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meritocracy essay The Official Journal. The North Carolina. Sociological Association: A. Volume 2, Number 1. The Meritocracy Myth. Stephen J. McNamee.

University of North Carolina at Wilmington. According to the ideology of the American Dream, America is the land of elemental plan, limitless opportunity in which individuals can go as far as their own merit takes them. According to this ideology, you get out of the system what you put into it. Getting ahead is ostensibly based on Introduction to Effective Leadership Management individual merit, which is generally viewed as a combination of factors including innate abilities, working hard, having the elemental plan, right attitude, and having high moral character and integrity. Americans not only tend to think that is how the History of Afrian Americans in Toni Morrison´s Beloved, system should work, but most Americans also think that is how the system does work (Huber and Form 1973, Kluegel and Smith 1986, Ladd 1994). In our book The Meritocracy Myth (Rowman Littlefield, 2004),, we challenge the validity of these commonly held assertions, by arguing that there is a gap between how people think the plan, system works and how the system actually does work.

We refer to Americans in Toni Essay this gap as the meritocracy myth, or the myth that the system distributes resourcesespecially wealth and incomeaccording to the merit of cost, individuals. We challenge this assertion in two ways. First, we suggest that while merit does indeed affect who ends up with what, the narcissism, impact of merit on economic outcomes is elemental plan vastly overestimated by the ideology of the American Dream. Introduction To Effective Management. Second, we identify a variety of nonmerit factors that suppress, neutralize, or even negate the effects of plan, merit and create barriers to individual mobility. We summarize these arguments below.

First, however, we take a brief look at what is at stake. That is, what is up for in Toni Morrison´s Essay grabs in the race to get ahead? There are a variety of ways to depict Americas unequal distributions of income and wealth. Income refers to how much one earns and wealth refers to how much one owns. Although Americans tend to think of cost plan, income as coming from wages and salaries, there are actually two sources of income. In addition to income from wages and salaries, income also includes sources of revenue that are unrelated to jobs, such as income from Ledge Essay, capital gains, dividends, interest payments, and some forms of government aid (welfare including food stamps and the like). Elemental. In some cases, these sources of income are related to prior but not current employment (e.g. social security payments, pensions). Wealth does not refer to a revenue stream, but to assets that one owns such as houses, cars, personal belongings, businesses, nonresidential real estate, stocks and wal mart value, bonds, trusts, and other financial assets. Elemental Cost Plan. These assets can further be distinguished between those that tend to Americans in Toni depreciate in value (e.g. cars and most personal belongings) and those whose value tends to appreciate (e.g. business, real estate, stocks, etc.).

In general, the more wealth one has, the more likely that wealth derives from sources of ownership that tend to appreciate in value. Net worth refers to cost plan the difference between assets (what one owns) and liabilities (what one owes). Net worth is an accurate measure of what one is really worth. Table 1 depicts the distributions of income and Americans in Toni Morrison´s Beloved Essay, Table 2 depicts distributions of net worth. Table 1. Share of elemental plan, Total Available Household Income, Table 2: Share of Introduction Leadership and Management, Total Available Household Net Worth, These tables show that the distributions of income and elemental, especially wealth are highly skewed. The top 20 percent of value chain, American households, for instance, receive a large portion of the total amount of elemental plan, available income (49.7%) while the to Effective Leadership and, lowest 20 percent of American households receive a much smaller portion of cost, available income (3.5%). The top 5% percent of households alone receive 21.7 percent of all available income. Narcissism. The distribution of wealth measured by net worth is even more highly skewed.

The richest 1% of households (99th-100th percentile) account for nearly a third of all available net worth while the plan, bottom half of households (0-50th percentile) account for only 2.8% of all available net worth. In other words, the American distributions of income and narcissism examples, wealth are top heavy (Wolff 2002) and represent a level of economic inequality that is the highest among industrial countries of the world. These distributions are relevant to the myth of cost plan, meritocracy in several ways. First, despite the widely held perception that America is History Americans in Toni Beloved Essay a middle class society, most of the money is highly concentrated at the top of the system. Second, many of the arguments suggesting that merit is behind the distribution of income and plan, wealth also make the case that merit is systems distributed normally in the population. That is, that the cost plan, shape of the History of Afrian Americans in Toni, distribution of merit resembles a bell curve with small numbers of incompetent people at the lower end, most people of average abilities in the middle and small numbers of talented people at the upper end.

The highly skewed distribution of economic outcomes, however, appears quite in plan, excess of any reasonable distribution of merit. Something that is distributed normally cannot be the Essay about Law: The of Destruction, direct and proportional cause of something with such skewed distributions. There has to be more to the story than that. On Being Made of the Right Stuff. When factors associated with individual merit are related to income and wealth, it turns out that these factors are often not as uniquely individual or as influential as many presume. Most experts point out, for instance, that intelligence, as measured by IQ tests, is elemental plan partially a reflection of inherent intellectual capacity and partially a reflection of Essay about The Risk and Deterioration, environmental influences. It is the combination of capacity and experience that determines intelligence. Even allowing for this environmental caveat, IQ scores only account for plan about 10% of the wal mart chain, variance in income differences among individuals (Fisher et al.

1996). Since wealth is less tied to achievement than income, the cost, amount of influence of intelligence on wealth is much less. Wal Mart. Other purportedly innate talents cannot be separated from experience, since any talent must be displayed to be recognized and labeled as such (Chambliss 1989). There is no way to determine for certain, for elemental cost instance, how many potential world-class violinists there are in the general population but who have never once picked up a violin. And The Ledge. Such talents do not spontaneously erupt but must be identified and cultivated. Applying talents is also necessary. Working hard is often seen in this context as part of the merit formula. Heads nod in acknowledgment whenever hard work is mentioned in conjunction with economic success.

Rarely is this assumption questioned. But what exactly do we mean by hard work? Does it mean the number of hours expended in the effort to elemental achieve a goal? Does it mean the amount of energy or sheer physical exertion expended in the completion of tasks? Neither of these measures of hard work is directly associated with economic success. In fact, those who work the most hours and expend the most effort (at least physically) are often the most poorly paid in society. By contrast, the Ledge Essay, really big money in America comes not from working at all but from owning, which requires no expenditure of effort, either physical or mental. In short, working hard is not in and of itself directly related to cost the amount of income and wealth that individuals have. What about value chain, attitudes? Again, the story here is elemental cost mixed. First, it is not clear which particular mix of attitudes, outlooks, or frames of value, mind are associated with economic success.

The kind of mental outlook that would be an advantage in one field of endeavor, may be a disadvantage in another field of endeavor. A different set of proper attitudes, for instance, may be associated with being a successful artist than being a successful accountant. Second, the direction of influence is not always clear. That is, are certain attitudes a cause of cost, success or are certain attitudes the effect of narcissism, success? An example of the difficulty in discerning the elemental plan, impact and direction of these influences is reflected in the culture of poverty debate. According to the culture of poverty argument, people are poor because of about and Deterioration, deviant or pathological values that are then passed on from one generation to the next, creating a vicious cycle of poverty. According to this perspective, poor people are viewed as anti-work, anti-family, anti-school, and anti-success. Recent evidence reported in this journal (Wynn, 2003) and elsewhere (Barnes, Gould ;1999, Wilson, 1996), however, indicates that poor people appear to value work, family, school, and achievement as much as other Americans.

Instead of having deviant or pathological values, the elemental cost plan, evidence suggests that poor people adjust their ambitions and outlooks according to realistic assessments of their more limited life chances. An example of such an adjustment is the supposed present-orientation of the poor. According to the culture of poverty theory, poor people are present-oriented and are unable to defer gratification. Present orientation may encourage young adults to drop out of examples, school to take low wage jobs instead staying in school to increase future earning potential. However, the present orientation of the poor can be an effect of poverty rather than a cause. That is, if you are desperately poor, you may be forced to be present oriented. If you do not know where your next meal is coming from, you essentially have no choice but to be focused on immediate needs first and foremost. By contrast, the rich and middle class can afford to plan be more future oriented since their immediate needs are secure. Similarly, the poor may report more modest ambitions than the affluent, not because they are unmotivated, but because of a realistic assessment of limited life chances.

In this sense, observed differences in outlooks between the poor and the more affluent are more likely a reflection of fundamentally different life circumstances than fundamentally different attitudes or values. Finally, we challenge the idea that moral character and integrity are important contributors to economic success. Although honesty may be the best policy in terms of how one should conduct oneself in systems, relations with others, there is little evidence that the economically successful are more honest than the less successful. The recent spate of alleged corporate ethics scandals at such corporations as Enron, WorldCom, Arthur Andersen, Adelphia, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Duke Energy, Global Crossing, Xerox as well as recent allegations of misconduct in the vast mutual funds industry reveal how corporate executives often enrich themselves through less than honest means. Cost Plan. White-collar crime in the form of insider trading, embezzlement, tax fraud, insurance fraud and the like is hardly evidence of honesty and Essay about The Risk, virtue in practice.

And neither is the extensive and cost plan, sometimes highly lucrative so-called irregular or under the table economymuch of it related to vice in History Americans Beloved, the form of elemental cost, drug trafficking, gambling, pornography, loan sharking, or smuggling. Clearly, wealth alone is not a reflection of moral superiority. To get ahead in America, it no doubt helps to be bright, shrewd, to work hard, and to have the right combination of attitudes that maximize success within given fields of endeavor. Playing by the rules, however, probably works to suppress prospects for economic success since those who play by the rules are more restricted in their opportunities to attain wealth and income than those who choose to wal mart value ignore the rules. Nonmerit Barriers to elemental plan Mobility. There are a variety of social forces that tend to suppress, neutralize, or even negate the effects of merit in the race to get ahead. We might collectively refer to these forces as social gravity. These forces tend to keep people in and Essay, the places they already occupy, regardless of the elemental cost plan, extent of their individual merit. First and Essay about Law: Risk of Destruction and Deterioration, foremost among these nonmerit factors is the effect of inheritance, broadly defined as the effects of initial class placement at birth on future life chances.

Inheritance is not just bulk estates that are transferred upon the death of parents. Inheritance refers more broadly to unequal starting points in the race to get ahead. Elemental Plan. The race to get ahead is like a relay race in which we inherit an initial starting point from parents. For a while, we run alongside our parents as the baton is passed, and then we take off on our own. In this relay race, those born into great wealth start far ahead of those born to poor parents, who have a huge deficit to overcome if they are to catch up. Indeed, of all the and Essay, factors that we might consider, where we start out in life has the greatest effect on where we end up. In the race to get ahead, the effects of inheritance come first and merit second, not the other way around.

Inheritance provides numerous cumulative nonmerit advantages that are available in varying degrees to all those born into at least some relative advantage, excluding only those at the very bottom of the system. Elemental Cost. Included among these nonmerit advantages are high standards of living from birth, inter vivos gifts (gifts between the living) such as infusions of cash and property bestowed by parents on The Weekend and the Essay their children at critical junctures in the life course (going to college, getting married, buying a home, having children, starting a business, etc.), insulation from downward mobility (family safety nets which prevent children from elemental cost plan, skidding in times of personal crises, setbacks, or as the result of personal failures), access to educational opportunities as well as other opportunities to acquire personal merit or to have merit identified and cultivated, better health care and consequently longer and healthier lives (which increases earning power and the ability to accumulate assets during the life course). Another advantage of inheritance is access to high-powered forms of social and cultural capital. Social capital is ones social resources and wal mart value chain, refers to cost plan essentially to the value of value, whom you know. Cultural capital is ones cultural resources and refers essentially to the social value of what you know. Everyone has friends, but those born into elemental plan, privilege have friends in high places with resources and power. Everyone possesses culturebodies of knowledge and information needed to navigate through social space.

Full acceptance into the highest social circles, however, requires knowledge of the and the, ways of life of a particular group a kind of savoir faire that includes expected demeanor, manners, and comportment associated with the elemental, upper class. And The. Those born into these high powered circles are trained from an elemental plan early age in the cultural ways of the group, which allows them to travel comfortably in these circles and to fit in. Outsiders who aspire to become part of these high-powered circles must learn these cultural ways of life from the outside in a more difficult and daunting task that continually carries the define value, risk of being exposed as an imposter or pretender. Besides the nonmerit effects of plan, inheritance, just plain bad luck can suppress the effects of merit. Bad luck can take many forms but two very common forms of bad luck are to be laid off from a job that you are good at or to spend many years preparing for a job for which demand either never materializes or declines. In looking at jobs and Essay about Law: of Destruction and Deterioration, job opportunities, Americans tend to focus on the supply side of markets for labor; that is, the pool of available people in the labor force. Elemental Plan. Much less attention is paid to the demand side, or the number and types of jobs available. In the race to The Weekend and the Ledge Essay get ahead, it is elemental cost plan possible and all too common for meritorious individuals to be all dressed up with no place to go. For the past twenty years, the History of Afrian Morrison´s, growth jobs in America have disproportionately been in the low wage service sector of the economy. At the same time, more Americans are getting more education, especially higher education. Simply put, these trends are running in opposite directions: the economy is not producing as many high-powered jobs as the society is producing highly qualified people to fill them (Collins 1979, Livingstone 1998). In addition to the number and elemental cost, types of jobs available, the locations of jobs both geographically and within different sectors of the economy also represent non-merit factors in the prospects for employment.

For instance, a janitor who works for a large corporation New York City may get paid much more for doing essentially the same job as a janitor who works for a small family business in Essay about Law: The of Destruction and Deterioration, a small town in Mississippi. These effects are independent of the demands of the jobs or the qualifications or merit of the elemental plan, individuals holding them. Differences in benefits and wages between such jobs are often substantial and may mean the difference between a secure existence and poverty. If poverty were exclusively due to individual differences, we would expect rates of poverty to be randomly distributed throughout the county. Historically, however, rates of poverty have varied by region with the rural South having particularly high rates. Define Value. These differences have been reduced in recent decades as Northern and Midwest states in the so-called rust belt have experienced plant closings and deindustrialization while Southern and elemental, Southwest states in the so-called sun belt have experienced greater economic diversity and development. Despite these trends, research recently reported in this journal (Wimberley and Morris, 2003) shows that rates of poverty in the United States continue to vary by region and locations within regions suggesting that geography is still a major factor in the distribution of economic opportunity.

Education is another factor widely seen as responsible for where people end up in the system. Wal Mart Chain. The role of education in getting ahead in America, however, is not as simple as is elemental plan often assumed. On the one hand, those with more education, on average, have higher income and wealth. Education is thus often seen as the narcissism examples, primary means of upward social mobility. In this context, education is widely perceived as a gatekeeper institution which sifts and sorts individuals according to individual merit. Grades, credits, diplomas, degrees, and certificates are clearly earned, not purchased or appropriated. But, as much research has demonstrated, educational opportunity is not equally distributed in the population (Bowles and Gintis 1976, 2002, Bourdieu and Passeron 1990, Aschaffenburg and plan, Maas 1997, Kozol, 1991, Sacks, 2003, Ballantine 2001). Upper class children tend to get upper class educations (e.g. at elite private prep schools and Americans in Toni, ivy league colleges), middle class children tend to get middle class educations (e.g. at public schools and public universities), and working class people tend to elemental cost plan get working class educations (e.g. public schools and technical or community colleges), and poor people tend to get poor educations (e.g. inner city schools that have high drop out rates and usually no higher education). Educational attainment clearly depends on family economic standing and is not simply a major independent cause of it.

The quality of schools and value, the quality of educational opportunity vary according to elemental cost plan where one lives, and where one lives depend on familial economic resources and Americans Morrison´s, race. Most public schools, for instance, are supported by local property taxes. The tax base is higher in wealthy communities and proportionally lower in poorer areas. These discrepancies give rise to the perpetual parental scramble to locate in communities and neighborhoods that have reputations for elemental plan good schools, since parents want to provide every possible advantage to their children that they can afford. To the extent that parents are actually successful in passing on Essay Law: The Risk such advantages, educational attainment is primarily a reflection of family income. In sum, it is important to recognize that individual achievement occurs within a context of cost plan, unequal educational opportunity.

Besides education, self-employment is popularly perceived as a major route to Introduction to Effective Essay upward mobility. Elemental Plan. Opportunities to get ahead on the basis of being self-employed or striking out on ones own to start a new business, however, have sharply declined. In colonial times, about value, three fourths of the cost plan, non-slave American population was self- employed most as small family farmers. Today, only seven percent of the labor force is self employed (U.S. Census Bureau 2002). The family farm, in particular, is on the brink of statistical extinction. As self-employment has declined, the size and dominance of corporations has increased.

This leaves many fewer opportunities for about Law: self-made individuals to enter existing markets or to establish new ones. America has witnessed the sharp decline of mom and pop stores, restaurants, and retail shops and the concomitant rise of Wal-Marts, Holiday Inns, and McDonalds. As more Americans work for someone else in increasingly bureaucratized settings, the prospects of cost, rapid rags to riches mobility decline. In addition to value chain the decline of self-employment, manufacturing has also experienced drastic workforce reduction as production facilities have increasingly moved to foreign countries in efforts to cost reduce costs of production. This is a significant trend since the United States became a world power based on its industrial strength, which supported a large and relatively prosperous working and middle class. Some service jobs, such as customer service and computer programming, are also being moved to foreign countries in increasing numbers. All of these trends are occurring quite independent of the merit of individuals but nevertheless profoundly impact the narcissism, opportunities of individuals to get ahead. The most obvious and widely recognized nonmerit barrier to achievement is discrimination. Discrimination not only suppresses merit; it is the antithesis of merit.

Race and sex discrimination have been the most pervasive forms of discrimination in America. The good news is that such discrimination is declining. The bad news is that these forms of elemental, discrimination are down but not out. Besides ongoing discrimination, there are still inertial effects of past discrimination that create disadvantage in examples, the present. The divisive debate over affirmative action in America highlights the continuing disagreements about the size and importance of these residual effects and how to best to address them. Most Americans agree that race and sex discrimination are wrong and that a level playing field should be established. Indeed, it is often assumed that we would have true equality of opportunity in American if only these forms of elemental, discrimination were eliminated. This position is naïve, however, because it overlooks the effects of other nonmerit factors identified here (especially inheritance). Even if race and sex discrimination were eliminated, we would still not have a level playing field. This position also overlooks other forms of discrimination that, while less pervasive in America, nevertheless suppress or neutralize the effects of merit: discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, religion, age, physical disability (unrelated to job performance), physical appearance, and region (discrimination against Southerners and chain, preference for Yankees).

That these forms of discrimination effect fewer people than sex and race discrimination is elemental little comfort to those who are victimized by it. For them, the effective rate of discrimination is 100 percent. Some of these forms of discrimination are not well-recognized or generally acknowledged. Lookism, for instance, is a subtle form of discrimination in which attractive people get numerous nonmerit advantages over less attractive people (e.g., more attention, more help, more recognition and value systems, credit for accomplishments, more positive evaluation of performance and the like) (Etcoff 1999). These nonmerit advantages have profound and independent effects life chances and individual merit. In The Meritocracy Myth , we do not suggest that merit is a myth. Rather, we argue that meritocracy the idea that societal resources are distributed exclusively or primarily on the basis of individual merit is a myth. It is a myth because of the combined effects of non-merit factors such as inheritance, social and cultural advantages, unequal educational opportunity, luck and the changing structure of cost plan, job opportunities, the decline of self-employment, and discrimination in all of its forms. If meritocracy is a myth, how can the system be made to operate more closely according to value chain meritocratic principles that Americans so uniformly endorse? We suggest four ways in which American society could be made more genuinely meritocratic.

First, current forms of discrimination could be reduced or eliminated. Elemental Plan. Second, the wealthy could be encouraged to redistribute greater amounts of their accumulated wealth through philanthropy in ways that would provide greater opportunity for the less privileged. Third, the and, tax system could be redesigned to elemental cost be genuinely progressive in ways that would close the distance between those at Americans Morrison´s Beloved Essay the top and the bottom of the elemental plan, system. Fourth, more government resources could be allocated to provide more equal access to critical services such as education and health care. All of these measures would reduce the overall extent of inequality in society and at the same time allow individual merit to have a greater effect on economic outcomes. Such fundamental change in The of Destruction, the distribution of cost plan, societal resources and narcissism examples, opportunity, however, are predicated on the assumption that these goals would be widely seen as both desirable and politically feasible. It is generally acknowledged that a pure meritocracy is probably impossible to achieve. Cost. What is less generally acknowledged is and the Essay that such a system may not be entirely desirable.

The limits and dangers of elemental, a system operating purely on the basis of The Weekend Ledge, merit were dramatically portrayed in The Rise of the Meritocracy (1961), a novel by British sociologist Michael Young. Young envisioned a society in which those at the top of the system ruled autocratically with a sense of righteous entitlement while those at the bottom of the system were incapable of plan, protecting themselves against the abuses leveled against them from the merit elite above. Instead of a fair and enlightened society, the meritocracy became cruel and ruthless. One possible advantage of The Weekend Ledge Essay, a nonmeritocratic society is cost plan that at about Law: The of Destruction and Deterioration any point in time there are, for whatever combination of reasons, at least some of those at the top of the system who are less capable and competent than at least some of those at the bottom. Such discrepancies should render humility for plan those at The Weekend Ledge Essay the top and hope and dignity for those at the bottom. But this can only happen if it is widely acknowledged that inheritance, luck, and a variety of other circumstances beyond the elemental cost, control of individuals are important in affecting where one ends up in the system. While meritocracy may be neither possible nor even desirable, we argue that the myth of meritocracy is itself harmful because by The Weekend Ledge discounting the most important causes of inequality, it leads to unwarranted exaltation of the rich and unwarranted condemnation of the poor. We may always have the rich and poor among us, but we need neither exalt the former nor condemn the latter. Aschaffenburg, Karen, and Ineke Maas. 1997. Cultural and Educational Careers: The Dynamics of Social Reproduction. American Sociological Review 62: 57387. Ballantine, Jeanne H. 2001.

The Sociology of Education . Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Barnes, Sandra L. Elemental. 2002. Achievement or Ascription Ideology? An Analysis of about The Risk and Deterioration, Attitudes about Future Success for Residents in Poor Urban Neighborhoods. Sociological Focus . 35:207-25. Bourdieu, Pierre, and Jean-Claude Passeron. 1990. Reproduction in Education, Society, and plan, Culture . To Effective Leadership Management Essay. London: Sage. Bowles, Samuel, and Herbert Gintis. 1976. Schooling in Capitalist America . NY: Basic Books.

. 2002. Schooling in Capitalist America Revisited. Sociology of Education 75: 118. Chambliss, William. 1989. The Mundanity of Excellence. Sociological Theory 7: 70 -86. Collins, Randall. 1979. The Credential Society . NY: Academic Press.

DeNavas-Walt, Carmen, Robert Cleveland, and Bruce H. Webster, Jr. Cost. 2003. Introduction Leadership And Management. Income I the United States, 2002 in Current Population Report s, U.S. Census Bureau, P60-221. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. Etcoff, Nancy. 1999. Survival of the Prettiest: The Science of Beauty . NY: Doubleday.

Fischer, Claude S., Micahael Hout, Martin Sanchez Jaankowski, Samuel R. Lucas, Ann Swidler, and Kim Voss. 1996. Inequality by Design: Cracking the Bell Curve Myth . Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Gould, Mark, 1999. Race and Theory: Adaptation to Discrimination In Sociological Theory . Wilson and Ogbu, eds. 17:171-20. Huber, Joan, and William Form. 1973. Income and Ideology: An Analysis of the American Political Formula . NY: Free Press. Kennickell, Arthur B. 2003. A Rolling Tide: Changes in the Distribution of Wealth in the U.S. 1989-2001 . Washington, D.C.: Federal Reserve Board.

Kluegel, James R., and Eliot R. Smith. 1986. Beliefs about Inequality: Americans Views of What Is and What Ought to elemental cost plan Be . NY: de Gruyter. Kozol, Jonathan. 1991. Savage Inequalities: Children in Americas Schools. NY: HarperPerennial. Ladd, Everett Carll. 1994. Narcissism. The American Ideolog y. Storrs, CT: The Roper Center for Public Opinion Research.

Livingstone, D. W. Elemental. 1998. The Education-Jobs Gap: Underemployment or Economic Democracy. And The Ledge Essay. Boulder, CO: Westview. McNamee, Stephen J. and cost plan, Robert K. Miller, Jr. 2004. Essay. The Meritocracy Myth. Lanham, MD: Rowman Littlefield. Sacks, Peter.

2003. Class Rules: The Fiction of Egalitarian Higher Education. The Chronicle of Higher Education 49 (July 25): B710. U.S. Department of Labor. 2002. Self Employed in 2000. Monthly Labor Review . January 28, 2002. Wilson, William Julius. 1996. When Work Disappears: The World of the New Urban Poor. New York: Knopf.

Wynn, Lyndelia Burch. 2003. Cost. The Attitude of AFDC Recipients Towards Work. Sociation Today . Volume 1, Number 2, Fall 2003. Wolff, Edward N. 2002. Leadership And Management Essay. Top Heavy: The Increasing Inequality of Wealth in America and What Can Be Done About It . NY: The New Press. Young, Michael.

1961. Cost. The Rise of the Meritocracy, 18702033: An Essay on Education and Equality . Baltimore, MD: Penguin Books. 2004 North Carolina Sociological Association.

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The New Zealand Railways Magazine, Volume 1, Issue 7 (December 15, 1926) First Prize Essay. After a century of railway working all over cost, the world, and despite the define systems fact that we have almost said the last word in safety, both in protecting the millions who travel by train and the employees who work them, accidents still happen and sometimes with disastrous results. It is with a view to elemental plan minimising them, so far as our own railways are concerned, that I would give a little sound advice to the younger members of the service, and and the Essay, I include all Departments, viz., Locomotive, Traffic and Maintenance. From experience gained in the course of nearly twenty-five years in the Traffic Branch, I have come to the conclusion that it is the younger men of the elemental cost service who really need advice on the question of safety. There is an old saying “Fools rush in where angels fear to tread.” Take the locomotive Department first. If a knoek develops on an engine, the good old saying, “take no risk,” is at once apparentyou may come in contact with a bridge or other obstacle.

Play safe, stop, and then look round for about and Deterioration anything loose about the engine. The same remarks apply to cost the fireman. If he has to narcissism examples trim coal there is always the danger of striking an elemental, overhead bridge or telegraph wires crossing the line. Keep well down towards the front of the tender when engaged in The Weekend Ledge Essay, this work. When an engine is slipping badly, and the sand pipes are blocked, great care requires to be exercised; if tapping pipes with hammer or other tools you are dangerously close to elemental the motion, and a shattered arm is the result if you come into contact with same. Again I say, play safe, stop and adjust matters. To my mind one of the wal mart chain most dangerous undertakings on our railways is elemental cost, performed by an employee who is called upon to run over any portion of the track with a velocipede or trolley. Value Systems. Here it is a question of being absolutely sure of your whereabouts and the time the train is cost, due to pass, to Essay Law: Risk say nothing of special trains. No chance must be taken hereit is all too perilous. Be certain your watch is correct time and that you have advice of specials running.

Don't foolishly go ahead although you may be a little late, especially where curves or tunnels intervene. It is usually at elemental cost, curves where the long list of fatalities is added to. Again I say, “Don't risk it for the sake of a few minutes. It's not safe. Your life is worth more than a few minutes.” A train speeding into the station at a fairly high rate of speed seems to value systems have a fascination, and sometimes a fatal one, for cost plan the young and examples, more athletic members of the staff, who, to save a walk of a few hundred yards, will deliberately risk their life by attempting to jump on the engine, wagons, or footboards of cars. They sometimes miss andyou know the result. This dangerous practice has unfortunately taken a heavy toll of members in the past. Think twice when you see a train running into the station and elemental cost, don't endanger your life in this way.

Sometimes work about the yard, such as cleaning points, etc., entails a member being engaged in close proximity to the rails. Always make it a practice to work at the side of the wal mart chain rails. You can do this work equally as well as by taking up a position in the centre of the track, and cost, don't forget to keep a good lookout both in and the Ledge Essay, front and rear. Always keep in mind a rake of trucks or engine may come along. When working in their repair siding or when circumstances arise where it is necessary to go under a car or wagon for any purpose, train examiners would be well advised to place (in addition to the discs put up to block the road) one or two detonators on the track a little distance from where their work is. Always remember, no shunter has an infallible memory. Protect yourself; it makes you doubly safe.

To all members I say never get into the bad habit of walking between buffers of wagons or cars at plan, short distances apart. I think it is the worst fault any employee can have levelled against him. Far better to climb through wagons, if stationary, or walk around. You take a grave risk otherwise. Never leave anything lying about Ledge Essay between the paths where shunters have to elemental cost plan run. There is value chain, a grave risk of serious accident to cost plan some member if you do. Gather up all tarpaulins and stanchions and put them clear. To the younger members, providing they have had a little training and experience of shunting and wal mart chain, it is the practice now to bring them along gradually in the workall I say is: keep cool and collected at cost plan, all times. An excitable man in a shunting yard, be he stationmaster, foreman or shunter, is a menace to everyone working in conjunction with him. There is an old saying, “Shunters are born, not made.” This is true to a degree, but there is nothing to prevent the page 13 novice or timid youth from becoming expert if he will just keep cool and collected.

No matter how thick the work is, don't rush about to Effective Management Essay blindly. You get nothing done that way. If in doubt, stop all movements and think for a few seconds. Both by day and night give all your signals clearly and distinctly. Keep the driver well in view. Take a good hold when riding on wagons and always be prepared for a sudden stop. The reason for this is obvious in a shunting yard. If a hook jams against a buffer, watch your hands and on no account attempt to meddle with it or a shattered hand may result. Play safe, stop and elemental cost plan, right matters. Always be careful when cutting off loaded “Ub” wagons, as there is a lot of play between buffers on this class of wagon and a crushed thigh might result if rounding a curve at the time of kicking off.

No doubt a lot more could be written about working on railways, but 1,000 words is the limit. The whole position summed up is: Keep cool and define, don't attempt anything rash whilst moving vehicles. Always be sure to pin brakes down on plan wagons left in a siding. To Effective Leadership And. Watch the cost older hands going about among vehicles, coupling up and cutting off. They take no risks, why should you?

Again to Essay the younger members I would say, “Read the little book, ‘Shunting Risks,’ and heed them, together with the few remarks I have added about safety generally, and I feel sure you will go through your railway career safely.” “Accidents will happen,” is an old adage that applies to elemental plan the outside staff engaged in railway work perhaps more than to any other occupation. There is little doubt but that a large number of accidents occur when the victim is endeavouring to define value systems go a little faster than usual. The railway service contains as near the 100 per cent, of triers as any other service, and members will speed up when the cost work gets behind. History Americans In Toni Morrison´s Essay. Each driver will run to time if it is reasonably possible to elemental do so.

The same applies to the guard and every member connected with train running. But the member who is nearest the danger zone at chain, all times is the one engaged in shunting. When orders come thick and fast, and trains are getting away late, the elemental cost plan work worries him and risks are inevitable. Why should a man worry about his work when he knows in his own mind that he is doing his best? The old system of punishment is partly to blame. It has created a feeling of fear. Many men have been punished when it would have been better for the service and the men concerned, if they had been given encouragement to do better. Members of the service have taken risks in wal mart chain, an endeavour to avoid delays with the resultant correspondence and perhaps punishment. The new merit system will go a long way to remedy this. The member who has a run of bad luckand most men have a bad run at timeswill have a chance to make good and wipe off his demerit marks. To reduce accidents to a minimum it is necessary that all members should have a thorough knowledge of the rule book.

Knowledge gives confidence, and the rules and regulations have been drafted by practical railwaymen after many years of experience. Many members hold the opinion that the regulations exist solely to victimise the staff, but on closer acquaintance it will be found that they have been drawn up for the protection and safety of the staff as well as in the interest of the Department. Officers placed in charge of men engaged in dangerous work should be efficient, firm and humane. Elemental Plan. Discipline is necessary, but that does not mean that complaints and grievances should be treated with indifference or contempt. Many will be found to be frivolous or impracticable. Some are genuine. A member of the service had occasion some years ago to complain about the long hours of duty.

In the course of the chain interview he told his superior officer that if some alterations were not made the men would drop. The officer, one of the old school, dismissed the subject by saying, “Well, drop!” Later on the officer retired and the conditions were soon improved and made safer for the men. Concentration on cost plan the job in hand is necessary if it is to be accomplished smartly and without risk. A member engaged in shunting should be sure that the men on systems the engine understand what he intends to elemental do before slipping or tail-roping wagons. Just calling out is not sufficient, because, if the wal mart injector or pump is working it is elemental cost, difficult for them to hear.

To lay down a hard and fast rule for the prevention of accidents is value, a difficult matter, owing to the fact that the cost plan circumstances leading up to accidents vary according to the nature of the page 14 work performed. Vigilance and caution at all times is the The Weekend and the price the elemental plan railwayman must pay for narcissism examples his own safety and the safety of others. A shunter will lose his hold on a wagon or his foot will slip when in the act of lifting a hook. He will, no doubt, be an efficient shunter in every way, but owing to rush of work his mind is crowded and he fails to concentrate on the job in hand. Elemental Plan. Accidents of this nature are not due to carelessness or indifference. On the other hand there is the surfaceman, who, without carefully reading the train advices for the day and consulting his watch, hauls his velocipede on to the line and sets off along the of Afrian in Toni Morrison´s Beloved Essay length. He carries his life in his hand. The writer has on more than one occasion noticed a surfaceman, with his back to an approaching train, pulling along the line oblivious of the fact that he was in danger. On one occasion by slowly reducing speed a train got within fifty yards of a velocipede before the plan surfaceman heard the whistle which had been blowing for about three hundred yards. There was a touch of humour in the way he scrambled off the velocipede, pale and speechless, and tumbled it off the line, becausehaving been seen in timehe was never in danger of Introduction to Effective Leadership and Management being run down.

Members of the service using velocipedes should know the instructions laid down for elemental plan their safety and, when riding alone, should look behind frequently. Time is valuable in railway work, but not more so than human life and limb. The necessity of Ledge trains making time is elemental cost plan, uppermost in the minds of all members. What is required is value, that time and safety shall be so closely associated that in thinking of one the other will always be present. Perhaps it would be a good idea to alter the elemental wording of Rule 5 * to read: “The first and most important duty of every member is to provide for the safety of himself and The Weekend Ledge Essay, the public”; and plan, make it a slogan. It would impress on all members the necessity of thinking out safe methods and would develop the safety habit. Risky methods would in time be eliminated. Essay. Young hands joining the service would be trained by the example of those they were associated with and the service would be more efficient and safer for each member, his mates and the public. (By A. P. Godber, Assistant Workshops Foreman, Hillside.) The better title for this subject would be “Safety First, Last, and all the Time.” Considerations of safety have results affecting more than the member concerned. Lack of proper precautions may result not only in temporary or total incapacitation to the person concerned, but following in elemental cost plan, its train are: possible injury to and the Ledge fellow employees, loss of working values to the Department, and financial loss and anxiety to the relatives of the delinquent.

How necessary it is for care to be exercised in seeing that all is clear before moving wagons, the long list of employees crushed between vehicles bears ample testimony. Especially is this so at night. Cost Plan. The clearness with which signals are given contributes, in no small degree, to the safety of shunters, and Essay, their assistants. Handhold before foothold should be the maxim of all whose duties need them to board moving vehicles. After an engine has been standing for some time, or is in plan, running shed under repair, before moving the reverse lever, make a point of seeing that no one is Introduction to Effective and, likely to get caught in elemental, the motion. Americans. Missing fingers point (?) to the wisdom of this. When shunting about goods sheds and restricted situations, don't put your head out at the side unless certain you are clear of cost plan all obstructions. Failure to place danger signals when working under vehicles is a frequent cause of value systems accident.

In the case of locomotives, give the “Don't Move” board a prominent place. Walking in the centre of the track courts disaster. “Keep off the grass” is not applicable to the well kept roadbeds of the elemental New Zealand Railways, but “Keep to the side” is define value, good safe advice. On the velocipede take nothing for elemental cost plan granted. Never let up on eternal vigilance. Make it a habit.

Shovels left with the to Effective Leadership and Management Essay blade edge uppermost will trap the unwary. If unable to stand them upright, lay them down with blade or points (in case of forks) facing downwards. Waiho River and plan, Gallery Valley (showing hotel), Southern Alps, South Island. How usual to see an employee go to an emery wheel, and jerk the belt on value to the tight pulley with one movement! Perhaps the belt breaks, perhaps it does not. The risk is there all the elemental cost plan same, and the need for “safety first.” It is a bad example to younger men. Because emery wheels are better made than formerly, is no reason to neglect a safety first habit, and grind on the side.

Too large a gap between wheel and in Toni Essay, rest has often meant another kind of rest to the careless workman. Never clear the elemental cost cuttings away from a moving tool, or job, with the finger. It is often painful. The homely grindstone has potentialities for harm if the tool to be ground is incorrectly used. There is a safe side for grinding.

Do not poke the of Afrian in Toni Morrison´s Essay chisel at an upward angle, with the stone revolving towards the point; grinding from the back is safer. Locomotive Development In New Zealand. Fifty Years Of Progress. Modern “A” Class Locomotive. Old “A” Class Locomotive (1873) Stop for elemental cost plan a moment and think what you would do if your mate met with certain injuries, a broken leg, or a severed artery.

First aid promptly rendered may be the difference between the doctor and the undertaker. And The. First aid is first cousin to safety first. Should you be working with molten lead, be sure there is no moisture in the cavity to be filled. Goggles may not look pretty, but they save pretty eyes; whether from elemental, grit, or when working contiguous to a brilliant light, as at a moulder's cupola, or when performing acetone and electric welding. Remember, there are rays of light invisible to ordinary vision, but which are dangerous to eyesight. Suitable goggles protect against Leadership, injury from this source. A serious accident caused by neglect of “safety first” principles, reacts on the nerves of one's fellow workmates, and may contribute to elemental cost further mishaps. Let this thought be latent in your mind: “Are my actions, or operations, safe, either for value myself, or others?” Finally, exercise all care at all times, in all operations you may be engaged in.

Let up for not one single moment. Enlarge the slogan of “Safety First” to “Safety First, Last, and elemental plan, all the value chain Time.” Health, strength, skill, “quick to act,” good eyesight and good hearing are the principal elements of the physical man on his positive side, while disease, weakness, clumsiness, awkwardness, laziness and poor eyesight constitute his major negative characteristics. Dorothy Creek, Lake Kanieri, Westland, South Island. * Rule 5 reads: The First And Most Important Duty Of Every Member Is To Provide For The Safety Of The Public.

This is also printed at the head of cost plan every page in the Rule Book.

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10 Software Tools For More PhD Productivity And Less Headaches. PhD productivity is a common struggle among PhD students. Cost Plan? We think that the right software will improve our productivity. The truth is that we spend too much time figuring out what the best tools are. Let#8217;s fix that. I started my PhD and I had new tasks that required software tools.

I thought that using the right software would keep my PhD productivity high . But there is so much out there to try. Chain? Different programs, versions, prices, platforms and on and on. I started trying so many alternatives for project management, file synchronisation or handling my literature. I spent so much time trying software that my PhD productivity went down. I was keeping myself busy with trying software and reading reviews of plan tools.

If you are a nerd like me you might enjoy trying new software for a while. But if you are normal, you might find it a pain in the ass. If you want to move fast in science, figuring out the best software for your tasks is a waste of History of Afrian Americans Morrison´s Beloved time. Cost? Allow me to use a bit of business jargon here. Focusing On What Matters In Your PhD. A baker makes bread. His primary process (his core business) is to make bread. One of his secondary process (what enables the primary process) is to clean his bakery. Having a clean and tidy bakery allows him to make bread.

A clean bakery allows him to get a quality certification that guarantees the define, hygiene in his business. If the baker spends most of his time on his secondary process, cleaning, he wont have much time left for making good bread. His business will suffer. As a PhD student your primary process is to do science. Software is plan, a secondary process, it enables you to chain, do science. You have to spend as much time and mental capacity on your primary process, doing good science and as little as possible on your secondary processes. I want to help you to discover the best software without having to wast time finding it. You can have a bigger impact if you use that time for real science. Let#8217;s say again now with using the elemental cost plan, style of The 4 Hour Work Week.

Being efficient at wal mart secondary process tasks (like trying new software) is a waste of time. You want to be efficient effective at your core business (doing science). Do you see the difference between efficient and effective? When you are effective at doing science your PhD productivity goes through the roof. Elemental? Yes, that#8217;s cute! But at value systems the end of the day you have to use software, right? There#8217;s no way out. So how do you decide what are the plan, best software tools for your PhD?

Are there any rules of thumb to choose software for your PhD? Since I am asking it, then the answer must be yes, there are some rules of thumb. Duh! 3 Rules Of Thumb To Choose Software For Your PhD. Define Value Systems? Forget software with a gazillion functions. Look for simple software. So simple you could use it in a gazillion different ways. b. Choose the elemental plan, software your colleagues choose. Systems? This makes your life easier when you need to share files or when you don#8217;t know how to cost plan, do something and Leadership Essay, need to ask for help. c. Choose software that syncs your data.

Our devices might eventually break down with the risk of loosing your precious files. Use software that syncs via Internet your files across devices. Even better, go for those that also store copies in the cloud. OK, so far so good. You already know what to look for in a software tool. This should save you some time that you could use for elemental plan real science.

You know what could save you some more time? Getting a list of the Essay about The of Destruction and Deterioration, software that best fits that criteria and cost, that you will need for sure during your PhD. Let me introduce you to 10 software tools you will use most of the Introduction and, time. Not only cost plan this, they will make your life easier and painless (at least from the software side of things). 10 Software Tools That Boost PhD Productivity. Task Management (aka to-do list), Wunderlist.

I am talking about PhD productivity here. Therefore I should start with the software tool that always comes to mind when thinking about PhD productivity: a to-do list software. If you thought a PhD would be as quiet as meditating on the summit of a mountain, think again. We receive daily lots of inputs. Do this, send that, prepare that. Add this figure to your paper. Send reminder to boss. Register to the course Literature Review Boot Camp. Introduction Management? The best way to keep track of what to do is our good old friend to-do list.

If you are old school you might go for a piece of paper. Cost Plan? If you are a bit hipster a Moleskine could be your choice. If you want to go paper-free, you have to try Wunderlist. Wunderlist is simple, it just keeps a list of tasks. You can group them, for instance if they belong to the same project. You assign (or not) a date to your task. You have an automatic list with delayed tasks and those you should finish today. Wunderlist syncs your to-do list between devices (Windows, Mac, smartphones, tablets, web browser). I dump all my tasks in Wunderlist, both private and work related. Since it works everywhere, I can check my work activities in my work PC and my private tasks at home from my Macbook. Wunderlist is (a) simple software that (c) syncs your data.

During your PhD you are going to and the Ledge Essay, spend a lot of time doing three things: reading papers, reviewing literature and formatting the elemental plan, citations in your publications. Mendeley can help you with that. Its quite simple and it syncs everything to the cloud and between computers (so your papers are not lost when your computer breaks down). Heres how it works. You download the PDFs of the papers you want to read. History Of Afrian Americans Morrison´s Essay? You dump them in Mendeley.

Mendeley annotates all the title, authors and other info. It syncs the papers to elemental plan, the cloud and History Americans in Toni Morrison´s, other devices. When you are writing your paper, the Word or OpenOffice extension allows you to insert your citations in the correct format of the journal you want to elemental, publish in. About Of Destruction And Deterioration? And thats it. No hassle. Mendeley is (a) simple software, (b) that colleagues use (in my case) and (c) that syncs your data.

Handling Information Deluge, Evernote. Heres one of the must have software tools for PhD students. Its worth every penny. But wait, Evernote is free. Plan? Even better! Evernote does two difficult things in to Effective Leadership Management, a simple way. Elemental? It stores all sort of The Weekend and the Ledge information you throw at it and it finds this information when you search for it. Forget about plan, bookmarks in to Effective Leadership and Management Essay, your web browser, a folder with photos and screenshots, text files with your notes or documents with drafts. Evernote creates notes with whatever you find on the Internet, with screen captures, with photos from your phone, with PDFs or simply those you write yourself.

Everything in one place. And when you look for them, you just need to search for them a-la-Google. Elemental Cost? Evernote is (a) simple software and (c) it syncs your data. Since Evernote is so simple but so powerful, you can use it in a million, trillion and gazillion ways. If you want to learn how to squeeze all the and Management Essay, juice out of Evernote, please read Evernote Essentials. Evernote Essentials is the Bible of Evernote.

Get Evernote Essentials here. Plan? File Back-up / Sharing / Sync, Dropbox. As you have seen I recommended some software that syncs tasks, papers, or notes. How do you sync other types of value files like code, photos or documents? The answer is cost plan, Dropbox. When you install Dropbox in your computer it creates a folder called #8216;Dropbox#8217;. Narcissism? The contents of this folder are sync#8217;d with #8216;Dropbox#8217; folders in other computers or Dropbox apps in smartphones and tablets. Cost Plan? Additionally, Dropbox sotres a copy of your files in define systems, the cloud to make sure you don#8217;t lose a file under any circumstances. How to use Dropbox for your PhD? Easy, drop all your PhD files and elemental cost, folders inside the #8216;Dropbox#8217; folder.

Install Dropbox in other devices. Sync. Done. No more I cant work on it because the file is in the other computer#8221;. Additionally, you can share with other Dropbox users a folder and define value, its contents. You can use this feature to elemental cost, share multiple files with your collaborators. Remember when your email provider said you cannot send that files because it#8217;s too big? Dropbox fixes that. Essay Law: The Of Destruction? Do you know a real PhD productivity killer? Having to re-do everything, I mean everything, because a damaged hard disk made you lose all your files. Dropbox would save your ass in that catastrophic event.

Dropbox (a) simple software, (b) that colleagues use (in my case) and (c) that syncs your data. Elemental Cost? Using Software From Other Operating System, Virtual Box. Now we are going to get a bit computer nerdy, but do not be afraid. Here#8217;s a common pain with software in science: the program you want to wal mart, use cannot be executed in your current operating system (OS; like Windows, Linux or Mac OS). When does this happen? With legacy software, aka freakishly old software. It hasn#8217;t been updated anymore and it uses some old libraries, so for instance, it can only elemental cost run on Windows 95. Software developed by narcissism examples other scientists that is elemental cost plan, not compiled in your SO. So that good willed scientist built a program that is the of Afrian Americans Essay, golden standard in your field, but it only elemental cost runs in to Effective, Linux, and you have Windows 7. The simple solution here would be to buy a computer and install the plan, SO you are missing. Or#8230;you virtualise a computer using VirtualBox inside your current computer. Then you would install the Law:, needed SO in that virtual computer and the desired software.

With VirtualBox you can have as many virtual computers with different SO#8217;s as you want. VirtualBox is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Writing papers is plan, one of the important tasks in examples, your PhD. True, most of the time is elemental cost plan, spend doing real research. Law: The Risk? But you will show your research to cost plan, the world with your publications. Do you know what happens before you publish one of your papers as a PhD? Endless feedback on your draft. Dont worry, it gets better as you gain experience. For my first publication I got a ton of feedback.

For the and the, second paper just half a ton. Plan? And so on. Now back to writing papers. You have to use a text editor. Since you want to get digital feedback (not unintelligible cramped handwriting on the sides of your printed draft), you need to use the narcissism examples, same editor as the person giving the feedback. And its going to be Microsoft Word 99% of the elemental cost plan, times. So there you go. Get yourself Microsoft Word. Truth be told, I use also other editors.

I like Pages and Evernote for preparing my blog posts. Scientific fields with a high formula to text ratio in their publications use LaTeX as editor. Social sciences PhDs have recommended Scrivener, which I used to Introduction and Management, write my ebook 17 Simple Strategies To Survive Your PhD (dont forget to download it, its free) Word is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft Word here. During your research you are going to produce some data and store it as a table. Next you might want to calculate percentages, or counts of something, or ratios. I dont know, something. You might want to cost plan, make some plots comparing X and Y, or some line charts showing some trends. Those plots will be some of the figures in your next publication. I know, Excel images in a scientific paper are not very sexy.

But hey, who hasnt done it at least once in their career? Excel is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft Excel here. Lets talk now about making slides. Its not the first task that comes to mind when thinking about science, is it?

Well, during my PhD I have made plenty of slide decks. Mostly for conferences or little group meetings. You know the drill. You attend a conference to present your scientific results. The Weekend? You go on elemental, stage. You first slide is on the main screen. The Weekend And The Essay? Your legs are shaking.

Thanks to the organisers for inviting me. You think everybody is smarter than you and will tear you off as soon as you make a mistake. Elemental? My name is wal mart value, #8230; You feel the sweat drops sliding in your back. The title of elemental cost plan my presentation is #8230; Your vision gets blurry. 4 years of work summarised in Essay about Law: The and Deterioration, 20 slides. The will laugh. You pass out. Sometimes its like this otherwise its not if you developed the presentation skills of PhD students. Elemental Cost? But the important part are the slides.

They are made in PowerPoint. Why? Well, everybody uses PowerPoint. Many conferences only allow presenters to use PowerPoint slides. They say that they cannot guarantee that other formats will work well. Define Value Systems? But Julio, Keynote on elemental plan, a MacBook always works well at the first attempt. The Weekend Ledge? But Julio, I heard many PowerPoint presenter saying Ooops, this is not displayed as I expected. You are right, but if you want to present at elemental conferences you have to swallow it. PowerPoint is (b) software that colleagues use (in my case). Get Microsoft PowerPoint here.

Browsing the Internet can destroy your PhD productivity. It can also help you find the narcissism, information you need and answers to some questions. Its time to talk about the software tool that is going to help you answer a question. Its a big question. Probably the most interesting question in the course of elemental cost your PhD. Is the new lab intern single? That scientific curiosity should be addressed. And you should do it by checking her out in of Afrian in Toni Morrison´s Essay, Facebook using a web browser: Google Chrome. Sick and sad stalking jokes aside, if you have to plan, use the Internet, do it via Chrome. And The Ledge? Its a clean, beautiful and easy to use browser. I have used most of the browsers and I can say that Chrome feels like it was developed by people who like to spend time on the Internet.

A last tip: install the Evernote plugin for Chrome so you can create a note from any website directly from Chrome. Chrome is (b) simple software and (d) better that Internet Explorer. Download Google Chrome here. Cost Plan? I dont know how I would have gone through my PhD without music. Music to cheer me up on a grey day. Music to focus while writing. Music to keep me awake while doing repetitive tasks. Music to stream to my smartphone. Music to boost my PhD productivity. Music to activate my resourcefulness while programming.

Music to survive a PhD. All this music came from Spotify (and a bit from Youtube). Value Chain? But mostly Spotify. I gladly pay for the Premium version. For me its worth it. I got tired of downloading music, and loading it in elemental plan, a MP3 player, and wal mart, updating my playlists. Spotify was just so convenient. Let music boost your PhD productivity!

Spotify is plan, (a) simple software that (c) syncs your data. And The? Julio Peironcely, PhD is the founder of plan Next Scientist and a PhD by Leiden University. He helps PhD students to stay motivated, be more productive and finish their PhDs. Follow him on Twitter (@peyron) or read more from Introduction to Effective Leadership and Essay, him on elemental cost, I use most of them, but EndrNote x6 for writing the bibliography and citation which is very convenient. I highly recommend it for you guys. Yeah, EndNote is widely used in Academia. In my case, the free Mendeley was good enough compared to the paid version of EndNote. qiqqa is nice. I like it so far. The Weekend And The? its free-ish, you can use the free version but if you want to use their cloud you gotta pay a small fee. Also if you are buying office , oneNote comes with it and its awesome and you get free skydrive space. For browsing I started using maxthon cloud browser, its one option for elemental cost plan bookmark syncing.

I use Kanban Tool ( to wal mart value, plan activities and collaborate with my colleagues on research projects. The tool is elemental, based on Kanban method, it helps organize tasks, documents and so on. It facilitates cooperation between people that are in different, distant locations as it allows to share tasks, documents and Essay, comments. Though I am a bit late to read your article, but to be honest I had the the same situation during my PhD. Plan? I am gonna recommend it to my research students. By the way how could you forget Qiqqa and Essay about Risk and Deterioration, Google Drive.!

I would also like to recommend another app Proofhub ( to plan activities and collaborate with my colleagues on research projects. Productivity is elemental cost, one such aspect that needs rigorous dedication to meet the deadline. In order to Americans Beloved Essay, have a great reach of productivity, it is very much necessary to have the plan, main points to be considered, and among all the Law: Risk of Destruction, concerned points, I prefer time as one of the major aspects of a good gain in productivity. To have a good control of time and plan, be specific on The Weekend, that I have specifically use the hours tracking software from Replicon ( ) which practically manage the time with the tasks management as well. I would like to recommend this software here over. I was using Mac (sometime Linux and Window) for cost my Ph.D.

Therefore, I used this set of tools that work on all such platforms: 1) RTextDoc LaTeX editor with grammar checking and BibTex database: 2) SCaVis to make graphs in EPS format that can be included to define value systems, my LaTeX documents And all of this can be installed using one-click approach using jPort portable desktop ( All of it corporative software. You dont give any reference to open source software. Even a simple browser#8230;. Elemental Cost Plan? why not Modzilla?, what makes Chrome so special?. Introduction Leadership Management Essay? Julio, I spent more than 4 hours on your awesome plug today, all the information is exactly what I was looking for before starting the real work. Elemental Plan? Thanks for The Weekend your time and effort and keep it coming #128521; Disagree in you recommendation about Word. Cost Plan? Scrivener is and the, far much better, it gives you much better overview, both when you write an cost plan, article and the final thesis. Of course, you have to you use Word to wrap it all up at the end. [#8230;] Does your PhD productivity need a push? Stop looking for the perfect software tools for PhD students. Define Value? Use these and elemental plan, supercharge your PhD productivity [#8230;] [#8230;] wants more PhD productivity, right?

Well, I think we should be productive in things that are important, like doing research. [#8230;] [#8230;] wants more PhD productivity, right? Well, I think we should be productive in things that are important, like doing research. [#8230;] [#8230;] 10 Software tools for systems more PhD productivity and less headaches [#8230;] [#8230;] 10 Software tools for more PhD productivity and elemental cost plan, less headaches [#8230;]

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Essay on Social Change: Meaning, Characteristics and other details. Here is your essay on Social Change! Change is the internal law. History and science bear ample testimony to elemental plan, the fact that change is the law of life. Stagnation is death. They tell us stories of mans rise and growth from the Paleolithic age to the Neolithic age, then to the Stone Age and next to the copper age etc. On the stage of the about and Deterioration world, scenes follow scenes, acts follow acts, and drama follows drama.

Nothing stands still. Image Courtesy : The wheel of time moves on and on. The old dies and the young steps into the world. We ring out the old and ring in the new. A child changes into elemental plan, a boy, a boy into a youth and then into a man. The bud changes into a flower. The dawn turns into morning, morning into noon, noon into afternoon and afternoon into night. It is said, Today is of Afrian Americans Beloved Essay not yesterday, we ourselves change. No change is elemental permanent, it is subject to change.

This is observed in all spares of activity. Change indeed is painful, yet needful. Flowing water is wholesome, and stagnant water is poisonous. Only when it flows through and Essay, alters with changes, it is cost able to Law: Risk and Deterioration, refresh and recreate. Change is an ever-present phenomenon. It is the law of nature.

Society is not at all a static phenomenon, but it is a dynamic entity. It is an ongoing process. The social structure is subject to incessant changes. Cost Plan. Individuals may strive for wal mart value chain stability, yet the fact remains that society is an every changing phenomenon; growing, decaying, renewing and accommodating itself to changing conditions. The human composition of societies changes over time, technologies expand, ideologies and values take on new components; institutional functions and structures undergo reshaping. Hence, no society remains complete static. Elemental Cost. Incessant changeability is define systems very inherent nature of human society. A social structure is a nexus of present relationships. It exists because social beings seek to maintain it. It continues to exist because men demand its continuance. But the cost existing social structure is influenced by many factors and forces that inevitably cause it to change.

Society is thus subject to continuous change. The change of man and The Weekend and the Ledge, society has been the elemental cost plan central and quite dominant concern of sociology right from the time when it emerged as branch of learning. The concern for Introduction to Effective Leadership Essay social change is cost of great importance not only in studying past changes but also in The Weekend and the investigating future developments. Meaning of Social Change : Change implies all variations in human societies. When changes occur in the modes of living of individuals and social relation gets influenced, such changes are called social changes. Social change refers to the modifications which take place in life pattern of people. Elemental Plan. It occurs because all societies are in a constant state of disequilibrium.

The word change denotes a difference in anything observed over narcissism some period of time. Hence, social change would mean observable differences in any social phenomena over elemental cost plan any period of time. Social change is the change in society and society is a web of social relationships. Hence, social change is a change in social relationships. Social relationships are social processes, social patterns and social interactions. These include the mutual activities and relations of the various parts of the society.

Thus, the Law: The Risk of Destruction term social change is used to elemental cost, describe variations of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. Social change may be defined as changes in the social organization, that is, the structure and functions of the society. Whenever one finds that a large number of persons are engaged in activities that differ from those which their immediate forefathers were engaged in some time before, one finds a social change. Whenever human behaviour is in the process of modification, one finds that social change is occurring. Human society is constituted of human beings. Social change means human change, since men are human beings. To change society, as says Davis, is to narcissism examples, change man. Theorists of social change agree that in most concrete sense of the elemental cost plan word change, every social system is changing all the time. The composition of the population changes through the life cycle and History of Afrian Americans Morrison´s Beloved Essay, thus the occupation or roles changes; the members of society undergo physiological changes; the continuing interactions among member modify attitudes and expectations; new knowledge is constantly being gained and transmitted. The question to what social change actually means is perhaps the elemental cost most difficult one within the scientific study of to Effective Essay, change. It involves the often neglected query of what kind and degree of change in what is to be considered social change.

Most analysts of social change deal with this question implicitly somewhere in cost plan their theoretical system or in the context of the latters application to some empirical case. For the present purpose it should suffice to examine definitions that are frequently used to conceptualise change. According to Jones Social change is Leadership Management a term used to describe variations in, or modifications of any aspect of social processes, social patterns, social interaction or social organization. As Kingsley Davis says, By Social change is meant only such alternations as occur in social organization that is, the structure and functions of society. According to cost plan, Maclver and Page, Social change refers to a process responsive to many types of changes; to changes the man in Introduction made condition of life; to changes in the attitudes and plan, beliefs of Introduction Leadership and Essay, men, and to the changes that go beyond the human control to the biological and the physical nature of things.

Morris Ginsberg defines, By social change, I understand a change in social structure, e.g., the size of the cost society, the composition or the narcissism examples balance of its parts or the type of its organization. P. Fairchild defines social change as variations or modifications in any aspects of elemental plan, social process, pattern or form. B. Kuppuswamy says, Social change may be defined as the process in History Morrison´s Beloved which is discernible significant alternation in the structure and functioning of a particular social system. H.M. Plan. Johnson says, Social change is either change in the structure or quasi- structural aspects of a system of change in the relative importance of coexisting structural pattern. According to Merrill and Eldredge, Change means that large number of persons are engaging in activities that differ from those which they or their immediate forefathers engaged in Essay of Destruction some time before. Anderson and Parker define, Social change involves alternations in the structure or functioning of societal forms or processes themselves. According to M.D.

Jenson, Social change may be defined as modification in ways of doing and thinking of people. As H.T. Mazumdar says, Social change may be defined as a new fashion or mode, either modifying or replacing the old, in the life of people or in the operation of a society. According Gillin and Gillin, Social changes are variations from the accepted modes of life; whether due to alternation in geographical conditions, in cultural equipment, composition of the population or ideologies and brought about by diffusion, or inventions within the elemental group. By analyzing all the definitions mentioned above, we reach at the conclusion that the two type of changes should be treated as two facts of the The Weekend and the same social phenomenon. Two type of changes are e.g. (i) changes in the structure of society, (ii) changes in the values and social norms which bind the people together and help to maintain social order. These two type of changes should not, however, be treated separately because a change in one automatically induces changes in the other.

For example, a change in the attitude of the people may bring about changes in the social structure. Towards the close of the 19 century, there was a tendency in the countries of Western Europe for elemental cost plan families to grow smaller in size. There is a general agreement that this has been brought about mainly by voluntary restriction of births. In this case, a change in the attitude of the people is Essay about Risk and Deterioration mainly responsible for change in cost plan the social structure. On the other hand, a change in the social structure may bring about attitudinal change among the members of the society. Transformation of rural society into industrial society is not simply a change in the structure of society.

For example, industrialisation has destroyed domestic system of production. The destruction of domestic system of production has brought women from home to factory and office. The employment of women gave them a new independent outlook. The attitude of independence instead of dependence upon men has become the trait of womens personally. Hence, these two type of changes should not be treated separately but both of them should be studied together. The problem of social change is one of the central foci of sociological inquiry.

It is so complex and so significant in the life of examples, individual and of society that we have to explore the why and how of social change in all its ramifications. Characteristics of Social Change : The fact of social change has fascinated the keenest minds and still poses some of the great unsolved problems in social sciences. Elemental Cost Plan. The phenomenon of social change is not simple but complex. It is systems difficult to understand this in its entirety. The unsolved problems are always pressurising us to find an appropriate answer. To understand social change well, we have to cost, analyse the nature of social change which are as follows:

1. Social Change is Social: Society is a web of social relationships and hence social change obviously means a change in the system of The Weekend and the, social relationships. Social relationships are understood in terms of social processes and social interactions and social organizations. Thus, the term social change is used to describe variation in elemental plan social interactions, processes and social organizations. Only that change can be called social change whose influence can be felt in a community form. The changes that have significance for all or considerable segment of population can be considered as social change. 2. Social Change is Universal: Change is the universal law of nature. The social structure, social organization and social institutions are all dynamic.

Social change occurs in all societies and at wal mart chain all times. No society remains completely static. Each society, no matter how traditional and conservative, is constantly undergoing change. Just as mans life cannot remain static, so does society of all places and times. Here adjustment take place and here conflict breaks down adjustment.

Here there is revolution and here consent. Here men desire for achieving new goals, and here they return to old ones. 3. Social Change occurs as an elemental, Essential law: Change is the law of nature. Social change is define also natural. Change is an unavoidable and unchangeable law of nature. By nature we desire change. Our needs keep on changing to satisfy our desire for change and to satisfy these needs, social change becomes a necessity. The truth is that we are anxiously waiting for a change. According to Green, The enthusiastic response of change has become almost way of life. 4. Social Change is Continuous:

Society is an ever-changing phenomenon. Cost Plan. It is undergoing endless changes. It is an ongoing process. Essay About Law:. These changes cannot be stopped. Society is subject to plan, continuous change. Here it grows and decays, there it finds renewal, accommodates itself to various changing conditions.

Society is Essay of Destruction and Deterioration a system of social relationship. But these social relationships are never permanent. They are subject to change. Society cannot be preserved in a museum to save it from the ravages of time. From the dawn of history, down to this day, society has been in flux. Social change manifests itself in different stages of elemental cost plan, human history.

In ancient times when life was confined to caves (Stone Age), the social system was different from that of the computer age today. There is no fixity in human relationships. Define Value. Circumstances bring about many a change in cost plan the behaviour patterns. 5. Social Change Involves No-Value Judgement: Social change does not attach any value judgement. Ledge. It is neither moral nor immoral, it is amoral. The question of what ought to be is beyond the cost plan nature of define value, social change. The study of social change involves no-value judgement.

It is ethically neutral. A correct decision on what is empirically true is not the same as correct decision on what ought to cost, be. 6. Social Change is Bound by Time Factors: Social change is Essay temporal. It happens through time, because society exists only as a time-sequences. We know its meaning fully only by understanding it through time factors. For example, the caste system which was a pillar of stability in traditional Indian society, is now undergoing considerable changes in the modern India. There was less industrialisation in India during 50s. But in 90s, India has become more industrialized. Thus, the speed of social change differs from age to age.

The reason is that the factors which cause social change do not remain uniform with the changes in time. 7. Rate and Tempo of elemental, Social Change is Uneven: Though social change is a must for each and every society, the rate, tempo, speed and extent of change is not uniform. Leadership And Essay. It differs from society to elemental plan, society. In some societies, its speed is rapid; in another it may be slow. Ledge Essay. And in some other societies it occurs so slowly that it may not be noticed by those who live in them.

For example, in the modern, industrial urban society the speed and extent of elemental plan, change is faster than traditional, agricultural and rural society. 8. Definite Prediction of Social Change is Impossible: It is very much difficult to make out History of Afrian in Toni, any prediction on the exact forms of social change. A thousand years ago in Asia, Europe and elemental cost plan, Latin America the face of society was vastly different from that what exists today. Narcissism. But what the society will be in thousand years from now, no one can tell. But a change there will be. For example, industrialisation and urbanisation has brought about a series of interrelated changes in our family and cost plan, marriage system. But we cannot predict the exact forms which social relationships will assume in future. Similarly, what shall be our ideas, attitudes and value in future, it is unpredictable. 9. Social Change Shows Chain-Reaction Sequences:

Society is a dynamic system of interrelated parts. Changes in one aspect of life may induce a series of changes in other aspects. For example, with the emancipation of women, educated young women find the traditional type of family and marriage not quite fit to their liking. They find it difficult to live with their parents-in-law, obeying the mother-in-law at every point. They desire separate homes. The stability of marriages can no longer be taken for granted. The changing values of women force men to change their values also. Therefore, society is a system of interrelated parts. Change in History Americans Morrison´s Beloved its one aspect may lead to a series of changes in other aspects of the society. 10. Social Change takes place due to Multi-Number of Factors:

Social change is the consequence of a number of elemental cost plan, factors. A special factor may trigger a change but it is always associated with other factors that make the triggering possible. Ledge Essay. Social change cannot be explained in elemental terms of one or two factors only and that various factors actually combine and become the examples cause of the change. M. Ginsberg observes: A cause is an assemblage of factors which, in interaction with each other, undergo a change. There is no single master key by which we can unlock all the doors leading to social change. As a matter of fact, social change is the consequence of a number of factors. 11. Social Changes are Chiefly those of Modifications or of cost, Replacement: Social changes may be considered as modifications or replacements. It may be modification of physical goods or social relationships. For example, the form of our breakfast food has changed.

Though we eat the same basic materials such as meats, eggs corn etc. Wal Mart Value Chain. which we ate earlier, their form has been changed. Ready-to-eat cornflakes, breads, omelets are substituted for the form in which these same materials were consumed in plan earlier years. Further, there may be modifications of Introduction to Effective Leadership Management Essay, social relationships. For example, the old authoritarian family has become the small equalitarian family. Our attitudes towards womens status and rights, religion, co-education etc. stand modified today. 12. Social Change may be Small-scale or Large-scale: A line of distinction is drawn between small-scale and large scale social change. Elemental. Small-scale change refers to changes within groups and organizations rather than societies, culture or civilization. According W.E. Moore, by small-scale changes we shall mean changes in the characteristics of social structures that though comprised within the general system identifiable as a society, do not have any immediate and major consequences for the generalised structure (society) as such.

13. Short-term and Long-term Change: The conceptualization of the magnitude of change involves the next attribute of change, the time span. Essay About Law: Risk Of Destruction And Deterioration. That is to say, a change that may be classified as small-scale from a short-term perspective may turn out to have large-scale consequences when viewed over elemental plan a long period of time, as the decreasing death rate since the define value 1960 in India exemplifies. 14. Social Change may be Peaceful or Violent:

At times, the attribute peaceful has been considered as practically synonymous with gradual and violent with rapid. The term violence frequently refers to the threat or use of physical force involved in elemental attaining a given change. In certain sense, rapid change may violently affect the emotions, values and expectations of those involved. According to W.E. Moore, A true revolution, a rapid and fundamental alternation in the institutions or normative codes of The Weekend and the, society and of its power distribution, is rapid and continuous by definition and is likely to be violent, but may well be orderly as opposed to erratic. Peaceful has to do with the changes that take place by consent, acceptance or acquisition and that are enforced by the normative restraints of society. 15. Social Change may be Planned or Unplanned:

Social change may occur in the natural course or it is done by man deliberately. Unplanned change refers to change resulting from natural calamities, such as famines and floods, earthquakes and volcanic eruption etc. So social change is called as the unchangeable law of nature. Elemental. The nature is define systems never at rest. Planned social change occurs when social changes are conditioned by human engineering. Plans, programmes and projects are made by man in order to determine and plan, control the direction of social change. Besides that by nature human beings desire change. The curiosity of a man never rests; nothing checks his desire to The Weekend and the Ledge, know. There is plan always a curiosity about unknown. The needs of human beings are changing day by The of Destruction day.

So to satisfy these needs they desire change. 16. Social Change may be Endogenous or Exogenous: Endogenous social change refers to the change caused by the factors that are generated by society or a given subsystem of society. Conflict, communication, regionalism etc. are some of the examples of endogenous social change. On the other hand, exogenous sources of social change generally view society as a basically stable, well-integrated system that is disrupted or altered only by the impact of cost plan, forces external to the system (e.g., world situation, wars, famine) or by new factors introduced into of Afrian Americans Morrison´s Essay, the system from other societies. For example, technological transfer and brain drain, political and cultural imperialism may lead to elemental plan, the diffusion of cultural traits beyond the narcissism examples limits of single societies. 17.

Change Within and elemental cost plan, Change of the System: The distinction between kinds of define, change has been developed by elemental plan Talcott Parsons in his analysis of change within and change of the system, i.e., the orderly process of ongoing change within the Introduction to Effective Leadership Essay boundaries of a system, as opposed to the process resulting in changes of the structure of the system under consideration. Conflict theorists draw our attention to the fact that the cumulative effect of elemental cost plan, change within the system may result in a change of the system. To conclude, some of the narcissism attributes most frequently used in describing change are: magnitude of change (small-scale, large-scale changes), time pan, direction, rate of change, amount of violence involved. These dimensions should not be taken as either/or attributes but rather as varying along a continuum from one extreme to another (e.g., revolutionary vs evolutionary). Other categorization that have been devised involve division of changes on the basis of such characteristics as continuous vs spasmodic, orderly vs erratic and the number of people (or roles) affected by or involved in change.

Although no hard and fast categories have yet been developed into which we can fit different types of change, the use of the foregoing distinctions, may be helpful in clarifying ones conceptualization of any type of change or at least, they can help one to understand the complexities involved in developing a definition of the subject of social change. In explaining the concept of plan, social change, sociologists from time to time used words and expressions like evolution, growth, progress, development, revolution, adaptation etc. discarding one in preference to the other. Though the concept of evolution was known to the generation preceding the publication of Darwins Origin of Species, the notion of social evolution was taken directly from the define systems theories of biological evolution. Evolution in biological science means the developing of an organism. It is a process by which a thing continuously adopts itself to its environment and manifests its own nature. Consequently it is a change which permeates the whole character of the object.

Many social theorists from Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of organic evolution in various ways to the explanation of social change. The term evolution is elemental cost borrowed from biological sciences to Sociology. The term organic evolution is replaced by social evolution in sociology. Whereas the term organic evolution is used to denote the evolution of organism, the expression of Introduction Leadership Essay, social evolution is cost used to explain the evolution of The Weekend Ledge Essay, human society. It was hoped that the theory of social evolution would explain the origin and development of man. Anthropologists and Sociologists wanted to find a satisfactory and plan, significant explanation of how our society evolved. They were very much impressed by the idea of organic evolution which explain how one species evolves into another, and wanted to apply the same to the social world. Hence, the concept of social evolution is quite popular in sociological discussion.

Sociologists adopted the word evolution to convey the sense of wal mart value chain, growth and change in social institutions. Social institutions are the result of evolution. They began to work to trace the elemental origin of the ideas, institutions and History Americans Morrison´s, of the developments. The term evolution is derived from the Latin word evolvere which means to develop or to unfold. It is equivalent to cost plan, the Sanskrit word Vikas.

Evolution literally means gradually unfolding or unrolling. It indicates changes from within and examples, not from without. The concept of evolution applies more precisely to the internal growth of an elemental plan, organism. Evolution means more than growth. The word growth connotes a direction of change but only of quantitative character e.g., we say population grows, town grows etc. But evolution involves something more intrinsic; change not merely in size but also in structure. According to History of Afrian Americans in Toni Beloved, Maclver and Page, Evolution involves something more intrinsic, a change not merely in size but at least in structure also. Ogburn and Nimkoff write, Evolution is merely a change in a given direction. Ginsberg says, Evolution is defined as a process of elemental cost, change which results in the production of something new but revealing an orderly continuity in transition.

That is to narcissism examples, say, we have evolution when the series of changes that occur during a period of time appear to be, not a mere succession of changes, but a continuous process, through which a clear thread of identity runs. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of cost, a thing reveal themselves. It is a principle of internal growth. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. What is latent becomes manifest in it and what is potential is made actual. Evolution is an order to change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon examples, it from elemental without. The change must occur within the changing unity.

Characteristics of Social Evolution : According to Spencer, Evolution is the about Risk of Destruction and Deterioration integration of cost plan, matter and concomitant dissipation of motion during which matter passes from an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity to a definite, coherent heterogeneity. Society, according to his view, is also subject to a similar process of value systems, evolution; that is, changing from a state of incoherent homogeneity to a state of coherent heterogeneity. Evolution is, thus, a gradual growth or development from simple to complex existence. Cost. The laws of define value systems, evolution which were initially fashioned after the findings of charters. Darwin, came to be known as social Darwinism during the nineteenth century. Spencers point of view can best be illustrated by an example.

In the beginning, the most primitive stage, every individual lived an individualistic life, trying to know and do things about himself alone. Every man was more or less similar, in so far as his ignorance about elemental plan, organized social life was concerned. In this sense, the people were homogenous. At that stage, neither they were able to organize their social life, nor could they work together. Wal Mart Chain. There was no system; nothing definite, expect their incoherent or loose-group-formations. Thus, they formed an indefinite, incoherent homogeneity, But gradually, their experiences, realizations and knowledge increased. They learnt to live and to work together.

The task of social organisation was taken on, division of elemental plan, labour was elaborated; and wal mart value, each found a particular type of work which he could do best. Cost. All worked in an organized and definite way towards a definite goal. Thus, a state of definite, coherent heterogeneity was reached. Herbert Spencer has prescribed four important principles of evolution. These principles are: 1. Social evolution is on cultural or human aspect of the Leadership Management law of change of cosmic evolution. 2. Hence, social evolution take place in the same way at all places and elemental cost plan, progress through some definite and inevitable stages. 3. Social evolution is gradual.

4. Social evolution is progressive. In addition to this characteristics, other features of social evolution are clearly evident which are discussed below. Evolution is Essay a Process of Differentiation and Integration: The concept of evolution as a process of differentiation cum-integration was first developed by the German Sociologists Von Baer and subsequently by Spencer and many others. (i) In order to cost plan, understand this statement, i.e. evolution takes place through differentiation and Integration; we have to study the history of a society over History of Afrian in Toni Morrison´s Essay a long, period of time.

Then we shall find that its associations, institutions, etc are constantly evolving or developing. In social evolution, new and ever newer circumstances and problems are constantly appearing. In order to plan, cope with them, new associations and institutions are evolved. For example, a community in Introduction Essay a town previously. When the town had been a small community, its management was the responsibility of a Panchayat or a town area committee. Now that the town has become a big commercial centre, its management is in the hands of a dozer different committees. One of them looks after the educational facilities, another looks after the sanitation, a third is deputed to look after the cost octroi, while a fourth manages the markets and so on. In this way, this differentiation increases with the wal mart chain evolution of the town. (ii) But without Integration, this differentiation cannot take one anywhere. Hence, synthesis along with differentiation is necessary.

In urban areas one can find various sectarian associations such as Khandayat Kshatriya Mahasabha, Kayastha society, Brahman Samiti, Napita associations etc. At the same time, one also can find institutions: Arya Samaj, etc. which synthesize and compromise associations based on elemental plan, various caste and class distinctions. Today, while new nations are coming into being in the human society, equally strong efforts are being made to value, create a world society by cost plan compromising these nations. (iii) By virtue of Essay The of Destruction, this double processes of differentiation and integration, the efficiency of the society is being constantly increased. Division of cost plan, labour is the magic word of modern economic evolution. By an increase in the number of associations and institutions in Introduction to Effective and Essay society, work in various spheres is performed more successfully.

And because of the process of synthesis, various spheres take advantage of each others efficiency also. Maclver points it out in a very systematic manner. According to him, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of society by labour, so that thereby a more elaborate system of cooperation, because the energy of more individuals is concentrated on more specific tasks, a more intricate nexus of elemental cost, functional relationships, is sustained within the group; (b) an define systems, increase in the number and the variety of functional associations and institutions, so that each is more defined or more limited in the range or character of elemental cost plan, its service; and (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the instruments of social communication, perhaps above all in the medium of language. Various sociologists have laid stress on one or another of these aspect of value, evolution. Thus, Emile Durkheim has insisted on elemental cost plan, the preeminent importance of the systems social division of labour as a criterion of social development. Other writers have taken the elemental various aspects together and Introduction Leadership and Essay, sought to show that society passes through a definite series of evolutionary stages. Social Evolution does not always proceed by Differentiation: Morris Ginsberg writes, The notion that evolution is a movement from the simple to cost, the complex can be and has been seriously disputed. In every field where we find the forces of differentiation at work, there the opposite trends are also manifested.

For example in the development of languages, where the process of differentiation has been stressed, we have many disconnecting facts. The modern languages derived from Sanskrit Like Bengali, Gujarati, Telugu and Tamil cannot be compared in narcissism examples their structure with the cost plan richness and diversity of their origin. Here the process is not towards differentiation but towards simplification. In the development of religion too, the transition from fusion to differentiation is difficult to see. On the whole we find that social evolution does not always proceed by differentiation. However in spite of the Essay various difficulties, the concept of evolution still retains its usefulness. Maclver has strongly supported the elemental principle of social evolution. He has criticised the practice of believing social evolution to be imaginary. Wal Mart Value. Social evolution is a reality. Elemental Cost. Maclver has given some arguments in favour of the reality of social evolution.

He emphasizes, if we open the pages of History, we find that in narcissism examples the beginning there was no differentiation of institutions within human society or the cost performance of diverse functions. But latter on, as culture and civilization progressed, differentiation increased and it is even now increasing. This historical fact is an evidence of the narcissism extent and elemental cost, element of reality in the principle of social evolution. Social Evolution and Organic Evolution : Though social evolution is Introduction Leadership and Essay borrowed from the biological concept of organic evolution, still then these two terms are not one and the same. There are some basic differences between the two which are as follows: Firstly, organic evolution implies the differentiation in the bodily structure, which is generally in the form of new organs to use for different purpose. But social evolution does not imply this. Man is the centre of social evolution. He need not have to develop new organ to adjust himself with changed conditions of life.

Because man has the capacity of inventing tools, making instruments and devising techniques to control the forces of elemental cost plan, nature and to value systems, adjust himself with the natural conditions. He can look before and after. Secondly, in cost plan organic evolution, the transmission of qualities takes place through biological heredity, i.e. through genes. But social evolution takes place through ideas, discoveries, inventions and experiences. Here the changes are transmitted mostly through the mental ability and genius of man. Thirdly, in case of organic evolution only the descending generation is wal mart value chain affected by the structural modification, alterations. But in social evolution even the old as well as the new generations are affected by it. For example, invention of new techniques and elemental plan, devices is influencing the present as well as the future generations. Lastly, the organic evolution is History of Afrian Americans Essay continuous.

There can be no break in it. Elemental Plan. It is continuous because of the irresistible pressure within the organisation and of environment or natural forces. Law: The Of Destruction And Deterioration. But such a continuity may not be observed in the case of social evolution. It is subject to plan, disruption. It is an intermittent.

It lacks continuity. Social Change and Social Evolution : Social change is an ever-present phenomenon everywhere. When we speak of social change, we suggest so far no law, no theory, no direction, even no continuity. Social change occurs in all societies and at all times. No society remains completely static. The term social change itself is wholly neutral, implying nothing but differences that take place in value chain human interactions and interrelations. In explaining this concept of social change, modern sociologists from time to time used different words and expressions. Evolution is one of them. Many social theorists form Herbert Spencer to Sumner applied this conception of evolution in various ways to the interpretation of social change.

But many modern theorists, particularly American, have abandoned the idea that social change takes place by evolutionary stages. Evolution describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It is a process in which hidden or latent characters of elemental cost, a thing reveal themselves. It shows not merely what happens to a thing but also what happens within it. Evolution is an order of define value, change which unfolds the variety of aspects belonging to elemental cost, the nature of changing object. We cannot speak of evolution when an object or system is changed by forces acting upon it from without. The change must occur within the changing unity.

Evolution is a process involving a changing adaptation of the object to its environment and Ledge Essay, a further manifestation of its own nature. Consequently, it is a change permeating the whole character of the object, a sequence in elemental plan which the equilibrium of examples, its entire structure undergoes modification. According to Maclver, evolution is not mere change. It is an immanent process resulting in increased complexity and elemental, differentiation. He writes, the Kernel of organic evolution is differentiation, a process in which latent or rudimentary characters take a distinct and variable form within the unity of the organism.

Maclver further says, evolution or differentiation manifests itself in society by (a) a greater division of labour resulting in great specialization (b) an increase in the number and variety of functional associations, (c) a greater diversity and refinement in the means of social communication. When these changes are proceeding, society is evolving, concludes Maclver. The concept of progress found notable expression in the writings of the French Philosophers such as Turgot, Condorcent and Fancis Bacon of the 18th century and has been a dynamic agent in the social activity of modern man. Sociologists such as Saint Simon, Auguste Comte and Herbert Spencer were the earlier exponents of the idea of progress. According Comte, it was the intellectual elite who could bring about an era of narcissism examples, progress. Etymologically, the word progress means moving forward. But moving forward or backward, progress or regress are relative terms. If it be remarked that such and such country has progressed, no meaningful information can be extracted from such a statement unless the direction towards which progress has been made be known. In this way, progress is not mere change.

It is a change in particular direction. The word progress cannot be appended to change in every direction. For example, if the condition of agriculture in a particular country worsens and a famine results, it is undeniably a change, but it will not be called progress. Progress means moving forward in elemental cost the direction of achievement of some aim. Different thinkers have defined progress in different ways. The important definitions are as follows: Maclver writes, By progress we imply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal, some destination determined ideally not simply by the objective consideration at work. Lumely defines, Progress is a change, but it is a change in a desired or approved direction, not in any direction. Ginsberg defines progress as A development or evolution in a direction which satisfies rational criterion of value. According to Ogburn, Progress is a movement towards an objective thought to be desirable by the general group for the visible future. Burgess writes, Any change or adoption to an existent environment that makes it easier for a person or group of persons or other organized from value of life to live may be said to represent progress.

Progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. Since progress means change for the better it definitely implies a value judgement of highly subjective character. For value, like taste, has no measuring rod. A particular social change may seem to be progressive to one person to another it may seem retrogression, because they have different values. The concept of social progress is, therefore, subjective but it has reference to cost, an objective condition. It is difficult to explain the criteria of progress which are relative to their temporal context.

Social values determine progress. Whether any change will be considered as progress or not depends upon Essay The Risk of Destruction and Deterioration, the social values. Social values change with time and place. The criteria of progress change with the change of social values. Hence, it is difficult to formulate a universally acceptable criterion of progress. However, the following can be tentatively suggested. Health and Longevity of plan, Life: Average length of life is one index of progress whether the world is growing better. Ledge Essay. But it does not necessarily follow from this that a longer life must be more pleasurable and better. In the opinion of some persons, wealth or economic progress is a criterion of progress.

Some people are of the view that an increase in population is a sign of progress. But over-population cannot be a sign of progress. According to some thinkers, moral conduct is the cost criterion of progress. Since life has many facets, it is not possible to formulate any one criterion of wal mart value chain, progress. Cost Plan. But is stated that the integrated development of society is the criterion of progress. Integrated development comprehends all mental, physical and spiritual aspects including above criteria. By analysing above definitions, we find that progress is a change, a change for the better. When we speak of Essay Law: The of Destruction and Deterioration, progress, we simply not merely direction, but direction towards some final goal.

The nature of the progress depends upon two factors, the nature of the end and the distance of which we are from it. The modern writers today speak of social progress though they do not have a single satisfactory explanation of the concept. In order to have a better understanding of the meaning of progress, we have to analyse the following attributes. 1. Progress is elemental cost plan Dependent upon Social Values: Progress dependent upon and is determined by social values. It means that progress does not have precisely the same meaning at all times and places, because values change from time to time. There is no object which can uniformly or eternally be considered valuable irrespective of narcissism examples, time and place. Due to this reason, Maclver and Page have written, The concept of progress is a chameleon that take on the colour of the environment when we feel adjusted to that environment, and elemental cost, some contrasting colour when we feel maladjusted. 2. There is a Change in narcissism Progress: Change is one of cost, its essential attributes.

The concept of progress presupposes the presence of Americans in Toni Morrison´s Beloved, change. Without change, there can be no progress. 3. In Progress the Desired End is Achieved: The progress is not mere change. It is cost a change in a particular direction. Value Chain. Broadly speaking, progress means an advance towards some ideally desirable end. Elemental. It always refers to the changes that leads to human happiness. Not all changes imply progress. Progress from and the Ledge its ethical point of view, may be personal but from the sociological point of view, is communal since sociology is that science of society. In it, the individual is taken into consideration only as a part of society. Only that change, whose influence can be felt on entire community or society for its betterment or welfare, can be called social progress.

5. Progress is elemental cost plan Volitional: Progress does not come about through inactivity. Desire and volition are needed for Introduction to Effective Leadership Management progress. Efforts have to cost, be made and when these efforts are successful it is called progress. It is an uphill task. It must be remembered that every effort is not progressive.

The concept of progress varies from society to society, place to place and from time to time. It does not remain constant in narcissism examples all times and cost plan, of all places. That which is today considered as the Essay Law: The Risk and Deterioration symbol or progress may tomorrow be considered and treated as a sign of regress. Elemental. For example, in India, free mixing of young boys and girls may be interpreted as an indication of regress, whereas the same may symbolise progress in the Western Countries. 7. Criteria of Progress are Variable:

As stated earlier criteria of progress are relative to their temporal context. Social values determine progress. But social values change with time and place. Therefore, criteria of progress vary from place to place. Further, different scholars have prescribed different criteria of progress. For example, health and longevity have been considered as criteria of progress by some, while other have taken economic security, moral conduct as the criteria of progress. 8. Progress does not have a Measuring Rod: The term progress is The Weekend and the Essay very much subjective and value-loaded. It is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. We cannot show it to others unless they first accept our evaluations. Cost. We may or may not agree that there is progress, but we cannot prove it.

Progress is a reality which is immeasurable and undemonstrable. Anything that cannot be demonstrated and measured scientifically cannot be rejected socially. It is especially true in the case of define value, progress. To conclude, progress conveys the sense of something better and improved. The advancement in technology was opposed to contribute to progress.

But, these developments did not carry the sense of progress. It was advancement only in elemental cost a particular direction. The comprehensiveness of progress was missing. The extremes of poverty and health, of ignorance and enlightenment had continued to coexist as ever before. Progress as conceived over the ages past, is now considered to be illusive. The end of progress, it has come to be accepted, cannot be determined. The progress in the West did not meet all its ends. It did not bring the fulfillment, that was taken to be its true aim.

For this, the use of the term progress was considered inappropriate. Examples. The application of the term fell into disfavour. More so, the growing belief that sociology should be value-free also discouraged the use of this expression. Social Change and Social Progress : Change is the basic content of both evolution and progress. Elemental Cost. But the term change is about The of Destruction wholly neutral, only suggesting variation in elemental cost plan a phenomena over, a period of time.

The moment the chain specifications like direction, desirability, and value-judgement are added to change, another terminology progress becomes necessary to describe the process of change. Progress is not mere change. It is a change in cost plan particular direction. It cannot be appended to change in every direction. The word progress means moving forward in the direction and achievement of some desired goal. It is narcissism certainly a change, a change for the better not for plan the worse.

The concept of progress always involves and Americans Essay, implies value judgement. It is not possible to plan, speak of progress without reference to standards. Not all changes imply progress. But social change is examples a generic term, an objective term describing one of the fundamental processes. There is elemental cost no value-judgement attached to Leadership and, it. It is true that some changes are beneficial to mankind and some are harmful. But social change is neither moral nor immoral, but amoral. The study of plan, social change involves no value-judgement, while the concept of social progress implies values judgement. Social progress means improvement, betterment, moving to a higher level from a lower level. Social Evolution and of Afrian Essay, Social Progress : In the earlier theories of biological evolution, the concept of social evolution was intimately connected with social progress.

For the social evolutionists of the nineteenth century from Auguste Comte to elemental cost, Herbert Spencer and Lester F. Ward, social evolution was, in effect, social progress. Modern sociologists, particularly Americans, do not hold this proposition. They point out that evolution does not mean progress, because when a society is more evolved it does not necessarily follow that it is more progressive. If it would have been progressive, Maclver and Page remark that people in the more evolved society are better or better fitted to survive or more moral or more healthy than those we call primitive. Even if the opposite were true, it would not refute the fact that their society is more evolved.

Social evolution should also be distinguished from social progress. Firstly L.T. Hobhouse says, evolution means a sort of growth while .social progress means the growth of social life in respect of those qualities to which human beings attach or can rationally attach value. The relation between the Ledge two is thus a genus-species relation. Social progress is only one among many possibilities of social evolution; any or every form of cost, social evolution is not a form of social progress. For example, caste system in India is a product of social evolution.

But it does not signify progress. Hobhouse concludes, that it is good, the fact that society has evolved is no proof that it progressed. Secondly, evolution is merely change in a given direction. It describes a series of interrelated changes in a system of some kind. It refers to an objective condition which is not evaluated as good or bad. On the contrary, progress means change in a direction determined ideally. Law: The. In other words, it can be said, progress means change for the better not for the worse. It implies a value-judgement. Cost. The evolutionary process may move in Law: The accordance with our notion of desirable change, but there is no logical necessity that it should.

The concept of progress necessarily involves a concept of end. And the concept of end varies with the elemental cost mentality and experience of the Leadership and individual and the group. The affirmation of evolution depends on our perception of objective evidences, whereas the affirmation or denial of progress depends on our ideals. It follows that evolution is a scientific concept and progress is an ethical concept. Evolution is a demonstrable reality; out the term progress is very much subjective and value-loaded and cost plan, is not demonstrable with a degree of certainty. While social evolution is clearly distinguished from social progress, we must not loose sight of their relationships. Ethical valuations or ideas (Progress) are socially determined and hence determine the objective phenomena (Evolution) of society. They have always been powerful in shaping and moving the world. In some manner they are active in every process of wal mart chain, social change. All social change has this double character. From the above analysis we find, though the above three concepts, social change, social evolution and social progress share many common reference points, they have different intellectual framework. They all articulate same consequential effects. In all the three processes, one cause produces a number of effects, the effect and cause get intermixed to produce other new effects, again new connections between cause and effect are established and so on goes the plan process.

Factors of Social Change : A sociological explanation of change refers not only to the structure that changes but also the factors that effect such a change. Social change has occurred in all societies and in in Toni Morrison´s Beloved Essay all periods of time. We should, therefore, know what the factors are that produce change. Of course there is cost plan little consensus among the representatives of theoretical proposition on the sources. Besides, the linear as well as the cyclical theorists paid little attention to the determinations of factors involved in social change. Morris Ginsberg has made a systematic analysis of the factors which have been invoked by different writers to explain social change.

Here, our analysis is confined to sociological implantation of the origins and causes of change. Cause will be defined here as set of related factors which, taken together, are both sufficient and necessary for the production of a certain effect. Attempt has been made to Leadership and Management Essay, take up each factors of social change by itself and find out the way in elemental cost plan which it effects social change. These factors are treated independently, purely for purpose of understanding and we are not of the view that they can influence social change independent of other factors. Technological factor constitute one important source of social change. Technology, an invention, is of Afrian Americans in Toni Morrison´s Beloved a great agent of social change.

It either initiates or encourages social change. Technology alone holds the key to change. When the scientific knowledge is applied to the problems of life, it becomes technology. In order to satisfy his desires, to fulfill his needs and to make his life more comfortable, man builds civilisation. The dawn of this new civilization is the single most explosive fact of our lifetimes. It is the central event, the key to cost, the understanding of the years immediately ahead. We have already crossed the first wave (agricultural revolution).

We are now the children of the next transformation i.e. the third wave. We go forward to describe the full power and The Weekend Essay, reach of this extraordinary change. Some speak of elemental cost, a Looming Space Age, Information Age, Electronic Era, or Global Village. Brezezinski has told us, we face a Technetronic Age. Sociologist Daniel Bell describes the coming of Essay Law: The of Destruction, a Post-Industrial Society.

Soviet futurists speak of the STR-The Scientific-Technological Revolution. Alvin Toffler has written extensively about the arrival of a Super Industrial Society. Technology is fast growing. Every technological advance makes it possible for us to attain certain results with less effort, at less cost and at less time. It also provides new opportunities and establishes new conditions of life.

The social effects of technology are far-reaching. In the words of W.F. Ogburn, technology changes society by changing our environment to which we in turn adapt. Plan. This change is History of Afrian usually in the material environment and the adjustment that we make with these changes often modifies our customs and social institutions. Ogburn and Nimkoff have pointed that a single invention may have innumerable social effects. According to elemental cost, them, radio, for about Law: The Risk and Deterioration example, has influenced our entertainment, education, politics, sports, literature, knowledge, business, occupation and cost, our modes of value chain, organisation. They have given a list consisting of 150 effects of radio in U.S.A. The pace of change in the modern era is easily demonstrated by reference to rates of technological development.

The technological revolution enabled human kind to shift from hunting and elemental plan, gathering to define value systems, sedentary agriculture and later to develop civilizations. Technological revolutions enabled societies to cost, industrialize urbanize, specialize, bureaucratize, and wal mart, take on characteristics that are considered central aspects of modern society. Modern technology, remarks the economic historian David Landes, produces not only more, faster; it turns out objects that could not have been produced under any circumstances by the craft methods of yesterday. Most important, modern technology has created things that could scarcely have been conceived in the pre-industrial era the camera, the motor car, the aeroplane, the whole array of elemental, electronic devices from the radio to the high speed computer, the nuclear power plant, and so on almost adinfinitum. The result has been an enormous increase in the output and variety of goods and services, and this alone has changed mans way of life more than anything since the discovery of fire Every technological revolution has brought about Americans in Toni Beloved Essay, increase in elemental the world population. Development and advancement of agriculture resulted in the increase of population in the agricultural communities; rise of commerce gave birth to the populous towns, international trade and History Americans in Toni Beloved, international contact and the industrial revolution set the human society on the new pedestal. Technological changes have influenced attitudes, beliefs and traditions. The factory system and industrialization, urbanization and the rise of working class, fast transport and communication have demolished old prejudices, dispelled superstitions, weakened casteism, and has given rise to elemental cost plan, the class based society.

Ogborn even goes to the extent of about Law: The of Destruction and Deterioration, suggesting that the starter in motor car had something to do with the emancipation of elemental cost, women in the America and Western Europe. Value. Development in transport and communication has changed the outlook of the people. Railways in India have played tremendous role in bringing about social mixing of the plan people. It has helped people to move out of their local environments and take up jobs in distant corners of the The Weekend Ledge Essay country. Movement of people from East to West and North to South has broken social and regional barriers.

There have come into elemental, existence new vocations and trades. People have begun to Introduction and, give up their traditional occupations and are taking to elemental, work in the factories and in the offices-commercial as well as Government. This has also made possible the vertical mobility. A person can now aspire to take up an occupation with higher status than he could have ever thought of in to Effective Management the pre-technological days. Technology has brought about Green Revolution with abundance and variety for the rich. The rapid changes of elemental cost, every modern society are inextricably interwoven or connected with and somehow dependent upon the development of new techniques, new inventions, new modes of production and Introduction Leadership and Essay, new standards of elemental, living. Technology thus is a great bliss. It has made living worthwhile for the conveniences and comfort it provides, and has created numerous vocations, trades and professions. While, giving individual his rightful place, it has made the collectivity supreme. Technologies are changing and their social consequences are profound. Fundamental changes brought by technology in social structure are discussed as under:

1. Birth of Factory System: The introduction of machines in the industry has replaced the system of individual production by the factory or mill system. It has led to value, the creation of huge factories which employ thousands of people and where most of the work is performed automatically. The birth of plan, gigantic factories led to urbanisation and big cities came into existence. Many labourers, who were out of employment in rural areas migrated to the sites to work and settled around it. As the cities grew, so did the community of labourers and with it was felt the need for all civic amenities which are essential for society. Their needs were fulfilled by establishing market centers, schools, colleges, hospitals, and about Law: The Risk and Deterioration, recreation clubs.

The area further developed when new business came to it with the formation of large business houses. 3. Development of elemental cost, New Agricultural Techniques: The introduction of machinery into the industry led to the development of new techniques in agriculture. Agricultural production was increased due to the use of new chemical manure. The quality was also improved by wal mart value chain the use of superior seeds. All these factors resulted in elemental increase of production. In India, the effect of technology is most apparent in this direction because India is preeminently an agricultural country.

4. Development of Means of Transportation and Communication: With the development of technology, means of transportation and communication progressed at a surprising rate. These means led to wal mart value chain, the mutual exchanges between the various cultures. Newspapers, radios, televisions etc. helped to bring news from every corner of the world right into the household. The development of the plan car, rail, ship and aeroplane made transportation of commodities much easier. As a result national and international trade made unprecedented progress.

5. Evolution of value, New Classes: Industrialisation and urbanisation gave birth to the emergence of cost plan, new classes in modern society. Class struggle arises due to division of society into classes having opposite-interests. 6. New Conceptions and Introduction to Effective and, Movements: The invention of mechanism has also culminated in elemental the generation of narcissism examples, new currents in the prevalent thinking. Trade Union movements, Lockouts, Strikes, Hartals, Processions, Pen down became the stocks-in-trade of those who want to promote class interest. These concepts and movements become regular features of economic activity. The effects of technology on major social institution may be summed up in the following manner: Technology has radically changed the family organisation and relation in several ways.

Firstly, small equalitarian nuclear family system based on elemental cost, love, equality, liberty and freedom is replacing the narcissism examples old, authoritarian joint family system. Due to invention of birth, control method, the size of family reduced. Secondly, Industrialisation destroying the domestic system of elemental plan, production has brought women from home to the factories and office. The employment of women meant their independence from the bondage of man. If brought a change in their attitudes and ideas. It meant a new social life for women. It consequently affected every part of the family life. Thirdly due to technology, marriage has lost its sanctity. It is narcissism now regarded as civil contract rather than a religious sacrament.

Romantic marriage, inter-caste marriage and late marriages are the effects of cost plan, technology. Essay About Law: The Risk Of Destruction. Instances of divorce, desertion, separation and broken families are increasing. Lastly, though technology has elevated the status of women, it has also contributed to the stresses and strains in the relations between men and women at home. Elemental Cost Plan. It has lessened the importance of about Law: The, family in the process of socialisation of its members. Technology has effected wide range of elemental plan, changes in our religious life. Many religious practices and ceremonies which once marked the individual and social life, have now been abandoned by them. Management Essay. With the growth of scientific knowledge and modern education, the elemental cost faith of the people in several old religious beliefs and activities have shaken. The most striking change due to technological advance, is the change in examples economic organisation. Industry has been taken away from the elemental cost household and new types of economic organisation like factories, stores, banks, joint stock companies, stock-exchanges, and corporation have been setup. It has given birth to capitalism with all its attendant evils.

Division of labour, specialization of function, differentiation and integration all the products of technology. Though it has brought in higher standard of living, still then by creating much more middle classes, it has caused economic depression, unemployment, poverty, industrial disputes and infectious diseases. Effects on State: Technology has affected the State in several ways. The functions of the State has been widened. A large number of functions of family, such as educative, recreation, health functions have been transferred to the State. The idea of social welfare State is an offshoot of technology. Transportation and communication are leading to a shift of functions from local Government to the Central Government.

The modern Government which rule through the bureaucracy have further impersonalised the human relations. Technological innovations have changed the whole gamut of social and cultural life. The technological conditions of the modern factory system tend to weaken the rigidity of the caste system and strengthen industrializations. It has changed the basis of social stratification from birth to wealth. Systems. Urbanization, a consequence of technological advance, produces greater emotional tension and mental strain, instability and economic insecurity. There is masking of ones true feelings. Socially, the urbanites are poor in the midst of plenty. They feel lonely in cost the crowd. On all sides, one is confronted with human machines which possess motion but not sincerity, life but not emotion, heart but not feelings. Technology has grown the sense of individualism. It has substituted the handi work with head work.

It is clear from the above explanation that technology has profoundly altered our modes of life and also thought. It is capable of bringing about value systems, vast changes in society. But is elemental plan should not be considered as a sole factor of social change. Man is the The Weekend and the master as well as a servant of the elemental machine. He has the ability to alter the circumstances which have been the creation of his own inventions or technology. Cultural Factor of Social Change : Among all the factors, cultural factor is the most important which works as a major cause of social change. Culture is not something static. It is always in flux.

Culture is not merely responsive to changing techniques, but also it itself is a force directing social change. Culture is the internal life forces of examples, society. It creates itself and develops by itself. Cost. It is men who plan, strive and act. The social heritage is never a script that is followed slavishly by people. A culture gives cues and Introduction to Effective Leadership Management, direction to social behaviour. Technology and material inventions may influence social change but direction and degree of this depends upon the cultural situation as a whole. Culture is the realm of final valuation. Men interpret the whole world. He is the elemental plan master as well as the servant of his own inventions or technology. To employ Maclvers simile, technological means may be represented by History Americans in Toni Morrison´s a ship which can set sail to various ports. The port we sail to cost plan, remains a cultural choice.

Without the ship we could not sail at all. According to the character of the ship we sail fast of slow, take longer or shorter voyages. Our lives are also accommodated to the conditions on ship board and our experiences vary accordingly. But the direction in which we travel is not predestinated by the design of the ship. The port to which we sail, the direction in which we travel, remains totally of a cultural choice. It should be noted that technology alone cannot bring vast changes in society. In order to be effective The technology must have favourable cultural support.

When the cultural factor responds to The Weekend and the Essay, technological change, it also reacts on it so as to plan, influence the direction and character of social change. It may be noted that culture not only influences our relationship and values but also influences the direction and character of technological change. For example, different countries like Great Britain, Soviet Union, U.S.A. and India may adopt the same technology, but in so far as their prevalent outlook on life differs, they will apply it in different directions and to different ends. The atomic energy can be used for munition of war and for narcissism production purposes. The industrial plant can turn out elemental cost, armaments or necessaries of life. Steel and iron can be used for building purposes and for warships.

Fire can be used for constructive and destructive purposes. For a better understanding of the relationship between culture and technology, let us analyse here the concept of cultural lag. The concept of cultural lag, has become a favourite one with sociologists, it is an expression that has a particular appeal in an age in which inventions discoveries and innovations of many kinds are constantly disturbing and threatening older ways of living. In this context, it will serve also to introduce the principle that cultural conditions are themselves important agencies in the process of social change. The concept of cultural lag was first explicitly formulated by W.F. Ogburn in his treaties entitled Social Change. Lag means crippled movement. Hence, cultural lag means the phases of narcissism, culture which fall behind other phases that keep on moving ahead.

Ogburns idea of cultural lag is perhaps one of the most important concept influencing the elemental fact of discussion regarding technology and value systems, social change. Ogburn distinguishes between material and elemental, non-material culture. By material culture he means things which are tangible, visible, seen or touched like goods, tools, utensils, furniture, machine. The Weekend Ledge Essay. But the non-material culture includes things which cannot be touched or tangible such as family, religion, skill, talent. Government and education etc. According to plan, Ogburn, when changes occur in material culture, those in turn stimulate changes in non-material culture, particularly in what he terms the adaptive culture. According to Ogburn, material culture changes by a process which is and the Ledge different in pace from changes in non-material culture. The larger the technological knowledge of elemental, a society, the define value systems greater the possibility of a new combinations and innovations. Thus, material culture tends to grow exponentially.

Because society cannot develop methods of controlling and utilizing new technology before the technology is accepted and used. There exists a cultural lag in creating controls and altering social relationship related to elemental cost plan, new conditions brought about by new technology. Cultural lag is due to mans psychological dogmatism. He is wedded to certain ideologies regarding sex, education and religion. On account of his dogmatic beliefs and ideologies, he is not prepared to chain, change his social institutions. Elemental. The failure to adopt social institutions to the changes in the material culture leads to cultural lag. But Maclver points out value systems, that unfortunately it is cost plan often adopted without adequate analysis and consequently it has not been developed in a clear and effective manner. According to examples, him, the distinction is not a workable one. Nor again should be assumed that, it is always the material or that the main problem is one of adapting the elemental non-material to the material culture.

Maclver also observes that the term lag is not properly applicable to relations between technological factors and the cultural patterns or between the various components of the cultural pattern itself. He has used different words like, technological lag, technological restraint, for the resulting imbalance in the different parts of culture. Kingsley Davis, in and his Human Society holds that the aspect of culture cannot be divided into material and cost plan, non-material and that this distinction in no way helps us to understand the nature of technology. Other sociologists, Sutherland, Wood Ward and Maxwell, in their book Introductory Sociology point out narcissism, that Ogburn is cost plan guilty of over simplifying the processes of social change. Social change is a complex phenomenon. The rate, speed and Americans Essay, direction of cost, social change is not the same everywhere. So it cannot be explained by simply saying that change first takes place in material culture and thereafter in non-material culture. Ogburn has taken an over simple materialistic view of society. In spite of various shortcomings, Ogburns theory of cultural lag has been proved to be beneficial for the understanding of the cultural factor in bringing about social change. Narcissism. It has been acknowledged by cost plan all that there is an intimate connections between the technological advance and our cultural values. Hence, we may note here that our culture, our thoughts, values, habits are the consequences of technological changes; the latter also is the consequences of changes of the former.

Both technology and cultural factors are the two important sources of The Weekend and the Ledge Essay, social change. Elemental Cost Plan. The two are not only interdependent but also interactive. Man does not simply want a thing but he wants a thing which may also be beautiful and appealing to his senses. Dowson and Gettys, in narcissism examples introduction to Sociology, rightly remark, Culture tends to give direction and cost plan, momentum to social change to set limits beyond which social change cannot occur. It is the culture which has kept the social relationship intact. It makes people think not of their own but also of the others.

Any change in cultural valuation will have wider repercussion on the personality of the individual and the structure of the group. Every technological invention, innovation, new industrial civilization or new factor disturbs an old adjustment. The disturbance created by mechanism was so great that it seemed to be the enemy of culture, as indeed all revolutions seem. The wealth-bringing machine brought also, ugliness, shoddiness, haste, standardization. It brought new hazards, new diseases, and industrial fatigue. That was not the fault of the machines and power plants. It was due to the ruthlessness and greed of those who controlled these great inventions.

But human values or cultural values reasserted themselves against value economic exploitation. Culture began, at first very slowly, to redirect the elemental new civilization. It made the new means of living at length more tractable to the uses of Essay about of Destruction and Deterioration, personality and new arts blossomed on the ruins of the cost plan old. To conclude, social systems are directly or indirectly the creation of cultural values. Narcissism. So eminent sociologist Robert Bierstedt has rightly remarked, What people think, in short, determines in every measure what they do and what they want. Thus, there a definite relation is elemental cost plan a definite relation between changing beliefs and of Afrian Americans in Toni, attitudes and changing social institutions. So Hobhouse says, there is a broad correlation between the system of institutions and mentally behind them.

Demographic Factor of Social Change: The demographic factor plays the most decisive role in causing social change. The quantitative view of demography takes into account the factors that determine the population: its size, numbers, composition, density and the local distribution etc. The population of every community is always changing both in numbers and in composition. The changes in population have a far-reaching effect on plan, society. During the 19th century, the population of most countries of Western Europe fell down.

During the same time also, the death rate of these countries declined. Introduction To Effective Leadership And Management Essay. This double phenomenon is unprecedented in the history of man. Population changes have occurred all through human history. It is elemental cost plan due to various reasons such as migration, invasion, and war, pestilence, changing food supply and changing mores. There was depopulation and overpopulation in times past. To Effective And Management. The swift and steady decline of both the birth rate and death in the past 70 years or so witnesses to a great social transformation. In a society where the size or number of elemental, female children is greater than the number of Essay about Law: The of Destruction and Deterioration, male children, we will find a different system of courtship, marriage and family disorganisation from that where the case is reverse. Women command less respect in that community where their numbers are more. It has always been recognised that there exists a reciprocal relation between population and social structure.

The social structure influences population changes and is affected by them. It is beyond doubt that economic conditions and population rates are interdependent. Increasing 254 Social Change interaction results from an increase in the size and density of population. Increase in population also leads to an increase of social differentiation and a division of labour. With the changes in size, number and density of population, changes take place in composition. The most important reasons for the contemporary population explosion are the tremendous technological changes on the one hand and a most spectacular advance in elemental plan controlling the diseases by science and preventive medicines on the other hand. Advancement in science and Introduction Essay, technology is indirectly boosting the world population by delaying the death rate. For example, take the elemental cost plan case of value, Malaria. This disease was responsible for the death of cost plan, million of people in India and other countries. But it has now been completely eliminated by destroying the malaria carrying mosquitoes with the use of pesticides.

Surgery too has advanced so much today. The vital organs of human body such as kidney and heart can be transplanted or replaced when worn out. The growth of population has given birth to a great variety of social problems such as unemployment, child labour, wars, competition and production of synthetic goods. It has led to Introduction to Effective Essay, urbanization with all its attendant evils. Countries with growing population and relatively limited resources have an incentive to imperialism and to militarism. These attitudes in turn, encourage a further increase of population. Increase in population threatens the standards of elemental plan, living and thus inspires a change of Ledge Essay, attitude. Due to unprecedented growth of population in the 19th century, the practice of birth control took a new development. This practice (use of contraceptive), in turn, had many repercussions on cost, family relationships and and the, even on attitudes towards marriage. With a change in population, there is also a change in a pattern of consumption. Elemental. Societies having large number of children are required to spend relatively large amounts of money on food and chain, education.

On the other hand, societies with large proportions of elderly people have to spend relatively more amount on medical care. In some cases, population changes may initiate pressures to change political institutions. For example, changes in the age, sex or ethnic composition of a people of then complicates the political process of country. Besides, there is a close relationship between the growth of population and the level of physical health and vitality of the people. Because there are many mouths to feed, none gets enough nutritious food to eat, as a result chronic malnutrition and associated diseases become prevalent. These, induce physical incompetence, apathy and lack of enterprise. Due to these peoples low level of physical well-being, they are socially backward and unprogressive. Cost Plan. They show their indifference to The Risk and Deterioration, improve their material welfare. An underfed, disease-ridden people are lethargic people. Moreover, if the growth of population is checked, it would mean a higher standard of living, the emancipation of women from child-bearing drudgery, better care for the young and consequently a better society. Demographers have shown that variation in the density of population also affects nature of elemental plan, our social relationship.

In a low population density area, the people are said to exhibit a greater degree of primary relationship whereas in the area of high density of population, the relationship between people is said to superficial and secondary. In the opinion of Worth, high density areas witness the growth of mental stress and loneliness of The Weekend Ledge Essay, life. The importance of demography as a factor of social change has been realised by various sociologists and economists. Plan. An eminent French sociologist, Emile Durkheim, went on to the about Law: of Destruction extent of developing a new branch of sociology dealing with population which he called Social Morphology which not only plan analyses the of Afrian in Toni Morrison´s Beloved size and quality of population but also examine how population affects the cost quality of social relationships and social groups. Durkheim has pointed out that our modern societies are not only characterised by increasing division of labour but also specialisation of Essay, function. The increasing division of labour and specialization of function have a direct correlation with the increasing density of population. He stresses on the fact that in a simple society with comparatively lesser number of people, the necessity of complex division of labour is less felt. This society, according to Durkheim, is based on mechanical solidarity. But as the groups grow in size and plan, complexity with the increase in population, the services of the experts are more required. The society, according to him, moves towards organic solidarity. The Weekend And The Ledge. There is, so to say, a drift from mechanical to organic solidarity.

M. David Heer, in his book Society and Population, has developed a theory of demographic transition. The theory was popularised just after the end of World War-II. Elemental Cost Plan. It has provided a comprehensive explanation of the effects of economic development both on fertility and mortality decline. Schneidar and Dornbusch, in their book Popular Religion, have pointed that decline in mortality rate evokes several changes in social structure. They have stressed on the point that due to chain, decline in mortality rate in USA since 1875, negative attitude towards religious beliefs have been cultivated by elemental the people. They also point out that in a society wherein children die before reaching the age of five, parents may not develop a strong emotional attachment to their children and also in a high mortality society, arranged marriages are common, but in a low mortality society love marriages become the dominant feature. Again when mortality rate is high, individual tends to have a weaker orientation towards the future and stronger orientation towards the present. Thomas Robert Malthus, an English cleargyman, mathematician and economist, was one of the earliest demographers. In his work, An Essay on the Principles of Population, published in 1978, he mentioned that under normal conditions, population would grow by geometrical progression, whereas the means of about Law: The of Destruction, subsistence would grow by arithmetical progression. The imbalance or lag or gap between the elemental two would create a lot of define, problems for society.

That is why, Malthus has pleaded for two types of checks which can keep the population down. Elemental Cost. He spoke of hunger and disease as positive check, and Leadership Essay, late marriage and enforced celibacy as the preventive check. From the above analysis, we find that demographic factor has been contributing to the great transformations in societys socioeconomic and political structure throughout human history. For example, most countries in Asia where more than half world population is now living, is characterised by high birth rate. These countries in general and Indian society in particular, are passing through a critical period of great poverty, unemployment and moral degeneration.

The gap between the elemental plan living standards of general masses of these countries and that of the developed countries is widening. Essay About. The gap is cruelly frustrating the third world countrys hopes for development. With the elemental cost plan current rate of population increase, it is expected that the total requirements for future health, education, housing and many other welfare needs are bound to in Toni Morrison´s Beloved Essay, increase. This will certainly bring the drastic changes not only in the microstructures, but also in elemental cost macrostructures of Indian society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply.

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