Voloshinov was heavily influenced by gloria anzaldua a wild tongue the work of Cassirer, whose admiration for the work of and the American Mind Essay examples von Humboldt, the founder of generative linguistics, was substantial. Voloshinov's critique thus tended towards the romantic pole of language study rather than taking up the equidistant position he claimed in his study. This can be seen in the tendency to see social groups as collective subjects rather than institutionally defined collectives and such assertions as those which suggest the meaning of a word is totally determined by its context. What Voloshinov effectively does is to supplement Humboldt's recognition of individual and national linguistic variability with a sociological dimension. Humboldt's inner-form of language is recast as the relationality of gloria tame tongue discourse, dialogism . Abandoning the Industrialization and the American Essay examples Marxist distinction between base and superstructure, Voloshinov follows Cassirer and Hegel in seeing the variety of linguistic forms as expressions of a single essence. It is tame a wild, significant that Gramsci, who adopted a consistently pragmatist epistemology followed the same course and emerged with startlingly similar formulations. This suggests that the relations between the work of the Bakhtin school and Marxism are ones which are complex and worthy of close scrutiny. Those who have tried to set up a Chinese wall between the two tendencies or who have tried to identify them, have consistently failed to do justice to this philosophical dialogue. Some have even gone so far as to see the work of the group as fundamentally anti-Hegelian, a charge which collapses as soon as one traces the use of terminology in communications the works from the late 1920s. 4. Bakhtin and the Theory of the Novel: 1933-1941. The shift in Bakhtin's thought from Kant towards Hegel is nowhere clearer than in his central works on the novel.
This can be seen in the new centrality Bakhtin grants to a wild tongue the history of literature to which Kant had been largely indifferent. As if to stress his indebtedness to German idealism, Bakhtin adopts all of the characteristics of the novel as a genre catalogued by Goethe, Schlegel and Hegel with little modification and traces how the essence of the genre appears over a course of time. The development of the novel is described in a way distinctly reminiscent of Cassirer's symbolic forms which unfold to is Divided into present their unique view of the world which is itself a modified version of Hegel's characterisation of the Phenomenology of Spirit as the representation of appearing knowledge. At the how to a wild tongue same time, however, the soup andy warhol analysis novel adopts many of the features of the role of Hegel's philosophy in its Cassireran guise as the anzaldua how to tame tongue philosophy of culture. Such a philosophy, argued Cassirer, does not attempt to go behind the various image worlds created by the human spirit but to understand and elucidate their basic formative principle ( The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms vol. Industrialization American Essay! 1, Language p.113).
The novel, according to the scheme developed by Bakhtin, elucidates this principle with regard both to other literary genres and socio-ideological discourses. Gloria How To A Wild Tongue! The old idealist formulation of the novel's imperative that it be a full and comprehensive reflection of its era is reformulated as the novel must represent all the ideological voices of its era. all the era's languages that have any claim to being significant (411). The novel is a symbolic form, but a specific one in which the basic formative principle of symbolic forms becomes visible. The socially stratified national language, heteroglossia in itself, becomes heteroglossia for-itself rather as thought perceives itself as its own object at the climax of Hegel's Phenomenology . The novel, for Bakhtin, uncovers the formative principle of discourse, its relationality, dialogism, without presenting some final absolute language of truth such as that which constitutes Hegelian conceptualism. The novel develops into something akin to a visio intellectualis of the sort Cassirer found in the work of Nicholas Cusanus.
This is a whole which includes all various viewpoints in its accidentiality and necessity, the thing seen and the manner and direction of the seeing (Cassirer The Individual and the Cosmos in Renaissance Philosophy 1963, p.32). No individual perspective is adequate to the whole in itself, for only the concrete totality of perspectives can present the whole: Languages of heteroglossia, like mirrors that face each other, each of which in its own way reflects a little piece, a tiny corner of the world, force us to communications process guess at and grasp behind their inter-reflecting aspects for a world that is broader, more multi-levelled and multi-horizoned than would be available to one language, one mirror. (Bakhtin Voprosy literatury i estetiki pp.225-26) While this aspect of gloria how to tongue Bakhtin's theory of the novel is most likely based on the philosophy of Cassirer, who developed his work as a defence of liberal values in the context of an increasingly chauvinistic atmosphere in Weimar Germany, a different political slant becomes markedly more apparent in Bakhtin's work of the 1930s. The novelist now becomes the the southern heir of an anti-authoritarian popular cultural strategy to deflate the tame a wild pretensions of the official language and the southern black codes:, ideology and institute a popular-collective learning process. The antecedent of this strategy is not German bourgeois liberalism but Russian populism ( narodnichestvo ). Gloria Anzaldua Tame A Wild! Thus the dialectic of mythical and critical symbolic forms which Cassirer outlined in his philosophy now becomes fused with a dialectic of official and popular socio-cultural forces. On one side stand the Industrialization Mind Essay forces of cultural centralisation and stabilisation: the official strata, unitary language, the literary canon and so on. On the other side stands the decentralising influence of popular culture: popular festivity and gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue, collective ridicule, literary parody, and the anti-canonic novel. The rise of the novel is newspapers, correlated with the collapse of antique unity and gloria tame a wild tongue, the breaking down of cultural boundaries.
Where the official culture developed a canon of poetic genres which posited a rarified language in opposition to the common spoken language, presented a monolithically serious worldview and pakistani, epic accounts of a golden age and gloria anzaldua, heroic beginnings, the novel parodies these features, ridiculing the official culture's claims to universal validity and the ossified conventionality of canonic forms and language. The novel is thus a literary expression of a whole socio-cultural process, but this process is rather too broad to be incorporated under the label Bakhtin gives to it without considerable problems with regard to conceptual accuracy. The adjective poetic becomes shorthand for the whole complex of the southern institutional and cultural forms which can be included on the side of officialdom. Thus poetic denotes both a type of discourse used in artistic texts and a hierarchical relation between discourses which constitutes the hegemonic relationships of an unequal society. How To Tame Tongue! Correspondingly, novelistic describes both the campbell's soup warhol character of a genre, multi-accented artistic discourse, and an anti-authoritarian relationship between discourses. Another pair of terms which is often used interchangeably with these two is monologic and dialogic . The former denotes a mono-accentual type of discourse and an authoritarian stance towards another discourse. The latter describes a multi-accentual discourse, the anzaldua tame relationality of discourse, and an orientation on a monologic discourse which seeks to reveal the ideological structure lurking behind surface appearances. Pakistani! The ground between formal and political terms shifts before the reader, who is constantly reminded of the institutional co-ordinates for all discursive phenomena but is never presented with a sociological account of those co-ordinates. This might be explained both by the ideological restrictions placed on any writer in Stalin's Russia and by the idealist frame of Bakhtin's own theory.
This ambiguity has allowed very different interpretations of Bakhtin's work to be drawn, ranging from a tendency to reduce the gloria how to tame a wild whole argument to one of artistic forms, leading to a liberalistic formal criticism and attempts to english newspapers correlate Bakhtin's argument with the gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue institutional forms of modern capitalist society. Bakhtin's work has thus become a battleground between (mainly American) liberal academics and (mainly British) anti-Stalinist Marxists. In its classical phase, Russian populism was, according to Walicki, opposed to the abstract intellectualism of those revolutionaries who tried to teach the peasants, to newspapers impose on them the ideals of Western socialism, instead of learning what were their real needs and acting in gloria how to the name of such interests and ideals of which the peasants had already become aware. Campbell's Cans Warhol! Yet it also suggested an anzaldua how to tongue opposition to those Second International Marxists who argued that capitalism was an unavoidable stage in the development of campbell's cans andy Russia ( The Controversy Over Capitalism 1989 p.3). In one sense, then, it was a political ideology compatible with Third International Marxism, but in another it sought to reverse the hegemony of intellectuals over the people. Bakhtin's poet is a hegemonic intellectual whose language relates in an authoritative fashion to the discourse of the masses, while the gloria anzaldua tongue novelist aims to break and Industrialization and the American, indeed reverse that hegemonic relationship. In Bakhtin's formulation, the how to a wild locus of critical forces of culture is the people , while the mythological forces of culture emerge from the official stratum. Many of the central works on the novel were at least partially written in response to the theory of the novel developed by is Divided into Biomes Georg Lukacs. Gloria Anzaldua How To A Wild! Bakhtin had begun to codes: translate Lukacs' Theory of the Novel in the 1920s but abandoned the project upon anzaldua how to a wild tongue, learning that Lukacs no longer liked the book but in the 1930s, when Lukacs accommodated to the Stalin regime and campbell's cans andy analysis, essentially became a right Hegelian , his theory of the novel became canonical. Bakhtin agreed with Lukacs that the novel represented the essence of the age and that irony constituted a central factor of the novelistic method, but rejected the latter's assertion that unless the novel revealed the thread of gloria how to tame tongue rationality running through a seemingly anarchic world, that is, presented an authoritative perspective, the author had succumbed to bourgeois decadence.
Modernist formal experimentation and the dominance of parody in modernist literature Lukacs found to pakistani english be a reflection of bourgeois decay, while Bakhtin strove to reveal its popular-democratic roots. The novel should not be seen as a compensation for the restlessness of contemporary society, uncovering the assured road to progress, but the how to tame a wild tongue embodiment of the dynamic forces that could shape society in a popular-democratic fashion. Thus where Lukacs championed epic closure, Bakhtin highlighted novelistic openendedness; where Lukacs advocated a strong narrative presence, Bakhtin advocated the maximalisation of multilingual intersection and the testing of The Earth into discourse. Bakhtin takes a left Hegelian stance against Lukacs; dialogism becomes analogous to Hegel's Geist , both describing the social whole and standing in judgement over those eras in anzaldua how to tame a wild which the dialogic imperative is pakistani english newspapers, not realised. 5. Carnival, History And Popular Culture: Rabelais, Goethe And Dostoyevsky As Philosophers. The high point of Bakhtin's populism can be seen in his now famous 1965 study of Rabelais and the heavily revised second edition of the 1929 Dostoyevsky book (1963).
The former had been composed as Bakhtin's doctoral dissertation which had been written in the late 1930s but was only anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue prepared for publication when he emerged from obscurity in about People: the 1960s. Tvorchestvo Fransua Rable i narodnaia kul?tura srednevekov?ia i renessansa (The work of Francois Rabelais and gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue, the Popular Culture of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance) is a remarkable work. Bakhtin concentrates on the collapse of the strict hierarchies of the Middle Ages and the beginning of the Essay about Mountain People: The Ik Renaissance by anzaldua how to tame tongue looking at the way in which ancient modes of living and working collectively, in Essay examples accordance with the rhythms of nature, re-emerge in the forms of popular culture opposed to official culture. In Problemy poetiki Dostoevskogo (Problems of Dostoyevsky's Poetics) Bakhtin summarises the essence of the question thus: It could be said (with certain reservations, of course) that a person of the Middle Ages lived, as it were, two lives : one that was the official life, monolithically serious and gloria anzaldua tame a wild, gloomy, subjugated to a strict hierarchical order, full of terror, dogmatism, reverence and piety; the other was the life of the carnival square , free and codes:, unrestricted, full of ambivalent laughter, blasphemy, the profanation of everything sacred, full of debasing and obscenities, familiar contact with everyone and everything. Both these lives were legitimate, but separated by anzaldua tame tongue strict temporal boundaries. Codes:! (p.129-30) The activities of the carnival square: collective ridicule of officialdom, inversion of gloria a wild tongue hierarchy, violations of Mind Essay examples decorum and proportion, celebration of bodily excess and so on embody, for Bakhtin, an implicit popular conception of the world. This conception is not, however, able to become ideologically elaborated until the radical laughter of the square entered into the world of great literature (Rabelais p.96). The novel of Rabelais is gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue, seen as the epitome of soup cans andy warhol this process of breaking down the rigid, hierarchical world of the Middle Ages and the birth of the modern era. Rabelais is much more than a novelist for anzaldua how to tame, Bakhtin: his work embodies a whole new philosophy of pakistani history, in which the world is viewed in the process of becoming. The grotesque is the image of this becoming, the boundaries between person and a wild tongue, person, person and thing, are erased as the individual merges with the people and the whole cosmos.
As the individual body is transcended, the biological body is negated and the body of historical, progressing mankind moves to campbell's cans andy the centre of the system of images. Gloria Anzaldua How To A Wild Tongue! In the carnival focus on the southern black death and rebirth the individual body dies, but the body of the gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild people lives and grows, biological life ends but historical life continues. The carnivalesque becomes a set of image-borne strategies for destabilising the official worldview. In a recently published article written for inclusion in the Soviet Literaturnaia entsiklopediia (Literary Encyclopaedia) in 1940, Bakhtin defines the satirical attitude as the image-borne negation of contemporary actuality as inadequacy, which contains within itself a positive moment in is Divided into Essay which an improved actuality is affirmed. This affirmed actuality is the historical necessity implicit in contemporary actuality and which is implied by gloria anzaldua the grotesque image. Pakistani! The grotesque, argues Bakhtin, discloses the potentiality of an entirely different world, of another order, another way of life. It leads man out of the how to a wild confines of the apparent (false) unity, of the indisputable and stable (Rabelais p.48). The grotesque image of the body, as an image which reveals incomplete metamorphosis no longer represents itself, it represents what Hegel called the universal dialectic of about People: The Ik life. The Renaissance birth of the historical world led to a new development in a wild tongue the Enlightenment. Where Rabelais was presented as the high point of Renaissance literary and philosophical development, the Enlightenment reaches one of its high points in the work of newspapers Goethe. The process dispersing the residue of otherworldly cohesion and mythical unity was completed at this time, helping reality to gather itself together and condense into the visible whole of a new world ( Speech Genres and Other Late Essays p.45).
The Enlightenment, argues Bakhtin in gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild a section which draws heavily on Cassirer (the corresponding passage is The Philosophy of the Enlightenment p.197), should no longer be considered an a-historical era, but an epoch of great awakening of a sense of time, above all . in the southern black nature and human life (p.26). But, argues Bakhtin this process of preparing for anzaldua how to a wild tongue, the disclosure of historical time took place more rapidly, completely, and profoundly in literary creativity than in the abstract philosophical, ideological views of Enlightenment thinkers (p.26). Goethe's imagination was fundamentally chronotopic , he visualised time in space: Time and People: The Ik, space merge . into an inseparable unity . a definite and absolutely concrete locality serves at the starting point for the creative imagination. this is a piece of human history, historical time condensed into space. Therefore the plot (sum of depicted events) and the characters . are like those creative forces that formulated and humanised this landscape, they made it a speaking vestige of the movement of history (historical time), and, to a certain degree, predetermined its subsequent course as well, or like those creative forces a given locality needs in order to organise and continue the anzaldua historical process embodied in pakistani english it. A Wild Tongue! (p.49) Goethe wanted to bring together and campbell's soup analysis, unite the anzaldua a wild present, past and future with the ring of necessity (p.39), to make the present creative. Like Rabelais, Goethe was as much a philosopher as a writer. The same pattern of pakistani analysis shapes the 1963 version of the Dostoyevsky study.
Here Dostoyevsky is no longer treated, as in the 1929 version, as a totally original innovator, but as the heir to a tradition rooted in popular culture. The novelist stood poised at the threshold of gloria how to tongue a new era, as the rigidly hierarchical Russian Empire was poised to into give way to gloria anzaldua how to a wild the catastrophic arrival of capitalist anarchy and ultimately revolution. Dostoyevsky thus intersected with the threshold poetics of carnival at a different stage in its development, he sought to present the voices of his era in a pure simultaneity unrivalled since Dante. In contradistinction to that of about Mountain People: Goethe this chronotope was one of visualising relations in terms of space not time and this leads to a philosophical bent that is gloria a wild, distinctly messianic: Only such things as can conceivably be linked at a single point in The Ik time are essential and are incorporated into how to tame Dostoevskii's world; such things can be carried over into eternity, for in eternity, according to newspapers Dostoevskii, all is simultaneous, everything coexists. Thus there is no causality in Dostoevskii's novels, no genesis, no explanations based on the past, on the influences of the environment or of upbringing and so forth. Every act a character commits is in the present, and in this sense is not predetermined; it is conceived of and represented by the author as free. (p.29)
The roots of anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue such a conception lie in The Ik carnival and, according to Bakhtin, in the carnivalised philosophical dialogues that constituted the Menippean Satire. This philosophico-literary genre reaches a new stage in Dostoyevsky's work, where the roots of the novel as a genre stands out particularly clearly. Tame A Wild! One of those roots was the Socratic Dialogue, which was overwhelmed by the monologic Aristotelian treatise, but which continued to lead a subterranean life in the non-canonical minor satirical genres and then became a constitutive element of the novel form and, implicitly, literary modernism. This accounts for process, its philosophical importance. In his last years Bakhtin returned to the methodological questions that had preoccupied his earlier years, though now with a rather different perspective. This began with his work on speech genres in the 1950s, though apart from this study, did not yield any sustained texts until the 1970s. Bakhtin now began to stress the dialogic character of all study in the human sciences, the gloria anzaldua tame a wild fact that one needs to Essay about The Ik deal with another I who can speak for and about his or herself in a fundamentally different way than with an inanimate and voiceless object. To this end he sought to differentiate his position from that of incipient Soviet structuralism, which adopted the abstract objectivist approach to language and the constitution of the subject. Bakhtin's approach to subjectivity is dialogic, referring to the exchange of utterances rather than narrowly linguistic, and this extends to the analysis of texts which are always intertextual, meeting and illuminating each other. Just as texts have genres, definite and relatively stable typical forms of construction of the whole so too does speech. Thus the boundaries between complex genres such as those commonly regarded as literary and other less formalised genres should be seen as porous and flexible, allowing a dialogue of genres as well as styles.
The work of the Bakhtin circle is multifaceted and extremely pertinent to contemporary philosophical concerns. Yet their work moves beyond philosophy narrowly defined to encompass anthropology, literary studies, historiography and political theory. The vicissitudes of intellectual life in the Soviet Union have complicated assessment of the work of the circle, as has the way in which the works have been published and translated in recent years. On top of this, the gloria anzaldua tame a wild works of the group have been read into a theoretical position framed by present-day concerns over poststructuralism and the fate of the subject in modern philosophy. The Southern! A proper historical assessment of the work of the Bakhtin Circle will be much aided by the publication of Bakhtin's Complete Works which will appear over the next few years.
This will hopefully be followed by a harmonised English translation which will facilitate an informed assessment in the English speaking world.
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coursework banks In earlier sections of this course we looked at gloria tame a wild, the critical role that business investment plays in facilitating economic growth. Process. The conclusion was made that additions to the capital stock (investment), in the form of machinery and equipment that assist workers in the production process are the key catalyst for future economic growth. As worker productivity rises, so do output and tame a wild tongue, national income. The essence of process economic systems that rely on capital as the engine of economic growth is the a wild monetary and financial system. Well-operating financial systems facilitate the investment process by Industrialization and the American Mind Essay, making savings readily available for gloria anzaldua a wild businesses to borrow and invest in new capital. What constitutes money?
Today we consider elaborately printed paper with specific numbers to be money. Process. In the past precious metals such as gold and silver commonly served as a monetary unit. In order to be considered money, a commodity (such as gold) or paper ( fiat money ) that represents some tangible value must be accepted by how to a wild tongue, the public. Whatever is considered money must serve several purposes: A medium of exchange. Without money, people would resort to barter to make transactions. Money is a great time-saver in facilitating transactions without a person having to seek another for codes: trade of goods or skills. Anzaldua How To. By serving as a medium of exchange, money is used to purchase goods and services. Campbell's Soup Cans Analysis. Today we commonly use paper or fiat money. Gold has lost its value as money as it does not serve as a medium of exchange.
The next time you wish to buy a major appliance (e.g., a toaster oven), try opening a bag of gold coins at the register. A store of value. Gloria Anzaldua How To A Wild Tongue. We are willing to hold money as long as we know it will retain its purchasing power. Is Divided. Money loses its property as a store of value in times of high inflation, which rapidly erodes the real (purchasing power) value of money. By holding money, we place our trust that the government issuing the currency will not inflate away its value. A unit of account. Money also gives us a way of comparing the relative prices (values) of gloria how to tongue different goods. We will soon discuss the role of the Central Bank in dealing with the economy. Central Banks impact the economy through the money supply.
In the United States there are several measures of the money supply that the The Earth is Divided into Essay Federal Reserve Board can adjust when using active monetary policy. The two most important definitions of money are known as M1 and M2 . M1 is the narrowest definition of money and includes currency and coins, traveler's checks, and checking accounts (demand deposits). M2 gives a broader definition of money and comprises all components of M1, savings and time deposits of less than $100,000, money market mutual funds held by individuals, and how to tongue, Eurodollars (U.S. dollars that are deposited in campbell's soup European banks). M1 and M2, to a lesser extent, share the characteristic of being highly liquid , where liquidity is the term that describes the ease of converting an asset into money. With cash being perfectly liquid, a checking account is nearly so.
When the Federal Reserve changes the money supply, it targets M2. Although there are even broader definitions of money known as M3 and L, we need only how to, concern ourselves with M1 and M2. The basic functions of banks are to collect savings and loan to businesses and consumers. Banks were found in early civilizations, especially in Rome, where banks made loans and exchanged foreign currencies. About Mountain The Ik. The penalty for a wild failing to repay a loan in campbell's soup warhol analysis Rome was severe -people who defaulted on loans became the slaves of their creditor. And if they made poor slaves, they might have been sold off as scrap to the Coliseum as food for the lions. Modern banking originated in anzaldua a wild tongue Renaissance Italy where bankers traded currencies and took in demand (checking) and time (savings) deposits. The most common check of this era was an oral transaction.
Depositors would visit the banker who would sit behind his bench or table. The expression bankruptcy comes from the Italian custom of breaking the bench of Industrialization and the examples a banker who could not return the gloria tame a wild deposits of his creditors. In England, goldsmiths took in their customers' gold and silver for safekeeping. The goldsmiths used a fractional reserve system , lending some out, retaining the rest for the portion of customers who came calling for their deposits. As a record, depositors were given receipts that were transferable to other people (an early checking system), who could collect the newspapers corresponding amount of gold or silver. In colonial America, the first bank was founded in gloria tame a wild 1782 and was known as the Bank of North America. At this time all banks were state chartered and the banking system grew rapidly, although many new banks were unsound and two out of five failed. The founding fathers of the about Mountain People: United States were a suspicious lot when it came to banking matters. Thomas Jefferson considered a standing army and a strong banking system to be the two major threats to a democracy.
As a result, the early U.S. banking system allowed for anzaldua how to tame tongue each state to control the banks chartered within its border. And state banks were allowed to print their own currency. By ensuring a multicurrency banking system, problems resulted in process currency convertibility, especially for transactions that took place across states. In 1791, Alexander Hamilton encouraged Congress to charter the First Bank of the gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue United States, which was the first nationally chartered bank. Part of the goal of the First Bank was to control the excessive issuing of money by state banks. Offending banks would find that the First Bank would refuse to honor their script or be required to redeem their script issues in gold. The early United States had no national currency, which would require some concentration of strength in communications the bank(s) that issued the nation's currency.
After the First Bank's charter expired in 1811, the Second Bank of the United States was chartered in 1816. Never a supporter of concentrated banking and with a dislike for the Second Bank's president, President Andrew Jackson did not renew the how to tame a wild bank's charter, allowing it to expire in The Earth is Divided Biomes Essay 1836. Gloria Anzaldua Tongue. After a period of extremely lax banking regulation, which would not be seen again until the 1980s, the U.S. Civil War necessitated further reform of banking. Wars necessitate significant increases in government expenditures to finance war activities.
To raise money, governments can use some combination of taxes and obtaining loans from its citizens. A sound banking system encourages citizens to save with the black codes: banks, money which the government can easily borrow. In order to raise money and encourage its citizens to gloria anzaldua tame a wild, save with banks, the northern Congress passed the National Currency Act of 1863. This law set up a system of nationally chartered banks that issued the first national currency, the greenback, which became the standard currency for the remainder of the century. At the same time, a significant tax on state bank-issued notes drove other currencies from circulation. A major problem facing the rapidly expanding U.S. Soup Warhol Analysis. economy during the later part of the gloria anzaldua a wild nineteenth and communications process, early part of the twentieth centuries was severe economic business cycles.
The economy went through frequent boom-depression cycles. Many of the how to tame a wild economic downturns were caused by a rapid escalation of the about Mountain People: The Ik interest rate at which people and businesses borrowed. Anzaldua How To. The cycle was often caused during harvest season when grain buyers would take out loans from banks to buy grain from farmers. The sudden acceleration in the demand for money and lending activity would quickly drive up the campbell's soup andy analysis price of money (the interest rate) as the supply of loanable funds (savings) remained relatively constant. Anzaldua How To Tongue. Surging interest rates would crowd out borrowing by the commercial and consumer sectors, leading to a reduction in spending, sometimes causing a recession or depression. A lack of central control of the money supply also caused problems during the financial panics that swept though the financial sector every decade or so.
These panics would cause a wave of bank failures and a severe economic downturn was the consequence. In response to the business cycles caused by scorching interest rates and financial panics, the government decided it needed to be able to increase the money available for banks to loan during periods of high demand, which would help to communications process, maintain stable interest rates, and increase bank liquidity during times of gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue panic withdrawals. Despite strong opposition and fears that a central bank would lead to a banking cartel run by pakistani english, bankers, the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 created the Federal Reserve Board. The Federal Reserve was given the responsibility of gloria anzaldua tame a wild controlling the money supply and stabilizing the financial system. The Structure of the The Earth Biomes Federal Reserve Board (Fed) The headquarters of the Federal Reserve System is located in Washington, D.C. and is known as the Board of Governors. Placed geographically throughout the United States are 12 Federal Reserve banks. Anzaldua How To Tame. Fed policy is made by the politically appointed Fed chairman (currently Alan Greenspan) and the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), comprising the communications process political appointees on the Board of Governors plus 5 of the 12 regional Fed bank presidents.
The FOMC meets eight times a year to discuss and decide the direction of Fed monetary policy. Despite the political nature of important decision-making appointments at the Fed, once in place Fed members are expected to make decisions without significant political pressure. The Fed makes policy choices independent of the executive and anzaldua, legislative branches of the southern government. Although the president and Congress will often voice their displeasure when the Fed is carrying out economic policies with which they disagree, the Fed is free to (and often does) disregard these potential influences. This is part of the checks and balances found in government. Although there is occasional discussion by lawmakers of reeling in the Fed and making it more accountable, Fed independence also provides a convenient outlet for political/economic ineptitude. When the economy goes into the tank, the Fed offers a convenient scapegoat for gloria how to tame a wild the president and Congress on the southern codes: which to focus the gloria anzaldua how to a wild unhappy public's attention (1) . (1) The Fed chairman and six members of the Federal Reserve Board of communications process Governors in Washington D.C. are appointed by the President and anzaldua how to tame, approved by the Senate. To insulate these FOMC members from pakistani short-term political pressures the chairman is appointed for four-year terms and other Board of Governors members are given 14-year memberships (with no limit on renewals). The other members of the FOMC are comprised of the presidents of the 12 regional Federal Reserve banks. Each is chosen by their respective boards of directors and approved by the Board of Governors.
Although most of the regional banks presidents are present at FOMC meetings, only five have a vote on how to Fed policy at any given time. In many ways, it the Fed staff and Chairman that dictate Fed policy by controlling how the economy is warhol, modeled and gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue, analyzed. The conclusions of the forecast of The Earth into Biomes future economic condition are prepared by the Fed staff and presented to the FOMC in the Green Book. The potential consequences of gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue Fed policy on financial and other are outlined to FOMC members in the Blue Book. Arguments in defense of Fed procedures include the need for the Fed staff to create forecasts independent of the cans andy warhol analysis policy views and gloria how to tame, possible biases of the influential FOMC members. Furthermore, each of the twelve regional Fed bank presidents has a sizeable research staff of his or her own which prepare their own independent forecasts that may be introduced into FOMC meetings. In addition it can set a bias of monetary policy towards inflation, recession or a neutral (or no) bias.
The bias is important because it allows the Chair of the Fed to act unilaterally in changing the fed funds rate between FOMC meetings. For example, in late 2000, the the southern black FOMC changed its viewpoint to a bias against how to a wild, an economic slowdown or a recession. This was a result of the weakening economy and the concern that the US might be heading for a recession. By setting the bias against a recession, Fed Chair Alan Greenspan was able to reduce the fed funds rate several times on his own initiative in 2001. In 2002, the FOMC changed the bias to neutral. When the bias is neutral, the black Federal Reserve Chair can no longer act on his own to change the fed funds rate. With a neutral bias, Greenspan must wait for gloria how to a wild the FOMC to met and to vote to change the fed funds rate. It is only when there is a bias against pakistani newspapers, recession or inflation that the Fed Chair can act on his own without the FOMC vote of approval. In this Topic we study monetary policy, which is used by the Fed to influence economic growth and thus unemployment and inflation rates. When the Fed conducts monetary policy, it measures the current and projected future condition of the anzaldua tame a wild tongue economy.
It can follow one of three options: Restrictive , which involves: decreasing the money supply to: raise interest rates, and to The Earth is Divided Essay, slow economic growth. Neutral , the Fed may be happy with the anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue current and projected outlook or may require more evidence before deciding to act. Expansionary , which involves: increasing the money supply to: lower interest rates, and to increase economic growth. The Fed carries out into Biomes Essay its policies through what is known as open market operations , which involves the buying and selling of bonds. The major source of money the anzaldua a wild Fed has at its disposal is from banks in the form of required reserves . The Fed requires all banks and similar financial institutions that operate in The Earth is Divided into Essay the United States to keep 10% (a dime) of every dollar deposited on reserve with the Fed.
Although, this money is a liability from the Fed to anzaldua tame, a bank, the Fed can use this money to conduct open market operations. We will see how this works in the next section. Note that the figure given, 10%, is known as the reserve requirement. During the 1920s, banks were part of the roaring growth in financial markets taking place in the United States. English. Looking for ways to make greater profits, banks actively participated in the stock market. Banks would take in deposits and not only make loans to businesses and gloria anzaldua tame a wild tongue, individuals, but would buy stocks of companies. Furthermore, banks would make loans that used stocks as collateral. With extensive involvement by the banking sector, the stock market soared during the 1920s. Another factor driving the stock market during the 1920s was margin buying by investors.
Buying on the margin required stock purchasers to put down only 10% to 20% of a stock's value, greatly exceeding the number of shares that could be obtained if full cash payment was required. Given the The Earth is Divided into Essay volatility of stock prices, this practice significantly increased the gloria anzaldua a wild tongue risk exposure of investors. Given the frenzy of stock market activity caused by the reckless investing of individuals, businesses, and banks, the stage was set for into Essay the devastating crash of 1929. After a decade of tremendous growth, stock prices plummeted in the fall of gloria anzaldua how to tame 1929. The effects were immediate. Individual investors were required to into, meet their margin requirements and how to a wild tongue, needed to raise cash immediately. They flooded the banks, withdrawing every cent that they could from their accounts. Since the majority of depositors' money had been lent out by the banks, much of it to Essay about The Ik, purchase what was almost equally worthless stocks, the money available in bank vaults was rapidly depleted.
Their funds vaporized, many banks became insolvent overnight and declared bankruptcy. The overall situation in gloria anzaldua how to tongue the fall and winter of 1929 was chaos and black codes:, panic. News of how to a wild tongue bank failures caused depositors to withdraw their money from even well run banks. The run on banks caused the financial system to collapse and the economy soon followed. The United States economy went into the Great Depression, which would last until World War II. One of the major causes of bank failure during the panics of 1929 and the early 1930s was caused by the rapid withdrawal of deposits by nervous savers. Communications. At the time, if a bank failed, depositors who had accounts with the bank risked losing a major portion or even all of gloria how to tame tongue their money. By trying to preempt a bank failure, a sudden rush of withdrawals would seal the fate of a bank, leaving most account holders with large losses. To stop the communications process panic, the Roosevelt administration created the Federal Deposit Insurance Agency (FDIC) in 1933, followed by the FSLIC (for Savings and gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue, Loans) in 1934. The FDIC established a federally guaranteed insurance fund for bank deposits. People were assured that even if a bank failed their deposits would be covered in Essay Mountain People: The Ik full up to a mandated limit (although the limit is seldom enforced).
The FDIC required banks to gloria anzaldua how to tame tongue, pay a small insurance premium based on the value of deposits into process, a fund. Gloria Anzaldua How To Tame. With this government program in place, the panic runs on banks ended and the banking system would remain very stable until the and the American wildcat frenzy of banking deregulation in the 1980s. Please note that the discussion also applies to other depository institutions such as savings and loans, and credit unions, as well as banks. When a customer makes a deposit into his account at a bank, this creates a liability for the bank. A liability describes the bank's obligations, or what it owes to others.
In other words, the bank is liable for the amount of the deposit. On the other side of the coin, the deposit creates an asset for gloria tame a wild tongue the bank. The bank now owns the value of the deposit and will put the money to work, looking for a rate of return that exceeds the The Earth into Biomes Essay interest it pays on anzaldua how to tame the liability. This is the business of banking. By offering savers a return (and/or other services), banks take in the southern deposits (liabilities), which creates assets that a bank can lend out. As long as the gloria how to a wild tongue total return on assets exceeds the payment on liabilities (and other costs of doing business) the The Earth bank is profitable. When a bank receives a deposit, it must keep a portion on reserve with the Federal Reserve (Fed) and pay a deposit insurance premium to anzaldua a wild tongue, the FDIC. At the the southern present time, the Fed's reserve requirement is 10%.
With this in mind, let us use a few balance sheets to demonstrate how banks create money from deposits. Gloria Anzaldua How To Tame. We will see that for about People: every dollar deposited, the money supply increases by a multiple of the amount deposited. Let us first examine the tame tongue balance sheet of Glen Echo Bank. We see in Table 10-1 that the value of total liabilities to Glen Echo equals $100 million. In addition, the bank is required to have its own net worth as a buffer against bad loans and english, insolvency. Net worth is considered the value of the owners (share holders) stake in the bank. In this case, net worth is 3% of total liabilities and equals $3 million, which the bank raised by selling shares of stock to the public.
The bank is obligated to how to tame a wild, hold reserves of 10% of total deposits with the Fed, in this case the amount of required reserves is $10.0 million ($100.0 million in deposits x 0.10). Table 10-1: Glen Echo Bank Balance Sheet (1) Consider a hard-working, thrifty (and rich) person like yourself. Let us assume that you deposit $1 million in your account at Glen Echo Bank. On the balance sheet that follows, Glen Echo now has an additional $1 million liability. Let us assume that the deposit insurance premium has no affect on our analysis, since it is so small. Your deposit also creates an additional $1 million in assets. Of your $1 million deposit, $100,000 (10%) is legally required to be kept as reserves with the Fed.
Table 10-2: Glen Echo Bank Balance Sheet (2) (Add $1.0 million deposit from you) Notice in Table 10-2 what the bank did with your $1 million deposit. $100,000 went to the reserve requirement with the Fed, and the bank lent out the campbell's analysis other $900,000 (loans outstanding increased from $80 million to $80.9 million). For simplicity, let us assume that the entire $900,000 made available by your deposit was borrowed by gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue, one business: Joe-Bob's Rooter. Joe-Bob doesn't borrow the money for fun, he wants to invest in pakistani english newspapers new capital equipment, which will increase the productivity of his workers. Gloria Tame. Joe-Bob wants to invest in a new laser rooter, for which he pays $900,000 to Essay about People:, Sapphire Slick's Laser Emporium. Let us also assume that Sapphire has an account with Glen Echo Bank, where she deposits the $900,000 received from Joe-Bob's purchase. Table 10-3 shows the new balance sheet for Glen Echo Bank after Sapphire's deposit.
Table 10-3: Glen Echo Bank Balance Sheet (3) (Add $0.9 million deposit from Sapphire Slick) Several things have occurred due to Sapphire's deposit of $900,000 in the Glen Echo Bank. Total deposits increased from $101 million to $101.9 million. Required reserves increased by gloria anzaldua how to a wild, $90,000 (= $900,000 x .10). Total required reserves increased from $10.1 million to $10.19 million. The bank was able to lend out the Essay about Mountain People: difference between the deposit ($900,000) and required reserves ($90,000), an gloria anzaldua how to tame amount equal to $810,000. Outstanding loans increased from $80.9 million to $81.71 million ($80.9 + 0.810) As we have shown, after meeting the reserve requirement, Glen Echo Bank loans out all the additional money available. You should be getting the communications process basic idea: your initial deposit has triggered multiple rounds of lending and deposit activity. Things are happening well beyond your initial deposit.
We can complete another round like the previous round, where someone borrows the money, spends it, and the recipient deposits the money in Glen Echo. However, rather than continue the tedious math, we can invoke the anzaldua how to a wild tongue simple money multiplier to summarize our situation. For the purposes of this course, we can define the money multiplier as equal to. which equals to soup cans warhol, one divided by the reserve requirement. While we will work with the simple multiplier, in reality there are a number of leakages from the above scenario that will reduce the value of the multiplier: People may not deposit all of their cash into anzaldua how to tame, the banking system. The Earth Is Divided Into Biomes Essay. Besides the money we keep in our wallets, we may save some of our money outside the depository banking system. Banks may not loan out all potential reserves, choosing to keep excess reserves . Note that in our example we assumed that all deposits end up in the same bank. As long as deposits end up in the domestic banking system the result is the same. The money multiplier will attain the same value as shown in anzaldua how to tame this example, and the overall increase in the money supply will be the same. The Monetary Base and Money Supply.
We leave this section with a look at the determination of the money supply . We begin with the monetary base, which equals: all reserves held by banks and all currency in circulation. The next part of the determination of the money supply is the process of transforming the monetary base into The Ik, the money supply. Through the multiple deposit expansion described above, where money is deposited, loaned, and redeposited into the banking system, the money supply is determined. By definition, the money supply equals:
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convicts book report Friends or foes? Causes and consequences of colonial violence. It's not so black and white. Not a good fence builder. Justice or resistance? Contemporary racism against Indigenous People. How the past shapes the present. Regrets and floggings. Power and morality. Sometimes laws are created to exert a moral code, sometimes to solve a problem and sometimes to help the powerful consolidate their power.
These motivations can all be found in gloria anzaldua a wild, the laws that resulted in Convicts being sent to Australia. By today's standards, the Convicts had only committed trivial offences and in Essay about People: The Ik, the case of political crimes, had in fact showed a social conscience. The serious crimes, such as rape, murder, or impersonating an Egyptian, were usually punished in anzaldua tame a wild, Britain with the death penalty. In Australia, laws were even more strict, or more specifically, authorities were given free rein to make anything they wanted to be a criminal offence. Consequently, Convicts soon discovered that, in Australia, it was against the law to be pregnant, rude, disrespectful, swear, drink, and even have their hands in their pockets.
Because there was a sense of illegitimacy about whether the punishment fitted the crime, many Convicts decided that there was a difference between being a law abiding citizen and being a decent human being. Communications? Such sentiments could be seen in verses of Convict poetry such as: The law locks up the man or woman. Who steals the tame tongue goose from the common. But leaves the greater villain loose. Who steals the english newspapers common from the goose And song verses like. He bade the judge good morning. And he told him to a wild, beware, That he'd never rob a needy man. Or one who acted square, But a judge who'd rob a mother.
Of her one and only joy. Sure, he must be a worse outlaw than. The wild colonial boy. Until 1850s Britain, homosexuality carried the death sentence and people who turned a blind eye or were an accessory to and the American Mind examples, homosexuality risked being transported to Australia. One such man was William Bonill, who was accused of letting two men, James Pratt and John Smith , have sex in gloria tame a wild, his room. Pratt and Smith were executed while Bonill was sentenced to 14 years.
Hyde Park Barracks in Sydney were constructed to house Convict men and boys. Holes were constructed in walls so that guards could watch to ensure Convicts weren't having sex with each other. Homosexuality remained a crime in NSW until 1984. In 1827, a small ship manned by nine Greek sailors robbed a British ship bound for Malta. The Greeks were later caught and brought to trial. In their defence, the Industrialization Mind Essay Greeks argued that, under international law, they had been entitled to intercept and rob a vessel destined for a port occupied by tame a wild tongue Turkey (their enemy.) Initially, the men were sentenced to death, but concern about the validity of the English laws led to seven of the campbell's soup andy warhol men being sent to Australia instead. Machine breakers and swing rioters.
While technology increases production, it also brings with it a human cost. In the anzaldua tame a wild tongue 1830s, the introduction of threshing machines coincided with a series of difficult growing conditions and process, poor harvests. These machines took away the winter employment for ploughmen who were already doing it tough. Threshing machines were soon attacked and a mythical “Captain Swing” started sending threatening letters to gloria anzaldua how to, farmers and manufacturers if the pakistani newspapers machinery wasn’t removed and wages increased. How To? Rioting eventually broke out, with the black codes: troublemakers being tried as “machine breakers” or “swing rioters”. In 1690, Catholic Ireland was conquered by Protestant England.
The English subsequently passed laws that Catholics could not vote, could not enter university, could not be members of Parliament, could not own a gun, could not travel more than five miles from anzaldua tame a wild tongue, home and could not teach in Protestant schools. Before long, three-quarters of the Irish land was owned by the English Protestants who rented it to the Irish farmers. Is Divided Into? If rent was not paid, bailiffs would take anything moveable (such as livestock or furniture) and then evict the how to family. Essay The Ik? To survive, many Irish were forced to a life to crime. Other Irish struggled to anzaldua a wild, realise political change. In March 1798, Ireland was declared to be in a state of insurrection. Mountain People:? Under the Insurrection Act, Magistrates and Military Officers were empowered to gloria anzaldua tame, arrest and is Divided into Biomes, punish, by death or otherwise, according to their discretion, people committing treasonable acts or even suspected of treason. An Indemnity Act protected them from gloria anzaldua, suits for illegal acts committed by them in suppressing a rebellion, so that many thousands were, without any judicial trial or investigation, flogged, tortured, transported or executed.
Sample of Irish Convicts that were transported on the Britannia in 1897. Although records of their sentence exist, for many there is little-to-no records of crimes they were alleged to have commited. This could suggest that they had not commited any crime other than being Irish. In 1804, about 330 of the Irish Convicts launched a full scale insurrection. Although their catch cry was liberty or death, most of the the southern black codes: Convicts got neither. Gloria Anzaldua How To Tame A Wild Tongue? The ring leaders foolishly tried to newspapers, negotiate a deal and were caught. The stunned mob was then fired upon and after 15 minutes of confusion, it fled to the bush. The principle ring leader was hanged almost immediately, eight others shortly followed, four received 500 lashes, thirty were sent to goal gangs and gloria anzaldua how to, another thirty were sent to the southern codes:, Newcastle. The Convicts who ran away surrendered in twos and threes over the next few days.
The Tolpuddle Martyrs were six men from the gloria anzaldua Village of Tolpuddle in England who were transported in 1834 for trying to form a union. They were: George Loveless; James Loveless; Thomas Standfield; John Standfield; James Hammet; James Brine. 1834 print showing demonstration in 1834 against the sentences of transportation imposed on the Tolpuddle Martyrs. Between 35,000 to Industrialization and the American Mind Essay examples, 100,000 people attended the demonstration, and over 200,000 signed for gloria tame a wild tongue the remission of the Martyrs' sentences. Lord Melbourne at the Home Office refused to Essay People:, accept the gloria how to tame petition. The Scottish Martyrs were five men who promoted the ideals of the French revolution: liberty, equality and Essay about, fraternity. As punishment for gloria how to tame promoting these views, they were transported to Australia. They were: Maurice Magarot; Thomas Muir; Thomas Fyshe Palmer; William Skirving; Joseph Gerrald. 2009 Bust of Industrialization and the Mind examples Thomas Muir by Alexader Stoddart. Muir's charges proposed that 1) he said the government was oppressive 2) that he encouraged three people to gloria tame a wild, to buy and read Paine's Rights of Man 3)that he circulated the work of warhol analysis Thomas Paine, A Declaration of Rights, to the friends of reform in Paisley.
Life was difficult for gloria how to tame a wild tongue sailors in the 18th century. They could be flogged without reason, food was scarce and pay almost non-existent. It had been said that 'being a sailor in a ship is Essay about Mountain, being in anzaldua a wild tongue, goal with the chance of pakistani english newspapers being drowned. ' Mutinies were usually dealt with by hangings. Occasionally; however, the mutineers were sent to Australia. Gloria Anzaldua How To A Wild Tongue? One notable mutineer was a surgeon by the name of Dr William Redfern. In 1797, Dr William Redfern took part in a naval mutiny aimed at improving workplace conditions. He was sentenced to the southern black, death as a result. After spending four years in an English jail, he was transported to gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue, New South Wales in 1802.
Redfern became an advocate for the emancipist cause and in 1814 reported to Governor Macquarie on the sanitary problems of the and the American examples Convict transport ships, which led to dramatic improvements in conditions. In 1837, a group of Canadian rebels staged an uprising to achieve reform. 29 were executed and 149 were transported to Australia. The Chartists were a group of about 60 people from tame, Monmouthshire in England who had drawn up a list of changes they wanted made to the political system. The list included the ideas that everyone should be given a vote, that voting should be by ballot and Parliamentary members should be paid. (The system of the codes: time only allowed rich men who didn't have to gloria a wild tongue, earn a living to enter Parliament.) For creating the list, the Chartists were transported to Tasmania. William Cuffay was one of the campbell's warhol most well known chartists. He was the son of a West Indian slave and started agitating for political change in gloria anzaldua, 1834. In 1848, he was charged with “sedition” and Essay The Ik, “levying war” after organising a Chartist rally. He was subsequently sentenced to 21 years transportation. He arrived in Hobart in 1849, but was immediately granted a ticket-of-leave, which allowed him to work. He was pardoned three years later.
Upon receiving his pardon, he started campaigning against anzaldua how to tame the Master and the southern codes:, Servant Act, which aimed to tame a wild tongue, restrict trade unions. He died in 1870 and was honoured with obituaries in numerous Australian newspapers. From 1828 to 1834 South Africa deported many blacks that were not political prisoners, but had transgressed the white South African laws. Often the pickpockets were well organised gangs that targeted social gatherings of the rich and famous. In a crowd, the pickpocket's victim would not feel a hand relieving them of their valuables.
As soon as the item was stolen, it would be passed to an assistant (often an elegantly dressed lady) who would hurry to another part of communications town. Convicts as young as 10 were transported to Australia. Such children had no parents, no homes and a wild, no schools thus took to a life of crime to survive. Other orphans were sent to Australia because business owners wanted them to work in their factories as slaves. Not even children were too young to transport. Mary Wade was just 11 when sentenced to about Mountain, death for the theft of gloria how to a frock. This was communted to transportation to communications, Australia.
She later had 21 children. Some eccentric noblemen from England 's establishment were transported. These included: James Hardy Vaux - An eccentric who despite acknowledging the folly of his ways, found it impossible to resist the gloria anzaldua how to tongue temptation to break the law; Francise Greenway - Short fused architect who rubbed people the wrong way; James Grant- Discharged a weapon in a gentleman's 'duel' after his honour had been tainted; Sir Henry Brown Hayes - A knight and process, sheriff of Cork who kidnapped a lady and forced her to anzaldua tame tongue, marry him. To create a sense of communications permanency about the colony, Governor Macquarie enlisted Convict architect Francise Greenway to gloria, design solid brick constructions. Robert Russel’s Hyde Park Barracks  shows the barracks with the original domed guardhouses, now demolished.
The Convict women were usually reported to have been low-class women, foul mouthed and with loose morals; however, this was not always the case. About The Ik? Often women would commit crimes deliberately to join their husbands in the colony. Punishments for women included an iron collar fastened round the neck or having their heads shaved as a mark of disgrace. Often these punishments were for moral misdemeanours, such as being 'found in the yard of an inn in how to a wild tongue, an indecent posture for process an immoral purpose'. Sometimes women would intentional offend the gloria anzaldua tame tongue authorities by bearing their back sides or name the pakistani english priest when asked who the father was of their child. Convict women were often punished for having poor morality. In 1838, Convict women at gloria anzaldua tongue, the Cascades Female Factory reacted by mooning the visiting governor and the reverend.
In a house of Essay Mountain People: The Ik nobility, if an item went missing or was misplaced, the servant was usually blamed. Convictions were assured even when there was a lack of gloria anzaldua tame tongue evidence. Other servants formed relationships with their masters and communications process, were accused of theft when the master wanted the relationship to end. Ye London maids attend to me. While I relate my misery.
Through London streets I oft have strayed. But now I am a Convict Maid. In all the joy that peace could give. But sin my youthful heart betrayed. And now I am a Convict Maid. To take my master's property. So all my guilt was soon displayed. And I became a Convict Maid. To wait in fear my punishment. When at gloria tame a wild, the bar I stood dismayed. Since doomed to be a Convict Maid.
Which filled with pain my aching breast. To Botany Bay you will be conveyed. For seven years a Convict Maid. While my poor mother loudly cried. My lover wept and thus he said.
May God be with my Convict Maid. I cannot half my grief reveal. No sorrow yet has been portrayed. Like that of the poor Convict Maid. My punishment is most severe.
My woe is pakistani english, great and I'm afraid. That I shall die a Convict Maid. And sleepless through the night remain. My constant toils are unrepaid. And wretched is the Convict Maid. I'd never again a captive be. But I would seek some honest trade. And never become a Convict Maid. Nearly 25,000 women were transported to Australia as convicts, half of them from anzaldua tame a wild tongue, Ireland. The Convict Maid became a popular folk song.
Aborigines became Convicts for either defending their home or cultural misunderstandings. Warriors such as Yagan, Pelmulwuy and Musquito were outlawed for enforcing the laws of their culture. Yagan and Pelmulwuy were eventually beheaded whilst Musquito was transported to Tasmania where he again made trouble and was then executed. Other Aborigines came before the law due to pakistani english, cultural misunderstandings. In nomadic societies, there was no concept of individual possession; rather, what was owned by gloria anzaldua how to a wild tongue friends was owned by all. Communications Process? Consequently, the Aborigines frequently walked off with any European item that held their interest.
Subsequently, many officials found it ironic that they had established a penal colony amongst the greatest thieves on earth. Aborigines ended up in chains for various reasons. Anzaldua How To A Wild Tongue? One reason was offence at the presence of the English. As the about Convict J.F Mortlock wrote in 1864, I sympathized with a few unfortunate aborigines, transported hither from New South Wales, for resenting the intrusion and aggression of the anzaldua how to a wild tongue English. They were usually chained by the neck like dogs. Cans Warhol? Ironically, this was because authorities considered it to be more humane. Gloria Tame A Wild? As stated by the Sydney Morning Herald in 1907, “In his annual report on his department for the southern the year ending Juno last, Mr. H. C. Frinco, Chief Protector of Aborigines, states on the question of the gloria anzaldua how to tame a wild tongue neck chaining of soup cans andy warhol native prisoners, that the following report has been sent to the Secretary of State:-With regard to the neck chaining of gloria anzaldua tame a wild native prisoners it has been conclusively proved by all medical and other evidence that this method is most humane, and after full consideration the Government has approved of campbell's soup andy analysis its continuance.
The following is the list of crimes that was punishable by transportation to Australia 1.) All theft above the value of one shilling.2.) Thefts under the value one shilling. Anzaldua How To? 3.) Receiving stolen goods, jewels and plate. 4.) Stealing lead, iron or copper. 5.) Stealing ore from black lead mines. 6.) Stealing from furnished lodgings. 7.) Setting fire to underwood. 8.) Stealing letters.9.) Assault with intent to process, rob.
10.) Stealing fish from a pond or river. 11.) Stealing roots, trees or plants. 12.) Bigamy. 13.) Assaulting, cutting or burning clothes. 14.) Counterfeiting the copper coin. 15.) Clandestine marriage. Gloria How To Tongue? 16.) Stealing a shroud from a grave. Newspapers? 17.) Watermen carrying too many passengers on the Thames , if any drowned.
18.) Incorrigible rogues who broke out of prison and persons reprieved from capital punishment. 19.) Embeuling naval stores.