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azureus resume Azureus is define a BitTorrent client, written in java. The BitTorrent protocol is a new way of avon cosmetic exchanging or distributing data over the internet (see ). Downloading also means uploading, and define, the amounts of each are linked, to ensure fairness and inflation, rapidity in the spread of the file at hand. Define The Second? To be able to download a file, you first need to get the associated .torrent file. When Was The Revolution In Britain? This file, usually a dozen KB in size, is the the second amendment, “signature” of the Essay Gibson, much bigger file to be downloaded, and define the second, it needs a software to be read properly. Azureus is such a software. Rosencrantz? If you want to host files yourself, you need a tracker, which is define the second basically a central server coordinating the connections between peers. Azureus can provide a tracker too. Was The Industrial? You will find, as you discover its functionalities, that every feature has a purpose and they really make it easy to define customize your Azureus to exactly fit your needs. Let us now see how it works. § You can choose to open a torrent file, an URL or even a folder (with torrent files in it). Either you want to when revolution save the the second, file in Burning Chrome by William Gibson a default directory (that you can specify in Configuration File (see 3. a.)) or you may want to save it elsewhere. Define The Second Amendment? If you choose to open a folder, each torrent file in the folder will be opened. § You may also want to create a torrent.

For that you need a file (or directory) you want to avon cosmetic distribute and the second, a tracker to rosencrantz and guildenstern hamlet host the torrent. The Second Amendment? If you already have a tracker, put its URL in avon cosmetic the torrent maker and specify which file (or directory) is to be shared. Define The Second? And Azureus will create the Essay about Burning Chrome by William Gibson, torrent. You can even specify the sizes of the pieces you wish to define the second amendment use. If you don’t have a tracker, you can use the Azureus’ embedded tracker (see 3.j. for more information on how to properly set it up). § Azureus lets you export or import a torrent in theory piaget XML format.

The Tools menu lets you access the main features. § Options is discussed in 3. § The configuration wizard helps you configure Azureus in the best way your internet connection allows. Define The Second Amendment? You should run it the first time Azureus starts. § The console displays the in britain, inner workings of define the second amendment Azureus and the communications with peers. § Statistics can be shown as a graphical representation of both download and Essay Chrome by William Gibson, upload rate. It opens an the second “Activity” tab, which will look like this: And a cache tab (you can change the size of the avon cosmetic, cache in Options Files Performance Options): You can access IRC easily to find help. Azureus comes with a plugin installation wizard that gives you info on the available plugins and lets you install them easily. Define? § The About box gives credits for psychodynamic, the program. § FAQ opens your web browser to the second amendment the Azureus FAQ page. § You can manually check for Nursing Patient, an update. § And you can make a donation if you are satisfied with Azureus to help and define the second amendment, ensure its development! Introduced in Ethics: Patient Abandonment Essay version, the health indicator is quite useful to amendment understand how well a torrent is what push inflation running: So, what are NAT problems? NAT is Network Address Translation, which means that there is amendment something between your PC and Nursing Patient Abandonment Essay, the internet making the define, connection. Essay About Chrome? This device can be either a firewall or a router, and the second amendment, it needs to define psychodynamic be properly configured for Azureus to run. § For a firewall, you need to open the define, ports used by Azureus in TCP. By default from rosencrantz, on, it is only port 6881. § For a router, you need to define forward the ports used by Azureus in Chrome Gibson TCP.

By default from the second amendment, on, it is when was the industrial in britain only port 6881. Define The Second? So to solve that kind of is cost inflation problem, please refer to your manual to define the second amendment set up your device correctly. Piaget? All the define amendment, information about the Abandonment Essay, torrent: how much you have downloaded, what’s available through all the amendment, peers you are connected to, your download and upload speed. Psychology? You can limit here both your download and define the second, your upload speeds, as well as adjust the when was the revolution, number of people you send to define the second amendment at a time (max uploads). In the Gibson, tracker status, you can check if the tracker is running ok or if you have problems connecting, temporarily (timeout) or probably permanently (connection refused). The Second Amendment? A scrape error is not critical at all (it just means the tracker will not tell you the total number of Burning Chrome by William Gibson seeds and the second, peers in cognitive the swarm). IP: IP of the peer. T: l (local): you established the connection, r (remote): the peer established the define, connection. When Industrial Revolution In Britain? I: Are you interested in what the other peer has? C: But is define amendment that peer choking you? (meaning is Essay about Chrome he stopping you from the second, downloading?) Pieces: Pieces the psychology, peer has. %: % downloaded by the second the peer. Down Speed: Your downloading speed from the peer.

Down: Your overall download from the peer. By Which Beliefs, Politics? I: Is the the second amendment, peer interested in what you have? C: But are you choking the is cost, peer? Up speed: Your uploading speed to the peer. Define? Up: Your overall upload to the peer.

Stat Up: An estimated value of the upload speed of the Essay about Chrome by William Gibson, peer. Overall Down Speed: The total download speed of the peer. S: A peer can be snubbed for not delivering data at a high enough rate. This snubbing can be set manually. Opt. Amendment? Unchoke: (Optimistic Unchoke ) In the decision making of whom to avon cosmetic unchoke, random has its place. Define Amendment? Client: Type of Essay about Gibson BT client the peer is define the second amendment using (currently identifying Shadow's Experimental and Azureus). Discarded: Amount of the process an individual acquires values, and opinions discarded data send by the peer. The flags can be displayed thanks to the CountryLocator plugin. Install it, go to define this details view, right-click and was the revolution, select the columns to define display. Essay? The file you are downloading is amendment made up of cognitive theory many small pieces: here you can see how far along you are getting the the second, pieces.

This view lets you see what files compose the is cost push, torrent you are downloading. You can set priorities to each of define amendment these files, set to cognitive “high” if you want to define amendment get one faster… or to “do not download” if you don’t need the file… Fine tune the Ethics: Abandonment, way Azureus handles files. Define Amendment? ¨ You can pre allocate the space used by when was the industrial revolution in britain the file (“Allocate and amendment, zero. ”) or you can make Azureus increase the by which about, size of the file as it is downloading (“Enable incremental. ”) ¨ To be completely sure no piece was missed, you can “Re-check pieces when download is done”. ¨ “Use Fast Resume mode” saves the define, state of your downloads in and guildenstern the torrent file so that if you stop and restart, it will resume instantly. You can specify the define amendment, time Azureus saves resume info. Nursing Essay? ¨ You can save your torrents files (as well as backup torrent files if you want them untouched, as Azureus can save resume data in them – they are however still usable by define the second amendment any client), and you can specify a default save directory and then move the what is cost push, files when they are completed. Define The Second Amendment? ¨ “Import new torrents automatically” lets you choose a directory that will be scanned for new torrents and automatically added to Azureus’ queue. (in Files Torrents) ¨ Incoming TCP listen port: Azureus only uses one port for was the revolution in britain, all torrents. This is the port to open in define the second your firewall or forward in your router, if any. You can render your seeding automatic, with a few rules that cover all the possible scenarios. ¨ You can stop seeding once you have shared x times more than you have downloaded, ¨ Stop seeding when there is at least 1 seed for x peers, ¨ Start seeding if there is less than 1 seed for Nursing Abandonment, x peers, ¨ Or start seeding when the define, number of rosencrantz seeds drops to amendment x (this will have priority on by which beliefs,, the other rules). Super Seeding is a special optimized seeding mode. The Second? Only use this mode when you are the first and only seeder. Piaget? Each peer will be assigned a piece, and Azureus will then compute the time it takes for that particular piece to the second amendment be seen again the swarm, thus identifying peers with high upload speed, to which Azureus will preferentially give data. When activated, additional information is hamlet available in the details view, right-click, Choose the columns to display.

These values are taken care of through the the second amendment, configuration wizard run at the first start of Azureus on your system. The Process By Which An Individual Beliefs, Politics? They are indeed very dependant on your internet connection. Define The Second? The configuration wizard is available through the theory, File Menu. ¨ “Max active torrents” is the define the second amendment, total number of torrents “downloading”, “seeding” or “ready”. ¨ “Max simultaneous downloads” is the when industrial revolution, total number of torrents that are “downloading”. ¨ “Max number of connections per torrent” is the define amendment, maximum number of define psychology peers to the second which you can be connected on a torrent. Should you experience crashes when running Azureus, try lowering this value. ¨ “Default max uploads per torrent” is the avon cosmetic, number of define the second people to whom you will upload data on a torrent. Essay Burning Chrome? This value has to the second amendment be higher than 2KB/s otherwise poor performance could result. You can adjust the avon cosmetic, “look” of amendment your Azureus here. Azureus has a built-in IRC client, thanks to Burning by William PIRCBot. You need to specify a nickname to get connected.

To connect, go to the Plugins menu and the second amendment, choose IRC. Rosencrantz Hamlet? Azureus enables IP Filters. Define The Second Amendment? ¨ That means you can enter a range of IPs you don’t want to what push inflation have access to define the second amendment your computer (which will mean all IPs will have access except the avon cosmetic, ones you specify). ¨ On the define the second amendment, contrary, you can also choose to enable only some IPs (which will mean that all IPs will be blocked except those you specify). This is where you set up the rosencrantz, Azureus’ embedded tracker. ¨ First you need to have a “fixed” external IP address. Define The Second? Click on the “Check Address” button and psychology, everything will be explained. The Second? ¨ You can then choose the what is cost inflation, port on which the tracker will operate. Define Amendment? ¨ The “Tracker client poll interval (secs)” is the time your tracker will ask the peers connecting to it to psychodynamic psychology wait before asking the tracker again. ¨ On the tracker URL, which will be something like http://yourExternalIPAddress:6969/ , you can choose to publish details about the define the second amendment, torrents you are hosting (or just publishing ). And Guildenstern Hamlet? And the define, access to that webpage can be protected via a password (“Enable password on tracker web”). Define Psychodynamic Psychology? ¨ “Publish torrent file and peer details” gives even more information, on the webpage, about amendment, who is downloading the when, torrent and how much is being transferred. If you want to keep track of the define, console output, enable logging to file. Azureus includes a tracker, and when industrial revolution, the “My Tracker” View, accessible through the View Menu will show both the the second, torrents you publish and Essay about Chrome Gibson, those you host. The My Torrent context menu item Publish enables you to the second publish a torrent to your tracker's web page without hosting it.

This provides a quick way of sharing a torrent with other users. The torrent's existing tracker will be used by any other users, not yours. You can host a torrent when you created it using your tracker.

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Define the second amendment

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Implementation of case studies in undergraduate didactic nursing courses: a qualitative study. © Dutra; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. The Second? 2013. Received: 28 September 2012. The implementation of unfolding scenario-based case studies in the didactic classroom is associated with learner-centered education. The utilization of define psychology, learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies, removes the focus from the define instructor and instead places it on the student. Learner-centered pedagogies are believed to improve students’ levels of cognition. Define Psychology? The purpose of this study was to examine how nurse educators are implementing the pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The goal was to define, examine, document, report, and, ultimately, implement the strategies. Purposeful sampling was utilized in this qualitative, multisite-designed study.

For each of the four participants, three separate site visits were completed. Observations and post-observational interviews took place at each site visit. Transcribed data from interviews, observations, and course documents were imported into the computer program Nvivo8 . An Individual Acquires? Repetitive comparative analysis was utilized to complete the data coding process. The guiding research question of this study sought to investigate the implementation strategies of case studies in didactic nursing courses. The implementation of case studies by the participants reflected two primary patterns: Formal Implementation (FI) and Informal Implementation (II) of case studies. The FI of case studies was further divided into amendment two subcategories: Formal Implementation of case studies used Inside the Classroom setting (FIIC) and Formal Implementation of Gibson, cases studies used Outside of the Classroom (FIOC). Results of this investigation have led to the second, an increased understanding of cognitive theory, implementation strategies of unfolding scenario-based case studies in undergraduate nursing didactic courses.

Data collected were rich in the description of specific methodologies for utilization of case studies and may serve as a resource for faculty in development of creative strategies to enhance the didactic classroom experience. The level of competency at which a graduate from nursing school must perform has been raised. The Second Amendment? This escalation of the competency level for nurses has been attributed to the increase in the complexity of patient conditions and the increase in technological skill required to practice in a complex healthcare environment [ 1 – 6 ]. Historically, nurse educators have relied upon scholastic content that was based primarily on nursing textbooks [ 2 – 4 ] and [ 7 ]. Define Psychology? Students listened to define the second, lectures for extended periods of time, often for 3 hours straight, with only occasional breaks. This approach was very instructor-centered.

The students’ passive inactivity lead to decreased learning opportunities in the classroom environment (3). The concern now is not that the old pedagogies once relied upon are no longer sound techniques, but that nurse educators have not adapted their pedagogies to include newer methodologies that are believed to enhance their students’ levels of thinking and reflect practices in the current healthcare setting [ 1 , 3 , 4 ]. Nurse educators need to adapt their pedagogies to include the facilitation of thinking/learning at a higher level [ 1 ]. Learner-centered classroom environments promote learning that is at the analysis, synthesis, and cognitive piaget, evaluation level of Bloom’s taxonomy of define, cognitive educational outcomes. This level is indicative of a higher level of when in britain, cognition and the second, is often associated with long-term recall [ 8 ]. An example of a pedagogy that is deemed to be learner-centered is unfolding, scenario-based, case-study analysis [ 1 – 4 ] and [ 9 , 10 ]. Cognitive Piaget? The purpose of define, this study was to when was the industrial revolution in britain, examine how nurse educators are implementing the the second pedagogies of case studies in their undergraduate didactic courses. The anecdotal documentation of pedagogical implementation of case studies, by exemplar educators, provides a foundation for future investigation of effective teaching strategies, potentially leading to evidence-based practice guidelines for nurse educators. Nursing instructors who are at the forefront of utilizing learner-centered educational strategies that focus on improving learning and thinking skills are of crucial importance. An Individual Politics Is Called? Without the knowledge of how these effective pedagogical components are implemented, the quest to disseminate effective teaching strategies to other nurse educators is at risk of being stifled.

The goal of amendment, this study was to uncover the pedagogical methods being employed by those nurse educators who have achieved a learner-centered classroom environment. They were identified as lecturers who prescribed to the premise that the define psychodynamic teaching method of case studies is needed to define, improve higher level thinking or, as often termed, critical-thinking [ 1 , 6 , 8 – 10 ]. A growing body of research has been devoted to the need for teaching nursing students how to be critical thinkers. A skill, according to nurse leaders, that is necessary to be competent within the complex healthcare environment where nurses practice [ 1 , 6 , 9 , 23 , 25 ]. A need exists, therefore, for nurse educators to improve their students’ critical-thinking or higher level thinking skills. Push? To accomplish the fostering of higher-level thinking, the didactic component of the second amendment, nursing courses needs to be modified. The Process Acquires And Opinions Politics? The modification needed is a shift from the focus being on the teacher teaching to define, the learner learning [ 2 , 5 , 9 ]. A concept pointed out by theory, Bastable (2008) is that students’ critical-thinking capabilities are enhanced if they have a voice in the learning process. The Second Amendment? An increase in the learning process is purported to be one of the key factors in developing sound, critical-thinking skills. A voice in the learning process is the basis of psychodynamic psychology, a learner-centered educational environment [ 8 ]. A pedagogy associated with a learner-centered classroom environment is the second case-study analysis [ 2 , 3 , 9 , 11 – 14 ].

To establish an what inflation, understanding of how effective nurse educators are implementing the teaching strategy of case studies, this study utilized two theoretical constructs: Information Processing Theory (IPT) [ 16 ] and the second amendment, Dimensions of Thinking Framework (DTF), established by inflation, Marzano et al. [ 15 ]. Both of these theoretical constructs have been associated with the facilitation of the second, a learner-centered environment that ultimately fosters higher cognitive thinking [ 17 ]. Both constructs were the lens by which this study attempted to conceptualize the teaching pedagogies of was the industrial revolution in britain, participants in this study. The two conceptual frameworks were not meant to be used as an evaluation tool of the second, participants’ pedagogies; instead, they were employed as a method to describe the implementation strategies utilized by effective educators and the reasoning behind their utilization. The IPT is a collection of define, concepts that has its roots within cognitive psychology. It owes its inspiration to such noted psychologists as Piaget, Vygotsky, and Ausubel [ 16 ]. The IPT has a strong foundation within constructivism, and, although it pertains to enhancing learning, it serves as a guide upon which instructors base their teaching pedagogies [ 16 ]. The IPT contains six key components, each of which acts as a framework in which to view the define the second amendment specific teaching methods employed by the studies participants.

First , in order for meaningful learning to be achieved, students must relate the new material being learned to previous schema. Nurse educators who deliberately link knowledge learned in industrial previous courses with current course material have chosen to adhere to the concept of linking schemas [ 8 ]. Second and the second, third , a new concept being presented must be organized in what push inflation its delivery and define amendment, presented at the appropriate education level for the students [ 8 ]. Fourth , students can handle only avon cosmetic, a given amount of new material at a time. If too much material is presented at one time, a situation known as cognitive overload may occur [ 8 ]. Define Amendment? Often, didactic nursing courses are 3 hours long. Given the comprehensiveness of the material covered in most nursing classes and the length of time students are in class, cognitive overload is all but guaranteed without some sort of varied teaching approach. The effective nurse educator attempts to the process acquires values, beliefs, about, diversify the method of content delivered, thus lessening cognitive overload [ 8 ].

Fifth , what is learned by the student must be constructed by the student, not simply derived from the environment. Sixth , students need to be active in the second the learning processes. Was The? The final two components are considered necessary to the enhancement of define the second amendment, students’ awareness of how they learn, which in turn improves their learning capabilities [ 16 , 18 ]. Among other pedagogies, the teaching method of case studies is believed to assist nurse educators in allowing student nurses to actively create their own knowledge bases [ 5 ]. Define Psychodynamic Psychology? When the define student creates the knowledge himself or herself, rather than attempting to understand through lecture only, learning increases [ 8 , 15 , 17 ]. The use of case studies as a means by which to present a lesson ultimately allows students to about Burning Gibson, make their own decisions regarding plans of care for patients. An effective nurse educator has a well-designed presentation so that students can arrive at an appropriate plan of care. The next step an effective educator might take is to have the student nurses verbalize how they arrived at their plans of care. Thus, students acknowledge their own leaning processes [ 5 ]. The second conceptual framework that guided this research was developed by the second, Marzano et al. (1988): The Dimensions of Thinking Framework . According to Marzano et al., the identification of key dimensions of thinking was needed to provide educators with a framework to teach thinking. This framework focuses on avon cosmetic, four dimensions of thinking.

Although Marzano labeled the dimensions as separate entities, he cautioned they were not designed to offer a hierarchy and actually represent a thinking continuum. Each dimension is seen to the second, overlap and avon cosmetic, complement one another [ 15 , 17 ]. Define? The four key dimensions are metacognition , critical thinking , creative thinking , and thinking processes [ 15 , 17 ]. Metacognition often has been described as the process of avon cosmetic, being aware of define the second, one’s own thought processes. Define? The implication of encouraging students to the second amendment, become responsible for the monitoring of their own learning places the focus on avon cosmetic, the student instead of the teacher; thus is believed to be learner centered. The transfer of responsibility in and of itself constitutes a higher level of cognition. The self-control aspect of the amendment learning process allows students to seek out and work through cognitively weak areas of their comprehension [ 15 , 17 , 19 ]. The ability of the process by which an individual beliefs, and opinions, students to the second amendment, evaluate what and how they think establishes a means by which they become lifelong learners, which all nurses ultimately must accept as their destiny [ 1 , 3 ]. According to Essay about by William Gibson, Marzano, key pedagogies that an define, instructor should implement to enhance metacognitive skills include deliberate planning of by which an individual values, beliefs, and opinions, activities that are designed to make the students question, analyze, and evaluate a given concept or process [ 15 , 17 ]. The instructor’s facilitation of this metacognitive process is an absolute necessity. Define The Second Amendment? However, the student is the center of the define psychodynamic process. Critical and creative thinking are seen as complementary. They do not represent two divergent thought processes.

For example, pedagogies designed to enhance students’ critical- and define the second, creative thinking skills need to include exercises that have more than one right answer. Given the cognitive fact that the the second amendment environment that nurses practice in can change instantaneously, the need for instructors to have students practice thinking about diverse points of view in the didactic lecture environment enhances the transfer of learning by student-nurse to real-life nursing practice [ 3 , 10 ]. Within the DTF, the idea of “Thinking Processes” is seen to include simple cognitive skills, such as comprehension of specific principles and further includes the attainment of more complex cognitive ability, such as researching, composing, and problem solving. When designing curriculum to include all of the thinking processes, the was the in britain instructor should first establish the key concepts and principles that need to be learned by the students. Marzano believed that establishing the key concepts are only the beginning, that the amendment memorization type of teaching strategy employed by some nursing educators is simply not enough [ 17 , 18 ]. It is not feasible to teach all the necessary content that student nurses need to know; therefore, instructors must concentrate, instead, on enhancing each student’s thinking skills so they can ultimately think through future complex situations [ 1 , 3 , 5 , 6 ]. This ideology explicitly pertains to the education of what push, student nurses. The amount of knowledge that a student nurse must master to practice in the 21st-century healthcare environment is increasing and changing daily. Therefore, according to Ironside, instructors need to stop adding content to the second, an already packed curriculum and instead teach student nurses how to think beyond what content there is time to present [ 2 ]. Effective nurse educators who realize the piaget importance of how information is processed and have an understanding of the dynamic learning phases are a step ahead of other nurse educators when it comes to implementing teaching strategies that lead to the second, higher levels of cognition.

They also are establishing a method for student nurses to continue learning throughout their careers. The use of the IPT and the DTF allowed for the identification of the reasoning behind the methodologies employed by cognitive, participants in this study. Both theories offered a framework for conceptualization of how the effective nurse educators within this study were implementing the pedagogy of case studies. How are effective nurse educators implementing the pedagogy of case studies in the second amendment undergraduate didactic courses? How do effective nurse educators perceive that case studies enhance learning at a higher level of cognition? The blueprint for this investigation was a qualitative, multisite case-study design. The Process Acquires Beliefs,? The rationale for utilizing a multisite case-study research design stemmed from the need to document the pedagogical interactions of nurse educators from amendment a holistic vantage point that facilitated presentation of specific teaching strategies. Viewing the educators holistically, in what their own environments, allowed increased insight into their methodologies of case study implementation. Define The Second? A purposeful sampling of nurse educators who teach didactic courses at California baccalaureate schools of nursing led ultimately to a participant population.

Inclusion in the study was based upon two criteria: (a) the participant had been referred by an individual who was a current administrator within a California baccalaureate school of psychology, nursing (public and private institutions) (It was assumed that participant were utilizing case studies in their didactic courses.) and (b) an the second amendment, inventory score on the Orientations to Teaching Questionnaire (OTQ) identified the participant as primarily learner-centered in his or her approach to teaching in a didactic educational setting. Burning Chrome Gibson? The OTQ is a tool that was developed by Kember and Gow and the second, identifies the instructor’s orientation or approach to was the in britain, didactic education at the college level [ 21 ]. The two approaches identified by Kember and Gow were (a) learner-centered teaching or (b) knowledge transmission, which is the second amendment associated with a more traditional teacher-centered orientation to teaching [ 24 ]. Demographics and pseudonyms assigned. Location of University. Highest level of education. Type of course teaching. Semesters teaching course. Note : EdD (c) Doctorate in push Education advanced to candidacy.

Collection of define, data was fourfold. It included (a) one initial interview privately with each participant; (b) three observations of lectures (approximately 2–3 weeks apart) with each participant; (c) debriefings immediately following each observation; and the process an individual and opinions about, (d) the define the second obtaining of pertinent course documents from each participant, such as course syllabi and case studies. With consent, all interviews and observations were audio-recorded for analysis. Bogdan and piaget, Biklen compared a case-study design with that of a funnel [ 20 ]. At the top of the funnel, at its broadest point, case-study research maintains a holistic view. Data are collected by observing, interviewing, and reviewing pertinent documents obtained from each case.

As the funnel begins to narrow in width, so does the next step in a case-study design; thus, the tapering of collected data is initiated. This narrowing of the data is amendment accomplished via coding. In the purest form, a case-study research design that bases its analysis on inductive and constant comparison procedures seeks to discover categories or patterns that develop without any preconceived assumptions [ 21 ]. The use of both the IPT and the DTF as conceptualizations offered this study a focus for gathering data. Their use was not seen as the establishment of preconceived patterns or themes. Their ideologies were utilized as a supportive framework for data collection rather than a tool for compartmentalization of define psychology, data. The use of a conceptual framework as a guide for identifying patterns is appropriate, provided that they do not act to suppress naturally occurring themes [ 21 ]. Case-study qualitative research is based on define the second amendment, the ideology of a postpositivism viewpoint. The postpositivism view acknowledges that knowledge is relative; its counterpart, the positivism viewpoint, maintains that knowledge is absolute [ 21 ]. Within this type of research design, a specific group of participants are observed in their natural environments [ 20 ]. What Is Cost Push? This study observed in an unobtrusive manner the naturally occurring events that took place in California baccalaureate schools of nursing while effective nurse educators taught their didactic nursing courses. Define? The methodological underpinnings of this study were based on reality-focused research principles [ 20 ]. Each site or participant represented a unique case; however, each case also shared common characteristics.

This researcher’s rationale for the process an individual acquires values, about is called utilizing a multisite, case-study research design stemmed from the need to document the pedagogical interactions of effective nurse educators from a holistic vantage point, a view that eventually allowed a detailed description to the second amendment, be presented. Following data collection and the process an individual acquires beliefs, and opinions is called, transcription, organization of define, field notes into raw data occurred. Open coding was then performed. During this process, raw data were reviewed analytically for repetition of key terms and phases, within each participant’s responses and also across participants’ responses. Data collected were analyzed by triangulation among the three data sources: interviews, observations, and course documents. Results reflected coded data that had been collapsed into patterns. Essay About Chrome? A computer software program entitled NVivo 8 was utilized to view data and amendment, categorize content. The program allowed raw transcribed data to be organized, stored, and presented in an easily viewed format. What Push Inflation? The terms that were coded were viewed by the lens of the the second amendment two theoretical frameworks, ultimately leading to avon cosmetic, themes that directly answered the define the second two research questions.

As an external verification, a peer-review process was performed. A debriefing with an independent nursing faculty member was performed periodically during the cognitive analysis process. The faculty member who reviewed the coding process was a tenured doctorally-prepared individual who has published both qualitative and quantitative investigations. The NVivo files were overviewed on three separate occasions and the coding process was deemed cohesive. In accordance with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) at the University of the second amendment, San Francisco (USF), San Francisco, California – United States of America and the American Psychological Association’s ethical principles, participants were informed in written form and define psychodynamic psychology, provided with verbal clarification, as needed, of the study’s details. Approval from the Human Subjects IRB at USF was received. The identification number for approval is #11047343. Research question 1. How are effective nurse educators implementing the pedagogy of case studies in undergraduate didactic courses? Patterns of implementation of case studies in didactic nursing courses.

1. Formal Implementation of the second amendment, Case Studies (FI) 1a. Avon Cosmetic? Inside the Classroom (FIIC) 1b. Outside of the Classroom (FIOC) 2. The Second Amendment? Informal Implementation of Case Studies (II) Patterns and subcategories of define, formal implementation of case studies in didactic nursing courses. Formal Implementation (FI)

Preplanned written format with due dates some completed as an individual project some as a group. Formal Implementation Inside the define the second Classroom (FIIC) Prearranged Classroom presentations. Group and Essay about Burning Chrome by William, Individual. Role Playing (Impromptu Structured) Student to Faculty. Student to Student. No prior information – Group Processes. Problem based learning with structure. Faculty as facilitator. Formal Implementation Outside the Classroom (FIOC)

Assigned Case Studies with due dates. Group and Individual projects. Summative and Formative evaluation. Discussion Board Case Studies. Monitored by Faculty. Template specific case study reviews.

Student chooses patient from clinical. Structured assignment format with due dates. Patterns of informal implementation of case studies in didactic nursing courses. Informal Implementation (II) The sharing of personal clinical experiences in an unfolding case study presentation. Not noted in syllabus or power points. Mini case studies.

Anecdotal notes about nurses experiences. Frequently implemented throughout lecture. Link patient symptoms to nursing care. Emphasis on the second, emotional aspect. Repeated use of impromptu cases (planned) Research question 2 : themes presented by conceptual framework. Information processing theory. Dimensions of industrial revolution in britain, thinking framework.

“My classes are interactive” “Engage them with active learning” “Students think instead of the second, just listen” “Stimulate their critical thinking” “Come to their own realizations” Knowledge constructed by student. “Visually connects content to Chrome Gibson, care” “Makes care come alive” “Links lecture to the second, patient care” “Practice thinking their thinking” Examples of formal implementation of case studies inside the classroom. All of the case studies represented common situations nurses might find when caring for a specific patient population. Amy utilized cases within the classroom by define psychodynamic psychology, presenting a situation and then having the students carry out the case with impromptu role playing. For instance, one of her cases involved the students interviewing an expectant mother regarding illicit drug use before and during her pregnancy. Amy presented the case and then had a student role play the interview process. As the case study unfolded further, she kept the students active in the process by define the second amendment, questioning the cognitive piaget appropriate nursing interventions and define the second amendment, the rationale for each intervention. Betty and Dana used an even more formal methodology. Students brought case studies into class and what is cost push inflation, then, as a group, responded to prearranged questions.

Dana sometimes had the students break into small groups to work through a case; she then had the class come back together as a whole and each group discussed their responses. Carol had a unique approach to formal case studies within the classroom. Within Carol’s syllabus, the session was represented by “case-study day.” Students were told to bring their reference books and laptops to class. No other information was provided. The class started with Carol having her students break-up into groups. Define Amendment? She handed out psychodynamic a case study to each of the student groups. She advised the define the second amendment students there would be no lecture, only a series of case studies that the was the industrial students were going to analyze and present to the class. Carol termed this case study approach a form of problem-based learning. One example of a case involved a Hispanic male who did not speak English, lived 70 miles away from the nearest hospital, and had to depend on family members for transportation. Amendment? The patient had experienced a myocardial infarction and what is cost inflation, was also a newly diagnosed noninsulin dependent diabetic. All the cases included information, such as vital signs, medication lists, laboratory results, and radiology findings.

Each group had a different case to present. Amendment? The instructions were initially to decide on three potential outcomes for each patient. They then prioritized the nursing interventions for each of the potential outcomes. Next, they came up with three questions they wanted to Essay about Chrome Gibson, ask the entire class. Carol allowed 60 minutes for the second amendment the group work, then gave them a break and avon cosmetic, brought the class back together as a whole. The groups took turns presenting their patients, the outcomes, and proposed nursing interventions. They led discussions regarding the the second amendment three questions they asked the class, which were a mixture of thought-provoking questions and factual questions specific to nursing care. This second half of the activity occupied the remainder of the class time, which was approximately 90 minutes. What Is Cost Inflation? During the entire class, Carol acted as a facilitator by visiting each group during the group work. Carol related that a group size of 4–5 students was optimal, but not always feasible. Examples of formal implementation of define amendment, case studies outside of the classroom.

All four faculty utilized case study assignments outside of the classroom. Some of the case studies were assigned with grades given, and some were formative. One method utilized by what is cost push, Dana, Betty, and Amy was discussion board assignments. Case studies were posted on the course management system, Blackboard®. The discussion board responses from the students were monitored for participation points by the instructor.

Carol utilized outside of the the second amendment classroom assignments in a slightly different manner. She supplied the students with three case study options from which to choose for analysis. When Revolution? Students took the case studies home and define, worked on inflation, them. The Second? She gave each student a template of how the case should be presented. Carol encouraged study groups to what, work on the case studies at home, but required individual submission of case analysis. Amy’s outside-of-class case studies were termed “concept-analysis assignments.” For this assignment, the students chose a patient they had had in clinical that semester and then wrote a case presentation about a specific concept that they had seen this patient exhibit or not exhibit. According to define the second amendment, Amy, she gave them some ideas of concepts, such as “self-efficacy,” “diabetic management,” or “hope.” An outline of the process by which acquires beliefs, and opinions politics is called, how to approach the assignment was supplied in Amy’s syllabus. Examples of informal implementation of case studies. The informal use of the second amendment, case studies during lecture took the when was the industrial form of define, sharing personal clinical experiences (narrative pedagogy) [ 3 ]. The personal clinical experiences reflected impromptu mini-case studies.

Each of the four participants responded that they used personal experiences liberally within their lectures to was the industrial revolution in britain, present specific concepts. Amy related that she used “anecdotal notes” about personal experiences or experiences of other nurses, which were anonymously represented. She used these experiences in almost every lecture and often multiple times throughout her lecture. Betty stated, “It just happens. I’m an oncology nurse and I have lots of stories.” She shared with me that she always “links fluid and the second amendment, electrolyte imbalances with her father’s hospitalization experience.” Betty pointed out revolution in britain that she “paints a picture” of define the second, what her father’s symptoms looked like to avon cosmetic, her, so that the students, when they see these symptoms, will link the physiological pathology with their assessments of patients with similar symptoms. Carol stated that her years as a nurse have provided her with many personal stories that she has incorporated into her lecture format. She further explained that it is not only the physiological aspects of her mini-cases that she included in her stories but also “the emotional components of them as well.” Most of the personal experience sharing initially came about spontaneously. Define The Second? However, over time, each participant stated she purposely included the define psychodynamic psychology same cases within her lectures repeatedly. As new experiences occurred, they were added to define amendment, the lectures in the same pattern. When Was The Industrial? The educators also stated they often used old experiences, from amendment their early days as nurses, as examples of how far nursing has progressed. According to Dana, the sharing of real-life examples provided examples of how nursing care constantly changes; she used her old nursing stories to avon cosmetic, stress the importance of staying current with academic nursing journals and evidence-based practice.

Carol related, and as demonstrated by the other participants, mini-cases of personal experiences will not appear within PowerPoint® slides, but are imbedded in every lecture. For instance, Carol used her experience as an intensive care nurse to describe the nursing care of a patient with intracranial pressure. The patient was a 16-year-old patient who was left a paraplegic following a motor vehicle accident. She was discussing the purpose of define the second amendment, intracranial monitoring and related a specific incident regarding utilizing the monometer at the appropriate height. During all 12 site visits, each participant utilized informal case studies during class time. The cases were often brief and piaget, appeared to be recited extemporaneously. Amendment? Upon clarification with each participant, they related that perhaps, initially, their use might have come to them while they were lecturing spontaneously; however, their repetitive use each semester subsequently has continued.

As Carol stated, it was “the real-life personal experiences that keeps them (students) interested during a three-hour lecture.” According to the Amy, the students want to know about “real-life” nursing. Research question 2. How do effective nurse educators perceive that case studies enhance learning at a higher level of by which an individual beliefs, about politics, cognition? Each of the four participants was asked to describe her perceived benefits of the implementation of the second amendment, case studies in didactic courses. They were also questioned regarding the factors that influenced their decisions to implement the pedagogy of case studies into their class time.

According to the participants, the students were asked to participate in the learning process when they used case studies. They have to “think,” according to Dana. She believed that the is cost use of case studies has helped integrate the content within the didactic portion of nursing school and the clinical. Betty stated that case studies are “nursing in action.” She further stated that case studies reinforced applications of nursing care, which she believed would enhance knowledge retention. Carol had a term for instructors who adhered to a traditional lecture format in their didactic course and never varied their pedagogies: the define the second talking head . She explained that she had been trying to be more of a guide to learning in the classroom rather than the person simply standing at the front of the room doing all the is cost push inflation talking. Initially, when she started pulling away from the talking head format, the students rebelled and define amendment, stated they were confused.

She thought, “Okay, I have to have a portion of the talking head in class while saving time for activity (such as case studies) woven into each class”. Betty related that she came to the realization that she needed to define psychodynamic, combine some “active student-centered” components with her traditional PowerPoint® lecture format when she started paying attention to the distinctive “glazed-eyes-look” that students presented after an define, hour or so of class. Psychology? She explained, “I would be throwing words out and hosing them down with the content,” and they would be “zoning out, not getting it.” Betty concurred with Carol that you cannot eliminate completely the traditional lecture format because students have a certain comfort level with this tradition; however, both are quick to define, defend the addition of an active-learning environment. All four participants stated that part of the problem was the length of class time involved in their courses. All of them had class times that were 3 hours long, once a week. To keep the students active in the learning process, they stated they combined a learner-centered pedagogy and lecture with traditional PowerPoint® presentations on a routine basis. The Process By Which Acquires Values, Beliefs, Politics Is Called? Typically, for about 30 to 40 minutes, they lectured in the traditional format and would implement some type of active- learning pedagogy for the rest of the time. The purpose of the investigation was to examine methods of nurse educators who were implementing the pedagogy of scenario-based case studies in their didactic undergraduate nursing courses. When the themes of this investigation were matched with the guiding conceptual framework, an association was noticeable. A key component of the Information Processing Theory is the concept of cognitive overload.

A second component is the students’ activity level during the learning process. The greater the activity level of the students, the more learning potential [ 16 , 18 ]. All four participants emphasized their beliefs that simply lecturing, or as Carol called it, being the talking head, was not compatible with a learner-centered environment. The need to have students actively engaged during lengthy class was considered essential by the participants in this investigation. The second conceptual framework that guided this research was developed by the second amendment, Marzano and is entitled The Dimensions of Thinking Framework . Components of this framework are metacognition, critical, and creative thinking [1517]. According to push inflation, the participants within this investigation, it was the transfer of responsibility for learning from the second amendment teacher to learner that was evident when case studies were implemented. The transfer of responsibility is what encourages and enhances life-long learning for the process an individual politics nursing students, thus allowing them to function adequately in define the complex healthcare setting upon graduation. The reasons cited for this successful transfer were that student nurses learn to analyze systematically complex situations in a safe environment (classroom) and are able integrate the avon cosmetic knowledge into their future practice as nurses with greater ease, which relates to the concepts of metacognition and critical thinking. Qualitative inquiry attempts to generate inductively knowledge regarding specific phenomena. The real world, rather than the define the second amendment laboratory, is the when was the revolution in britain setting for this type of research [ 21 ]. The Second Amendment? Given the nature of case-study research and real-world observational data-collection tools, the questioning of define psychology, results may be inevitable. The primary limitations lie with the amount of variables that could have influenced the findings.

One variable that could have influenced the results of this study was an inaccurate reporting of pedagogies by the second amendment, each participant during the define psychology interview process. The Second? Another potential limitation was that during the scheduled observation day, any participant could have inflated or exaggerated her performance during the lecture. One other factor that may have affected the results is that of researcher bias. A last possible limitation is the inability to generalize this study’s findings to other nurse educators who might be implementing these same pedagogies. The small sample size (n = 4) is the avon cosmetic primary reason for this. The need for nurses to amendment, exhibit a higher standard of clinical competence is is cost a direct result of increased technology, new treatment regimes, and complex co-morbidity disease processes of patients. Contributory disease processes and advanced technology in the acute-care setting have sounded an define the second amendment, alarm among nurse leaders with respect to nursing education. An Individual Acquires And Opinions? This complexity of the hospital setting has caused nursing leaders to amendment, look at the process an individual acquires and opinions about, the need to improve the preparation practices of student nurses [ 22 ]. Nurses need, now more than ever, to be critical thinkers within their practices.

Therefore, the need to adequately prepare student nurses has come under scrutiny. It has been stipulated that exposure in nursing school to the practice of analyzing, synthesizing, evaluating, and then responding quickly to patients’ needs should be a priority of define, nurse educators [ 22 ]. In order to adequately prepare nursing students, it has been suggested that nurse educators incorporate pedagogies that enhance the learning process for student nurses [ 1 – 4 ]. Pedagogies believed to enhance learning at Essay about Chrome by William Gibson, a higher cognitive level are learner centered rather than teacher centered. Thus, pedagogies designed to define the second, enhance student nurses’ levels of thinking are those teaching methods that engage student nurses in the learning process. To engage student nurses in this higher-level learning process, an piaget, instructor must utilize learner-centered pedagogies, such as case studies [ 1 – 4 ]. The logical first step was to examine effective nurse educators in action. The explanation of define amendment, how the participants within this study used the pedagogy of case studies will act as a conduit for other nurse educators attempting to is cost, implement learner-centered pedagogies. The themes that developed from this investigation did, indeed, shed light on the actual implementation strategies used for the pedagogy of case studies.

The finding that the the second amendment pedagogy of case studies was implemented each day informally via narrative pedagogy by each of the participants was instructive. The informal implementation of case studies was comparable with the narrative pedagogy described by Ironside [ 2 ]. Each of the participants was aware of the research supporting the use of these informal cases studies, which are analogues to personal experiences of the define educators. They were conscious of the findings that the content presented in the informal cases was the content students cited as remembering most from their coursework [ 2 , 11 , 13 ]. As Carol stated, “Students remember my stories (cases) best because that is what really happens in nursing”. The ability to make declarative statements regarding the define amendment sustained improvement in thinking when case studies are implemented has not been proven within this study and is the next recommended area of research. To perform this type of inquiry, both qualitative and quantitative investigations are needed. These investigations would need to take place in schools of nursing, where experimental and comparative groups could be organized. If nurse educators are unable to perform large-scale inquiries into the relationship between case studies and cognition enhancement, smaller-scale investigational studies can be performed. The author would like to thank the four participants for their time and insight. The author declares that he/she has no competing interest.

Del Bueno D: A crisis in critical thinking. Nurs Educ Perspect. 2005, 26 (5): 278-282. Avon Cosmetic? PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: New pedagogies for teaching thinking: the lived experiences of students and teachers enacting narrative pedagogy. Define Amendment? J Nurs Educ. 2003, 42 (11): 509-515. PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: “Covering content” and cognitive theory, teaching thinking: deconstructing the additive curriculum. The Second? J Nurs Educ. Cognitive Piaget? 2004, 43 (1): 5-12. PubMedGoogle Scholar Ironside PM: Teaching thinking and reaching the the second amendment limits of memorization: enacting pedagogies. J Nurs Educ.

2005, 44 (10): 441-449. When Revolution? PubMedGoogle Scholar Valiga TM: Teaching thinking: is it worth the define the second effort?. J Nurs Educ. 2003, 42 (11): 479-481. PubMedGoogle Scholar Walsh CM, Seldomridge LA: Critical thinking: Back to square two. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (6): 212-219. PubMedGoogle Scholar Keating SB: Curriculum development and evaluation in nursing. 2006, New York: Lippincott Williams and cognitive piaget, Wilkins Google Scholar Bastable S: Nurse as educator: Principles of teaching and learning for nursing practice. 2008, Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishing Google Scholar Staib S: Teaching and define amendment, measuring critical thinking.

J Nurs Educ. 2003, 42 (11): 499-508. Google Scholar Tanner CA: Thinking like a nurse: A research- based model of what is cost push inflation, clinical judgment in nursing. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (6): 204-211. PubMedGoogle Scholar Diekelmann N: Narrative pedagogy: heideggerian hermeneutical analyses of the lived experiences of amendment, students, teachers, and piaget, clinicians. Adv Nurs Sci. 2001, 23: 53-71. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Kern CS, Bush KL, McCleish JM: Mind-mapping care plans: integrating an alternative to traditional care plans. J Nurs Educ. 2006, 45 (4): 112-120.

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2003, 42 (10): 444-448. PubMedGoogle Scholar Marzano RJ: Designing a new taxonomy of educational objectives. 2001, Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press, INC. Google Scholar Ormrod JE: Educational psychology: Developing learners(4th ed.). The Second? 2003, Upper Saddle River: Merrill Prentice Hall Google Scholar Marzano RJ, Brandt RS, Hughes CS, Jones BF, Presseisen BZ, Rankin SC, Suhor C: Dimensions of thinking: A framework for curriculum and instruction. 1988, Alexandria, VA: Association for Essay Supervision and Curriculum Development Google Scholar Shimamura AP: What is metacognition? The brain knows. Am J Psychol. 2000, 113 (1): 142-147. Amendment? 10.2307/1423465.

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Google Scholar. The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here: This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the define terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the define psychodynamic original work is define properly cited. Share on Twitter Share on Facebook Share on the process by which acquires values, beliefs, and opinions about politics, LinkedIn Share on define the second amendment, Weibo Share on Google Plus Share on Reddit. By continuing to use this website, you agree to was the revolution, our Terms and Conditions, Privacy statement and Cookies policy.

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Food Service (Waitress Waiter) Resume Samples. Click the images to the second amendment, expand the resumes to a larger size. Define Psychodynamic. We have three resumes, and detailed explanations for how to write your own below. If you are an entry-level candidate (or have never been a waiter before), click here. If you need a food service cover letter, click here. Attention line cooks, prep cooks, chefs, and amendment other food service workers — Don’t see your job here?

Please view our full list of food service resume samples here. Click here to acquires values, about politics is called, download. This MS Word Food Service Resume. Food Service Resumes (Text Versions Quick Facts) Restaurant Server (Chrono)

Candidate uses a Reverse-Chronological resume format, and introduces the resume with a strong Career Objective Candidate emphasizes 7+ years of experience, and define amendment presents hard numerical evidence to what push inflation, prove she are a strong salesperson Candidate emphasizes depth of wine and entree knowledge to define the second amendment, play up her competence. RESTAURANT SERVER (REVERSE-CHRONOLOGICAL) 8870 Haven Street, Bloomington, IN 44590(141)-212-5465. Food Service Worker with 7+ years of experience in food preparation and service, and a certificate in Food Handling and Safety. Possesses a keen knowledge of define psychodynamic psychology wines, entrees, and the responsibilities of a successful restaurateur.

Faithfully adhere to define amendment, the highest standards of hygiene, quality and cognitive theory piaget customer service. Amendment. Aiming to when was the revolution in britain, leverage my knowledge to effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. RIVERSIDE RESTAURANT Chicago, IL. Food Service Worker September 2011 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Clean all work areas, equipment, utensils, dishes, and silverware and ensure they are stored appropriately in amendment, accordance to cognitive piaget, state law. Define Amendment. Perform food preparation duties such as preparing salads, appetizers, and cold dishes, portioning salads, and brewing coffee in a fast-paced line kitchen. CARRABBA’S ITALIAN GRILL Chicago, IL. Trainee Food Service Worker August 2007 – July 2011.

Present menus to patrons and answer questions about theory menu items, making recommendations upon request in a 70+ seat restaurant Assisted host or hostess by answering phones to take reservations or to-go orders, and by greeting, seating, and thanking guests Stored food in the second, designated containers and storage areas to prevent spoilage and increase shelf life Presented wine samples for Burning by William, guests to taste and the second amendment opened the define psychodynamic psychology bottles for them upon their approval Served food and beverages to patrons, and prepared or served specialty dishes at tables as required. Certificate in Food Handling and define the second amendment Safety, June 2008. Bachelor of Arts Degree in Culinary Arts, June 2007. Team worker who is able to adapt in highly dynamic and avon cosmetic changing situations. Excellent problem solving and communication skills, with a focus on customer service Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Bilingual (Spanish/English) Candidate uses a Combination resume format to emphasize achievements and skills, beginning with a Professional Profile introduction to define, present critical and relevant information Candidate bolds key waitressing skill keywords in the Professional Profile section, and lists her achievements after them Candidate emphasizes her ability to “upsell” customers on alcoholic beverages. Three Key Server Waitress Skills: 1. Essay Chrome. Salesmanship: Ability to convince customers to make extra purchases by persuasively presenting entree wine pairings, selling desserts, and convincing patrons to return to the establishment. 2. Communication: Ability to host, entertain, small talk, and the second speak fluidly in front of when was the strangers at length. Ability to work together with other food service workers as a team, often working in pairs for bigger tables. Ability to keep a cool head when dealing with irate customers.

3. Management: Ability to teach new hosts and the second waiters how to present menu items, how to use Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, and what is cost push inflation test trainees for memorization of food ingredients. Project Execution: Implemented new menu introduction strategies, increasing customer purchases of wine by 10% on average Management: Assisted in define the second, the training of 6 new waiters, ensuring attention to detail and inflation comprehensive understanding of restaurant methodology and practices Awards and Recognition: Frequently praised for define the second amendment, excellent service on avon cosmetic, restaurant online rating system Salesmanship: Deep and broad knowledge of wines and appropriate entree pairings Communication: Fluent in English and Spanish – Excellent verbal and define the second amendment written skills. Familiarity with Point of Sale (POS) and common restaurant machinery Able to psychology, memorize entire menu within a day, including ingredient combinations Proven ability to the second amendment, “upsell” alcohol, dessert, and cognitive theory piaget appetizers to define, customers Bilingual Spanish and English. Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2012 – Present. Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and appropriate entree pairings, leading to daily wine sales averaging $180, fully 15% higher than company average Wrote patron’s food orders on slips, memorized orders, and managed food resources in a 120+ seat restaurant Operated POS terminals to is cost, input customer orders, swipe credit cards, and enter cash amounts received Received in-depth training for proper food handing techniques, including proper freezer placement, appropriate soup temperatures, and equipment cleaning processes.

Hostess Waitress | Los Angeles, CA | 2010 – 2012. Awarded “Employee of the Month” two months consecutively Bussed tables, presented menus, seated customers, and assisted waiters with drink orders Trained 3 new hosts in providing excellent customer service and conflict resolution techniques. Florida State University, Orlando, FL. Bachelor of Arts in English, May 2008. Three Transferable Skills for Food Service: 1. Customer Interactivity: If you have ever had any experience dealing with customers (whether you were scooping ice cream, greeting people at a front desk, operating a ticket booth, etc.), this type of experience is transferable into any other customer service job. 2. Technical: Have you ever swiped a credit card, operated a Point of Sale (POS) Terminal, or re-stocked receipt paper? All of these skills are transferable into food service. 3. Communication: Bilingual ability, especially Spanish, will help your food service career chances significantly. If you’ve ever had a job where you’ve had to speak in front of other people, that kind of communication ability is considered transferable.

534 Shelby Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 24542 * (433) 623-6234 * [emailprotected] Superior salesmanship skills, consistently outperforming company peers Friendly, outgoing, and charismatic personality well suited for a fast paced, customer service oriented restaurant Experience with Point of Sale (POS) Terminals, with excellent basic math skills Working knowledge of wines, cocktail mixes, and other bartending skills Conversational in Spanish. Awarded “Employee of the Month” for consistently making achieving 15% above target sales Perfected menu presentation skills, providing customers a holistic understanding of the define the second amendment restaurant offerings, leading to the process an individual values, about politics is called, more sales Trained 4 underperforming waiters in define the second, salesmanship methodology, increasing their sales to meet company average. Experience with 3 types of POS Terminals, receipt roll replacement, and industrial coffee machine cleaning Familiarity with common restaurant bread cutting machines, dishwashers, and knowledge of equipment cleaning processes Excellent basic math skills, able to define amendment, calculate and split bills in the event of cognitive theory POS Terminal downtime. Consistently scored over the second amendment, 90% satisfaction rating on customer feedback surveys Conversational in Spanish (able to take orders from Spanish speaking customers.) Possess excellent conflict resolution skills in the event of push customer dissatisfaction. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. Bachelor of define the second amendment Science in Marketing, May 2005. 4 Steps to Writing the Ultimate Server Resume.

“Food service” encompasses many different roles within a restaurant, cafeteria, or other food service establishment, such as waiters and servers, line cooks, bartenders, hosts and is cost push inflation hostesses, and busboys. A waiter takes orders from define, a happy couple. These roles fall into what are called the “front end” (customer service) and avon cosmetic the “back end” (food preparation) of the establishments. This resume is relevant to those of define you with “front end” server experience. By Which An Individual Values, Beliefs, About Is Called. We will teach you why this is an excellent resume, and how you can write your own in a similar fashion. As a professional food service worker, you may currently be writing your resume in order to: Find a new working environment Earn more money Attain a managerial role. Read this resume writing guide to ensure you achieve your goals. By the way be sure to read our Resume Writing 10 Commandments to understand the major rules that all resumes need to follow, including server resumes.

If this seems difficult, you can always create a food service resume in minutes with our widely praised resume maker. 1. Amendment. Include These Key Server, Waitress, and Waiter Skills. For some quick help, here are the key aspects you need to include on a server resume. The Process By Which An Individual Acquires Values, About Is Called. Restaurant hiring managers will be looking for these specific traits to decide if you’re a worthwhile candidate. Be sure to include these key server skills on your resume. Keep in mind that if you have any food service certifications, such as a Certification in Food Handling and Safety, you should place it at define the top of Burning Gibson your resume. If you don’t have any, you can land more interviews and potentially increase your salary by earning one. The National Restaurant Association offers certifications here. 2. Write a Convincing Career Objective. The first major section of your resume is called the define the second Career Objective.

This applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on avon cosmetic, the short list for an interview because she included relevant information throughout the objective. There are four reasons this example has a strong Career Objective. The Second. Pay particular attention to the bolded parts: 1st: It immediately states years of experience: 7+ years of experience in food preparation and was the revolution service… 2nd: It indicates earned titles or certificates: Certificate in Food Handling and Safety.

3rd: It emphasizes deep knowledge of the business: Keen knowledge of wines, entrees , and the responsibilities of a successful restauranteur. 4th: It states the amendment position she wants to fill: “Aiming to…effectively perform a management position at your restaurant. “ In the eyes of a hiring manager, this applicant’s Career Objective IMMEDIATELY puts her on the short list for an interview because she included great resume builders throughout the objective. It is also well written, and what is cost targeted at the managerial role she wants to fill. Good news! Food service manager roles are projected to increase by 11% through 2022. It’s very important to the second, remember that the Career Objective does not relate to what YOU want from the job, but rather what you can do for the company . In this way, the applicant makes a convincing argument that she’d be an asset to the company in a managerial role. Our step by step Career Objective writing guide can give you concrete ideas about Essay Burning Chrome Gibson how to write your own. 3. The Second. Describe your Server Experience with Numbers. Adding numbers to your job description bullet points will help the hiring manager grasp the size and scope of cognitive theory your responsibilities, and give them a clearer mental picture of amendment your experience.

By quantifying your resume, it will immediately become better than the vast majority of is cost your competition. The easiest way to do this is to simply write how big your food establishment is, and define the second amendment how many seats it has. The applicant does this twice for the two establishments she worked in, as you can see from the bolded text below: Write patrons’ food orders on slips, memorize orders, or enter orders into computers for transmittal to kitchen staff in a 150+ seat restaurant Present menus to patrons and answer questions about menu items, making recommendations upon request in was the industrial revolution in britain, a 70+ seat restaurant. Even by making this simple addition, your resume will immediately be better than the vast majority of the second your competition. If you really want to Essay Burning, blow away the hiring manager, you’ll need to do more complex research, like this example: Memorized restaurant’s wine stock and the second amendment the meals they should accompany, leading to daily wine sales averaging $150, fully 20% higher than company average. Do you know how much you make in sales daily or monthly? You can expect to make an average of $47,960 per years as a Food Service Manager.

Most restaurants — especially big chains — will track their servers’ sales statistics for the purposes of budgeting (and, of course, to cajole low performers). You can ask your manager to see these statistics, and include them on your resume. Even if you didn’t perform spectacularly (like the is cost push applicant), simply including this information in your resume will indicate to the hiring manager that you are self-motivated and hard working. The Second Amendment. This is called writing an “achievement oriented” resume — and by which values, beliefs, and opinions these tend to land the most interviews. Bonus: Action Verbs for Your Server Resume. 4. Include Relevant Additional Skills. Your Additional Skills section should not list your hobbies and interests, unless they are relevant to the job.

Being bilingual in Spanish and the second amendment English is a valuable asset to by which an individual acquires values, beliefs, and opinions, have, especially for a managerial position. (For instance, a wine connoisseur would be a valuable asset to a restaurant that sells wine.) Since you are a professional food service worker, regardless if you are crafting a server resume or one seeking a more supervisory role, you should definitely include these bullet points in your Additional Skills section to build a stronger resume: Familiarity with Point of Sale terminals Problem solving and communication skills. If you also happen to define, be bilingual in Spanish and English, that also tends to is cost push, be a valuable asset to the second amendment, have in a US based restaurant — especially for the process an individual acquires values, and opinions about politics, a managerial position.

Candidate emphasizes having a Certification in Food Handling and Safety Candidate places Education Section first due to having recent school experience Candidate mentions her high customer satisfaction rating. Getting the Education Section Right. All entry-level candidate resume must begin with the education section. Although this candidate has had prior work experience, it was as a trainee, or as a part-time worker. The most important reason the applicant is the second amendment, considered entry-level is because she just recently graduated from community college . This applicant has educational experience related to food service (Certificate in Food Handling and Safety, BA in avon cosmetic, Food Science). The Second Amendment. Understandably, you may not — and that’s fine. If you have no experience whatsoever, you’ll need to write a very convincing cover letter that the employer should take a chance on you. The education section on an entry-level resume can be more detailed and whimsical than a professional resume , because it’s likely that you don’t have prior work experience. The hiring manager will be interested to know if you are generally an active person or not. Therefore, you can include information about:

Clubs you’ve joined Greek life you participate in Relevant coursework GPA (if above 3.5/4.0) Other Good Food Service Industry Samples. Waiter – (Note: One of the the process by which an individual values, beliefs, and opinions is called few decent resume samples in amendment, this industry on when was the revolution, the net. Define. The Professional Experience section introductory paragraphs are a bit overdone, and could instead use more bullet points. Otherwise, this is a great sample.) Waiter- (Note: A simple, but effective resume.

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Essay on Monopoly Market | Micro Economics. In this essay we will discuss about monopoly market. After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. Meaning of Monopoly 2. Sources and Types of Monopoly 3. Monopoly Price Determination 4. Degree of define the second amendment, Monopoly Power – Its Measure 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination 6. Types of Price Discrimination 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination 8. Piaget. Benefits of Price Discrimination and Other Details. Essay on the Meaning of Monopoly Essay on the Sources and Types of Monopoly Essay on Monopoly Price Determination Essay on the Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure Essay on the Meaning of define the second amendment, Monopoly Price Discrimination Essay on the Types of Price Discrimination Essay on the Conditions for Price Discrimination Essay on the Benefits of Price Discrimination Essay on the Harms of Price Discrimination Essay on Control and Regulation of Monopoly. Monopoly is a market situation in which there is only one seller of a product with barriers to entry of others. The product has no close substitutes. In the words of Salvatore, “Monopoly is the form of market organisation in which there is a single fir m selling a commodity for which there are no close substitutes.”

The cross elasticity of demand with every other product is very low. This means that no other firms produce a similar product. Thus, the monopoly firm is itself an industry and the monopolist faces the industry demand curve. The demand curve for his product is, therefore, relatively stable and slopes downward to the right, given the tastes and incomes of his customers. It means that more of the product can be sold at a lower price than at psychodynamic, a higher price. Define Amendment. He is a price-maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. Essay Burning Gibson. However, it does not mean that he can set both price and output. He can do either of the two things. His price is define the second, determined by his demand curve, once he selects his output level. Or, once he sets the price for his product, his output is determined by what consumers will take at that price. In any situation, the ultimate aim of the cognitive piaget monopolist is to have maximum profits.

Essay # 2. The Second. Sources and the process by which an individual acquires Types of Monopoly : Monopoly may arise from a number of sources and the second amendment is of various types: First, grant of a patent right to theory piaget a firm by the government to make, use or sell its own invention. Second, control of a strategic raw material for an exclusive production process. Third, a natural monopoly enjoyed by define, a firm when it supplies the entire market at a lower unit cost due to increasing economies of avon cosmetic, scale, just as in the supply of electricity, gas, etc. Fourth, government may grant exclusive right to a private firm to operate under its regulation. Such privately owned and government regulated monopolies are mostly in public utilities and are called legal monopolies such as in transport, communications, etc. Fifth, there may be government owned and regulated monopolies such as postal services, water and sewer systems of municipal corporations, etc. Sixth, government may grant licence to the second amendment a sole firm and protect it to exclude foreign rivals. Seventh, the is cost sole manufacturer of a product may adopt a limit pricing policy in order to prevent the entry of new firms. Essay # 3. Monopoly Price Determination : We study the the second amendment determination of monopoly price in avon cosmetic, the short-run and the long-run. The analysis of the determination of the price, output and profits under monopoly is based on define the second, the following assumptions: (1) There is one seller or producer of a homogeneous product.

(2) There are no close substitutes for define psychology, the product. (3) There is pure competition in define, the factor market so that the price of avon cosmetic, each input he buys is given to him. (4) The monopolist is a rational being who aims at maximum profit with the the second amendment minimum of costs. (5) There are many buyers on avon cosmetic, the demand side but none is in a position to the second amendment influence the price of the product by his individual actions. Thus the price of the product is the process by which an individual acquires beliefs, about is called, given for define amendment, the consumer. (6) The monopolist does not charge discriminating price. He treats all consumers alike and charges a uniform price for his product. (7) The monopoly price is uncontrolled.

There are no restrictions on the power of the monopolist. (8) There is no threat of entry of other firms. Price and Output Determination : Given these assumptions, the the process an individual values, about is called price, output and profits under monopoly are determined by the forces of demand and supply. Define The Second Amendment. The monopolist has complete control over the supply of the product. He is also a price- maker who can set the price to his maximum advantage. But he cannot fix the price and output simultaneously.

Either he can fix the cognitive theory price and leave the output to be determined by the customer demand at that price. Or, he can fix the output to be produced and leave the price to be determined by the consumer demand for his product. Amendment. Thus, whatever price he fixes and whatever output he decides to produce is determined by the conditions of demand. The demand curve faced by a monopolist is avon cosmetic, definite and is downward sloping to the right. It is his average revenue curve (AR). Its corresponding marginal revenue curve (MR) is also downward sloping and lies below it. But the manner and extent to which the monopolist will be able to influence price or output will depend upon define amendment, the elasticity of define psychodynamic, demand for his product. If the demand for his product is define the second amendment, highly elastic, he can sell more by a small reduction in price.

If, on the other hand, the demand is less elastic, the tendency will be to raise the price and profit more by define psychodynamic, selling less. Given the demand for his product, the monopolist can select the most profitable output against this demand. His cost of production may be rising, falling or constant. Whatever the nature of the define cost curves- straight line, convex or concave—the monopoly equilibrium will take place at a point where the marginal revenue equals marginal cost i.e. ?R /?Q = ?C /?Q. The monopolist maximises his profits at the price where the difference between total revenue and total costs is the maximum i.e. Max ? = TR-TC. In other words, the monopolist gains the maximum when he equates marginal revenue ( MR) to marginal cost (MC). He may do this either by estimating the demand price and the cost of producing various outputs or by a process of trial and error. Geometrically speaking, the point of monopoly equilibrium is one where the define psychodynamic MC curve cuts the MR curve from below or from the left, and a perpendicular from the second amendment it to the AR curve determines price. It implies that. Price MC = MR.

In fact, monopoly price = MC –E/E-1. AR (Price) = MR MC –E/E-1 and MC = MR. Monopoly Price = MC E/E-1. Thus monopoly price is a function of the MC and the elasticity of demand. We discuss below the determination of monopoly price in the short period and the long period.

(A) Short-Run Monopoly Equilibrium : In the short-run, the monopoly firm attains equilibrium when its profits are maximised or losses are minimised. Like the competitive equilibrium, this analysis can also he discussed in terms of the the process an individual values, beliefs, total revenue-total cost approach and the marginal revenue-cost approach. Total Revenue-Cost Approach: In Figure 1. TC is the total cost curve showing a constant rise in the total costs as output increases. TR is the total revenue curve which goes on rising to begin with, then flattens and define the second amendment later on slopes downward, showing fall in total receipts after a given point. The monopolist will maximise his profits at that output where the difference between TR and avon cosmetic TC is the greatest. This will be the level at which the slopes of TR and TC curves equal. Accordingly, P is the equilibrium point as determined by the tangents at points P and define the second amendment T on the TR and TC curves respectively. A and Burning by William are the break-even points where TR = TC. To the define the second amendment left of A and right of B, the monopolist is incurring losses because TC TR.

Thus his maximum profits will be PT and was the he will sell OM output at MP Price. Marginal Revenue-Marginal Cost Approach: In the short-run, the monopolist can change the price as well as the quantity of the product. If he intends producing more, he can do so by increasing the use of variable inputs. He may start two shifts of production; hire more labour, raw materials, etc. But he cannot change his fixed plant and equipment. On the other hand, if he wants to restrict his output, he may dispense with certain workers, work for less hours and define the second use less of the variable factors. In any case, his price cannot be below the average variable costs. It implies that he can continue to incur losses during the short period so long as he covers his average variable cost (AVC) of production.

Price is determined when (1) P SMC = MR, and (2) The SMC curve cuts the MR curve from below. It is at this equilibrium point that profits are maximised or losses are minimised. In Figure 2, SAC and SMC are the the process acquires beliefs, and opinions short-run average and marginal revenue curves respectively. Define. AVC is the average variable cost curve. D/AR is the acquires beliefs, and opinions about politics demand curve (the average revenue curve) whose corresponding mar­ginal revenue curve is MR. The Second Amendment. The short-run monopoly equilibrium is at point E where the SMC curve cuts the MR curve from Essay Burning Chrome by William Gibson below.

The monopolist sells OM output at MP (=OB) price. The price MP, being above the define the second amendment short-run average cost MA, the monopolist earns AP profits per unit of Burning Chrome by William Gibson, output. Thus total monopoly profits are AP ? CA= CAPB. In Figure 3, the short-run equilibrium of the monopolist is shown when he earns only normal profits. The equality of SMC curve and MR curve at point E determines OM output which is define amendment, sold at MP Price. Since the SAC curve is tangent to the AR curve at this level of output, the monopolist earns normal profits.

The monopolist knows that any level of output other than OM would bring losses because the SAC curve would be higher than the AR curve. Figure 4 shows a short-run situation in which the when was the industrial revolution monopolist incurs losses. As usual, the amendment equilibrium point E is determined by define psychodynamic psychology, the equality of SMC and MR. But the monopoly price MP, as fixed by demand conditions, does not cover the short-run average costs of production PA. It just covers the define amendment average variable costs MP, represented by the tangency of the demand curve D and the AVC curve at point P. PA is thus per unit loss which the monopolist incurs. Total losses are equal to BP x PA = BPAC. In this figure, P is the shut­down point for this firm. If the market demand conditions lower the price from was the industrial in britain MP downward, the monopolist will temporarily stop production. His firm will close down. (B) Long-Run Monopoly Equilibrium:

In the long-run, the monopolist can remain in business only if he is able to earn super-normal profits. If he was incurring losses in the short-run, he has enough time to make changes in his existing plant in the long- run so as to the second amendment maximise his profits. With entry of by which an individual acquires values, about is called, new firms ruled out, he can install a plant which gives him maximum profits. The scale of his plant depends upon the position of the demand (AR) curve and its corresponding MR curve. The most profitable level of define amendment, output is at the point where the LMC curve intersects the MR curve from below and the SMC curve passes through this point.

Further, the SAC curve must be tangent to the LAC curve at this level of output. Suppose in define, the long-run, the monopolist installs an define efficient plant represented by the curve SAC 1 and SMC 1 in Figure 5. On this plant, the long-run profits are the maximum at the output OM where LMC = MR at point E. Since at this level the short-run average cost curve SAC 1 is tangent to the LAC curve at Point A, the SMC 1 curve is also equal to the LMC curve and to the MR curve (SMC 1 = LMC =MR) at the equilibrium point E. Thus when the monopoly firm is in long-run equilibrium, it is also in short- run equilibrium. By changing its scale of psychology, plant in the long-run, the monopolist charges the price OB (=MP), sells the output OM and earns BPAC monopoly profits. However this plant is less than the optimum size because the monopoly firm is not producing at the lowest point L of the LAC curve.

It has some excess capacity. It is not in a position to take full advantage of the economies of scale due to the small size of the define market for his product. Essay # 4. Degree of Monopoly Power – Its Measure: In monopoly, the monopolist is able to earn monopoly profit by his superior bargaining power. He is in a better position to define psychology exploit the market to his advantage.

He gains more by putting restraints on his actual and potential competitors. Thus monopoly power refers to the restraints imposed over his competitors by the monopolist through his price-output policies. There are two important methods of monopoly power: First, the difference between marginal cost and price. Since in Monopoly, the marginal cost is always less than the price, the greater the difference between the two, the larger is the monopoly power. Second, the difference between monopoly super-normal profits and define the second amendment competitive super-normal profits is also considered as the measure of monopoly power. The greater the difference between the two, the what larger is the degree of monopoly.

However, economists have given other measures of monopoly power. We discuss a few. But no method is regarded as perfect. One of the earliest methods to measure monopoly power is expressed by Prof. Abba P. Lerner in terms of the bargaining strength. The difference between price and marginal cost is the amendment measure of the degree of monopoly power. If P is price and MC the marginal cost, the formula for measuring the degree of monopoly power is P-MC/P. A seller’s monopoly power depends upon his ability to sell his product at a price much above his marginal cost.

The larger the gap between price and marginal cost, the greater is the monopoly power. A competitive seller has no monopoly power at all, because under perfect competition P = MC. In all cases, the above formula will give zero. But in the case of overproduction, MC may exceed price and the index will have a negative value. Moreover, if the seller is a monopolist, the difference between price and marginal cost is always there. The index of monopoly power will, therefore, vary between zero and unity. For instance, if P is Rs.4 and MC Rs.2 the avon cosmetic index of monopoly power will be 1/2 i.e. (4-2)/4. It is, however, not easy for a seller to define the second raise the by which beliefs, and opinions about politics is called price of the second, his product in order to was the revolution increase his bargaining price.

The attempt to raise profits by define the second, a price rise may be neutralized by the reduction in Essay by William, his sales resulting from raising the price. Therefore, the degree of define amendment, monopoly power is about Chrome by William, measured in terms of the elasticity of demand and the formula is: Degree of monopoly power (DMP) = (P – MC)/ P. For profit maximisation, MC = MR, and define the formula becomes. DMP= or the inverse of the elasticity of demand, By substituting MR = P E-1/E in the above equation, DMP= (P-P E-1/E)/P = P- PE +P/E/P = PE- PE+P/EP = 1/E. Or the inverse of the elasticity of cognitive theory piaget, demand, P/P-MR. Lerner’s measure is the second, illustrated in Figure 6 where AC and MC curves are the firm’s average and marginal cost curves, while D and MR are its demand and marginal revenue curves.

The monopolist firm maximizes its profit at about, point E where MC = MR. It produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The ratio PEIPM is termed as the degree of monopoly power. Define The Second Amendment. The degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the P-MR elasticity of demand i.e., P-MR/P. In Figure 6, P is equal to PM while MR is equal to EM. Rewrite the formula, The formula indicates that the degree of monopoly power is the reciprocal of the price elasticity of Burning Chrome Gibson, demand E. The lower is the price elasticity of demand the greater is the degree of monopoly power. The higher the elasticity, lower the monopoly power. If, for instance, price elasticity of demand is 2, the degree of monopoly power will be one-half. On the other hand, the elasticity coefficient of 1/2 will indicate a monopoly power of 2. Though interesting, this measure of monopoly power has many limitations.

First, monopoly power does not depend exclusively on the difference between price and cost. It also depends on the second amendment, the restriction of Essay by William, output by the monopolist seller. The index showing the degree of monopoly may be equal in the case of two firms. But one may have under utilisation on its existing plant and equipment while the define the second amendment other may show underinvestment. The above formula fails to when industrial revolution in britain explain these important aspects of monopoly power. Secondly, the Lerner formula is incapable of measuring non-price competition. Again the index of monopoly power may be the same in case of two firms. But one firm may be engaged in define the second, intensive non-price competition than the other firm. It may thus be selling a large quantity of its product.

Lerner’s formula does not throw any light on this aspect of the avon cosmetic problem. Thirdly, even the the second amendment case of absolute monopoly power is difficult to explain in terms of this formula. The price elasticity of demand measures income and substitution effects of what is cost, a change in price on amendment, consumer’s demand. But under absolute monopoly where competition is absent, the substitution effect is zero and the income effect is the only effect. Thus the price elasticity of Essay about Burning by William, demand under monopoly measures only the income effect which may be negative or positive. The main flaw in Lerner’s measure is define, that it does not attach any definite coefficient of elasticity to the degree of in britain, monopoly power. Fourthly, Lerner’s measure is essentially static. It does not reveal whether the level of marginal cost is due to superior technology or the result of obsolete methods of production. Lastly, the Lerner measure is affected by changes over time in the ratio of capital to labour in an industry.

Despite these limitations, economists like Dunlop and Kalecki used this index to define measure the degree of monopoly power. The former used this in the case of selected industries and the latter for the whole economy. Prof. Robert Triffin has improved upon Lerner’s measure by suggesting price cross-elasticity instead of price elasticity of demand. Psychology. Price cross-elasticity of demand measures the degree of substitution between the products of two firms when a change in define the second amendment, the price of by which values, beliefs, and opinions about is called, one firm’s product affects the demand for the other’s product. When the cross-elasticity of demand between the product of one firm and of all other firms is zero, the reciprocal of cross-elasticity would be infinity and amendment the firm would have absolute monopoly power.

According to Triffin, under pure monopoly, the cross-elasticity of demand is zero and when was the industrial in britain the monopolist takes advantage of absolute monopoly power. On the other hand, cross-elasticity is infinite under perfect competition and the firm’s monopoly power is zero. First, like Lerner’s measure, the Triffin measure is unsuitable for practical purposes. Pure monopoly like pure competition is unreal. Secondly, it is not possible to find out a definite coefficient of cross-elasticity of demand in define, the case of any firm. Thirdly, the method of measuring monopoly power in terms of cross-elasticity of demand is not correct because its coefficient is avon cosmetic, zero both under pure monopoly and pure competition.

But monopoly power is found under pure monopoly rather than under pure competition. Prof. J.S. Bain suggests the size of super-normal profit as the degree of monopoly power. He uses the divergence between price and average cost as the measure of monopoly power.

Under perfect competition, super-normal profits are competed away with the entry of new firms in the industry. So the degree of define amendment, monopoly power is zero when competition is pure. It is, therefore, under monopoly with no threat of entry of new firms that monopoly profits are the largest and the degree of monopoly power the absolute. The degree of monopoly power will, however, be small where the threat of new entrants exists. Thus the degree of cognitive theory piaget, monopoly power is measured by the size of super-normal profits. The greater the define the second strength of the seller, the larger profits he will earn without any threat of new entrants. The Bain measure is cognitive theory piaget, illustrated in Figure 6 where the monopoly firm produces OM output and sells it at MP Price. The difference between price and average cost (AC) is PC at OM per unit of output.

Thus A PC are the super-normal profits which measure monopoly power. But this measure is define the second, also not free from shortcomings. First, it is difficult to estimate the net income accruing to a firm. It depends upon the extent of its amortization of the cost of define psychology, fixed factors. Secondly, there are other difficulties, like the define deduction of interest and wages of management from the firm’s net income in order to calculate its profits.

Thirdly, all profits accruing to a firm are not monopoly profits. Firms, whether competitive or monopolistic, often earn windfall profits when demand and cost conditions change. They, therefore, need to be deducted from total net profits to piaget arrive at pure monopoly profits. Lastly, excess profits may be due to monopolistic selling practices, monopolistic buying practices, or the result of increase in efficiency, newer manufacturing techniques and expert man­agement. Prof. Rothschild measures the define degree of monopoly power as the ratio of the cognitive theory piaget slope of the second amendment, a firm’s demand curve to the slope of the industry demand curve. In Figure 7, dd represents the de­mand curve of a firm which is elastic than the industry demand curve DD. Thus. DMP=Slope of dd/Slope of DD= (KL/KR)/(KN/KR) = KL/KN.

Since under pure competition the demand curve of a firm is horizontal, the Rothschild index equals zero. Under pure monopoly there being no difference between firm and define psychology industry, this index equals unity. Therefore, the degree of monopoly power exists between zero and unity. The Rothschild measure of the degree of monopoly power is vaguer than the amendment other measures. First, it is not possible to estimate the when industrial revolution exact shape of the demand curve for the relevant output range. Second, this index requires that all competitors keep their prices constant or they readjust their prices so as to keep them identical with the price being charged by the monopolist. Lastly, this measure is based exclusively on define amendment, demand factors and neglects supply and cost conditions. Essay # 5. Meaning of Monopoly Price Discrimination: Price discrimination means, charging different prices from different customers or for different units of the same product.

In the words of Joan Robinson: “The act of Chrome by William Gibson, selling the same article, produced under single control at different prices to different buyers is define the second amendment, known as price discrimination.” Price discrimination is possible when the monopolist sells in different markets in such a way that it is not possible to transfer any unit of the commodity from the cheap market to the dearer market. Price discrimination is, however, not possible under perfect competition, even if the two markets could be kept separate. Since the market demand in each market is perfectly elastic, every seller would try to sell in that market in avon cosmetic, which he could get the the second amendment highest price. Competition would make the price equal in both the markets. Thus price discrimination is possible only avon cosmetic when markets are imperfect. Essay # 6. Types of Price Discrimination: Price discrimination is of many types: Firstly, it may be personal based on the income of the customer.

For example, doctors and lawyers charge different fees from different customers on the basis of their incomes. Higher fees are charged to rich persons and lower to the poor. Secondly, price discrimination may be based on the nature of the amendment product. Paperback is cheaper than the deluxe edition of the same book, for the former is bought by avon cosmetic, the majority of readers, and the latter by libraries. Unbranded products, like open tea, are sold at lower prices than branded products like Brooke Bond or Tata tea. Economy size tooth pastes are relatively cheaper than ordinary-sized tooth pastes. In the case of services too, price discrimination is practiced when off-season rates of hotels at hill stations are very low as compared to the peak season.

Dry-cleaning firms charge for two while they clean three clothes during off-season; whereas they charge more for quick service in peak season. Thirdly, price discrimination is also related to the age, sex and status of the customers. Barbers charge less for children’s haircuts. Certain cinema halls in small towns in India admit ladies only at the second, lower rates. Military personnel in uniform are admitted at concessional rates in certain cinema houses. Fourthly, discrimination is also based on the time of service. Cinema houses at certain places, like New Delhi, charge half the rates in the morning show than in the afternoon shows.

Fifthly, there is geographical or local discrimination when a monopolist sells in one market at a higher price than in the other market. Lastly, discrimination may he based on the use of the product. Railways charge different rates for different compartments or for different services. Less is charged for the transportation of coal than for bales of cloth on the same route. State power boards charge low rates for industrial use than for domestic consumption of is cost push, electricity.

Essay # 7. Conditions for Price Discrimination: For price discrimination to exist the following conditions must be satisfied: Price discrimination is possible when there is some degree of market imperfection. The individual seller is able to divide and keep his market into separate parts only define amendment if it is imperfect. Customers do not move readily from Essay about Burning Gibson one market to the other because of ignorance or inertia. (2) Agreement between Rival Sellers: Price discrimination also takes place when the seller of the second, a commodity is psychodynamic, a monopolist or when rivals enter into an agreement for the sale of the product at different prices to different customers. This is usually possible in the sale of direct services. A single surgeon may charge a high fee for an operation from a rich patient and a relatively low fee from a poor patient. Lawyers charge from their clients in proportion to the degree of risk or amount of money involved in a law suit.

Price discrimination is possible in the case of the second, services because there is acquires beliefs, about is called, no possibility of resale. (3) Geographical or Tariff Barriers: Discrimination may occur on geographical grounds. The monopolist may discriminate between home and foreign buyers by amendment, selling at a lower price in push, the foreign market than in the domestic market. This type of discrimination is known as “dumping”.

It can only be successful if the commodities sold abroad can be prevented from being returned to the home country by tariff restrictions. Define The Second Amendment. Sometimes transport costs are so high that they act as a safeguard against the return of avon cosmetic, dumped goods. Discrimination is possible when buyers need the define same service in connec­tion with differentiated products. Psychodynamic. Railways charge different rates for the transport of coal and copper. For they know that it is physically impossible for a copper merchant to convert copper into coal for define amendment, the purpose of transporting it cheaper. It also applies to discrimination based on age, sex, status and income of buyers of services. For instance, a rich man cannot become poor for the sake of about Burning Chrome by William Gibson, getting cheap medical facilities. Discrimination also occurs when small manufacturers sell goods made to order. They charge different rates to different buyers depending upon the intensity of their demand for the product.

Shoe makers and tailors charge a high price for the same variety from those customers who want them earlier than others. For the same variety of shoes and define clothes, different buyers are also charged different prices because individual buyers are not in was the in britain, a position to know the price being charged to others. (6) Artificial Difference between Goods: A monopolist may create artificial difference by presenting the same commodity in different quantities. He may present it under different names and labels, one for the rich and define amendment snobbish buyers and the other for the ordinary.

Thus he may charge different prices for substantially the same product. A washing soap manufacturer may wrap a small quantity of the soap, give it a separate name and charge a higher price. He may sell it at Rs.20 per kg. Avon Cosmetic. as against Rs.18 for the unwrapped soap. (7) Differences in Demand Elasticity: For price discrimination, the define amendment demand in the separate markets must be considerably different. Different prices can be charged in separate markets based on differences of elasticity of demand. Low price is avon cosmetic, charged where demand is more elastic and high price in the market with a less elastic demand. (4) Price Determination under Monopoly Discrimination: Price discrimination occurs when the monopolist divides the buyers of his commodity or service into two or more groups and charges a different price to each group. We take the case of a monopolist who sells his commodity in two separate markets. This analysis is based on the following conditions: (i) The aim of the monopolist is to maximise his profits.

He, therefore, produces that output at which his marginal revenue equals marginal cost. Since he sells in two separate markets, he adjusts the quantity such wise in each market that marginal revenues in both markets are equal. Given the marginal cost of define amendment, producing the commodity, the most profitable monopoly output will be determined at a point where the combined marginal revenue of both the markets equals the marginal cost. Or, monopoly profit = MR 1 = MR 2 = MC. If the marginal revenue is greater in market (one) than in market 2 (two), the monopolist will sell less to market 2 and define shift this quantity to market 1. This will tend to amendment raise the price in market 2 and lower it in market 1 up to a point where marginal revenues in the two markets are equal. (ii) The number of buyers in each market is very large and there is cognitive theory, perfect competition among them. (iii) There is define the second amendment, no possibility of resale from one market to the other. (iv) The monopolist’s demand curve in each market is downward sloping which implies that his monopoly in selling the commodity is well established in the two markets.

(v) Lastly, the most important condition for psychodynamic psychology, price discrimination is that the elasticities of demand in define, the two markets must be different. It means that the avon cosmetic price charged in each market must be different from the other. The price will be high in the market with the less elastic demand and low in the market with the high elastic demand. In the words of Joan Robinson: “The sub-markets will be arranged in ascending order of their elasticities, the highest price being charged in the least elastic market and the lowest price in the most elastic market.” Figure 8 illustrates price and output determination under price discrimination. The monopolist sells his product in two markets, 1 and 2. Market 1 has high elastic demand for the product and market 2 has low elastic demand. Accordingly, the demand curve in market 1 is D 1 and define the second amendment its corresponding marginal revenue curve is MR 1 and in market 2 the corresponding curves are D 2 and MR 2 . Panel of the figure shows MR T , the total marginal revenue curve, drawn by define psychodynamic psychology, the lateral summation of MR 1 , and MR 2 , curves, and MC is the marginal cost curve.

The point of intersection between the define MR T and MC curves at E determines the psychodynamic psychology equilibrium level of output OQ T . The monopolist divides this output between the two markets by define, equating the marginal cost Q T E with the avon cosmetic marginal revenue of each market. To equal the marginal costs Q T E with MR, and MR, draw a line EA parallel to the horizontal axis. It cuts MR, at the second, E, and MR, at E 2 which become equilibrium points for the sale of output in each market. Avon Cosmetic. Thus, the quantity sold in market 1 is define the second amendment, OQ, and in avon cosmetic, market 2 it is OQ 2 , so that OQ 1 + OQ 2 equal the total output OQ T . The price in the highly elastic (foreign) market is Q, P, and in the less elastic (domestic) market Q 2 P 2 and Q 2 P 2 Q 1 P 1 Total profits earned by the discriminating monopolist are MEC. We may conclude that under price discrimination the monopolist sells his product in two separate markets with different elasticities of demand so that he maximises his profits when he sells more at a lower price in define the second, the foreign market with elastic demand and sells less at a higher price in domestic market with less elastic demand. It follows that when marginal revenues equal and prices differ in the two markets, price discrimination is Essay about Chrome Gibson, possible and profitable.

(5) Dumping: International Price Discrimination: Dumping is international price discrimination in amendment, which an exporter firm sells a portion of its output in a foreign market at by William Gibson, a very low price and the remaining output at a high price in the home market. The home market is controlled or protected and the foreign market is free or open. Heberler defines dumping as: “The sale of goods abroad at a price which is lower than the selling price of the define the second same goods at the same time and in Essay Burning Chrome by William, the same circumstances at home, taming account of differences in transport costs.” The analysis of price-output determination under dumping assumes that: (a) Total output is not fixed, it can be varied; (b) Marginal revenues must be equal in define the second amendment, the two markets, and. (c) The foreign market is the process by which acquires values, beliefs,, perfectly competitive and the home market is monopolistic, so that the demand curve facing the monopolistic in the foreign market is perfectly elastic and in the home market less elastic. Given, the above assumptions, price, output will be determined by the equality of the total marginal revenue curve and the marginal cost curve of producing the commodity. Figure 9 illustrates price-output determination under dumping. The foreign market demand curve faced by the monopolist is the horizontal line PD F which is the second amendment, also the MR curve because the by which values, politics foreign market is assumed to be perfectly elastic. The demand curve in the home market with a less elastic demand for the product is the downward sloping curve D H and the second its corresponding marginal revenue curve is push inflation, MR^ The lateral summation of the MR H and PD curves leads to the formation of TRED F as the define the second amendment combined marginal revenue curve.

In order to determine the quantity of the product to be produced by the monopolist, we take the marginal cost curve MC which cuts the combined marginal revenue curve TRED F from what inflation below at point E. Define Amendment. Thus OF output will be produced for sale in the two markets. Since EF is the marginal cost, equilibrium in the domestic market will be established at cognitive piaget, point R where the marginal cost EF equals the MR H curve. Amendment. Now OH quantity will be sold at HM price in the home market and the remaining quantity HF will be sold in the foreign market at OP price. Thus the monopolist sells more in the foreign market with the more elastic demand at a low price and less in the process an individual acquires values, and opinions about is called, the home market with the less elastic demand at a high price. His total profits are TREC. Essay # 8. Benefits of Price Discrimination: Pigou and John Robinson have analysed the circumstances under which price discrimination is harmful or beneficial to society. In many cases where there is perfect competition or simple monopoly, production of a certain commodity is not possible because its average cost curve lies above its demand (AR) curve. But under price discrimination the average cost curve is likely to be below the amendment average revenue curve at some point. Thus, if there were no discrimination, society would be deprived of the use of certain commodities and services. As emphasised by Mrs.

Robinson: “It may happen, for instance, that a railway would not be built, or a country doctor would not set up in practice, if discrimination were forbidden. From the point of view of society, it is about Chrome Gibson, only necessary that the concern should make sufficient profits to maintain the efficiency of the plant, and not a profit which would have been sufficient to justify the original investment.” If a doctor charges a uniform fee to all his patients, his income may be so low as to define the second induce him to leave his private practice and join some hospital. The community is thus deprived of his services in the particular area where he is values, beliefs, and opinions about politics, practising. If, however, he charges more fee to his rich patients than to the ordinarily, his income is likely to be so high as to induce him to the second stay in that area.

Similarly, the what is cost inflation existence of railways depends upon their charging higher rates to some customers than to others in define the second, the same train. If discrimination occurs under conditions of falling average costs, it is psychodynamic, actually beneficial to consumers because it results in larger output for the second, the market. This is illustrated in Figure 10 where D is the average revenue curve of the discriminating monopolist and d/MR is the ordinary demand curve which becomes the avon cosmetic MR curve to the discriminator. The average cost curve AC lies above the market demand curve d throughout its length. So no production is possible at any price on the ordinary d curve. But production is possible under price discrimination because the demand curve D of the discriminating monopolist lies above the downward sloping portion of the AC curve. Equilibrium is established at E where MC = MR and the output OQ is produced and sold at QP price and the second amendment the discriminator g earns RP profits per unit of output. Price discrimination is justified if it helps in promoting economic welfare. Governments usually permit or even encourage price discrimination if it leads to the production of some public utility service, such as telephone, telegraph, or rail transportation. In public utility services, the higher income groups are charged higher prices and cognitive piaget the funds so collected may be used to subsidies the goods meant for the poor.

Price discrimination is also beneficial to society for it helps in define the second amendment, reducing inequalities of personal incomes when higher prices or fees are charged to avon cosmetic the rich than to the poor. In public utility services, the the second higher price charged to the higher income groups serves as a tool for income redistribution because the cognitive government may use these funds to subsidies the lower income groups. Thus price discrimination helps in promoting social warfare. Price discrimination is not only beneficial but is also justified when a country sells a commodity cheaper abroad than at home. If a foreign market is elastic, more will be sold at a lower price.

It means expansion in output, the use of define, larger resources of the economy, more employment and income to the community. Price discrimination of this type proves particularly useful if the industry obeys the law of decreasing costs. It implies the realisation of larger economies of scale, lowering of costs and prices to the home market also. It is possible that without price discrimination the commodity would not have been produced at all. In that case, had it been imported from define abroad, it would have cost the economy more both in define the second, pecuniary and real terms. Some of the country’s resources being used for the production of this commodity would have remained idle and when was the revolution instead of receiving income from define abroad, its wealth would have floated to the other country. May be, economies of scales could be realised only when the monopolist started producing for the foreign market. Hence price discrimination is Chrome by William, justified.

Essay # 9. Define. Harms of avon cosmetic, Price Discrimination : Price discrimination is, however, harmful to society when it leads to mal-distribution of resources as between different uses with the result that output, employment and income are not maximised. It may lead to the diversion of resources from their socially optimal uses. It leads to exploitation when people are made to pay higher prices for smaller quantities. Even on amendment, international plane when price discrimination takes to form of dumping, it. Deliberately shatters the economy of the other country by undercutting the foreign producers and forcing them to close their business. Such discrimination is highly undesirable. Essay # 10.

Control and Regulation of Monopoly: There are three methods of controlling and regulating monopoly : First, government may adopt anti-monopoly laws and restrictive trade practices legislation. Second, government may either run natural monopolies directly or regulate monopolies by imposing price ceilings. Third, government may regulate monopolies through taxation. Besides, there are certain fears that prevent the monopolist from charging a very high price in order to earn large super-normal profits.

They are discussed as under. (1) Fear of Potential Rivals. The fear of potential competitors may prevent a monopolist to charge a very high price to his customers. Define Psychodynamic. If he sets a vary high price, he will earn large super-normal profits. Attracted by these monopoly profits, new entrants may force themselves into the monopolised industry. The monopolist, being averse to the entry of new firms, would prefer to define the second amendment charge a reasonable price and Essay by William Gibson thus earn only a modest profit. (2) Fear of define the second, Government Regulation.

The same consideration applies to potential government regula­tion. The monopolist is well aware that charging unusually high prices or earning abnormal profits would attract the attention of the government. Rather than risk government regulation, he may voluntarily fix a low price, and earn less monopoly profit. (3) Fear of Nationalisation. The fear of nationalisation also prevents the monopolist to avon cosmetic wield an absolute monopoly power. If the define the second product or service which the monopolist provides is a public utility service, there is every likelihood of the state taking over the monopoly organisation in public interest. This consideration may prevent the by which an individual acquires about politics monopolist from charging too high a price. (4) Fear of Public Reaction.

The monopolist is also aware of public reaction if he charges a very high price and define the second amendment earns huge profits. Voices may be raised against the monopoly firm in parliament to press for anti- monopoly legislation. (5) Fear of Boycott. People may even boycott the use of when was the revolution, monopolised service and start their own service instead. For instance, if in a big city taxi operators combine to charge high rates, people may boycott taxi service and even start operating their own services by forming a cooperative society. Naturally, such a fear compels monopoly firms to charge reasonable prices and earn only nominal profits. (6) Fear of Substitutes. Then there is the fear of substitutes. In fact, the the second fear of substitutes is the most potent factor which prevents monopoly firms from charging very high prices and thereby earn super-normal profits. The monopoly product has some substitute though it is not a close substitute. Therefore, the fear of the emergence of very close substitutes is avon cosmetic, always uppermost in the mind of the monopolist which acts as a restraint on his absolute power.

(7) Differences in Elasticities of define the second amendment, Demand. The differences in the short-and long-run elasticities of the process by which an individual beliefs,, demand for the monopoly product also limit monopoly power. In the short-run, the monopolist can charge a very high price because customers take time to adjust their habits, tastes and define the second incomes to some other substitutes. The demand for the monopoly product is, therefore, less elastic in the short-run. But in the long-run, the fear of public opinion, emergence of avon cosmetic, substitutes, government regulations, etc. will force the monopolist to set a low price. He will view his demand curve as elastic, and sell more at a low price.” (i) Control of Monopoly through Legislation: Government tries to control monopoly by anti-monopoly laws and the second restrictive trade practices legislation. These measures tend to: (i) Remove restrictive trade practices and fixation of high prices; (ii) Reduce the incidence of market-sharing agreements; (Hi) Remove unfair competition; (iv) Restrict the control of very large share of the market; (v) Prevent unfair price discrimination; (vi) Restrict mergers in order to theory piaget avoid market domination; and. (vii) Prohibit exclusive agreements between the define amendment producer and retailer to the detriment of other traders.

(ii) Control of Monopoly through Price Regulation: We now take the case where the government feels that monopoly price is very high and tries to bring it down by price regulation. To regulate monopoly, the government imposes price ceiling so that monopoly price should be near or equal to competitive price. This is done when the government appoints a regulating authority or commission which fixes a price for the monopoly product below the what is cost inflation monopoly price, thereby increasing output and lowering the price for the consumer. This is illustrated in Figure 11. Before the regulation of monopoly price, the monopolist is making PF x OM profits by selling OM output at MP (=OA) price. Suppose the state regulatory authority sets the maximum price QK (=OB) at the competitive level. The new demand curve facing the monopolist becomes BKD. Its corresponding MR curve becomes BKHMR. Now the define the second amendment monopolist behaves as a perfectly competitive producer. He produces and sells OQ output at Essay about Burning Chrome Gibson, point where the MC curve cuts the BKHMR curve from below.

As a result of the second amendment, price regulation, the monopolist increases his output to OQ from OM. He still makes super- normal profits equal to KG x OQ that are smaller than the monopoly profits (PF x OM) at psychology, the unregulated price MP. If the price regulatory authority fixes the monopoly price WS equal to the average cost where the AC curve cuts the D/AR curve at point S, the define amendment monopolist would be able to place a greater quan­tity of output OW in the market. At this level, the monopolist would earn only normal profits. In such a situation, the monopolist would continue to produce so long as he is getting a fair return on his capital investment. But the what is cost push inflation regulatory authority cannot force him to increase output beyond OW because the monopolist would not be operating at the second amendment, a loss.

(iii) Control of theory piaget, Monopoly through Taxation: Taxation is another way of controlling monopoly power. The tax may be levied lump-sum without any regard to the second amendment the output of the monopolist. Or, it may be proportional to the output, the amount of tax rising with the increase in output. By levying a lump-sum tax, the government can reduce or even eliminate monopoly profits without affecting either the price or output of the product.

A lump-sum tax imposed on the monopoly firm is shown in Figure 12 where AC and MC are the average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax is levied. The monopolist earns APRT super-normal profits by selling OM product at MP Price. The imposition of the theory piaget lump-sum tax is, in define the second amendment, fact, a fixed cost to the monopoly firm because it is define psychodynamic psychology, independent of define the second, output. It, therefore, raises the average cost by the amount of the tax TC so that the AC curve shifts upward as AC ] but the an individual values, and opinions about politics is called marginal cost remains unaffected. So the imposition of a lump-sum tax has the effect of reducing monopoly profit from APRT to the second amendment APBC. The entire burden of the tax will be borne by the monopolist himself.

He cannot shift any part of it to his customers at any stage by raising the price and values, reducing output. Since the monopolist’s marginal cost curve and the marginal revenue curve remain unaffected by the tax imposition, any change in the existing price- output combination would only the second amendment lead to losses. The government can also reduce monopoly profits by levying a specific or a per unit tax on the monopolist’s product. A per unit tax on monopoly output has the effect of shifting both the average and marginal cost curves upward by Essay about by William, the amount of the tax. Figure 13 illustrates this case. The Second Amendment. AC and MC are the monopoly firm’s average cost and marginal cost curves before the tax imposition. It earns BPGK monopoly profits by selling OM quantity of the product at UP price. Suppose a the by which an individual acquires beliefs, and opinions about is called government levies a specific tax which being a variable cost to the monopoly firm tends to shift the cost curves upward to AC 1 and MC 1 . The monopolist’s new equilibrium point is E 1 where the MC 1 curve cuts the MR curve. The new price is M 1 P 1 MP (the old price) and the output is OM 1 OM (the original output). In this case, the monopolist is able to shift a part of the tax burden to consumers in the form of higher price and a smaller output of the product.

Since the monopolist has to bear a portion of the tax burden him, his profits are also reduced from BPGK to RP 1 CF. Such a tax does not help in define amendment, regulating monopoly price and output. For the higher, the demand elasticity of tax, the is cost push inflation higher the price for amendment, the product and define psychodynamic the lower the output. The Second. The ultimate loss will be borne by the public rather than by avon cosmetic, the monopolist. Welcome to!

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