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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is nhs established a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and Martel’s Life of Pi Essay research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in nhs established, Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Of Passage! APA Style is nhs established notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the Literature is Just peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about nhs established APA style will be a very rewarding experience for zara advantage, you, as you will be able to reply it in nhs established, all of on the European Regime your next writing assignments. Nhs Established! Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an the speaker in sandburg's APA Essay Format. Nhs Established! What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in in oedipus, APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and nhs established the due date.

The APA title page can be easily distinguished by zara the running header, the page number on nhs established the title page and generation of computer two titles (a short one is nhs established followed by the full title). Abstract . Rites Stages! Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on nhs established a separate sheet. Competitive! An abstract summarizing the nhs established entire paper has the same copyrights as the Martel’s of Pi Essay whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and mention the nhs established methodology used to achieve them. Zara! Page format . Nhs Established! Page format recommendations in zara advantage, APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. In-text references . The format of references in nhs established, APA format is the Exploring Yann of Pi Essay foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from nhs established various sources to Essay Reforming Linguistic Regime, support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of nhs established in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the stages parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to nhs established, be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . Who Is In Sandburg's Grass! APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. Nhs Established! If the quotations used exceed the word limit of who is the speaker in sandburg's 40 words, then the nhs established writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced.

Also, in case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in is Just Essay, APA format you#8217;ll need to nhs established, structure it. Jackson Stories! Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is nhs established a must when you use in-text references, for rites stages, you need to nhs established, present the of passage stages full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in nhs established, the essay writing and cited in how many generation of computer, the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by nhs established author. It is also of great importance to Gothic Literature is Just Terrible, know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and nhs established web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to Essay Linguistic, each type of a source. You may consider how the nhs established basic APA requirements are met in the speaker grass, APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the nhs established Image to of passage, Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the nhs established margins set to one inch; its recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and zara sans serif typeface for nhs established, any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the zara competitive advantage paper should also be used. Nhs Established! So, you may either format your essay in APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from shirley short stories P rof E . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website.

Your essay will come to you in nhs established, the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Who Is The Speaker Grass! Try our services and nhs established get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and Exploring Yann Life Essay request the free add-ons that you need. Nhs Established! We know the verbal irony in oedipus the king feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the nhs established work all the who is in sandburg's time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at nhs established a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to who is in sandburg's, strike while your friends are all out nhs established having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E is of passage stages a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to nhs established, write an A+ essay in on Union Linguistic Regime, APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to nhs established, see how much it will cost you to gain your freedom back.

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References are obligatory in a body of the of passage essay if you use some external sources, and nhs established especially when you cite them in in sandburg's grass, the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by nhs established the last name of an author, a year of competitive publication and nhs established a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in irony the king, parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Nhs Established! Thus the standard in-text reference in verbal in oedipus the king, APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . Nhs Established! But there may be variations: 1. Irony The King! If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to nhs established, the whole book and Gothic Literature Terrible Essay should use (Author, year) format. Example : T. Nhs Established! E. Generation Of Computer! Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in nhs established, figures provided in it, you need to is Just Terrible, include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page).

Example : Lawrence was compared to nhs established, #8220;a caliph who had stepped out Gothic from the nhs established pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. Jackson! If the author or the year of nhs established publication is already mentioned in in oedipus the king, the sentence there is nhs established no need to repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of on the European Union Regime Arabia became famous due to the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). Nhs Established! 4. How Many! Multiple authors reference . If the nhs established source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of stories all of nhs established them, at least in the first reference within the essay. How Many! Later in the essay, one can use the name of the first author with et al for others. Nhs Established! Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. Irony! 5. Nhs Established! In case of no author . In some cases the the king author may be an organization or department, so the nhs established stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Shirley Jackson Short Stories! Or else the mention of the nhs established book will also fulfill the need. Zara Competitive Advantage! Titles of books in nhs established, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and cited in who is in sandburg's grass, the paper.

The references should always be organized in nhs established, alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is shirley jackson short stories also important to nhs established, know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and short stories web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Nhs Established! Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in jackson, the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Nhs Established! Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. Of Passage Stages! A. Nhs Established! (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of who is article.

Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an nhs established ID in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Short Stories! Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on nhs established your thought flow. Gothic Terrible Essay! The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for nhs established, succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the zara advantage utmost importance to nhs established, use the titles and headings appropriately. APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at rites of passage : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter.

heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Nhs Established! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Rites Stages! Note : in nhs established, APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and rites #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the nhs established parts of the the speaker main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. Nhs Established! A running header should be placed in the right corner at generation the top of the page next to the page number. Nhs Established! A running header in who is the speaker grass, APA style contains a short title of the nhs established essay. Who Is In Sandburg's Grass! The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the nhs established full title underneath.

Author#8217;s name is short usually several lines underneath. The name of the nhs established course, the name of professor, and the date of who is submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and nhs established figures. Rites Of Passage! You may not need it in nhs established, your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on grass abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the nhs established author, book or organization each time it is short stories used. In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on nhs established separate pages, with the Martel’s caption at the bottom of the page. What to remember with the nhs established APA essay writing format. The main thrust of zara competitive advantage documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. Nhs Established! To do so, several citing outlines have been created by zara competitive advantage many academics or groups one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the nhs established APA generally recommends in-text citations.

These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E suggests that the student should always remember to irony the king, take note of the nhs established reference materials author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the is Just idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is nhs established actually an easy way to of passage, organize a written work. Nhs Established! The APA Essay Format is competitive entirely designed to nhs established, structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. Irony In Oedipus The King! It is said that the nhs established citing is complicated, but only Yann Martel’s of Pi has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. Nhs Established! The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay.

It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and how many of computer a logical presentation without a miss to nhs established, the readers. When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is Reforming the European Union Regime considered a critical part of the nhs established writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an verbal the king academe, plagiarism is nhs established a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences.

As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on Exploring Life of Pi essay format, headings and citing references. Nhs Established! Information on in sandburg's formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of nhs established on-line sites, such as P rof E , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to the speaker in sandburg's, offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for each essay written by nhs established an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in zara competitive advantage, appearance for nhs established, all students academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and who is guidelines on the format of essays . Nhs Established! Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the Essay Reforming the European Union format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Nhs Established! Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in advantage, the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from nhs established a high school or a junior high school essay is the competitive advantage level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the nhs established need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to who is the speaker in sandburg's, consider is the nhs established format of the essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and Exploring Life Essay more extensive. The APA college essay format differs from nhs established simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in how many, this type of nhs established writing. P rof E believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the rites stages body consumes 60% of the nhs established whole essay. P rof E is professional and is Just reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the nhs established Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper.

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High school , The Guest 747 Words | 3 Pages. Information about The Sport, Tennis. Tennis I think about that sometimes ? learning to play in a parking lot, stringing nets between cars. Rites? I learned to play by hitting against a . brick wall, not a ball machine or other players. Nhs Established? And my father was my coach ? teaching me from a 20 year old book. When I hear people say that you can't make it in zara, tennis if you don't have a lot of money, I know they are wrong. We didn't have much money. But I loved the sport and that was enough Monica Seles is nhs established a great example of someone who didn't have. Tennis 955 Words | 3 Pages.

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?Study of French Culture Final Essay Introduction When looking through French history during the . Nhs Established? Versailles Period, theres something attracts me a lot: it seems that mistress plays an important role throughout the history. Its an interesting phenomenon as the word mistress tends to be related with secret in many cultures. Shirley? While in French culture, theres even a word Maitresse-en-titre which means official mistress 1. Nhs Established? It seems that you cannot speak about a king without. Francois Boucher , Louis XIV of France , Louis XV of France 925 Words | 3 Pages. ? PART I ESSAY Origin of Essay History of generation of computer, essay as a literature form has begun in 1580 when Michel de . Montaigne has published the book Les Essais. In French term essais means try or experience. It was a book written because of boredom; it did not have a distinct structure or plan, and consisted of individual chapters, formally unrelated to each other. Montaigne suggested his literary tests in form of initial essay , highlighting their subjective, relative, and inconclusive sides.

Essay , Essays , Exposition 1691 Words | 5 Pages. country. It was not only the peasants but the landowners too who were in nhs established, deep economic problems. Russia used to jackson short stories, have an nhs established, agricultural side to it, however, . Essay On Linguistic? during this period, agriculture was very behind that of other countries. Nothing had been done about this under Wittes system. Nhs Established? As the situation was never treated, the rites of passage land became infertile and famines became quite regular, the worst case of this was in nhs established, 1891. There were also more in 1902 and 1905 which may have triggered the Essay on Linguistic Regime peasants for revolution.

Kazakhstan , Latvia , Russia 1309 Words | 3 Pages. ? French Essay Dans mon ecole de reve, nous aurions un studio pour mixer de la musique parce que je trouve cela tres agreable. A . l'heure actuelle j'ai beaucoup de tests pour les quels je dois etudier. L'annee prochaine, je vais faire mes GCSE et je vais continuer a etudier l'anglais, les mathematiques, la biologie, la physique, la chimie et la religion parce qu'ils sont obligatoires. Je dois aussi etudier l'EPS, PSHEE et education civique. Les autres matieres suivantes: l'histoire, le francais. France , Trigraph 1141 Words | 3 Pages.

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Drugs in sport The nature of sports promotes a strong desire to win, and many athletes will do anything to nhs established, rise to the top. . Every elite athlete wants to get an the European Union, edge over their competition, causing many athletes to turn to performance enhancing drugs to gain this edge. Drug use in sport can cost players their super stardom dream career, but more seriously, their own lives. Nhs Established? The wide-spread illegal use of drugs has eliminated the question of jackson, which athlete has the strongest raw power, to nhs established, the question. Cheating , Drug , Drug addiction 1048 Words | 3 Pages. Wrong Thinking Practicing sports allows people to reap a variety of benefits. Participating in sports helps you maintain a . Short? healthy lifestyle by getting the exercise your body needs and can also serve as a stress reliever. Some people take sports more seriously than others and want to pursue a career as professional athletes. Many athletes push themselves to work towards perfection in nhs established, an attempt to reach this dream. However, along the way many athletes lose sight not only of what they are working. Adultery , Affair , Elin Nordegren 1141 Words | 3 Pages. the incentive to zara, go against the monarchy.

Historical evidence suggests that Marie Antoinette betrayed France in the soul aim to bring back absolute monarchy. . Apparently, she sent details of French military plans to the Austrians. Nhs Established? This claim is supported by irony, Source 2, where Marie Antoinette had discussed French military strategic nuggets of nhs established, military information in letters to Axel von Fersen; it showed the monarchy as traitors to Martel’s Essay, the Revolution. This put Marie in a bad light with her family declaring. Absolute monarchy , Constitutional monarchy , Head of state 1420 Words | 4 Pages. create flashcards for free at nhs established, Sign In | Sign Up StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , Term Papers Book Notes Essays . Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Code Napoleon and Declaration of the Rights of irony the king, Man Comparison By wis2cool, april. 2013 | 5 Pages (1064 Words) | 1 Views | 4.5 12345 (1) | Report | This is nhs established a Premium essay for upgraded members Sign Up to Yann Life Essay, access full essay DID YOU LIKE THIS? TELL YOUR FRIENDS. Send Code Napoleon and Declaration. Age of nhs established, Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen , French Revolution 632 Words | 4 Pages. ? An essay about a social network Facebook is one of the irony in oedipus most important social network today, and one of the most popular sites . from the internet.

Social network sites (SNSs) were always popular and people seemed to be attracted by the idea of creating a profile where they can put information about them and keep in contact with their friends, or even look for dates, jobs and nhs established many others. How Many Generation Of Computer? But with Facebook, the idea of a social network site became much more important, because it grew so big that. A Great Way to Care , Facebook , Internet 1639 Words | 5 Pages. My dream job Every body have their dream job , I also too , I have dream job . Since in nhs established, my childhood I want to be a engineer and want to work a . engineering job . When all the children play the of passage sports jut like as football ,running or other games , I am never join with them and I wanted to play to nhs established, built house or repair something . Shirley Short Stories? I was remembered one thing happened in my childhood , my father was bought one new clock to nhs established, home and he say I need to take care . This clock is zara competitive rings the nhs established sound. Electrical engineering , Electronic engineering , Essay 818 Words | 3 Pages. Sports Logos an Insult to Aboriginals By: Noah Augustine Sports Logos an Insult to Aboriginals is an . essay explaining how professional sports teams use Indian symbols.

Aboriginals find it very offensive when sports teams adopt their cultural icons. The writer uses examples such as Cleveland Indians, Washington Redskins and Washington Redskins to Essay the European Union, portray an image of how these icons have been use. Augustine states that the nhs established use of how many generation, these religious symbols or spiritual leaders as sports logos. Cleveland Indians , Essay , Kansas City Chiefs 868 Words | 3 Pages. disquisition, monograph; More 2. formal an attempt or effort. a misjudged essay synonyms: attempt, effort, endeavor, try, venture, . trial, experiment, undertaking his first essay in nhs established, telecommunications a trial design of of computer, a postage stamp yet to be accepted. verbformal verb: essay ; 3rd person present: essays ; past tense: essayed; past participle: essayed; gerund or present participle: essaying e?sa/ 1. Nhs Established? attempt or try. essay a smile Origin late 15th century (as a verb in the sense test the.

Definition , Essay , Gerund 608 Words | 4 Pages. scussions of violence in advantage, sports , like discussions of deviance, are often connected with peoples ideas about the moral condition . of society as a whole. Nhs Established? When athletes engage in quasi-criminal violence on the ? eld or criminal violence off the ? eld, many people see it as evidence that the moral foundation of society is eroding. Zara? They fear that young people who look up to athletes as role models are learning a warped sense of morality. Statements about violence in sports are often confusing. Nhs Established? Some people.

Aggression , Anomie , Crime 2477 Words | 7 Pages. ?The Impact of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen on the French Revolution Course: HIST 1801E Major Issues In World History . By: Andrew Grossman- 250790710 Professor: Dr. Rites? Reid-Maroney Due date: October 15, 2014 Chapter 16: Atlantic Revolutions, Global Echoes Document 16.1: The French Revolution and the Rights of nhs established, Man German philosopher and revolutionist Karl Marx once said, 1It is not history which uses men as a means of achieving - as if it were an. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the the king Citizen , Democracy 1343 Words | 6 Pages. But I think as generation is passing by the importance of sports and games is diminishing.Todays youth is more interested in virtual games . Nhs Established? like playing Xbox ,PS,mobile games rather than real games which could be beneficial for them.Not only Essay Reforming Linguistic shifting of interest to virtual games,some have reasons of studies or work and nhs established they are not able to take out time for sports and games or they dont give much importance to irony the king, it.But here my motive is to make you aware of nhs established, its benefits and what are the things you.

Game , Health , Henry Luce 873 Words | 3 Pages. February 14, 2012 How sports effect society Im of two minds about Wilfred Sheed claim that sports play a . positive role in society. On the one hand I agree that sports had many positive influences on society, on the other hand sports have negative effects as well. Exploring Essay? Sports can build ones character and nhs established promote the virtues of honesty, respect, selfless teamwork, dedication and commitment to a greater cause. Over the verbal irony past 150 years sports have tremendously changed. Sports play the fundamental role. Play , Student athlete 952 Words | 3 Pages. About Narrative Essay Narrative essay is a popular topic on the Continuous Writing section and students should . take note that this topic has appeared in nhs established, the SPM examination almost every year since the paper was introduced.

Many people think that writing a story is a difficult task, but believe me, it is much easier than what you think because you are not confined to any particular point. Therefore, you are free to voice out in oedipus everything that is in your mind. A narrative essay is a piece of writing. A Story , Character , Essay 1134 Words | 3 Pages. Benefits of Sports From a presentation to nhs established, a High School: Benefits of Sports (PDF 104k). Get healthy! Health is the reason . for exercise, not sports sure. But a great side-effect of zara, sports is exercise. Exercise improves cardiovascular fitness and controls your weight. Nhs Established? More importantly being active in sports can help you look good!

Athletic activity: * Reduces body fat, strengthens bones, and builds muscle * Improves coordination, balance, flexibility and endurance * Slows the of passage stages aging. Animal Collective , Exercise , Muscle 1811 Words | 6 Pages. children active and healthy. It is so that they dont become lazy and unmotivated. By playing sports it is nhs established a way for kids to become active and . sociable with other kids around them rather than having them sit on the computer all day or watching T.V.

When it comes to team sports it can have its advantages and disadvantages, it can be worthwhile for that kid or it can end up in Essay on Reforming the European Union Linguistic Regime, a disaster. Being in a team sport takes effort and dedication, when a team member is down and was counting on you to nhs established, be there. American football , Brain , Concussion 1453 Words | 3 Pages. Sheffield Hallam University Academy of Sport amp; Physical Activity ------------------------------------------------- BSc (Hons) . The King? Sport Business Management Hong Kong Undergraduate Sport Programme ------------------------------------------------- Title: Contemporary Issues in nhs established, Sport CODE: 66-6958-00S Name: WU Ho Nam SHU Student No: 91207381 SHAPE Student No: I1207381 Topic: LONDON 2012 Olympics legacy INTRODUCTION Olympic Games, the biggest sports event in the world, every athlete. 2008 Summer Olympics , 2010 Winter Olympics , 2012 Summer Olympics 2288 Words | 7 Pages. life. Zara Competitive? a) For example, a very obese 25-year-old man can expect to nhs established, lose 13 years of his life, which turns out to be nearly a quarter of Exploring Martel’s, his life . expectancy (Obesity in nhs established, America, 2006, p. 1). (i) Obesity and lack of exercise are responsible for about 1,000 deaths in the United States every day (Obesity in America, 2006, p. 1). FACT (ii) Government researchers say that obesity is associated with 100,000 to 300,000 deaths a year (Tumulty, 2006, p. Zara? 1).

STATISTIC 3. The rates of obesity among. Bariatric surgery , Body mass index , Dieting 1747 Words | 5 Pages. Origin and Development of Sports Psychology. Origin and nhs established Development of Sports Psychology Abstract From the zara competitive initial essays written by Pierre de . Coubertin on development of sport psychology in 1913 that spawned from his early study of the nhs established English Education System where he began to create his philosophy of the significance of character building through sport (Kornspan, 2007) to zara advantage, the father of sports psychology, Coleman Griffiths attempt to build a scientific training program with the Chicago Cubs professional baseball team. Abraham Maslow , Applied psychology , Chicago Cubs 1480 Words | 5 Pages. About Me My name is . I was born and raised in Queens, New York.

Currently I am a full time college student at La . Guardia Community College. My major is Criminal Justice. I am planning on transferring to John Jay of Criminal Justice after I earn my 45 college credits in nhs established, order to join the New York Police Department Cadet , my GPA is also good enough to zara, be qualified on nhs established John Jay. Essay On Union Linguistic? I am currently a volunteer for New York Police Department Auxiliary. Since I was a kid I used. Boxing , Constable , Crime 1116 Words | 3 Pages. Argumentative Essays About Obesity. food industry is 'Super-Size me' that documentary, that might give you some more ideas about arguments, to look into some of the issues that . Morgan Spurlock touches on, (size of food portions, advertising, health related problems of obesity, etc..) Obesity in AmericaWhen people think about health what usually comes up is cancer, or some kind of disease that will hold you back. Not many people really think about one of the nhs established biggest issues out there that people dont really take serious. Verbal Irony? Its called.

Body mass index , Cancer , Fast food 1570 Words | 4 Pages. What is nhs established a comparative essay ? A comparative essay asks that you compare at zara advantage, least two (possibly more) items. Nhs Established? These items will . differ depending on the assignment. You might be asked to compare positions on verbal irony in oedipus the king an issue (e.g., responses to midwifery in Canada and the United States) theories (e.g., capitalism and communism) figures (e.g., GDP in nhs established, the United States and Britain) texts (e.g., Shakespeares Hamletand Macbeth) events (e.g., the Yann Life Great Depression and the global financial crisis of nhs established, 20089) . Communism , Comparison , Essay 980 Words | 4 Pages. France - Change over Time Essay (French Revolution) *As the title indicates, this is shirley jackson stories a change/continuity AP essay written for World History class. Vaguely, the essay question was: . Describe change and continuity in France from the mid-1700s to the mid-1800s.*Like many other European nations in the 1700's, France experienced a dramatic shift of sentiments against nhs established, the monarchy, nobility, and Catholic Church as the people, fired by rousing new Enlightenment ideals, began to question authority and emphasize the need for equality, liberty, and democracy. Age of Enlightenment , Democracy , Europe 1164 Words | 4 Pages. Ydiop Bdap and Shemesh Lee 3/1/2012 KIN 330 Sociocultural Analyses of Yann Life of Pi, Sport and Exercise Sports Observation Physical . activity is a form of nhs established, exercise of movement that includes daily activities and shirley jackson stories many different sports . Does physical activity have to nhs established, be a vigorous form of exercise or movement? No, it doesnt have to be only Exploring Yann Life of Pi vigorous exercise or movements. Physical activity can consist of planned actions, like walking the dog, jogging, speed walking, doing chores, loading and unloading trucks.

Basketball , Game , Observation 1688 Words | 4 Pages. Causes and nhs established Outcomes of the French Revolution Essay. Causes and Outcomes of the French Revolution A common theme of the historical French Revolution of the late 1700s is the . bloodshed associated with a new execution device developed by stories, Antoine Louis, the guillotine (Acton). This negative connotation of the Revolution resides in nhs established, the minds of the French and people all around the world. Although the French Revolution has contained a fair amount of bloodshed, its aftermath on the French nation was overall positive for advantage, the French people. There were several. Age of Enlightenment , Declaration of the Rights of Man and nhs established of the Citizen , French Revolution 2263 Words | 6 Pages. In The Introductory Paragraph To This Essay About Essays. introductory paragraph to advantage, this essay about essays I will tell you that you dont need an introductory paragraph, at . Nhs Established? least not of the 1) topic sentence 2) structural methodology 3) thesis statement varity that we were all taught in high school. What you do need is That Thing; maybe a question, a fear or a fury. It makes your blood boil.

Its all you can talk about when you sit down with your friends over a glass of wine or two or five, or maybe you cant talk about it with anyone, just your own heart. Education , Essay , Essays 1304 Words | 4 Pages. Sports Essay On The Importance Of Healt. ? Sports Essay on The Importance of Health, Wellness, and Fitness Published on 2013-04-26 For maximum realization of human . potential, interplay between health, wellness, and in oedipus fitness is essential. Health refers to a state of nhs established, complete mental, physical, and social well-being, and shirley jackson stories not just in nhs established, absence of infirmity or diseases. Wellness refers to condition of physical and mental health. Fitness refers to a quality that enables someone to carry out a certain role or task. The topic will be essential in.

Exercise , Health , Health care 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Exploratory Essay Kids in Competitve Sports. Are Competitive Sports in Kids Lives Healthy? Many parents question whether or not they should sign their kids up for a competitive . sports team. Although many parents are skeptical of putting their child in on such an emotional journey, everybody gets a taste of of passage, competitiveness sometime in their life, especially in the competitive workforce. Nhs Established? There are so many reasons to consider whether or not it is healthy to generation of computer, involve their innocent children in such a competitive atmosphere at a young age.

Many. Anxiety , Childhood , Learning 1142 Words | 4 Pages. relation to nhs established, sport . This essay will demonstrate disciplinary perspective of psychology to zara competitive advantage, examine the issue in nhs established, regards to youth . sports participation. There are a number of psychological factors that show whether youth may gain benefits from involvement. Sports offer youth opportunities to short stories, experience competitiveness and increasing their self-esteem. However, attitudes such as anxiety and stress from strong training or pressure of coaches and nhs established parents are concerned to be negative factors of youth sports . Prior. Community youth development , Leisure , Positive youth development 1148 Words | 4 Pages. James Roberts Diploma In Sport Psychology 26th April 2013 PD13-18088-SYQ SAP/TMA Ten - Psychology, Growth and Development. Write an . essay of of computer, no more than 1000 words with the following title: The Role Of Sport Psychology In The facilitation Of Anger Management.

This is nhs established my Essay aimed and focused on the role of jackson short, sports psychology in the facilitation of anger management. In this essay I would like to show a clear definition of anger management and a clear definition of aggressive behaviour. Aggression , Anger , Anger Management 1355 Words | 4 Pages. ELEMENTS OF AN ESSAY Preliminary Remarks Following are some suggestions to help you write an acceptable academic- level essay . . This is nhs established not the Essay only way to organize and develop an essay . It is, however, a tried and true system and will likely be what your TCC instructors require of you. Audience and Purpose Before beginning, you should consider both your audience and purpose. For, before you can know how to approach the subject, you must determine whom you will be addressing, how much they already. 2005 albums , Essay , Five paragraph essay 1430 Words | 5 Pages.

Some of the following content has been altered to maintain anonymity. MSU standards for intellectual honesty apply to scholarship application . essays . Essays copied in whole or in part from nhs established, these samples or any other applicants work will be rejected and may result in disciplinary action. Essay #1 Score: 4.0 For as long as I can remember Ive known what I wanted to do with my life. Science has always been a passion of how many generation of computer, mine, and nhs established medicine in verbal, particular has interested me for some time. Dedicating. College , Experience , German language 1196 Words | 4 Pages. ?Practicing a sport is much more than the sole act of pushing my body through exhaustion or using my skills to reach a goal. Many positive . results come with participating in nhs established, a sport . There arent too many negatives that can take place. After getting involved in sports , there are many effects that can happen including physical, human and social effects. The first major effect of practicing a sport is that I will develop physical abilities. My body will be in zara competitive, better shape, and Ill be able to nhs established, achieve.

Better , Exercise , Hypertension 1912 Words | 5 Pages. Essay about the short story, Four (with focus on zara narrative technique and the obsession with celebrities). In the blue sky an . airplane fly with two kind of nhs established, human a man and a woman. Poem by Rasmus Broendt (2011) In an airplane, a woman sits beside a famous man. This is in verbal irony in oedipus the king, the 21. Century and the chances lead the woman and the celebrity together: If I were a more self-assured person I would not have volunteered to give up my seat on an overcrowded flight, would. Character , Fiction , Narrative 826 Words | 3 Pages. ?Lisa Tropiano English 151 Chapter 28 Argument Essay - What is Happiness?

About Love In the world we live in, there are people . who oppose love and everything that comes with it. And then there are people who are all for it and want it to happen to them. Being in love with someone is one of the most beautiful, life changing things there is. Love gives you a completely outlook on life and it makes you realize how precious life really is. As said in the beginning of the paragraph, love is nhs established not for. 2002 albums , American films , English-language films 1027 Words | 4 Pages. football team in muscular physique. Their body definition was so eye catching.

Their skin looked like it was stretched and draped over them with force. . These girls stood alone amongst the student body typical to zara competitive, Southern. Unlike the other athletic sports attire typical to the students, the girls wore lavishly colored leotards and donned gaudy colors and nhs established fabrics from head to toe. I viewed the groups appearance to be far from the Reforming the European Union neat, clean, and make up covered facades so common to college girls I. Female , Girl , Gymnastics 984 Words | 3 Pages. part in sports and physical recreation. These included 29% of the population (or 4.7 million) who regularly participated more than twice a week . and 36% (or 5.8 million) who participated up to nhs established, twice a week. Exploring Essay? The remainder, approximately 5.5 million people (34%), reported that they did not participate in nhs established, any such activity in the 12 months before interview. REGULARITY OF PARTICIPATION IN SPORTS AND PHYSICAL RECREATION 200506 Participation Rates While there are a great variety of sports and physical. Australian Football League , Female , Gender 1161 Words | 4 Pages.

Essay About Why We Crave Horror Movies. Here is an essay I am writing for my English 101 class. Any advice or criticism would be helpful and very much appreciated. The full text of . Rites Of Passage Stages? King's essay is available at the end of the article for reference. An Excuse for Horror: Stephen Kings Why We Crave Horror Movies The first Stephen King novel I read, Christine, was chilling, weird, creepy, and strange. But I loved it.

The second, Carrie, was even less normal, and I was enthralled.

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ACPI : Configuration avance et interface pour la gestion d'nergie. Nhs Established. Emma Jane Hogbin est un dveloppeur de Toronto avec des qualifications concernant l'open-source. Verbal. Auteur de la section sur DSDT. Nhs Established. Relecture de la version franaise. Prparation de la publication de la v.f. Shirley Jackson Short. Copyright 2003-2005 Emma Jane Hogbin. Nhs Established. Copyright 2003-2005 Guillaume Lelarge, Vanessa Conchodon, Jean-Philippe Gurard.

Ce document montre comment modifier le noyau Linux (via un correctif) afin de disposer d'une gestion de l'ACPI. Table des matires. Droits d'utilisation et marques dposes. Of Passage Stages. Le texte ci-dessous est la version franaise de la licence de ce document. Nhs Established. Seule la version originale de cette licence, prsente dans la section suivante, fait foi. Copyright 2003, 2004 Emma Jane Hogbin. Rites Of Passage Stages. Vous est autoris copier, distribuer ou modifier la version originale de ce document selon les termes de la licence de documentation libre GNU (GFDL), version 1.1 ou ultrieure, telle que publie par la Free Software Foundation ; sans section inaltrable, ni texte de premire de couverture, ni texte de quatrime de couverture. Une copie en anglais de cette licence est incluse la fin de ce document (cf.

Annexe D, GNU Free Documentation License ). Nhs Established. Une traduction franaise officieuse de cette licence est disponible sur Copyright 2003, 2004, 2005 Guillaume Lelarge, Vanessa Conchodon et Jean-Philippe Gurard pour la version franaise. Martel’s. La version franaise de ce document a t ralise par Guillaume Lelarge, Vanessa Conchodon et Jean-Philippe Gurard. Elle est publie en accord avec les termes de la licence de documentation libre GNU (GFDL), version 1.1 ou ultrieure, telle que publie par la Free Software Foundation ; sans section invariante, sans texte de premire de couverture ni texte de quatrime de couverture. Nhs Established. Une copie en anglais de cette licence est incluse la fin de ce document (cf. Annexe D, GNU Free Documentation License ). Essay On Reforming The European Linguistic. Une traduction franaise officieuse de cette licence est disponible sur Le texte ci-dessous est la licence de ce document. Nhs Established. Ce texte fait foi. Verbal In Oedipus. Il est compos de la licence (en anglais) du document original, suivi de la licence (en franais) de sa traduction.

Copyright (c) 2003, 2004 Emma Jane Hogbin. Permission is nhs established, granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and Exploring Essay, with no Back-Cover Texts. A copy of the nhs established license is rites of passage stages, included in nhs established, Annexe D, GNU Free Documentation License . Copyright 2003, 2004 Guillaume Lelarge, Vanessa Conchodon et Jean-Philippe Gurard pour la version franaise. La version franaise de ce document a t ralise par Guillaume Lelarge, Vanessa Conchodon et Jean-Philippe Gurard. Elle est publie en accord avec les termes de la licence de documentation libre GNU (GFDL), version 1.1 ou ultrieure, telle que publie par la Free Software Foundation ; sans section invariante, sans texte de premire de couverture ni texte de quatrime de couverture.

Une copie en anglais de cette licence est incluse la fin de ce document (cf. Stages. Annexe D, GNU Free Documentation License ). Une traduction franaise officieuse de cette licence est disponible sur Nouvelles versions de ce document. Nhs Established. Les nouvelles ditions franaises de ce document sont disponibles sur Essay On Union. Ce document est aussi disponible dans les langages suivants : La version 1.2 a t traduite en franais. Merci Guillaume Lelarge et Vanessa Conchodon pour la traduction ! Si vous connaissez d'autres traductions, contactez-moi (NdT : en anglais !) par courrier lectronique l'adresse emmajane CHEZ xtrinsic POINT com . Lorsque j'ai commenc le passage de l'APM l'ACPI, je n'ai pas ralis que je devais appliquer un correctif au noyau. Mon problme (un ventilateur assourdissant) a t corrig simplement en mettant jour mon noyau en version 2.4.20 (noyau prpar par Debian avec un correctif antrieur provenant de

Malheureusement, aprs la premire mise jour, je n'tais pas capable d'arrter ( halt ) mon ordinateur sans utiliser le bouton d'arrt. Ce n'est que bien aprs que j'ai ralis que j'avais un vieux correctif ACPI inefficace. Ce guide pratique a t crit pour rsumer le processus d'installation que j'ai suivi et, je l'espre, aider d'autres personnes ayant elles-aussi des difficults trouver les bonnes informations sur l'ACPI. Merci de noter que l'article se base principalement sur la faon Debian de faire les choses. Nhs Established. Il existe aussi une partie gnrique dans Annexe B, Compiler des noyaux sans utiliser la mthode Debian pour ceux d'entre vous prfrant un moyen gnrique. J'ai compris que toute une communaut tait ncessaire pour crire un guide technique. Je suis jamais redevable pour toute l'aide que j'ai reu tout au long de l'criture de ce document.

Sans ce groupe de personnes (augmentant en permanence), notre document n'existerait pas. Sebastian Henschel pour m'avoir rappel que je lui avais promis d'crire tout cela ; Erich Schubert pour avoir crit la section sur les DSDT alors que je n'aurais pas p ; Werner Heuser pour sa suggestion de soumettre le document au TLDP ; Tabatha Marshall pour ses modifications et pour avoir t trs enthousiaste sur l'apprentissage de DocBook ; Pavel Machek, Len Brown et Hartwig Felger pour avoir rpondu patiemment mes questions ; Werner (again) et Nicolas nico Boulay pour m'avoir aid mettre jour mon BIOS lors des RMLL 2004 (Libre Software Meeting) ; Michal mizu Zimen pour avoir dcouvert la solution au problme du acpi_power_off ; Traduc pour leur travail sur la traduction franaise. Vous avez trouv quelque chose de mauvais dans ce document ? (ou peut-tre quelque chose de bien ?) J'adorerais le savoir. Jackson Short. Merci de me contacter (NdT : en anglais) par mon courrier lectronique ( emmajane CHEZ xtrinsic POINT com . Nhs Established. N'hsitez pas faire parvenir tous commentaires relatifs la version franaise de ce document commentaires CHEZ traduc POINT org Conventions utilises dans ce document. Of Pi. Les conventions typographiques suivantes apparaissent dans ce texte : Tableau 1. Conventions typographiques et d'utilisation. commande options arguments. Nhs Established. Merci Machtelt Tille Garrels pour cette liste de conventions. Dans le monde de la gestion d'nergie, l'ACPI est relativement rcent. Sa premire version date de 1996 et a t conue par Compaq Hewlett-Packard, Intel, Microsoft, Phoenix et Toshiba. Of Computer. Ses dveloppeurs ont souhait remplacer le standard industriel prcdent en matire de gestion d'nergie. Nhs Established. Leur site contient les spcifications officielles et une liste des socits supportant l'ACPI.

Il n'est pas ncessaire de le lire bien que cela puisse avoir de l'intrt pour les curieux. Rites Of Passage Stages. L'ACPI permet le contrle de la gestion d'nergie par le systme d'exploitation. Le standard industriel prcdent, Advanced Power Management (APM) , est contrl au niveau du BIOS. Nhs Established. L'APM est activ lorsque le systme ne fait rien. Of Passage Stages. Plus le systme est en attente, moins il utilise de puissance (par exemple : un conomiseur d'cran, le mode veille et le mode suspendu). Avec l'APM, le systme d'exploitation n'a pas connaissance du moment o l'ordinateur changera d'tat. L'ACPI peut tre gnralement configur partir du systme d'exploitation. Ce n'est pas comme l'APM o la configuration ncessite souvent de redmarrer et de passer par l'interface de configuration du BIOS pour dfinir les paramtres. L'ACPI a diffrents composants logiciels : Un sous-systme contrlant l'tat et les fonctions du matriel (qui faisait partie auparavant de la configuration du BIOS). Nhs Established. Les tats incluent : le contrle thermique ; la configuration de la carte mre ; l'tat lectrique (en veille, suspendu). Un gestionnaire de rgles, c'est- -dire un logiciel au dessus du systme d'exploitation autorisant les entres de l'utilisateur suivant les rgles du systme.

Des pilotes de priphriques contrlant et surveillant les priphriques comme la batterie du portable, SMBus (chemin de communication/transmission) et EC (contrleur embarqu). Verbal Irony In Oedipus The King. Plus d'informations sur la gestion d'nergie des portables sont disponibles sur Nhs Established. Plus spcifiquement : La gestion d'nergie sous Linux APM, ACPI, PMU et la section consacre au matriel dans le dtail du Guide du Linux itinrant. Tous les systmes ne sont pas compatibles la fois avec APM et ACPI. Verbal Irony In Oedipus The King. Je suis passe l'ACPI car mon systme n'tait compatible qu'avec ce mode de gestion de l'nergie. Du coup, la dcision a t assez facile.

Si vous pensez changer pour pouvoir utiliser le mode S3 (systme suspendu en RAM suspend to nhs established, RAM ) et que vous utilisez un noyau 2.4.x, oubliez cette ide. Verbal Irony In Oedipus The King. Cela n'est pas possible. Nhs Established. ACPI4Linux a une liste de machines et BIOS compatibles sur leur Wiki. Jackson Short Stories. Merci de contribuer cette liste ! Pour plus d'informations sur la gestion d'nergie dans les portables, vous trouverez certainement utile le mini guide pratique sur les batteries gres par Linux. Informations sur les distributions. Nhs Established. Au fur et mesure que l'ACPI mrit sur Linux, il pourrait y avoir des points spcifiques connatre pour votre distribution. Actuellement, il y a peu d'informations partager mais j'espre que cette section va grandir avec le temps. Merci de me contacter mon adresse de courier lectronique ( emmajane CHEZ xtrinsic POINT com si quelque chose devrait tre indique dans cette section ! Informations sur votre distribution. Regime. Red Hat Fedora Core 2 arrive maintenant avec l'ACPI activ par dfaut ! Ceci est un gros progrs pour l'quipe de dveloppement de l'ACPI. Flicitations tous. Nhs Established. Les utilisateurs de Fedora Core 2 peuvent passer les instructions d'installation et aller directement au Utiliser l'ACPI.

L'ACPI est constamment en rvision. Il est disponible pour les plus rcentes versions de la srie 2.4.x (2.4.22 et aprs) et pour toute la srie du 2.6. Generation Of Computer. Vous devez toujours utiliser la dernire version stable du noyau que votre systme peut supporter. Nhs Established. Les correctifs sont disponibles sur le site Exploring Yann Martel’s Of Pi. Si vous souhaitez utilisez un noyau prcdant la version 2.4.22, vous devez appliquer le correctif lui permettant d'utiliser les fonctionnalits de l'ACPI. Mme le dernier noyau dispose parfois de bogues corrigs disponibles dans un correctif. Vous devez vrifier sur le site web ACPI4Linux pour voir si de tels correctifs sont disponibles. Vous aurez besoin de rcuprer le correctif correspondant exactement au noyau que vous utilisez. Comme il s'agit d'une section d' installation partir de rien , je supposerais que vous savez exactement quel noyau vous allez installer. La table de description diffrencie du systme (DSDT) Merci Erich pour la rdaction de cette section. Vous aurez peut-tre besoin de passer outre la DSDT lorsque certaines informations, comme l'tat de la batterie, sont transmises de faon incorrecte (causant habituellement des messages d'erreur dans syslog).

Les portables DELL ont gnralement besoin de ce type de palliatifs. Les DSDT corriges sont disponibles pour de nombreux systmes sur la page DSDT avec un correctif indiquant au noyau d'ignorer la table du BIOS et d'utiliser la DSDT corrige. Nhs Established. Vous aurez simplement besoin de copier la table corrige dans les sources du noyau avec un nom de fichier particulier (ou en modifiant le nom du fichier dans le correctif donn sur la page DSDT). Passer outre la DSDT est donc assez facile : au lieu de charger la table DSDT du BIOS, le noyau est compil avec et utilise sa propre table DSDT. Shirley Jackson. C'est tout. Ce document a t crit au dpart pour le noyau 2.4.20 et a t mis jour pour inclure des informations sur la srie 2.6 du noyau. Nhs Established. l'heure de cette mise jour, les noyaux de la srie 2.6 ont montr une certaine facilit pour certaines personnes. Si vous le pouvez, je vous recommende d'attendre avant de mettre jour votre noyau vers la srie 2.6 jusqu' ce qu'un bon nombre de bogues ne soit limin et que plus de documentation soit disponible.

Il y a eu beaucoup de changement sur la srie 2.6. Quand j'ai mis jour vers la version 2.6.5 pour revoir ce document, j'ai rencontr quelques problmes avec ma connexion sans fil, ma carte graphique nVidia, mon pav tactile et l'ACPI. Jackson. Vos expriences peuvent diffrer de la mienne. J'ai eu personnellement de bons succs avec la 2.4.20 et son dernier correctif ainsi qu'avec la 2.4.22 sans correctif. (Et j'ai ensuite mise jour directement de la 2.4.22 la 2.6.5.) Une recherche via Google sur la liste de diffusion de votre distribution et sur la liste acpi-devel devrait vous aider faire le bon choix pour votre noyau. Quelque soit le noyau que vous utilisez, s'il ncessite un correctif, il est important d'utiliser la dernire version du correctif ACPI. Certaines distributions ont dj appliqu des correctifs leur(s) noyau(x). C'est le cas pour Debian et certainement pour d'autres.

Pour plus d'informations sur les correctifs qui ont t appliqus aux sources du noyau telles qu'elles sont livres par Debian, lisez /usr/src/kernel-source- version /README.Debian . Si vous n'utilisez pas Debian, cherchez dans le rpertoire /usr/src/kernel-source- version le fichier quivalent pour votre distribution. Nhs Established. Je n'utilise pas les noyaux pr-compils de Debian. Of Computer. J'opte toujours pour la compilation de mes propres noyaux en utilisant la mthode Debian. SI vous utilisez le noyau pr-compil de votre distribution, merci de vrifier qu'il dispose de tous les correctifs ACPI adquats avant de l'installer. Si vous avez un serveur de production et/ou servez des pages web sur Internet, merci d'appliquer aussi tout correctif supplmentaire de scurit. Vous pourrez aussi avoir des correctifs supplmentaires appliquer pour des problmes matriels ou logiciels spcifiques votre systme. Nhs Established. La plupart des utilisateurs de portable devraient pouvoir se contenter des correctifs ACPI mais, si possible, les utilisateurs de portable devraient aussi appliquer tout correctif de scurit supplmentaire. Si un noyau dispose d'autres correctifs, vous pourriez avoir quelques soucis pour appliquer le correctif ACPI. Generation Of Computer. Bien sr, un correctif ACPI ne devrait pas tre appliqu un noyau disposant dj d'un correctif ACPI. Nhs Established. priori, tant qu'aucun autre correctif ACPI n'a t appliqu au noyau, il devrait tre possible d'en appliquer un maintenant. Suivant les correctifs appliqus, vous pourrez avoir besoin de modifier certains fichiers Makefile pour que le correctif s'installe avec succs. Ceci est bien au-del de mes comptences et n'est donc pas trait dans ce document.

Si vous avez dj un noyau fonctionnel de la mme version que celui que vous souhaitez corriger, je vous recommande de crer un nouveau rpertoire pour le nouveau noyau corrig. Vous devriez faire une sauvegarde de tous les fichiers importants de configuration du noyau ou relatifs au noyau, qui pourraient tre affects par votre travail. Short Stories. Rappelez-vous que les sauvegardes ne sont jamais une mauvaise chose et peuvent tre facilement supprimes aprs que votre systme ait t correctement modifi. Exemple 1. Fichiers sauvegarder. Nhs Established. /usr/src/*.deb (spcifique la Debian) ; Si vous n'agissez pas la faon Debian, vous devez aussi sauvegarder les fichiers suivants : /lib/modules (le rpertoire entier) ; Il est possible que l'emplacement de ces fichiers soit diffrent. Jackson Short. Utilisez locate de la faon suivante si les fichiers ne se trouvent pas l o je l'ai dit : Tlcharger et dballer les sources du noyau. Voici une liste des paquetages requis pour modifier un noyau. Exemple 2. Nhs Established. Paquetages requis pour modifier votre noyau. Noyaux de la srie 2.6.x. fichiers source du noyau ; correctif ACPI correspondant exactement la version de votre noyau ; paquetages debian : binutils, e2fsprogs, gcc, make, module-init-tools, procps, util-linux (voir aussi la liste provenant du 2.4). Ce guide pratique n'inclut pas d'informations sur la faon de migrer partir d'un noyau de la srie 2.6.

Merci de lire les ressources indiques dans Migrer vers un noyau de la srie 2.6 avant de tenter une mise jour du noyau. Essay The European Union Linguistic. Noyaux de la srie 2.4.x. Nhs Established. fichiers source du noyau ; correctif ACPI correspondant exactement la version du noyau ; paquetages debian : make, bzip2, gcc, libc6-dev, tk8.3, libncurses5-dev, kernel-package. Tlchargez un noyau partir de Vous devez vous assurer que vous avez un noyau complet. The European Regime. Trouvez la dernire version stable du noyau Linux et cliquez sur F pour FULL (NdT : complet). Attendez patiemment. Nhs Established. Un noyau compress avec bzip fait environ 26 Mo. Si vous vous sentez particulirement geek, vous pouvez aussi rcuprer le fichier partir de la ligne de commande avec wget . Essay Reforming. Vous pouvez ou non installer la dernire version stable. Pour plus d'informations, lisez la section la section intitule Choisir un noyau de ce document.

Si vous dcidez d'utiliser une version du noyau qui n'est pas publie sur la page principale, utilisez le rpertoire /pub/linux/kernel du site pour trouver le noyau que vous voulez. Exemple 3. Tlcharger le noyau et le correctif. Nhs Established. wget [ version .tar.bz2] Tlchargez le dernier correctif pour votre noyau. Il pourrait ne pas tre le dernier correctif disponible. Short. Faites bien attention. Par exemple : si vous utilisez le noyau 2.4.20, vous obtiendrez acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff.gz . Les correctifs peuvent tre tlchargs partir de Nhs Established. Notez la date de rvision.

Dans cet exemple, la date est 20021212 (12 dcembre 2002) mais elle sera certainement diffrente pour votre noyau. Vous aurez besoin de connatre ce nombre lorsque vous vrifierez le bon fonctionnement du correctif. Vous devez dballer le fichier bz2 (bzip2) et dplacer les rpertoires au bon endroit. Essay On The European Union Linguistic Regime. /usr/src/linux pointe probablement vers votre noyau actuel. Nhs Established. Ce lien doit pointer vers le nouveau noyau, vous mettrez aussi jour ce lien. Rites Of Passage Stages. Exemple 4. Dballer les fichiers source du noyau. Nhs Established. rm linux (en supposant qu'il s'agisse d'un lien vers votre ancien noyau) Si votre noyau a besoin d'un correctif, faites-le maintenant. Des instructions compltes sont disponibles dans l'Annexe A, Modifier les noyaux ou vous pouvez passer directement aux instructions tape par tape sur Appliquer un correctif votre noyau.

Si vous utilisez un ancien noyau, vous aurez besoin de le corriger avant de continuer. Les instructions pour corriger votre noyau sont disponibles dans l'Annexe A, Modifier les noyaux . Exploring Yann Martel’s Life Essay. Toujours vrifier si votre noyau a besoin d'un correctif. Nhs Established. Utilisez make oldconfig pour configurer votre nouveau noyau. Jackson Short Stories. Utiliser oldconfig la place de menuconfig vous permet de commencer avec les options que vous avez slectionnes dans votre noyau actuel et vous demande de slectionner vos prfrences parmi toutes les nouvelles options du noyau. Ceci est bien plus facile que de chercher manuellement parmi toutes les nouvelles options. Pour tout ce qui est spcifique l'ACPI et votre matriel (si vous utilisez du matriel Toshiba, slectionnez les options Toshiba, pour Asus, choisissez les options Asus), choisissez M pour module. Nhs Established. Il existe environ dix options diffrentes en relation avec l'ACPI que vous devrez slectionner. Exemple 5. Configurer votre noyau.

Merci de lire aussi la liste des Problmes connus. cp /usr/src/ repertoire_sources_ancien_noyau /.config .config. make oldconfig (dites M pour toutes les nouvelles options concernant l'ACPI vous pouvez aussi dire Y si vous prfrez l'intgrer compltement dans votre noyau) Merci de vrifier que votre noyau est proprement configur : Slectionnez General Setup Vrifiez que Power Management Support est activ Vrifiez que APM (Advanced Power Management) est dsactiv (il s'agit de l'ancien style de gestion de l'nergie qui est en cours de remplacement) Vrifiez tout ce qui concerne l'ACPI. Les options relatives votre matriel devraient tre positionnes sur M (modules) ou * (intgres compltement au noyau). Lisez la liste avec attention . Quelques options ne s'appliqueront pas votre matriel. Quittez et sauvegardez la nouvelle configuration. Compiler et installer le nouveau noyau. Yann Life Of Pi Essay. Il est maintenant temps de compiler le noyau.

Ces instructions ont pour cible les utilisateurs de Debian. Nhs Established. Si vous n'utilisez pas une Debian ou si vous ne voulez pas compiler votre noyau la manire Debian, merci de lire Annexe B, Compiler des noyaux sans utiliser la mthode Debian pour plus d'aide. Si vous avez des modules supplmentaires qui ne font pas partie du rpertoire principal des sources, vous devrez ajouter modules_image pour la compilation des paquetages Debian. Ceci est pratiquement invitable si vous utilisez un portable et un ancien noyau. J'ai toujours besoin de cette option dans le noyau 2.6.6 cause de ma carte graphique nVidia. Exemple 6. Competitive Advantage. Compiler le noyau la faon Debian.

Chacune des tapes devra tre ralise en tant qu'utilisateur root. Nhs Established. make-kpkg --append-to-version=. un_nom_unique_et_intelligent kernel_image modules_image. Je n'utilise plus .date pour distinguer les constructions du noyau. Il tait trop frustrant d'avoir 030627a, 032627b, etc. car cela devient rapidement ingrable. Jackson Short Stories. J'utilise maintenant les noms, en ordre alphabetique, en commenant avec la construction alien du noyau. Nhs Established. Ma construction de noyau actuelle est Ulairi. Generation. (La machine elle-mme s'appelle Smeagol un nom qu'elle a mrit.) Maintenant que le noyau est compil, il peut tre install . Nhs Established. Pour les utilisateurs Debian, cela signifie installer le paquetage Debian que vous avez cr dans la dernire tape, puis le charger avec lilo . J'aime configurer lilo moi-mme et ai fourni les instructions ici, mais je vous laisse la dcision. Zara Competitive Advantage. Exemple 7. Installer le nouveau noyau. Chaque tape doit tre ralise en tant qu'utilisateur root. Nhs Established. dpkg -i kernel-image- version . un_nom_unique_et_intelligent _10.00.Custom_i386.deb. partir de maintenant, je refuse toutes les mises jour de lilo et le configure moi-mme manuellement. Exploring Yann Martel’s. Pour configurer lilo : Dplacez-vous la fin du fichier et cherchez une ligne commenant avec image= . Nhs Established. Crez une entre pour votre nouveau noyau en ajoutant les trois lignes suivantes : Mettez jour l'entre de votre ancien noyau pour qu'il pointe au bon fichier vmlinuz . Verbal The King. Vous pouvez utiliser soit vmlinuz.old si vous recompilez le noyau pour la premire fois, ou chercher le bon fichier dans /boot . Si vous le souhaitez, vous pouvez mettre jour le noyau slectionn par dfaut en modifiant le paramtre default= . Chargez le nouveau noyau dans lilo en excutant lilo partir de la ligne de commande. Nhs Established. Vous avez seulement besoin de saisir : lilo. Exploring Life Of Pi Essay. Si vous avez d'autres fichiers deb pour vos modules, vous devez les installer maintenant.

Si vous n'tes pas sr, vrifiez le contenu de /usr/src pour des fichiers .deb supplmentaires. Nhs Established. ce moment, vous devez redmarrer votre machine. Lorsque le systme est relanc (en supposant que tout s'est pass correctement et que vous avez toujours un systme), vous aurez aussi besoin de vous assurer que vous utilisez le nouveau noyau avec le bon correctif. Exemple 8. Confirmer le noyau install et la version du correctif ACPI. Tout d'abord, vous devez vous assurer que vous utilisez le bon noyau. On The European Linguistic Regime. Cela se fait avec l'outil en ligne de commande uname . La rvision est la date de sortie du correctif et est diffrente pour chaque version du noyau. Nhs Established. En supposant que vous utilisez le nouveau noyau, vous pouvez maintenant vrifier la date de rvision de l'ACPI avec la commande suivante.

Ceci pourrait seulement vous donner un numro de version ou une liste plus dtaille. Recherchez la ligne commenant avec version: . Of Passage. Si, quelqu'en soit la raison, cela ne vous donne aucune information, vous pouvez aussi vrifier le message affich au moment du chargement de l'ACPI lors du dmarrage du systme. Cette information peut tre affiche dans un terminal avec l'application dmesg . Nhs Established. Cela devrait vous donner la sortie : ACPI: Subsystem revision 20040326 . Le numro de rvision est la date o le correctif a t officiellement disponible. Of Pi Essay. Si vous modifiez votre noyau suivant l'Annexe A, Modifier les noyaux , ce nombre correspondra au correctif install dans Appliquer un correctif votre noyau. Nhs Established. Pour lire toutes les informations relatives l'ACPI, vous pouvez tendre le modle de correspondance de grep et afficher tous les messages ACPI : Vrifiez que chaque module ACPI a bien t charg aprs le dmarrage de votre machine. Vous pouvez faire ceci en utilisant la commande lsmod . Vous recherchez les options suivantes : button, battery, fan, ac, thermal et processor. Si vous choisissez Y au lieu des modules lorsque vous compilez votre noyau, vous ne verrez pas cette liste. La sortie sur mon ordinateur ressemble ceci : Le dernier module est ma carte graphique, qui utilise des pilotes propritaires. Competitive. C'est pourquoi j'ai la lettre P ct du mot Tainted sur la premire ligne.

Si vous avez compil le support de l'ACPI en tant que M odules et que vous ne voyez pas les modules ACPI, vous devez les charger la main. Ils devraient tre dans /lib/modules/ version . un_nom_unique_et_intelligent /kernel/drivers/acpi/ et s'appellent : Le nom du module est la partie du nom du fichier, prcdant l'extension .o . processor.o est le fichier, processor est le nom du module. Pour installer un module du noyau, utilisez insmod processor . Les noyaux de la srie 2.4 utilisent l'extension .o ; nanmoins, les noyaux de la srie 2.6 utilisent l'extension .ko . Nhs Established. La premire fois o j'ai redmarr, je les ai charg la main en tapant insmod nom_module . Yann Martel’s Life Essay. Je charge tout d'abord processor, bien que les sentiments soient partags quant l'importance de l'ordre. Nhs Established. La premire fois o j'ai essay ceci, les modules taient tous dans des rpertoires spars et se nommaient ospm_nom. How Many Generation Of Computer. C'est probablement d au fait que j'utilisais un ancien correctif, mais c'est important de le savoir. Nhs Established. Les modules OSPM sont maintenant abandonns, donc vous ne devriez plus les voir.

Pour ne pas avoir charger les modules dans le noyau chaque fois que vous dmarrez, vous devez soit les compiler directement dans le noyau (un peu tard, n'est-ce-pas ?) soit les ajouter dans votre fichier /etc/modules . Si vous n'avez pas dj une copie de ce fichier, crez-le et ajoutez un nom de module (rappelez-vous, pas de .o) par ligne. Of Passage Stages. Vous pouvez aussi essayer de lancer update-modules ce qui devrait automatiquement mettre jour votre fichier de configuration /etc/modules.conf . Nhs Established. Il existe quelques applications/dmons que vous devez installer sur votre systme : acpid (le dmon qui contrlera l'tat du matriel), et un programme de surveillance. J'utilise wmacpi mais plein d'autres sont disponibles dans Paquetages ACPI et logiciels en relation. Yann. Ne laissez pas apmd et acpid fonctionner en mme temps sauf si vous savez rellement ce que vous faites. Debian ne s'assurera pas qu'un seul est en cours d'excution la fois. Vous devez le vrifier. APM essaiera de placer votre systme en mode S3. Nhs Established. Sur les noyaux de la srie 2.4.x (et avant), ceci aurait causer un verrouillage de votre machine.

S3 n'est pas support au moins jusqu'au 2.5.x. Zara Competitive Advantage. Mme le correctif ne fournira pas de support pour S3 dans les noyaux de la srie 2.4.x. J'ai compltement supprim le support d'APM partir du noyau et supprim le dmon apmd de mon systme. Nhs Established. Sur Debian, cela a t aussi simple que apt-get remove apmd . Reforming Regime. Vous pouvez aussi regarder dans chaque fichier ACPI individuellement pour des informations sur votre systme. Regardez dans le rpertoire /proc/acpi afin de vrifier diffrents points importants.

Si je veux vrifier ma batterie, je lis le fichier suivant comme ceci cat /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/state . La sortie ressemble ceci : Si je veux de l'information sur ma batterie en gnral, je testerais ceci cat /proc/acpi/battery/BAT0/info . Nhs Established. Pour plus d'informations sur chacun de ces fichiers, merci de lire Si vous utilisez un noyau de la srie 2.4, le noyau aura besoin d'tre corrig avant que vous puissez ajouter le support de l'ACPI. Rites Stages. Bien que l'ACPI soit inclus dans dans la srie 2.6.x du noyau, vous devez vrifier si aucun correctif n'a t propos pour corriger des bogues. Nhs Established. Vous trouverez cette information sur le site ACPI4Linux. Exploring Martel’s Life Of Pi Essay. Maintenant, vous allez rellement corriger le noyau. J'effectue une tape supplmentaire des instructions d'ACPI4Linux. Nhs Established. Au lieu de dcompresser avec gzip et de corriger sur la mme ligne, j'utilise deux lignes. Essay On The European. C'est une simple question de prfrences. Nhs Established. Quand vous corrigez le noyau, vous devez vous assurer qu'aucune erreur n'a eu lieu. (Il ne doit pas y avoir eu de ligne yay , la place, recherchez plutt l'absence d'erreurs.) Exemple A.1. Appliquer un correctif votre noyau. Ces tapes devront tre effectues par l'utilisateur root. cp acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff.gz /usr/src/linux/. Zara Competitive. (Le nom du correctif sera diffrent si vous n'utilisez pas le noyau 2.4.20.) patch -p 1 acpi-20021212-2.4.20.diff (ceci est vraiment l'application du correctif) Une fois que vous avez termin l'application du correctif sur votre noyau, continuez votre lecture avec la section intitule Configurer le nouveau noyau . B. Nhs Established. Compiler des noyaux sans utiliser la mthode Debian.

Il n'existe que peu de diffrence entre la manire Debian et la manire gnrique. En fait, il doit y avoir seulement dix lignes de diffrences. Rites Stages. La faon habituelle de compiler un noyau ne fait pas usage de make-kpkg . Nhs Established. la place, elle utilise les tapes suivantes : Exemple B.1. Compiler le noyau. cd /usr/src/linux qui devrait pointer vers les fichiers (dcompresss) du noyau. Generation. make modules (rappelez-vous de dballer d'abord vos modules) la manire Debian , vous crez un fichier deb contenant l'information sur l'emplacement du noyau (et crez le noyau et ainsi de suite). D'une faon plus gnrique , vous placez les choses l o elles doivent tre. Nhs Established. Vous avez besoin d'installer vos modules, puis de configurer lilo pour pointer vers le nouveau noyau et d'excuter lilo . Shirley Jackson Short Stories. Si vous ne faites pas de la faon Debian , votre installation ressemblera ceci : Exemple B.2. Nhs Established. Installer le nouveau noyau. cp arch/i386/boot/bzImage /boot/vmlinuz. Essay Reforming Union Linguistic. un_nom_unique_et_intelligent vi /etc/lilo.conf et copier la structure de votre noyau existant. Ne supprimez PAS la rfrence votre noyau existant ! Vous avez besoin de faire pointer lilo vers le fichier vmlinuz que vous aviez cr au moment de la compilation du noyau. Nhs Established. lilo (oui, simplement comme a.) LILO vous informera s'il va avoir des problmes graves lors du chargement du nouveau noyau. N'oubliez PAS de lancer lilo avant de redmarrer. Tapez lilo . Yann Life. C'est aussi simple (et c'est aussi simple de l'oublier).

Vous pouvez toujours utiliser tous les logiciels mentionns dans ce guide pratique mme si vous n'utilisez pas Debian. Malheureusement, cela demandera un peu plus d'efforts de votre part pour tlcharger et installer tout. Heureusement, ce n'est pas si difficile. Lorsque vous les dcompressez, la plupart des paquets comprennent un fichier README qui vous explique ce dont vous avez besoin pour les faire fonctionner sur votre systme. Nhs Established. Pour plus d'informations sur les logiciels ACPI, merci d'utiliser Paquetages ACPI et logiciels en relation. Irony In Oedipus. Il existe quelques problmes identifis pour diffrents modles de portables. Merci de parcourir cette liste avant de finir la compilation du noyau pour voir si votre matriel est affect par les problmes suivants. Vous pouvez aussi utiliser ce guide aprs avoir install votre systme si vous avec encore des problmes. Nhs Established. Les problmes connus pour le noyau 2.4 sont : Les fonctionnalits DPMS (Energy Star) essaient de mettre le portable en veille.

Les problmes connus pour le noyau 2.6 sont : acpi_power_off se bloque. La souris/pav tactile ou le clavier se bloquent. Ceci n'est pas rellement un bogue mais quelque chose que vous devez savoir. Le serveur XFree86 dispose d'une option pour les fonctionnalits DPMS (Energy Star). Essay On The European Union. Les tats de DPMS incluent standby, suspend, off ou on. Comme les noyaux 2.4.x ne peuvent pas se mettre en veille, ceci peut poser problme. Nhs Established. J'ai corrig mon systme en deux tapes : xset -dpms (dsactive les fonctionnalits DPMS) Dans /etc/X11/XF86Config-4 , j'ai mis en commentaire la ligne Option DPMS sous la section Monitor. Il existe quelques solutions ce problme suivant votre portable. How Many. L'option la plus simple essayer est de supprimer les options APIC au dmarrage.

Cela fonctionne sur un Sony TR2. Dans le fichier /etc/lilo.conf , recherchez une ligne qui comprend append= . l'intrieur des guillemets, ajoutez les mots nolapic et noapic . Exemple C.1. Nhs Established. Mettre jour la directive append dans LILO. Zara Competitive. Ouvrez et ditez le fichier de configuration /etc/lilo.conf en tant que root. Ajoutez les instructions appropries l'instruction append existante. S'il n'existe pas d'instruction append, vous pouvez en ajouter une juste en dessous de la liste des images de disque de dmarrage. Dans mon /etc/lilo.conf , cela aurait ressembler ceci : Aprs avoir modifi le fichier de configuration, chargez les nouvelles informations en excutant la commande lilo en tant que root. Vous pouvez aussi supprimer compltement ces deux modules du noyau en supprimant les options suivante du noyau : CONFIG_X86_UP_APIC , CONFIG_X86_UP_IOAPIC . C'est ce que j'ai fait avec mon Acer TravelMate. Nhs Established. Les propritaires d'Acer TravelMate devraient aussi dsactiver les modules relatifs RTC. Essay On The European Linguistic. Ils ne sont pas utiles en temps normal . Nhs Established. Les modules suivants du noyau devraient tre dsactivs pour permettre au portable de s'arrter correctement : Merci, mizu, pour avoir dcouvert cette solution ! La souris, le pav tactile ou le clavier se glent.

Karl Hegbloom m'a envoy un courrier lectronique pour me dire que les touches de clavier inertes, le pointeur du pav tactile sautant brusquement l'cran, des gels pendant des entres/sorties importantes taient ds au test de l'tat de la batterie via l'ACPI et le systme de fichiers proc . Exploring Yann Martel’s Life. Ce problme est caus par un dlai entre la rqute initiale pour des sur le statut de la batterie et la rponse. Pendant ce dlai, la communication avec le clavier ou le pav tactile pourrait tre temporairement interrompue faisant que le priphrique soit non synchronis (saut). La communication peut aussi tre perdue (gel). Nhs Established. La solution est soit de dsactiver l'applet de la batterie ou de rduire la frquence des interrogations. Karl note aussi qu'une mise jour du BIOS a permis de rsoudre le problme. Merci Karl ! Je n'ai pas trouv que ceci soit un problme pour moi dans les noyaux 2.4.x, nanmoins, ce fut un problme lors de la mise jour en 2.6.5. J'utilise wmacpi pour surveiller l'tat de ma batterie. En configurant la frquence d'interrogation 1 (le nombre le plus bas possible), il me semble avoir limin les gels du pav tactile. Rites Of Passage Stages. Dans mon fichier .xinitrc , j'utilise : -s 1 reprsente la frquence d'interrogation (taux simple) de une fois par minute . La valeur par dfaut est de 20. Si vous avez mis jour rcemment votre noyau avec la srie 2.6, assurez-vous que les pilotes de pav tactile sont correctement installs. Vous pouvez trouver l'article KernelTrap suivant utile si vous ne savez pas comment faire : Nhs Established. D. GNU Free Documentation License. Version 1.1, March 2000.

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Il consiste en trois parties : APIC local, APIC E/S et un bus APIC. Acronyme pour Advanced Power Management . Gestion d'nergie partir du BIOS. Remplac par l'ACPI. Acronyme pour Basic Input/Output System . Nhs Established. Services permettant au matriel et au logiciel de communiquer. On Reforming Union Regime. Un correctif appliqu au code source d'un programme. Utilis pour corriger des bogues ou pour amliorer les capacits d'un programme. Aussi connu sous le nom de patch . La distribution Linux utilise par l'auteur. Nhs Established. Acronyme pour Display Power Management Signaling . Un standard dvelopp pour tendre la vie des moniteurs et pour conserver l'nergie lorsque les moniteurs ne sont pas utiliss.

Acronyme pour Differentiated System Description Table . Generation Of Computer. Cette table contient des informations et une configuration sur le systme de base. Il n'est pas toujours capable de fournir les tables de fonctions compltes et doit parfois tre corrig. Nhs Established. Acronyme pour LInux LOader . Installe le chargeur de dmarrage qui dcide du systme d'exploitation utiliser lorsque l'ordinateur est allum. Il est possible que Grub soit install la place. Le cur d'un systme d'exploitation. Verbal Irony In Oedipus The King. Responsable de nombreux points incluant la gestion des ressources, la mmoire partage et les accs utilisateur. Une pice de code pouvant tre charge ou dcharge partir du programme principal. Dans ce document, module rfre aux modules du noyau. Acronyme pour Real Time Clock . Nhs Established. Utilis par le systme pour garder trace du temps au moment de son arrt. The King. Acronyme pour Three Letter Acronym (acronyme de trois lettres).

Les dveloppeurs adorent utiliser leur TLA. La plupart du temps, ils n'y font mme pas attention.

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Efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for nhs established, increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children: the healthy homework pilot study. Most physical activity and nutrition interventions in children focus on the school setting; however, evidence suggests that children are less active and have greater access to generation, unhealthy food at home. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the nhs established efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. The six-week 'Healthy Homework' programme and complementary teaching resource was developed under the guidance of an intersectoral steering group. Eight senior classes (year levels 5-6) from two diverse Auckland primary schools were randomly assigned into intervention and control groups. A total of 97 children (57 intervention, 40 control) aged 9-11 years participated in generation of computer, the evaluation of the intervention. Daily step counts were monitored immediately before and after the intervention using sealed multiday memory pedometers. Screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from nhs established school, and the consumption of fruits, vegetables, unhealthy foods and drinks were recorded concurrently in a 4-day food and activity diary.

Healthy Homework resulted in Essay Linguistic, a significant intervention effect of 2,830 -1 (95% CI: 560, 5,300, P = 0.013). This effect was consistent between sexes, schools, and day types (weekdays and weekend days). In addition, significant intervention effects were observed for vegetable consumption (0.83 -1 , 95% CI: 0.24, 1.43, P = 0.007) and nhs established unhealthy food consumption (-0.56 -1 , 95% CI: -1.05, -0.07, P = 0.027) on weekends but not weekdays, with no interactions with sex or school. Effects for all other variables were not statistically significant regardless of day type. Compulsory health-related homework appears to be an effective approach for increasing physical activity and improving vegetable and unhealthy food consumption in children. Further research in a larger study is required to confirm these initial results.

Electronic supplementary material. The online version of this article (doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-127 ) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. Insufficient physical activity is a leading risk factor for numerous health disorders such as obesity and type 2 diabetes [ 1 ]. While methodological differences make it difficult to compare secular trends in children's free-living physical activity, there is how many, evidence that organised physical activity is nhs established, declining in many countries [ 2 ]. Similarly, sedentary behaviours, such as television watching and computer use, have increased rapidly in rites of passage stages, children over the past five years [ 3 ]. Nhs Established? It is generally believed that such trends have contributed to generation of computer, the widespread increases in nhs established, childhood overweight and obesity [ 4 ]; however, physical activity is only one side of the energy balance equation. Of Passage? Poor nutrition undoubtedly contributes to nhs established, the onset of competitive advantage, obesity in children, although the mechanisms responsible for this association remain indistinct. Some studies have demonstrated a link between under-consumption of fruit and vegetables and nhs established child obesity [ 5 , 6 ], while others show no relationship [ 7 ]. Likewise, the over-consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks has been associated with child obesity in some [ 8 , 9 , 10 ] but not all studies [ 11 , 12 , 13 ]. Regardless of the specific pathways to Exploring Yann Martel’s Life of Pi Essay, chronic disease, physical activity and nhs established dietary patterns tend to shirley stories, track across the lifespan [ 14 , 15 , 16 , 17 , 18 , 19 ]; therefore, it makes sense to correct unhealthy habits before they have a lasting impact. The development of effective and sustainable programmes that encourage young people to lead healthy, active lives is a key priority in this regard. The majority of lifestyle interventions for children have focused on nhs established, the promotion of shirley jackson short stories, healthy behaviours while children are at school; however, there is a growing body of evidence suggesting that children are more likely to be inactive and consume unhealthy foods when at home. Our previous research showed that New Zealand children were considerably less active on weekends than on nhs established, weekdays [ 20 ], and that active children achieve a significantly greater proportion of their activity outside of school than inactive children [ 21 ]. Zara? This is consistent with international data that support the promotion of physical activity in the home environment [ 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Although we know that the majority of children's dietary intake is consumed at home [ 25 ], research investigating the differences in dietary intake between the school and home environments has been equivocal. A recent study reported that New Zealand children are more likely to nhs established, consume high cholesterol foods and soft drinks on non-school days than on school days [ 26 ]. Verbal In Oedipus? Another study indicated that American children consume a relatively high amount of nhs established, energy from fat on weekends [ 27 ]. Two other studies showed no difference in dietary intake between school and Exploring Martel’s Essay non-school days [ 28 , 29 ]. In any case, reviews of interventions to promote physical activity [ 30 , 31 ] and nhs established correlates of dietary behaviour [ 32 ] in children and verbal in oedipus adolescents concluded that programmes that involve families are more likely to be effective than those that do not.

Nonetheless, exclusively home-based initiatives are logistically impractical and tend to nhs established, be unsustainable. A more feasible approach is to use schools to irony, access children for the purpose of encouraging healthy behaviour in nhs established, the home environment. Several studies have endeavoured to promote physical activity and/or healthy eating outside of school by incorporating homework components into school-based interventions. Results have been mixed, with some showing positive effects [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 36 , 37 , 38 , 39 , 40 ] and of passage others showing no effect [ 41 , 42 , 43 , 44 , 45 , 46 ]. Nhs Established? However, it is of passage stages, difficult to nhs established, determine the Martel’s Life of Pi Essay contributions of homework given that all studies employed multiple approaches, and many were limited by nhs established low statistical power [ 33 ], self- or proxy-reporting of physical activity [ 33 , 34 , 35 , 41 , 43 , 45 ], or relatively minor homework components [ 33 , 34 , 36 , 37 , 39 , 40 , 44 , 45 ]. On Union Linguistic Regime? In all cases, the homework element assumed secondary importance to the school-based components. Nhs Established? We are unaware of any studies that have investigated the effects of a compulsory homework syllabus on health outcomes. The aim of this pilot study was to rites stages, examine the efficacy of a compulsory homework programme for increasing physical activity and healthy eating in children. Description of nhs established, behaviour change techniques and strategies implemented in Essay the European Union Regime, the Healthy Homework Pilot Study.

Behaviour Change Technique. Key behavioural determinant. Provide information about behaviour-health link. Children were provided with information about the nhs established positive health outcomes associated with various healthy behaviours throughout the programme. Provide information on consequences. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. The beneficial consequences of specific physical activity and healthy eating patterns were reinforced throughout the programme. Prompt intention formation. TRA, TPB, ScogT, IMB. At the completion of the zara competitive programme, children were encouraged to make long-term behavioural resolutions related to the tasks they had accomplished during the programme.

Prompt barrier identification. Several topics required the children to identify common barriers to healthy behaviours and how those barriers might be overcome in the context of their lives. Set graded tasks. Children were required to complete at nhs established, least one out of three homework tasks that promoted increased knowledge of on Reforming the European Regime, a given topic. When one task was completed, children were encouraged to complete all of the nhs established remaining tasks to supplement their knowledge. Availability of Yann Martel’s Life of Pi Essay, information (environmental) Detailed instruction for each topic was provided in-class by the teacher and via the homework booklets. Prompt specific goal setting. Each homework task had a specific goal that children could achieve. Nhs Established? Tasks provided guidance about verbal irony in oedipus the king, where, when, how, and with whom the task could be completed. Prompt review of behavioural goals.

Teacher regulation (environmental) Each week the teacher was required to review each child's homework tasks from the previous week (individually) and discuss any facilitators or barriers to completion (as a group). Nhs Established? Children were given advice about how to complete any unfinished tasks. Provide feedback on performance. At the completion of the programme, children and their parents received a feedback form that detailed all changes to physical activity and dietary behaviour taken during the rites of passage stages evaluation. Provide contingent rewards. Children received rubber wristbands if they completed their homework requirements for a given week (at least one physical activity and one nutrition task).

A black-coloured band was reserved for nhs established, children who completed all six tasks on a given week. The majority of homework tasks required multiple sessions or practice of a behaviour. Provide opportunities for social comparison. Subjective norms (social) Many in-class activities were based on practical group tasks that required children to observe and compare their behaviour against others.

Children were encouraged to support each other to Martel’s of Pi, complete tasks. Plan social support or social change. Social support theories. Family support (social) A large number of homework tasks recommended participation as a family. Messages for the parents reinforcing the benefits of family support were embedded in homework tasks. IMB = information-motivation-behavioural skills model; TRA = theory of nhs established, reasoned action; TPB = theory of planned behaviour; SCogT = social-cognitive theory; CT = control theory; OC = operant conditioning. The final programme consisted of a six-week homework schedule complemented by an in-class teaching resource, and Yann Martel’s of Pi Essay was designed to support the nhs established achievement objectives associated with Level 3 of the New Zealand Health and Physical Education Curriculum [ 48 ]. Each child received a homework booklet organised into the king five physical activity and five nutrition topics: Week 1, walking and nhs established fruit/vegetables; Week 2, television and on Reforming Linguistic Regime breakfast; Week 3, sports and drinks; Week 4, fun games and food shopping; Week 5, fitness and cooking. Nhs Established? Week 6 consisted of the completion of the previous week's homework in addition to Essay Union, group presentations about key aspects of the programme. Three homework options were provided for each topic, and the children were required to complete at nhs established, least one task per topic (i.e., at least two tasks per week).

Examples of the physical activity tasks include family walks around the neighbourhood, walking to and from school, limiting television time, coaching parents in a particular sport, inventing a fun game (individual or team), testing the fitness of the family, and swimming at the local pool (subsidised entry was organised). Of Passage Stages? Examples of the nhs established nutrition tasks include eating at least five servings of fruit or vegetables, preparing and eating a healthy breakfast, using a water bottle throughout the day, reducing consumption of unhealthy foods and Essay on the European Union drinks, comparing food labels when shopping, helping to prepare a healthy dinner, and preparing a healthy lunch box. Many of the tasks were designed to encourage parental participation and family involvement. Nhs Established? Each task was accompanied by a related question designed to encourage independent inquiry and knowledge formation. On Reforming The European Linguistic Regime? Colourful rubber wristbands were provided each week for nhs established, children who completed their homework obligations, with a special colour reserved for those who completed all six tasks on a given week. Other resources included soft throwing disks (fun games topic), a food advertising educational DVD (television topic), fitness test sheets (fitness topic), recipe cards (cooking topic), guides to reading food labels (shopping topic), and drink bottles (drinks topic). In addition, a password-protected Healthy Homework website was developed so that participating children from both schools could interact with each other through blogs, photos, and competitive advantage wikis. The Healthy Homework teaching resource was designed to complement the homework activities by providing sufficient educational content and in-class exercises for three 1.5 hour sessions each week (including one session reviewing the previous week's homework).

Theoretical and practical approaches were combined to enhance the children's understanding of nhs established, each topic. Essay Reforming Union Linguistic Regime? Teachers were free to use the in-class resource as much or as little as required. Two Auckland primary schools participated in the pilot study: School A had a socioeconomic status (SES) rating in the lowest decile of nhs established, New Zealand primary schools, whereas School B was in the highest SES decile. Union Linguistic Regime? Eight classes of Year 5-6 children (aged 9-11 years) were randomised into four intervention and nhs established four control classes. All children in the intervention classes completed the Healthy Homework module as part of school policy; however, parental consent was required before children were able to participate in jackson, the evaluation of the intervention. Consent was obtained for 100 of the 216 children initially selected (46.3%). Three children were excluded due to incomplete data, resulting in a final sample size of 97 (intervention: 22 boys, 35 girls; control: 13 boys, 27 girls).

The ethnic composition of the sample was 48.5% European, 32.0% Pacific Island, 8.2% Maori, 6.2% Asian, and nhs established 5.2% from other ethnicities. Martel’s Essay? The institutional ethics committee provided ethical approval for nhs established, the study (07/177). Daily physical activity levels were measured with sealed pedometers over Martel’s Essay four consecutive days (two weekdays and nhs established two weekend days). This monitoring period was chosen as the ideal balance between practicality and reliability requirements [ 49 ]. Pedometers provide an objective, cost-effective assessment of physical activity that can be easily compared among different time periods, demographic groups, and/or locations. The NL-2000 pedometer (New Lifestyles Inc, Lee's Summit, MO) has a multiday memory function that automatically stores step counts according to the day of the Exploring Yann Martel’s Life Essay week for up to seven days, enabling the comparison of weekday and nhs established weekend step counts [ 20 ]. Our previous research has established the validity of the NL-2000 for measuring steps in children [ 50 ]. Prior to use, all pedometers were checked for faults using five repetitions of the 100-step walking test described by Vincent and Sidman [ 51 ]. Instrumental error did not exceed 3% in any of the pedometers. Before receiving their sealed pedometers, children were given an explanation of the stages pedometer's function and a demonstration by a researcher. Nhs Established? Participants were asked to attach the pedometer to their waistline all day except when swimming, showering, or sleeping.

To assess participant compliance outside of the rites stages school environment, children maintained a 4-day diary in which they were asked to note how many hours they did not wear the pedometer each day. Non-compliance during school hours was considered negligible due to active teacher assistance. Data were excluded if participants removed the pedometer for more than one hour on nhs established, a given day. Daily step counts below 1,000 or above 30,000 were regarded as outliers and were removed [ 52 ]. The 4-day pedometer compliance diary also contained fields for children to Exploring Essay, record daily screen time (television, gaming consoles, and personal computers), sports participation, and active transport to and from nhs established school.

In addition, a food diary was issued for children to record the type and Yann of Pi Essay quantity of all foods and drinks consumed over the four-day period. A food diary is nhs established, a daily record of all the food and fluid consumed over short stories a specified time; a blank template for nhs established, the required days is provided. While food diaries have been validated for accuracy against measures of energy expenditure, outcomes in the literature are varied, with underestimation of energy intake sometimes reported [ 53 , 54 ]. Despite this, we chose to use food diaries so that we could compare both the quality and quantity of food and Reforming the European Regime fluid intake on weekdays and weekend days. Alternative instruments, such as food frequency questionnaires, generally do not represent a full day's food or fluid intake and therefore would fail to capture such a complete dataset. All participants were given a detailed explanation about how to correctly fill in nhs established, the diaries, and parents were given written instructions to rites of passage stages, assist their child in nhs established, completing the Union Linguistic Regime diaries accurately and to a sufficient level of detail.

Dietary information from the diaries was extracted and nhs established grouped into four categories: fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption. Food and drinks were defined as unhealthy in accordance with the 'occasional foods' tier of the three-tiered New Zealand Food and Beverage classification system. Food and drinks that fall into this category are those that are energy dense and nutrient poor, and include confectionery and chocolate, deep-fried food, full-sugar soft drinks, and Exploring Yann Life Essay high-fat pastry products. All measurements (diaries and pedometers) were taken once during the nhs established week preceding the intervention (baseline) and once during the week following the completion of the intervention (follow-up). Both schools were assessed over the same time period (May-June 2009). Medians and interquartile ranges for all variables were generated with weekday and weekend data presented separately along with an overall weighted mean (five weekdays to in oedipus, two weekend days). Differences between treatment groups were examined using independent samples Mann-Whitney's U tests, and initial pre- and nhs established post-intervention comparisons were made using Wilcoxon's matched pairs signed-rank tests (with the in oedipus the king data split by intervention group).

A normal generalized estimating equation (GEE) model on square-root transformed step counts was used to nhs established, detect an intervention effect after accounting for day type, school year, school, class, sex, and ethnicity. The latter two variables were included given the identification of differences between groups in our previous work [ 20 ]. A binary GEE model was used to stages, determine whether there was a differential pattern of nhs established, missing pedometer counts for participants between intervention groups. Treatment group effects for how many generation, all other variables (screen time, sports participation, active transport, fruit consumption, vegetable consumption, unhealthy food consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) were examined using analysis of covariance adjusted for regression to the mean. All analyses were performed using Stata version 11.0 (StataCorp, College Station, TX, USA), and ? = 0.05 defined statistical significance for all tests. Median and interquartile range of the physical activity and dietary variables for the intervention and control groups.

Physical activity ( -1 ) 10,700 (8,420, 12,150) 12,290 (9,990, 16,270) 11,460 (9,110, 13,660) 10,100 (7,670, 14,160) 7,940 (5,760, 11,770) 8,670 (6,460, 11,960) 8,160 (6,410, 11,470) 10,790 (8,200, 12,160) 11,790 (9,670, 15,680) 11,240 (9,420, 12,860) 9,910 (7,500, 12,700) Screen time ( -1 ) Sports participation ( -1 ) Active transport to/from school ( -1 ) Fruit consumption ( -1 ) Vegetable consumption ( -1 ) Unhealthy food consumption ( -1 ) Unhealthy drink consumption ( -1 ) *Significantly different from intervention (P 0.05). Significantly different from nhs established baseline (P 0.05); Significantly different from baseline (P 0.01).

Summary of the adjusted multivariable model coefficients for square root step counts . Binary GEE model analyses of participants with missing pedometer count values revealed that there was a significant increase in short stories, the proportion of nhs established, missing step count values post-intervention compared with pre-intervention (P = 0.006); however, there were no significant differences in the proportion of missing values between intervention and control groups either pre-intervention (P = 0.905) or post-intervention (P = 0.481). Competitive? This indicates that the loss of data is nhs established, not differentially related to the intervention group. Intervention effects ( 95% CI) for selected physical activity and dietary behaviours . *Significant intervention effect for shirley short, weekends and overall (P 0.05). In this study, we developed, implemented, and evaluated the first compulsory homework syllabus for promoting children's physical activity outside of school. A key strength of the study was the use of an objective measure (pedometer) to accurately monitor changes in physical activity. The results showed that the Healthy Homework pilot had positive effects on the daily step counts of nhs established, both boys and generation of computer girls. The intervention effect of nhs established, 2,830 -1 corresponds to over 25% more activity each day (based on the sample mean pre-intervention).

This effect was driven by both an increase of 1,100 -1 in the intervention group and a decrease of 1,480 steps/day -1 in irony, the control group. While the reasons for the decrease in the control group are unknown, it appears the programme had a protective effect that precluded a similar decrease in the intervention group. Furthermore, the proportion of children achieving step count targets directly related to the prevention of excess body fat (16,000 -1 for boys, 13,000 -1 for girls [ 55 ]) increased from 8.6% to 31.3% in the intervention group, whereas children in the control group increased from 14.3% to 16.7%. We also found that the effects of the intervention on physical activity were similar for both weekdays and weekends. Nhs Established? This is a noteworthy finding given that children's activity levels tend to diminish during the weekend [ 20 , 22 , 23 , 24 ]. Applied homework that encourages home-based activity appears to be an effective way of Yann, targeting this problem area. The positive effect of the Healthy Homework programme on physical activity is nhs established, relatively unusual given the outcomes of previous intervention research. In a comprehensive review of physical activity interventions in children, van Sluijs et al [ 30 ] found that only four of 19 education-based interventions reported significantly positive effects on physical activity.

In a similar review, Salmon et al [ 31 ] noted that only one of five 'curriculum only' interventions successfully increased physical activity. However, the success rate was higher in studies that were implemented through the rites stages school but involved the family (seven out of 13). It appears that a focus on the home environment increases the nhs established probability of meaningful effects. Life? Our promising results may have been due to the emphasis that was placed on increasing physical activity outside of school, including on the weekends. Only two other behaviours showed significantly different pre-post changes between intervention and control participants. On weekends, vegetable consumption increased by nhs established 0.83 -1 and rites unhealthy food consumption decreased by 0.56 -1 as a result of programme participation. The increase in vegetable consumption is noteworthy as it is nhs established, equivalent to approximately 28% of the daily vegetable recommendation of three servings a day.

In addition, an increase of rites of passage, 0.83 -1 compares favourably with previous interventions that focus solely on fruit and vegetable intake. Two reviews of successful fruit and vegetable interventions in children found that the majority of increases were between 0.2 and 0.6 daily servings [ 56 , 57 ]. Nhs Established? In contrast to our findings, increases in fruit intake were generally more frequent and substantial than increases in vegetable intake. The decrease in unhealthy food consumption we observed on weekends, while relatively small, is a step in the right direction. Shirley Jackson Short Stories? Changes in both vegetable and unhealthy food consumption were key priorities in the Healthy Homework programme, and may represent positive shifts in the home environment that could potentiate other healthy lifestyle patterns. Whether or not a longer or more intensive homework intervention augments these improvements remains to be seen. Non-significant effects in the remaining variables targeted in nhs established, the intervention (screen time, sports participation, active transport to and from school, fruit consumption, and unhealthy drink consumption) suggest that the materials or approaches for these topics may have been insufficient. The absence of improvements in screen time and unhealthy drink consumption were particularly disappointing given that both were dedicated topics. Short? It is possible that more than one week of exposure to these topics is nhs established, required to generate change. Perhaps not enough realistic alternatives were provided to prompt children to modify their screen time or fluid consumption.

On the other hand, the small sample size may have obscured real effects in these behaviours. Clearly, a larger sample would allow these factors to stages, be examined with greater precision. Another important discovery was that the intervention yielded benefits for boys and girls from a range of socioeconomic backgrounds. The two participating schools were deliberately chosen to represent opposite ends of the socioeconomic spectrum. Nhs Established? The similarity of the intervention effects in both schools suggests that it is likely to Reforming Linguistic Regime, be beneficial for other primary-level schools, regardless of the socioeconomic rating. The majority of previous studies that have implemented physical activity or nutrition interventions with home-based elements have not included SES in the analysis. Of those that did, two reported smaller effects in low SES compared with high SES groups [ 38 , 39 ], while two reported no noticeable differences [ 37 , 40 ]. Nonetheless, it is nhs established, possible that in zara competitive, the latter studies (and the present one) the similar overall effects on physical activity and/or dietary patterns between SES groups were generated through different pathways.

Indeed, there is evidence that families from nhs established different socioeconomic backgrounds support their children to be active in different ways [ 58 ]. A qualitative comparison of the rites of passage preferences of homework activities and resources among children and nhs established parents from diverse socioeconomic regions could be beneficial in this regard. The question remains whether the positive changes observed in this pilot study are maintained beyond the completion of the programme. A potential criticism of the programme was the use of wristbands as rewards to increase compliance: a viewpoint common among educators is that the desired behaviour will cease once the reward is removed. Essay On The European Union? We contend that the rewards, in this instance, were used to engage children for nhs established, the purpose of learning how to be active on their own. While this approach leans towards constructivism - the theory that individuals will generate their own knowledge and understanding from experience - it maintains enough structure that children with little or no understanding of the selected topics are guided towards discovery. The programme aims to create functional knowledge that is taken with the child beyond the the king completion of the programme, resulting in greater opportunities to be active and nhs established promoting lifelong healthy behaviour. Exploring Yann Life? Clearly, we cannot comment on the success of nhs established, this ambition in the present pilot study; however, future studies should consider taking long-term follow-up measures to competitive advantage, assess the sustainability of any positive outcomes. Assessment of the effects on health knowledge would also contribute to a better understanding of the precursors to behaviour change in children. A key facet of the present study is its foundation in the education system. While the goals of the programme are clearly health-related, there are several advantages of operating within the education environment: (1) it is relatively cost-effective to introduce applied homework activities into an existing curriculum, (2) the vast majority of the nhs established population can be accessed (all children are required to attend school), and (3) the expertise of trained teachers can be utilised to effectively deliver health-related educational material and of computer instruction.

In this study, we developed a homework programme that contributed to all four strands of the nhs established Health and Physical Education achievement objectives stated in the New Zealand Curriculum [ 48 ]: (1) personal health and physical development, (2) movement concepts and how many of computer motor skills, (3) relationships with other people, and nhs established (4) healthy communities and environments. This strategy enabled teachers to implement the programme without sacrificing their formal teaching obligations. Aligning health promotion initiatives with national education guidelines is also likely to of computer, increase buy-in from senior school staff and parents. Nhs Established? Another important element of the study was its compulsory nature. Zara Advantage? As with conventional homework, children were required to complete the minimum number of tasks each week, obtain approval from their parents, and report back to their teacher. This approach was chosen to maximise the level of engagement in the programme, which may explain why significant effects on physical activity and nhs established diet were observed in a relatively small sample. To our knowledge, no previous physical activity or nutrition interventions have adopted a compulsory approach to generation, home-based components. The primary limitation of nhs established, this study was the small sample size. While this is a pilot study, we were disappointed by the low consent rate for the evaluation (46.3%).

Clearly, the Essay Reforming Regime lower the consent rate the greater the nhs established chance of sample bias, whereby only the verbal irony in oedipus the king children most likely to engage in the programme are evaluated. In addition, there were 77% more girls than boys in the final sample, and 43% more intervention than control participants. These atypical proportions make it more difficult to generalise the findings to the wider population. Nevertheless, the detection of significant effects even in our restricted sample with relatively wide confidence intervals suggests that there may be other effects that could be detected in a larger sample with tighter intervals. Another limitation was the necessity to randomise at the class level. It is probable that a certain amount of class contamination occurred, such that the behaviour of the control participants was affected by the experiences of the nhs established intervention participants as they progressed through the programme. Indeed, certain behaviours showed significant improvements pre- and post-intervention in the control sample.

While the probability of class contamination does not negate the observed effects of the programme (true effects would be dampened rather than enhanced), it would be preferable for future studies to randomise at the school level. Also, we decided not to request the return of the Exploring Martel’s of Pi children's booklets at nhs established, the completion of the study (in case they were used in future), and consequently we had no record of homework compliance. Reforming? While all participating teachers assured us that almost all of the children completed their homework each week, it is not known if some children completed more tasks than others. Future studies should consider asking the teacher to maintain a log of completed homework tasks to enable compliance to be monitored more closely. Nhs Established? Finally, the effects of the homework programme on Essay on Reforming Union, family members of participating children were not assessed in this study. Many of the tasks were designed to foster family involvement, with the intended side effect of improving relationships and promoting healthier lifestyles throughout the family. Nhs Established? Further research is needed to elucidate these factors. Compared with the control group, the Healthy Homework pilot study resulted approximately 25% more physical activity each day in the European, both boys and girls, and was effective at encouraging activity on both weekdays and weekends. Promising improvements to other important behaviours, such as vegetable and nhs established unhealthy food consumption, suggest that compulsory health-related homework offers multiple benefits for children. Martel’s Life? Implementation in a larger sample over a longer assessment period would enable the short- and long-term effects of this approach to be determined.

This study was funded by the Health Research Council of New Zealand (08/384). The authors would like to nhs established, thank the children, parents, and school staff who participated in the study. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. SD conceived and designed the Essay Reforming the European Union Regime study, developed the intervention, contributed to the statistical analysis, and drafted the manuscript. JCM collected and entered the nhs established data and jackson short stories helped to draft the manuscript. PJS participated in the design of the study and performed the nhs established statistical analysis. Essay Reforming The European Linguistic? CZ assisted with the development of the nhs established intervention and the data preparation. RS participated in the development of the intervention. GS helped design the competitive advantage study and develop the nhs established intervention. All authors reviewed and approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an generation, Open Access article distributed under the nhs established terms of the irony in oedipus the king Creative Commons Attribution License ( ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Scott Duncan 1 Email author Julia C McPhee 1 Philip J Schluter 2 3 4 Caryn Zinn 1 Richard Smith 5 Grant Schofield 1 1. Nhs Established? Centre for how many generation of computer, Physical Activity and Nutrition AUT University New Zealand 2. Department of Public Health and General Practice University of nhs established, Otago Christchurch New Zealand 3. School of Public Health and Psychosocial Studies AUT University New Zealand 4. School of zara competitive advantage, Nursing and Midwifery University of Queensland Australia 5. National Institute of Education Singapore. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. .RIS Papers Reference Manager RefWorks Zotero. .BIB BibTeX JabRef Mendeley. Over 10 million scientific documents at nhs established, your fingertips. 2017 Springer International Publishing AG.

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