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patents resume This patent resulted from a continuation application of U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/788,557, filed Feb. 27, 2004 now abandoned; which is a continuation of U.S. patent application Ser.

No. 10/437,650 (now U.S. Pat. No. Theories. 6,718,345), filed May 13, 2003; which is a continuation of airways interview questions, U.S. patent application Ser. No. 10/121,247 (now U.S. Pat. No. Language And Power. 6,564,188), filed Apr. 10, 2002; which is a continuation of theme of a&p, U.S. patent application Ser.

No. 09/054,339 (now U.S. Pat. No. Language. 6,718,340), filed Apr. 2, 1998; which is a continuation of U.S. For Scholarship Example. patent application Ser. No. 08/597,359 (now U.S. Pat. No. 5,758,324), filed Feb.

8, 1996; which in turn claims priority from U.S. Theories. Provisional Application Ser. Eliot's Adam. No. Language And Power. 60/008,700, filed Dec. 15, 1995; all of which are incorporated herein by reference. The invention relates to eliot's adam electronic resume storage and retrieval systems and methods.

BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION. Resumes are a primary communication medium between employers and job applicants (candidates). Employers annually spend billions of dollars to solicit resumes using newspaper advertisements, job fairs, college recruitment seminars, and language, other methods. In response, job applicants spend billions more to compose, typeset, print, and ship those is resumes. Unfortunately, present resume delivery practices are expensive and frustrating for age of citizens job applicants. Identifying potential employers, obtaining addresses, producing resumes for each, and finally delivering them is burdensome and language, time-consuming. Sociology. The success rate for language and power such efforts is discouragingly low, and the associated expenses can be quite significant. This makes the entire process quite inefficient from the applicant's point of during age of citizens, view. Employers, too, suffer from the inefficiencies of resume collection and handling. Language Theories. The solicitation, receipt, storage, management, search, and theme of a&p, retrieval of dozens, hundreds, and in language some cases thousands of resumes can be a difficult, unwieldy, and expensive burden on the employer. Physical, paper-based resumes are often stored in desk drawers and plan for scholarship example, filing cabinets.

The numerous limitations of present resume practices include consumption of substantial physical space; difficulty in searching through large quantities of paper documents; the near-impossibility of correlating applicants whose resumes may vary widely in organization, content, and clarity; and the lack of uniformity in the search process from one practitioner to another. From the above discussion, it is clear that a very significant need exists for an improved method of resume solicitation, sorting, delivery, handling, and management. Yet prior attempts to resolve some of and power, these problems have achieved only limited success. Theme Of A&p. Document scanners have been used in some attempts to reduce the physical space consumed by physical resumes. However, search methods do not work well on scanned images because scanned resumes are stored as pictures, not searchable words or text. Optical Character Recognition (OCR) has been used in some attempts to convert paper-based resumes to pure text. However, employers are typically unwilling to forgo the traditional resume because of the widely held belief that the ability to and power review the format, style, and presentation of the eliot's adam resume itself is of value. Still other attempts have employed the aforementioned OCR conversion to language allow the theme of a&p use of “keyword” search methods on the resulting text of full resumes, in and power theories an attempt to find those which contain key words or phrases. However, such methods have proven inefficient because of the theme of a&p nature of written language.

As just one example, an employer seeking applicants residing in the state of Indiana will find numerous false matches when searching with the language theories standard postal service abbreviation “IN”. The letter pair “in” appears frequently in eliot's adam the English language (many times in this sentence alone), yet most such matches in the full text of a resume would have little or nothing to do with the and power searcher's true intent. A further difficulty with “keyword” search methods is the requirement that the words or phrases in question must match with near-perfect accuracy. The diversity of job applicant writing skills and vocabularies causes many resumes, which otherwise might describe applicants with similar attributes, to be written using very different terms and phrases. Such wide variation causes “keyword” search methods to often erroneously exclude qualified applicants—without notification to the searcher—while simultaneously including unqualified ones. Prior attempts at applying computer technology to eliot's adam resume management have been limited in and power scope, applicability, and usefulness. Paradise Sex. For example, many have been intended for use only by employers, employment specialists, or “headhunters.” Job applicants themselves are completely excluded from language, accessing such systems. One prior attempt, described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,164,897 to Clark et al. (incorporated by reference), is illustrative.

The first sentence of the prior art section of this patent describes the prior art as applying to “employment agencies (sometimes called search firms).” The preferred embodiment section of the patent then describes a system designed for use by such agencies and firms—without direct applicant involvement of any kind. Other attempts have allowed applicants to initially enter some data, but make no explicit provision for ongoing involvement. Such approaches can result in outdated information and questionable results. Other attempts have required the installation of specialized computer hardware and/or software, or personnel training at the employer's place of business. The difficulty in learning and using the eliot's adam system often effectively restricts access to just those who have been appropriately “trained.”

Other attempts have incorporated rudimentary computer-based searching methods. The most common method involves the aforementioned “keyword” searches on the contents of entire resumes, such as offered by Online Career Center, Indianapolis, Ind. and language and power, TMP Interactive, Framingham, Mass. The inherent limitations of such methods have already been discussed. Another attempt at incorporating computer-based searching methods is seen in the golden age of athens the services available from Intellimatch, San Jose, Calif., (Internet address: This attempt accepts weighted ranking data provided by applicants and employers. Theories. There are several disadvantages of eliot's adam, this type of method: First, the user interface for interacting with such ranking systems can be complex, non-intuitive, unfamiliar, difficult to learn, and slow to operate. Second, there is no objective reference for ranking standards—individual applicants are asked to rank themselves, leading to an extremely subjective collection of personal opinions. Third, employers are asked to rank their requirements in a like fashion, again without reference to language and power an objective standard. Fourth, these highly subjective data are then compared to each other, compounding assumptions upon assumptions and often yielding startlingly mismatched and paradise sex, valueless results.

Another attempt at language and power theories, providing resume services on the Internet is provided by Beverly Hills Software, 469 South Bedford Drive, Beverly Hills, Calif. 90212, (Internet address: http://www.Bhs.Com). Airways. This attempt prompts applicants to enter text-only information using a template. However, keyword searches still involve searching the entire contents of resumedata; no searching by fields is available. A visual template is provided for applicant data, but the resulting pure text is sorted as one large text file, like other systems. There is language theories, also no provision for charging or collecting fees. Some of the aforementioned examples have attempted to incorporate various remote connection means. British Questions. Such remote methods have traditionally been limited to language text-only resume storage and keyword-based searches of the full resumetext. None have succeeded in retreatism sociology addressing all of the problems described above.

SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION. The invention provides a method of and apparatus for language storage and theme of a&p, retrieval of resume images in a manner which preserves the appearance, organization, and information content of the original document. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for storing formatted summaries or “outlines” of resume images, and efficient searching and subsequent selection of the resume outlines and theories, their associated resume images. One embodiment of the invention provides a user interface for creating the paradise sex aforementioned resume outlines which is based on a familiar paper-based method already in common use, thus reducing the training required to effectively use the system. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for computer-assisted searching of the aforementioned stored resume outlines in a manner which minimizes the need for specialized equipment and training. In one embodiment, such searches can be suspended, and resumed at a later time. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for enabling the automatic and language, continuous execution of the searches through resume outlines, thereby determining when a potentially qualifying applicant has entered their resume outline and resume image and enabling employers to be automatically notified thereof. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and eliot's adam, apparatus for coordinating the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in the entry and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the invention provides a method of and apparatus for the controlled expansion of the terminology and vocabulary used by applicants and potential employers in and power the entry of and searching of the aforementioned resume outlines. One embodiment of the study for scholarship example invention employs modern communications systems, such as the and power Internet, the “World Wide Web”, or other commercial “connectivity services”, for applicant submission of the golden age of male citizens, outlines or resume images, or employer searches through outlines or viewing of resume images.

One embodiment of the invention employs modern communications systems to automatically notify applicants or employers under certain conditions, such as the expiration of theories, a time interval or occurrence of an event. One embodiment of the invention employs common and commercially available computer hardware and software to reduce or eliminate the need for specialized equipment by during the golden age of athens male citizens and training of the applicant or employer. One embodiment of the theories invention employs modern communications systems for billing and payment for services. Other features of the invention will become apparent to during the golden age of athens citizens those of and power, ordinary skill in the art upon review of the following detailed description, claims, and drawings. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS. Preferred embodiments of the invention are described below with reference to the following accompanying drawings. FIG. 1 is a block diagram illustrating a system embodying the plan invention.

FIG. 2 is a block diagram of a server included in the system shown in FIG. 1 . FIG. Language And Power. 3 is an example of a resume outline form sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an applicant's client machine included in the system of FIG. 1 . FIG. 4 is an example of a search request form sent from the server of FIG. Eliot's Adam. 2 to an employer's client machine included in the system of language and power theories, FIG. 1 . FIG. 5 is an example of a summary of a resume outline sent from the server of FIG. 2 to an employer's client machine in response to a search request.

FIG. Eliot's Adam. 6 is an example of a vocabulary assistance process in accordance with one embodiment of the invention. FIG. Language. 7 is an example of a resume image stored by sociology the server of language, FIG. 2 . FIGS. 8A , 8 B, 9 - 11 , 12 A, 12 B, and 13 define a flowchart of a process performed by the server of FIG.

2 . in accordance with one embodiment of the sociology invention. DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE PREFERRED EMBODIMENTS. This disclosure of the invention is language theories, submitted in retreatism sociology furtherance of the and power theories constitutional purposes of the U.S. Patent Laws “to promote the progress of science and useful arts” (Article 1, Section 8). FIG. 1 shows a resumestorage and retrieval system 10 embodying the invention. The system 10 comprises a server 12 including a memory 14 , and a database 16 defined in the memory 14 . Questions. The server 12 can be a minicomputer, a microcomputer, a UNIX™ machine, a mainframe computer, a personal computer such as an Intel™ PC, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P6, etc.™ personal computer or clone, or Apple™, Macintosh™, or PowerPC™ personal computer or clone, or any other appropriate computer. The memory 14 is preferably long term memory (e.g. hard drive, disk drive, tape unit, CD-ROM, etc.). The server 12 includes typical components ( FIG. Language Theories. 2 ) such as a CPU or processor 18 , input devices such as a keyboard (not shown), and mouse (not shown), output devices (not shown) such as a monitor and interview, printer, RAM 20 , ROM 22 , serial ports (not shown), parallel ports (not shown), and language theories, communication hardware 24 , which may either be internal or external, such as internal communication cards (e.g., modem card or network card) or external communication hardware (e.g., external modem), etc.

In one embodiment, the communication hardware 24 connects the server 12 to the Internet, so that the server 12 defines an Internet node. More particularly, in one embodiment, the server 12 is a World Wide Web server connected to the Internet. In this embodiment, the server 12 has a multi-user, multi-tasking operating system such as UNIX (if the theme of a&p server is a UNIX machine), Windows NT, LINUX (if the server is a personal computer), etc. The system 10 further includes a job applicant's client machine (or applicant's client machine) 26 in selective communication with the server 12 . The job applicant's client machine 26 is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 28 . Language. Various possible types of communication link can be employed for paradise sex the communication link 28 between the server 12 and the applicant's client machine 26 . For example, the language and power theories communication link 28 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, a combination of the preceding, or any other desired type of connection. Many applicant's client machines 26 can communicate with the server 12 at the same time. Different applicant's client machines can connect with the server using different types of communication links 28 . For example, one of the communication links 28 can be a hard wired connection while another one of the communication links 28 is a telephone connection. After the study plan for scholarship example communication link is established, communications can 23 take place over the link using any of various protocols, such as e-mail, FTP (file transfer protocol), TCP/IP (Internet protocol, which can be used with HTTP-hyper text transfer protocol, or GOPHER), ASCII, X-MODEM, Y-MODEM, KERMIT, any variations on these protocols, or any other appropriate protocol.

During a session, the server 12 communicates to and power theories the applicant's client machine a resume outline form 30 ( FIG. 3 ) to paradise sex be completed by a job applicant. The form 30 has a plurality of fields 31 relevant to language employment, using which typical information found on during age of citizens a resume is summarized by and power the applicant. The form 30 has fields that are similar to blanks found on traditional job application forms available from employers. In the illustrated embodiment, the form 30 has various sections, such as a personal information section 32 , an optional information section 34 , a position desired section 36 , an education section 38 , and an employment history section 40 . Other sections can be used, as desired. Each section has various fields 31 . For example, in the illustrated embodiment, the theme of a&p personal information section 32 has fields 39 , 41 , 42 , 44 , 46 , 48 , 50 , 52 , 54 , and 56 for the job applicant's first, middle, and last names, address, city, state or province (e.g., the two letter postal service abbreviations), zip code or postal code, phone number, fax number, and e-mail address, respectively; the optional information section 34 has fields 58 , 60 , 62 and 64 relating to citizenship, fields 66 and 68 relating to security clearance, and a field 70 for a social security or social insurance number; the position desired section 36 has a field 72 for language theories job title, fields 74 , 76 , 78 , and 80 relating to the type of employment sought (full time permanent, full time temporary, part time permanent, or part time temporary), fields 82 , 84 , 86 , and 88 relating to compensation requirements, and a field 90 relating to theme of a&p the date when the applicant will be available for the new position; the education section 38 has fields 94 , 96 , 98 , 100 , 102 , 104 , 106 , and 108 relating to majors, degrees, school names and locations, and grade point averages (multiple copies of fields 100 , 102 , 104 , 106 and 108 can be included for multiple colleges attended); and language and power, the employment history section 40 has fields 110 , 111 , 112 , 114 , 116 , 118 , and 120 for eliot's adam employer name, employer city, employer state or province, previous job title, start date for that position, and end date for that position (multiple copies of fields 110 , 111 , 112 , 114 , 116 , 118 , and 120 can be included for multiple prior positions). Other or additional fields can be used, as desired, or synonyms can be used in place of the words shown in FIG. 3 adjacent the fields. Language And Power Theories. For World Wide Web applications, the form 30 is an paradise sex HTML form, and has “submit” and and power theories, “clear” buttons 122 and 124 using which the applicant can either send the information from the filled fields to the server, or can clear the form and start over.

The form 30 further includes a “vocabulary assistance” button 146 , the function of which is discussed below. Upon receiving the form 30 , the sociology job applicant fills in (using his/her machine 26 ) as many fields 31 as desired, including some mandatory information such as name and contact information (address and/or phone number) in section 32 . Language Theories. The applicant also effects creation of a graphics file 126 ( FIG. 7 ) of the applicant's resume for british questions receipt by the server. The graphics file 126 contains all the formatting, fonts, and margins of a traditional paper resume, and is of great assistance to employers wishing to gain some insight into language and power, the professionalism of an applicant. The graphics file can be, for example, in a file format identified by one of the following extensions: .GIF, .TIF (or .TIFF), .JPG (or .JPEG or .JPE), .BMP, .TGA, .EPS, .PCX or another form of british airways interview, graphics file that maintains the appearance, format information, and font information of the original document. The applicant can create the graphics file in any appropriate manner at a location 134 remote from the server 12 . For example, the applicant can create the graphics file using a scanner 128 ( FIG. 1 ), by scanning his or her actual printed resume. Alternatively, the applicant can use a facsimile machine 130 ( FIG. 1 ) to fax his or her actual printed resume to a facsimile machine 132 in the possession of the administrator of the language theories system 10 (e.g., located at the location of the server 12 ). Athens Citizens. The facsimile machine 132 creates graphics file 126 that is stored by the server. In one embodiment, the system administrator can convert the graphics file from a fax format to one of the and power theories above mentioned graphics file formats.

Preferably, however, the server 12 itself will automatically perform the conversion from fax format to eliot's adam a more appropriate format such as described in the previous paragraph, so that human intervention is not required. In this preferred embodiment, the language and power theories facsimile machine 132 may comprise a fax card housed in the server 12 . In another embodiment, the system administrator can receive a mail copy of a printed resume, and can scan it into the server 12 for the applicant using a scanner 133 in the possession of the eliot's adam system administrator (e.g., located at the location of the and power theories server 12 ). The server 12 receives and stores in the database 16 the eliot's adam graphics file 126 as well as an entry defined by the summary information filled in on the form 30 by the job applicant. In one embodiment, the graphics file 126 can be communicated to and power the server using a different protocol than was used for transmitting the summary information. For example, the summary information can be sent from the applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via HTML, and retreatism sociology, the graphics file 126 can be sent from that applicant's client machine 26 to the server 12 via e-mail. Any other combination of protocols can be used, at the applicant's option. The form 30 is useful in that it provides searchable information.

The information of the graphics file 126 cannot be easily searched. In addition, the language form defines fields 31 , so that searches can be performed by field, by prospective employers. Further, the form 30 is of a format known to both applicants and eliot's adam, employers (i.e., a format like a traditional employer's job application), so that the and power need for training applicants and employers in using the system is the golden male, avoided. Instead, applicants can easily fill the form 30 , and employers can easily search the database. In a preferred embodiment, the employers search the database using a form 136 ( FIG.

4 ) that is very similar in appearance to the form 30 presented to applicants. The forms 30 and 136 provide a standard framework to be used by language and power theories all applicants, and all employers. The server 12 associates or links the during the golden summary information entry from the form 30 with the language and power graphics file 126 submitted by the applicant's 8 client machine 26 . In other words, if a search by an employer turns up the summary information for a particular applicant, the eliot's adam graphics file 126 containing an theories image of that applicant's resume can be easily pulled up as well. The form 30 and graphics file 126 may be transmitted by the applicant's client machine during a single session. Plan For Scholarship Example. It is also possible that the language and power theories applicant may fill out and transmit the form 30 during one session, and then upload the resume image during another session. Or, the applicant could fax a resume at some later time. In other words, it is not required that the retreatism sociology two actions occur during a single session. The system further comprises an employer's client machine 138 in selective communication with the server 12 . The employer's client machine is connected to the server 12 via a communication link 140 . Various possible types of communication link can be employed for theories the communication link between the retreatism sociology server 12 and the employer's client machine 138 . For example, the communication link 140 can comprise a hard wired connection, a telephone connection, a satellite RF, or other wireless connection, an Internet connection, a local area network or wide area network connection, or any other desired type of connection.

Several employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 simultaneously. Employer's client machines 138 can communicate with the server 12 at language, the same time that one or more applicant's client machines 26 are connected to the server 12 . Different employer's client machines 138 can connect with the server 12 using different types of communication links 140 . For example, one employer's client machine 138 can be communicating with the server 12 using a telephone connection, while another employer's client machine 138 communicates with the server 12 using an Internet connection. Retreatism. Employers may prefer to use a telephone connection, instead of an Internet connection, because of less security risk in transmitting credit card information. If an and power theories Internet connection is used, some security precautions are taken in the preferred embodiment. For example, a secure server can be used for the server 12 , or encryption can be used (e.g., using PGP—pretty good privacy encryption, such as is paradise sex, provided by ViaCrypt™ software, or some other encryption method). Upon connection, the server 12 provides the employer's client machine 138 with search form 136 ( FIG. 4 ). The search form 136 is preferably similar to language and power the form 30 filled by applicants, as described above, and paradise sex, preferably includes fields 31 corresponding to fields contained on the form filled by applicants.

After filling in the search form, entering search terms in the fields of importance to the employer, the employer sends the search form to the server (e.g., by pressing a “submit”, “send”, or “search” button 142 on the form in a HTML application). This results in the employer's client machine 138 providing a search request to the server 12 and initiating a search of the summary information in the database 16 . And Power. As was the case with the during the golden athens male applicant's form 30 , the theories form 136 also includes a clear button 144 , in an HTML application, using which the employer can clear the eliot's adam form 136 and start over. The search parameters are defined by the filled search form 136 . The filled search form 136 indicates which fields 31 are to be searched for which keywords. For example, based on and power which fields 31 are filled with which keywords, a search query can be constructed which takes the logical “OR” of each word contained in a field, and which takes the logical “AND” of each of the fields 31 . Other logical and weighted combinations are possible. In one embodiment, if an employer fills in “US” in the citizenship field, and fills in “Engineer, Scientist” in retreatism sociology the job title field, a search query can be constructed requiring that qualifying applicants be U.S. And Power Theories. citizens AND be engineers OR scientists. Alternative appropriate systems for creating search queries can also be employed. For example, different fields 31 can be assigned different importance weights. It may be more critical to have a close match in paradise sex the city field in the Personal Information section than to have a close match in theories the compensation field. British. In one embodiment, employers are able to indicate logical connectors between keywords, such as “engineer NOT chemical” (e.g., if an employer is language theories, looking for the golden age of any type of engineer other than a chemical engineer).

In a preferred embodiment, the and power employer can use natural English (without logical connectors), and the server 12 creates an appropriate search query. Upon completing the search, the server 12 communicates to the employer's client machine an paradise sex amount of the summary information for entries that satisfy the search parameters (search query). Preferably, contact information (e.g., name, address, phone number, e-mail, fax number, etc.) of theories, qualifying applicants is suppressed at example, this stage. In one embodiment, the information presented to the employer for each entry that satisfies the search parameters is “summarized” information, for easy and theories, quick review in study plan for scholarship a standardized, compact, format. An example of summarized information is shown in FIG. Language Theories. 5 . Relevancy ranking is performed in british airways a preferred embodiment. The relevancy ranking identifies entries in the database 16 which, while perhaps not perfectly matching the criteria specified in the search form 136 , are substantially similar enough to be of potential interest to theories the employer. Relevancy ranking can be performed in a manner such as performed by: CPL Retrieval Engine, sold by Personal Library Systems, 2400 Research Blvd., Suite 350, Rockville, Md. 20850; NexTrieve Indexing Engine from Nexial Systems, St. Annastraat 4, 6109 RH, Ohe en Laak, The Netherlands; MetaMorph Text Retrieval Engine sold by eliot's adam Thunderstone Software—EPI Inc., 11115 Edgewater Drive, Cleveland, Ohio 44102; InTEXT Retrieval Engine, sold by InTEXT Systems, 715 Sutter Street, Folsom, Calif.

95630; or Fast Data Finder, sold by Paracel Inc., 80 South Lake Avenue, Suite 650, Pasadena, Calif. 91101, or any other appropriate manner. Summarized information (as shown in FIG. 5 ) is provided for the best matches to the search request, after taking into account the relevancy ranking described above. Language Theories. The maximum number of matches supplied to the employer's client machine can be set to any appropriate number by either the administrator of the system 10 , or the employer performing the search. In one embodiment, the employer can request summarized information for paradise sex additional, less relevant, entries than those initially presented. The server 12 then queries the employer's client machine as to whether to present graphics files 126 of resumes associated with the entries that satisfy the search parameters. The server does not present the and power graphics files 126 of the resumes or the contact information for entries that satisfy the for scholarship example search parameters until payment is and power theories, made or authorized by the employer. The employer may establish an account, and provide billing information (such as by paradise sex providing a credit card number) to the administrator of the language system 10 at one time, and will then be able to subsequently log in using a password, and order contact information and during age of citizens, graphics files without having to again transmit a credit card. In this manner, the employer can connect once using a telephone connection or secure connection, transmit the billing information, and language and power theories, subsequently use an insecure connection. In a preferred embodiment, no password is required of for scholarship, employers unless they choose to set up an account as described above.

In this preferred embodiment, they can search without establishing an account, but can only obtain contact information and language and power theories, graphics files if they provide billing information such as a credit card. Means other than passwords can be employed to establish secure access to the server 12 . For example, the employer can transmit to a specific IP (Internet Protocol) address, or can initiate a dialup connected to a specific telephone number and transmit billing information for paradise sex that session without setting up a password. The server 12 is capable of storing employer's search requests, and periodically later repeating the search (update searching). Language And Power Theories. Thus, additional entries matching the search parameters can be located in the event the database has been modified and contains new entries that satisfy the search parameters. If the employer desires the ability to store search requests and perform update searches, he or she will be required by the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server in a subsequent connection session. The server 12 is also capable of suspending execution of a search request upon receiving a suspend request from the employer's client machine, and of resuming the search at a later time upon british airways interview questions, receiving a resume request from the language employer's client machine 138 . For example, the employer may view the sociology summary information for a certain number of “hits” (entries that satisfy the theories search parameters) and wish to take a break before more closely studying the paradise sex results, or before looking at less relevant matches.

Again, if the employer desires the ability to suspend and later resume search requests, he or she will be required by language and power the server 12 to obtain a user name and password, so the employer can be identified by the server 12 in a subsequent connection session. The server further comprises vocabulary assistance capability for assisting an applicant in filling form 30 , or for assisting an employer in formulating a search request using form 136 . The vocabulary assistance routine provides to the applicant's or employer's client machine alternative terminology which can be selected for eliot's adam filling the form 30 or the form 136 . An example of language, vocabulary assistance is theme of a&p, illustrated in FIG. 6 . If the language and power applicant or employer requests vocabulary assistance while filling the job title field 72 (e.g., by pressing a vocabulary assistance button 146 or 148 while the cursor of the machine 26 or 138 is in field 72 ), alternative terms to theme of a&p those filled in the field will be presented (e.g., by theories presenting a menu, such as a pop-up menu, to the machine 26 or 138 ). The applicant or employer can then select alternative terminology from the menu, which will then be added in the field. Questions. Alternatively, instead of using the theories vocabulary assistance while initially filling the form 136 , an employer may be dissatisfied with the paradise sex results of a search, and may then return to the form 136 and initiate vocabulary assistance on one or more of the fields. Language Theories. The vocabulary assistance routine of the server 12 preferably learns related terms over time. The vocabulary assistance routine can operate in a manner similar to spell check routines found in word processing programs. The server also sends reminders to eliot's adam applicants, after some time has passed, that they should update their summary information and language and power theories, graphics files. This can be via e-mail, or any other desired manner. FIGS. 8A , 8 B, 9 - 11 , 12 A, 12 B, and 13 define a flow chart illustrating operation of a system according to one embodiment of the invention.

At step S 1 , a determination is made as to whether a client has connected to the system. If so, the system proceeds to step S 2 ; if not, the system proceeds to plan step S 7 . At step S 2 , the and power theories server sends a main menu to the connected client, and requests a selection. After performing step S 2 , the system proceeds to step S 3 . At step S 3 , a determination is made as to eliot's adam whether the user selected to theories enter new applicant data. If so, the system proceeds to step S 12 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 4 . At step S 4 , a determination is british airways, made as to whether the language theories user selected to update existing applicant data. If so, the interview system proceeds to step S 25 ; if not, the system proceeds to language and power step S 5 . At step S 5 , a determination is made as to the golden athens male whether the user selected to begin a new search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S 34 ; if not, the language theories system proceeds to step S 6 . At step S 6 , a determination is made as to british airways interview questions whether the user selected to continue a previously suspended search of applicants. If so, the system proceeds to step S 29 ; if not, the system proceeds to theories step S 64 . At step S 7 , a determination is made as to whether it is time for an applicant to theme of a&p update the information they have provided to the server. If so, the system proceeds to step S 8 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 9 . At step S 8 , the server notifies applicants that it is recommended that they update their resume information. After performing step S 8 , the system proceeds to and power step S 9 . At step S 9 , a determination is study plan example, made as to whether it is theories, time to the golden age of citizens continue suspended searches.

If so, the system proceeds to language theories step S 10 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 11 . At step S 10 , suspended searches are performed. After performing step S 10 , the system proceeds to step S 11 . At step S 11 , a determination is made as to whether the operator of the system has requested a system shutdown (for maintenance, or some other reason). If so, the system shuts down; if not, the system proceeds to step S 1 . At step S 12 , a new applicant identification number is study plan example, assigned by the server, and the server sends to the client a request for a selection of a password. And Power. After performing step S 12 , the system proceeds to step S 13 . At step S 13 , the system receives a response from the client. Paradise Sex. After performing step S 13 , the system proceeds to step S 14 . At step S 14 , the language server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S 14 , the paradise sex system proceeds to step S 15 . At step S 15 , the server sends the resume outline form to the connected client, and theories, requests that the applicant fill out the airways interview form. After performing step S 15 , the system proceeds to step S 16 . At step S 16 , the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 16 , the language and power theories system proceeds to step S 17 . At step S 17 , a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S 18 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 19 . At step S 18 , the paradise sex requested vocabulary assistance information is added to language theories the resume outline form. An example of vocabulary assistance is shown in eliot's adam FIG.

6 . And Power. For example, if an applicant has listed cellular and satellite in the job title field, and during age of, requests vocabulary assistance for the job title field, the server will generate a list of alternative terms such as development, firmware, software, and systems, and will transmit that list to the applicant's client machine. The client can then select any of the listed vocabulary assistance terms for addition to the job title field. Vocabulary assistance is available for many of the fields on the outline form. After performing step S 18 , the system proceeds to theories step S 15 . At step S 19 , the server stores the information filled in sociology the resume outline form in the database. After performing step S 19 , the system proceeds to step S 20 . At step S 20 , the server sends to the client a list of language theories, available resume image reception methods and requests that the applicant select a method. After performing step S 20 , the theme of a&p system proceeds to step S 21 . At step S 21 , the theories server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 21 , the system proceeds to step S 22 . At step S 22 , the server prepares to receive the resume image from the retreatism sociology client using the selected reception method. And Power Theories. After performing step S 22 , the system proceeds to step S 23 . At step S 23 , the server receives the resume image. After performing step S 23 , the system proceeds to step S 24 . At step S 24 , the server stores the retreatism resume image in the database. After performing step S 24 , the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 25 , the system sends to the client a message requesting an language and power applicant identification (user name) and password. The Golden Athens Male Citizens. After performing step S 25 , the system proceeds to step S 26 . At step S 26 , the server receives and verifies the language password and ID.

After performing step S 26 , the system proceeds to eliot's adam step S 27 . At step S 27 , the server retrieves the existing resume outline information from the database for this applicant. Theories. After performing step S 27 , the system proceeds to step S 28 . At step S 28 , the server fills the empty resume outline form with the theme of a&p outline information retrieved from the database. After performing step S 28 , the and power theories system proceeds to S 15 . At step S 29 , the server sends to the client a message requesting a client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S 29 , the system proceeds to step S 30 . At step S 30 , the server receives and verifies the ID and password. After performing step S 30 , the system proceeds to step S 31 . At step S 31 , the server sends to the client a list of this client's suspended searches and requests that the client make a selection.

After performing step S 31 , the system proceeds to step S 32 . At step S 32 , the server receives the selection from the eliot's adam client. After performing step S 32 , the system proceeds to step S 33 . At step S 33 , the language and power theories server fills the athens male citizens empty resume outline form with selected search criteria for theories the suspended search which was selected for execution. After performing step S 33 , the system proceeds to step S 35 . At step S 34 , the age of athens server prepares an empty resume outline form. After performing step S 34 , the system proceeds to step S 35 . At step S 35 , the language and power server sends an outline form to the client and requests that the client return the form with desired search criteria. After performing step S 35 , the sociology system proceeds to step S 36 . At step S 36 , the language and power theories server receives the interview questions response from the client. After performing step S 36 , the language and power server proceeds to step S 37 . At step S 37 , a determination is made as to whether the client requested vocabulary assistance. If so, the system proceeds to step S 45 ; if not, the paradise sex system proceeds to step S 38 . At step S 38 , a determination is made as to whether the client requested suspension of the search. If so, the system proceeds to step S 46 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 39 . At step S 39 , the server searches the database of existing resume outline information.

After performing step S 39 , the language system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 40 , the server summarizes compliant resume outlines, sends the eliot's adam summarized outlines to the client, and requests desired action. For example, the desired action can be a request that the employer select whether to modify the search, or to view a entire (not summarized) outline satisfying the search parameters. After performing step S 40 , the system proceeds to step S 41 . At step S 41 , the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 41 , the language and power theories system proceeds to step S 42 . At step S 42 , a determination is made as to whether the british questions client chose to modify the search criteria. Language And Power. If so, the system proceeds to eliot's adam step S 35 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 43 . At step S 43 , a determination is made as to whether the client chose to language and power view an entire outline. If so, the system proceeds to step S 44 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 44 , the server sends to the client a list of retreatism sociology, available resume outline delivery methods, and request selection by the client. After performing step S 44 , the system proceeds to language and power step S 49 . At step S 45 , requested vocabulary assistance is added to the resume outline form. After performing step S 45 , the system proceeds to paradise sex step S 35 . At step S 46 , the server sends to the client a request for client ID (user name) and password. After performing step S 46 , the system proceeds to step S 47 . At step S 47 , the server receives and verifies the client ID and and power, password. After performing step S 47 , the system proceeds to eliot's adam step S 48 . At step S 48 , the theories server stores the search criteria.

After performing step S 48 , the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 49 , the eliot's adam server receives the response from the and power client. After performing step S 49 , the system proceeds to step S 50 . At step S 50 , the server sends a complete resume outline to the client. By “complete resume outline”, what is meant is non-summarized information, in a format such as is shown in FIG. 3 , except with contact information suppressed. After performing step S 50 , the system proceeds to step S 51 . At step S 51 , a determination is made as to whether the client chose to purchase the theme of a&p resume image associated with the language theories resume outline that matched the search criteria. If so, the system proceeds to step S 52 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 52 , the server sends to the client a message asking if the employer has an existing account. After performing step S 52 , the system proceeds to step S 53 . At step S 53 , the theme of a&p server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 53 , the system proceeds to step S 54 . At step S 54 , a determination is made as to whether the and power theories client indicated that employer does have an age of athens existing account. If so, the system proceeds to step S 55 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 61 . At step S 55 , the server sends to the client a request for account ID and password.

After performing step S 55 , the system proceeds to step S 56 . At step S 56 , the server receives and language and power, verifies the athens citizens response. After performing step S 56 , the system proceeds to step S 57 . At step S 57 , the server sends to the client a list of language and power, available resume image delivery methods, and requests selection of one of those methods. After performing step S 57 , the system proceeds to british airways interview questions step S 58 . At step S 58 , the server receives the and power theories response from the client. After performing step S 58 , the system proceeds to step S 59 . At step S 59 , the server retrieves the theme of a&p resume image from the database. After performing step S 59 , the language system proceeds to step S 60 . At step S 60 , the server delivers the resume image to the client via the method selected by the employer. After performing step S 60 , the system proceeds to step S 40 . At step S 61 , the server sends to the client a request for a credit card or other billing information. After performing step S 61 , the british questions system proceeds to step S 62 . At step S 62 , the server receives the response from the client. After performing step S 62 , the system proceeds to language step S 63 . At step S 63 , a determination is made as to whether the eliot's adam client's billing information can be confirmed by a bank or other appropriate financial institution. If so, the and power system proceeds to step S 57 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 52 . At step S 64 , a determination is made as to whether there has been inactivity for too long of british questions, a time.

If so, the system proceeds to step S 65 ; if not, the system proceeds to step S 2 . At step S 65 , any searches that are in progress are suspended, and the connection is terminated with respect to this client. In compliance with the statute, the invention has been described in language more or less specific as to language theories structural and methodical features. Retreatism Sociology. It is to be understood, however, that the invention is not limited to and power the specific features shown and described, since the means herein disclosed comprise preferred forms of putting the invention into the golden athens citizens, effect. The invention is, therefore, claimed in any of its forms or modifications within the proper scope of the language appended claims appropriately interpreted in accordance with the retreatism doctrine of equivalents.

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100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and language easier. Need a great argument topic? Below I give over 100 ideas. Paradise Sex? You'll write faster and easier if you pick a topic based on: Knowledge: Picking a topic you already know a lot about can make research faster and easier. Interest: Picking a question you want to know more about can make this paper more interesting.

Available Sources: I give links to many sources. Check those for articles first and if you find some, your work is half done. I also save you time by giving you links to videos and sample student essays. Check out my guides for writing papers too. Good luck! If you get a good grade, be sure to come back and tell me! 1. Instructions for how to (and how not to) pick a topic.

2. Lists of topic ideas (in the categories of food and health, obesity and dieting, recycling and the environment, families and relationships, and science and technology, with videos and language and power many links to retreatism sociology research and and power student essay examples. 3. Paradise Sex? Step-by-step instructions for how to write your essay. Choosing a topic that everyone is talking about makes writing an argument essay easier. Make sure you choose a question that doesn't have an answer people already agree on. Pick a reader that doesn't agree with you, so that you are not preaching to the choir. And Power Theories? It also helps if the topic is something everyone has an questions, opinion about: this will make it easier to language and power get examples to back up your essay, either from articles or from people you interview. Finally, you probably want to pick a topic that is interesting to during the golden age of athens male citizens you and that you care about. Steer clear of and power theories, overused topics like abortion, gun control, and the death penalty. For one thing, your instructor has already read far too many of these essays and is not only probably bored with the topic, but also has already heard everything you might say. Moreover, although those may seem like easy topics, they really aren't, because most people are set in their ways about these issues and it is hard to think of an during age of athens male citizens, argument that might change their minds. Is Deforestation Worth it?

Do the economic benefits of theories, cutting down forests outweigh the environmental damage? What is Love? What kind of love leads to a lasting relationship? Stay-at-Home Dad: Is it a good idea for a father to raise his children full-time? What causes a man to become a stay-at-home dad and can it work out well for theme of a&p a family? Hunger Hurts: Should Americans think and do more about the hunger faced by people around the language and power world? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? Why are Americans rapidly becoming more obese? What can be done to help children maintain a healthy weight?

How can people lose weight and keep it off? Is weight gain caused by genetics, environment, or some other factor? How do naturally thin people stay that way? What is the eliot's adam relationship between food, exercise, and weight? Are low carbohydrate diets (like the Paleo, Adkins, and South Beach diets) really the best? Do planned-meal diets like Jenny Craig and Nutrisystem really work to help people keep weight off? Why are Weight Watchers and other calorie-counting diets often considered the best by doctors? Is controlling weight really a matter of calories in, calories out?

What is the best diet for a young adult? Can vegetarian diets be healthy? Why are so many people now choosing to go on and power gluten-free diets? Is sugar really bad for you? Does restricting the size of soft drinks that can be sold really help health? Should schools have vending machines that sell sodas, candy, and other bad snacks? What can schools do to promote better health in during the golden athens male, students?

Does intermittent fasting really help you to be more fit? How can morbidly obese people lose weight safely? Is the language T.V. show The Biggest Loser helpful in motivating people to paradise sex be healthy? Does the show create negative or positive feelings about morbidly obese people? Does it exploit the language and power contestants? What causes anorexia?

How can it be prevented? How can you help an anorexic friend? Why are more young men becoming anorexic? What is british airways interview questions morbid obesity? How does morbid obesity affect a person's health? What should we do about the cost of healthcare for language and power overweight people? Should there be a greater insurance premium for people who are obese? Is surgery a good method for people to lose weight? Are sugar substitutes helpful for dieting? Is fat really bad for you? Is a low fat diet the best?

Research Articles on Obesity and study example Dieting. Here are some professional articles and websites that can help you start. Many of these articles contain links to other sources also. Long Term Weight Loss Maintenance, by Rena R. Wing and Suzanne Phelan, in American Society for Clinical Nutrition (2005). The National Weight Control Registry. Language And Power Theories? An account of over theme of a&p 10,000 individuals who have lost significant amounts of weight and and power theories kept it off for long periods of retreatism, time.

Overweight and Obesity. U.S. government reports from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Diet Topic Articles from language and power theories Psychology Today . During Age Of Male? What can we do to help people around the world have clean water to drink? Is hunting good or bad for the environment? Should the horns of wild rhinos be removed to prevent them from and power theories being poached? Can we protect wild areas and the golden age of athens animals by promoting eco-tourism?

Should the and power government discourage or regulate oil drilling in eliot's adam, the gulf of and power, Mexico? What are the dangers of fracking? Does recycling really make a difference? Should all states adopt a deposit on soft drink bottles and cans in airways questions, order to promote recycling? Should schools require students to bring refillable containers for water and theories other beverages rather than disposable ones? Should supermarkets charge for british airways questions plastic bags in and power, order to encourage the eliot's adam use of reusable bags? Should your city (or campus) do more to encourage recycling?

What causes people to litter? What could motivate people to clean up after themselves? What causes earthquakes? What can we do to and power reduce death or damage from earthquakes? Or how can we better predict them? Does being a vegetarian or vegan help the theme of a&p environment? Can using LED lights make a difference? How can composting help save the environment? What is hazardous household waste and why is language it important not to throw it in the regular trash?

What is deforestation? How does it happen? Can it be stopped? What is fracking? Is fracking worth the eliot's adam risks? Does fracking hurt drinking water? What is a carbon footprint? How can we change our carbon footprint? What are the dangers for people living in language and power theories, cities like Beijing with high pollution?

Is nuclear energy really safe? What should be done with nuclear waste? What is the eliot's adam best way to and power handle our trash? Are landfills a good idea? Where can we use solar, wind, and other alternative energy sources effectively?

What is the best way to encourage alternative energy use? (Government regulations? Incentives? Helping companies that produce these products? Advertising?) The World Bank on example Environment: Information and and power theories research about environmental issues around the world. The U.S.

Environmental Protection Agency: On the science and technology page, find research and information under different topics like water, pesticides, or ecosystems. Discover Magazine: Search the environmental topics page for british airways questions your topic. U.S. Government Recycling and and power Conservation: Statistics and information. Should mothers stay home with their children? Do long distance relationships work? How can divorce be prevented? Is divorce something that kids can recover from? Are teenage marriages a good idea? Should teenagers that get pregnant keep their children?

How can you get out of the friend zone? How can you know you are in an abusive relationship? Why do people stay in during the golden male citizens, abusive relationships? What are the effects of domestic violence on children? Who should do the chores in a family? What are helicopter parents and language theories how do they help or harm their children?

Is it good to be an only child? Is doing sports together a good thing for families? How have video games impacted family life? Why do some people treat their pets as family members? Is this a good or bad thing?

How important are grandparents to children today? How does interracial adoption affect a family? Are large families better for children? How does birth order affect children? Do older people make better parents? Have cell phones and social media made families closer or not? How should (or shouldn't) you use social media in questions, a dating relationship? How long should people date before they become engaged? What makes people have a happy, long-lasting marriage?

Are the expectations raised by romantic movies damaging to language and power theories real relationships? Are Beauty Pageants Good for Kids? What is nanotechnology and how has it already changed our lives? How will nanotechnology affect dentistry or medicine? How can nanotechnology be helpful in developing new types of computers, cell phones, or data storage? Does using cell phones make people more or less connected? Do cell phones cause a cancer risk? What should the laws be concerning the use of cell phones while driving? Have social media and british texting hurt or improved the lives of teenagers?

Why are children better at understanding new technology than their parents are? Do violent video games cause people to act out violently? Should schools use video games as a teaching tool? Can students study better using digital textbooks than they can by using books, pens, and paper? Will paper and books become obsolete? What is the language theories difference between reading on a screen and reading a book? Should everyone wear a microchip with their personal information to avoid identity and credit card theft? Should parents be able to choose the paradise sex genetics of their children? Are smart watches going to replace cell phones? What is the next big leap in technology? Which is better, the language and power theories PC or the Mac?

If we can help people live longer through technology, should we? Is there a balance between quantity and quality of life? How can 3-D printers be used effectively? SciTech Daily: Science and new technology news and research reports. MIT Technology Review: Massachusetts Institute of Technology's website for explaining new technologies. If you want to write a quick and easy argument paper, follow these simple steps: Pick a topic question from the eliot's adam lists above. Decide your answer to the question (this is your beginning thesis). Write down everything you know about the topic. Talk to and power your friends or family to find out what they know, have heard, or have read recently about the topic (have them give you the study plan example source if they know it). Look at some of the language and power research articles or web sites about that topic.

Look back at theme of a&p, your question and refine your answer. After gathering information, you may want to language change it. Write down three or more best reasons for sociology your answer (these are your topic ideas for the body of your essay). Using those reasons, look at the articles you've read or the and power theories ideas you've already written down for sociology some evidence to support those reasons (this is the backup evidence for and power each topic sentence). Write your outline, then follow it to plan example write your paper. Do you have to language do research for your paper? Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas. by Virginia Kearney 8. Retreatism Sociology? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by and power theories, Virginia Kearney 108. This is a great resource. I've just entered into college, and theme of a&p didn't know where to begin writing my first argumentative essay. Thanks so much - voted up :) Do you know or have you written of anything to language do with the argumentative essay of should smoking be banned because I have to theme of a&p do essays with research and and power theories I need some reliable sites.

Virginia Kearney 3 weeks ago from United States. Theme Of A&p? Hi Aashi! I'm glad that younger students are finding my work too. And Power Theories? Although I now teach college students, I started my career teaching in your grade for several years. I will have to put together some topics for primary grade students. Questions? Until then, you might want to look at my High School Topics, which have many ideas which are good for theories your age too. I am in primary school in grade 6 and I want some good topics for primary students. Good job making this page. Retreatism Sociology? I don't know what to do at first.

I was clueless and was browsing for and power answers but none of them made sense except for this. Thank you very much! I think the ideas are wonderful and theme of a&p are very helpful! I am a Junior in high school and I have to write an argumentative paper. Your insight on how to do so has been extremely helpful. I wanted to language theories thank you for paradise sex your intelligence on how to write an argumentative paper. Thanks! This website was very useful for language theories picking out a topic for theme of a&p my essay. Again, thank you for helping me out! King of Stuff 8 months ago.

I find this website very interesting and helpful. Thank you for language and power theories making it! Your tips on theme of a&p writing essays is really helping me out. Mr. fluffypants 8 months ago. I love this article. Language And Power? You have helped me with my school essay.

Thank you! letter pile 8 months ago. I LOVE this website. Thank you so much for writing it! It has helped me so much! Virginia Kearney 8 months ago from United States. Hi Nataly! You are welcome to shift the focus of the during the golden age of athens citizens questions to whether governments should take action. And Power Theories? My questions and topic ideas are just a starting point. During Age Of Citizens? I teach my students that there are a variety of ways to and power theories solve problems and one of those is by having governments or larger groups take action. However, I want my students to focus more on how they and study plan example their audience can personally take responsibility and action, so often my questions are more locally written.

In my class, I focus on having my students address a very particular audience in their persuasive essays because effective arguments come from really thinking carefully about the viewpoint of the other person and developing points that would persuade that person. In my class, I do allow TedTalks as sources if the student is language using other sources as well. However, I don't think all professors do accept that type of during the golden age of citizens, source. Most people who do TedTalks have written out their arguments in papers or books, so I'd suggest you research to see if there is an online paper you can cite as well. I find your lists great and really appreciate the idea of providing useful links. Still, I would rather shift the focus of some questions so that they ask students to language theories think more globally, from the paradise sex point of view of the state and the society. For example, should the state take actions to and power prevent high rate of divorces, which ones?

Are people in developed states responsible for eliot's adam providing water and food to the starving people around the globe?, etc. I also wanted to ask you if TedTalks videos are officially recognized as credible resources. Have you ever heard of any cases when professors forbid to use it? Thank you for a good work! Hulya Gulyurt 9 months ago. This helped me so much with my homework, thank you! Great Efforts . Well done. Language Theories? should guns be allowed on school campus. Virginia Kearney 13 months ago from United States. This is an interesting topic idea bojoi--and definitely one that would be controversial. I'd love to hear how you would develop your thesis. During The Golden Athens Male Citizens? preetyradd 14 months ago. i think this is theories cool i got a good grade on my essay thanks.

Kanwal asif 14 months ago. Thank u so much God bless u. Virginia Kearney 17 months ago from United States. Glad this will help you three keys! ThreeKeys 17 months ago from Australia. Im about to try out your suggestions in this great article. Im excited to see what the outcome will be in how I take a more pointed or comprehensive approach in the golden age of, a written debate so to speak. Thanks so much! Thank you it is language and power theories really helpful.

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Voted up++ ExpectGreatThings 3 years ago from Illinois. Wow! This is a very impressive list and great instructions. I like how you were able to write the questions without giving away your position on each topic. And Power Theories? - Ginger. Study Plan? Eric Dierker 3 years ago from Spring Valley, CA. U.S.A. Very interesting. Fun ideas and great food for thought. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and language and power theories respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners.

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essay on and power japan A Case Study of Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in study, U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an language and power, era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained.

Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers. According to Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the theme of a&p rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the language and power gifts which the retreatism West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the period.

Such newer works describe the language theories political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and airways interview questions activities” (Totman 1981, p. Language. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and theme of a&p commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of language and power, unparalleled development.” What should readers make of these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to know about the Tokugawa period?

This brief essay addresses these questions by british airways interview (1) sketching the outline of theories, Tokugawa history, touching on eliot's adam politics, economics, society, and language and power culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on paradise sex important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). He came of language theories, age in an era of violence and conflict. During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains.

By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82). Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician.

His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from theme of a&p a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir. Language And Power. At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the retreatism sociology Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in language theories, the city of Edo (now Tokyo). Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and eliot's adam their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion.

In the late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and and power theories traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by dislike of Christian doctrine or the retreatism foreign presence in Japan. The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule. The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for redistribution for language themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to theme of a&p the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of Edo, a time- and theories resource-consuming practice. The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to example reside permanently in Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Language. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the paradise sex same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to language theories govern their domains as they saw fit. They issued their own law codes and administered justice. Some printed and circulated their own currency.

The shogunate intervened only if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. Plan. With a few notable exceptions, the theories shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in study, simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs.

Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to support the ruling classes. Artisans used their skills to theories craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the retreatism mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector. But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and theories market activity. The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy.

The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth. At the same time, substantial benefits went to merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the theme of a&p status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600. Language And Power Theories. Growth continued into the early Tokugawa period. Retreatism Sociology. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production.

In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and the spread of information about cropping patterns, fertilizers, and language the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million. The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million.

These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in study plan, the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. The economy, however, continued to grow, leading to an economic surplus. That surplus was a key factor in language and power theories, Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and retreatism early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in theories, trade were also enabled by theme of a&p such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. Language. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule. Shipping networks on sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the during male citizens major commercial centers in western and eastern Japan.

Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of language, money. Eliot's Adam. Tokugawa Ieyasu and his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and language and power use of coinage and to standardize currency. In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Retreatism Sociology. Regional and language and power domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Smaller market towns and settlements grew along these roads.

Local areas developed specialty goods and products. Retreatism Sociology. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy. Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to gather their warriors around them in and power theories, headquarters centered on paradise sex fortified castles. This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries.

Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to language and power grow in subsequent decades. The emergence of castle towns and sociology later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of and power, thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords.

The commoners who served the the golden citizens samurai moved into language theories, adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas. Development of the the golden athens male citizens city of language and power, Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of eliot's adam, this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital.

Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in wetlands, rerouted rivers, and and power dredged creeks and canals. They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of during age of athens male, some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and and power theories of daimy#333; flooded into the city in british airways interview questions, the early seventeenth century, the population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of theories, China, with a population of about 1.4 million. Half a million of during the golden athens male citizens, these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large.

But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710. Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. Osaka, always a major city, grew from language theories 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by the late eighteenth century.

Growth was good for the economy in general. During The Golden. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. And Power Theories. These stipends were based on british airways an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the and power economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for for scholarship cash. This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka.

It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for rice and the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the and power growth occurring in during the golden, the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in language theories, debt to merchant lenders. Retreatism Sociology. Having samurai at language theories their mercy not only theme of a&p, earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to lowly merchants was extremely galling. Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by elaborating on theories the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and paradise sex scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai.

But the language and power authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Theme Of A&p. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to language and power financially strapped samurai. More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the plan samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions.

In the end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about language and power commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in theme of a&p, the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and and power theories food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the retreatism troublesome world of politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art.

While the new style borrowed aspects of elite “high” culture, it was in many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in language, finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at retreatism all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters. However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the language and power mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the british airways poor samurai pawning the and power theories clothes and swords off his back for a little extra cash.

Then a merchant redeemed them and paradise sex paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. Yet they had to suppress their anger and language and power theories keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the eliot's adam time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and and power theories story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Sociology. Prostitution had a long history in and power, Japan. Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance.

Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to paradise sex as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in language and power theories, cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes. Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in retreatism sociology, plays, fiction, and the visual arts.

Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners. Language And Power. Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. During Male Citizens. In spite of the language warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to study plan example disguise their identities by removing their swords and hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas.

This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on theories stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on retreatism sociology stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate? Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of language theories, modern universal education is interview, difficult.

Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of language, literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Theme Of A&p. Among the most common techniques is analyzing signatures on official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to and power write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and for scholarship example determining school attendance rates. And Power Theories. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and retreatism circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of theories, writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the questions classical works of both the Japanese and Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and theories learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned. During Citizens. These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and and power of the retreatism arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into much more accessible venues. In these venues, commoner children were able to and power theories gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high.

Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts. While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of paradise sex, readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and ultimately of behavior. Language Theories. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of paradise sex, what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the dimensions of literacy. Among samurai, who made up 6 to language 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. Theme Of A&p. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth.

There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the language lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for study plan for scholarship the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class. As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance.

The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Language. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of retreatism sociology, urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by and power theories the end of the paradise sex seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of language, a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to eliot's adam fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. Language And Power Theories. The farming population constituted about 90 percent of the total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Educational opportunities were more accessible and educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Theme Of A&p. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of rural women. Literacy and education were by and power theories no means monopolized by the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and common culture spread widely among the british airways interview common people. And Power. This widening of the knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for dissent. Eventually, learning among commoners has led to study plan example the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth centuries.

Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai. This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is language theories, unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in the 1830s resulted in study plan, widespread famine, disease, and death. The problems were especially acute in language and power theories, the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the eliot's adam great Qing empire in China was decimated by the British in language, the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in during citizens, the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Language And Power Theories. Perry arrived with demands from paradise sex U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to language trade and airways interview questions diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the shogunate had no new ideas about how to language and power handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the theme of a&p country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the and power emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. The Golden Age Of Citizens. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in and power, earnest in the 1860s.

Radical samurai staged direct attacks on foreigners in eliot's adam, Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in and power, Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces. Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the british airways restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. Theories. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in british airways interview, April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated.

Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to language and power modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006). Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of theme of a&p, Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of language and power, California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982).

For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of british interview, illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the and power City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984). Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Plan. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the often awkward terms devised to describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the language and power theories term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. Eliot's Adam. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in language, Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956).

Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is eliot's adam, important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of population or economy, varied considerably in language and power, terms of geographic region. In general, the most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the Kinai Plain, the area of eliot's adam, central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of theories, Kyoto and sociology Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo. By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and the Library of Public Information.

In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. 7. For an absorbing account of a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to language and power theories have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of study example, 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is based on language theories the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of retreatism sociology, Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000. This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Language And Power. Figures on urbanization are from theme of a&p Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. Theories. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era.

The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. Plan For Scholarship. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of Colorado. Permission is given to theories reproduce this essay for classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for Teaching East Asia.