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Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution. Publication date Spring 2006. New American fiction is, to my mind, immediately and unhappily equivalent to new American short fiction. And yet I think the American short story is a dead form, unnaturally perpetuated, as Lukacs once wrote of the speech examples, chivalric romance, by purely formal means, after the transcendental conditions for its existence have already been condemned by the historico-philosophical dialectic. Having exhausted the conditions for its existence, the short story continues to be propagated in America by a purely formal apparatus: by the big magazines, which, if they print fiction at all, sandwich one short story per in New Business Trends Essay, issue between features and reviews; and by identity speech, workshop-based creative writing programs and their attendant literary journals. Todays short stories all seem to apa citation format, bear an invisible check mark, the ghastly imprimatur of the fiction factory; the very sentences are animated by some kind of vegetable consciousness: I worked for Kristin, they seem to say, or Jeff thought I was fucking hilarious. Meanwhile, the ghosts of identity speech deleted paragraphs rattle their chains from the margins. In the name of science, I recently read from format website, cover to cover the Best American Short Stories anthologies of identity 2004 and 2005. Many of poem strategies these stories seemed to have been pared down to a nearly unreadable core of brisk verbs and vivid nouns. An indiscriminate premium has been placed on the particular, the speech examples, tactile, the crisp, and the tartas if literary worth should be calibrated by hunting, resemblance to an apple (or, in the lingo of hyperspecificity, a McIntosh). Identity Speech. Writers appear to be trying to identify as many concrete entities as possible, in the fewest possible words.

The result is celebrated as lean, tight, well-honed prose. One of the by-products of hyperspecificity is a preponderance of proper names. For maximum specificity and minimum word count, names cant be beat. Julia, Juliet, Viola, Violet, Rusty, Lefty, Carl, Carla, Carleton, Mamie, Sharee, Sharon, Rose of Sharon (a Native American). In acknowledgment of the times, the 2004 and 2005 volumes each contain exactly one Middle East story, each featuring a character called Hassan. I found these names annoying, universally so. I was no less annoyed by John Briggs or John Hillman than by poem strategies, Sybil Mildred Clemm Legrand Pascal, who invites the speech, reader to apa citation format, call her Miss Sibby.

I was no more delighted by identity examples, the cat called King Spanky than by the cat called Cat. The authors had clearly weighed plausibility against best brother precision; whichever way they inclined, there was the same aura of cheapness. Alarmed by my own negativity, I began to wonder whether I might be doing the Best Americans some injustice. Identity Speech Examples. For a point of comparison, I reread a few stories by Chekhov, who is The Role Institutions in New Business Trends still the ostensible role model for American short-fiction practitioners. (Search for the American Chekhov on Google, and you will get hits for Carver, Cheever, Tobias Wolff, Peter Taylor, Andre Dubus, and identity speech examples Lorrie Moore, as well as several playwrights.) By comparison with the Best Americans, I found, Chekhov is quite sparing with names. In Lady with Lapdog, Gurovs wife gets a few lines of dialogue, but no name. Annas husband, Gurovs crony at apa citation the club, the lapdogall remain mercifully nameless.

Granted, Chekhov was writing from a different point in the historico-philosophical dialectic: a character could be called Gurovs wife, the bureaucrat, or the lackey, and nobody would take it as a political statement. The Best Americans are more democratic. Every last clerk, child, and goat has a name. Nowhere is the identity examples, best American barrage of the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete names so relentless as in the first sentences, which are specific to the point of arbitrariness; one expects to discover that they are all acrostics, or dont contain a single letter e. They all begin in speech examples medias res. For Slavists, the hamartia, precedent for in medias res is examples set by Pushkins fragment The guests were arriving at the dacha. According to hamartia in oedipus, Tolstoys wife, this sentence inspired the opening of Anna Karenina . Identity Speech. Would Pushkin have managed to inspire anybody at hamartia all had he written: The night before Countess Maria Ivanovna left for speech, Baden Baden, a drunken coachman crashed the Statement that of Thera the Downfall of Minoan, Mirskys troika into identity examples the Pronskys dacha? He would not. Pushkin knew that it is neither necessary nor desirable for best brother, the first sentence of a literary work to answer the five ws and one h. Many of the Best Americans assume this perverse burden.

The result is not just in medias res, but in-your-face in medias res, a maze of names, subordinate clauses, and minor collisions: The morning after her granddaughters frantic phone call, Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at identity speech the Limestone Diner and drove out to the accident scene instead; Graves had been sick for three days when, on the long, straight highway between Mazar and Kunduz, a dark blue truck coming toward them shed its rear wheel in a spray of orange-yellow sparks. I had to good, stare at these sentences (from Trudy Lewiss Limestone Diner and Tom Bissells Death Defier) for several minutes each. A first line like Lorraine skipped her usual coffee session at the Limestone Diner is identity supposed to create the illusion that the reader already knows Lorraine, knows about her usual coffee, and, thus, cares why Lorraine has violated her routine. Film Good. Its like a confidence man who rushes up and claps you on the shoulder, trying to make you think you already know him. Todays writers are hustling their readers, as if reading were some arduous weight-loss regime, or a form of community service; the public goes along, joking about how they really should read more. Oprah uses identical rhetoric to advocate reading and fitness; Martha Nussbaum touts literature as an exercise regime for compassion. Reading has become a Protestant good work: if you buy into Lorraines fate, it proves that you are a good person, capable of self-sacrifice and empathy. Another popular technique for waylaying the reader is the use of specificity as a shortcut to nostalgiaas if all a writer has to do is mention Little League or someone called Bucky McGee, and our shared American past will do the rest of the work.

Each of the Best American anthologies, for example, has a Little League story. Speech. I believe, with the Formalists, that literature has no inherently unsuitable subjectbut, if it did, this subject would surely be Little League. Good Hunting. Both Best Americans include some variation on speech, the Western historical romance, e.g., Hart and Boot: The mans head and The Role of Educational Business Trends Essay torso emerged from a hole in identity the ground, just a few feet from the rock where Pearl Hart sat smoking her last cigarette. There is a terrible threat in this sentence: is the reader really expected to think: Good old Pearl Hart? The best of the man speeches, Best Americans are still the speech, old mastersJoyce Carol Oates, Alice Munro, John Updikewriters who comply with the purpose of the short-story form: namely, telling a short story. This sounds trivial, but isnt. In New Business Trends. The short-story form can only accommodate a very specific content: basically, absence. Missing persons, missed opportunities, very brief encounters, occuring in the margins of Life Itself: when the content is examples minimalist, then it makes sense to follow the The Role of Educational, short-fiction dictates: condense, delete, omit. Novels, like short stories, are often about identity speech, absences; but they are based on information overload. A short story says, I looked for the Validity of the Statement that of Thera Caused the Downfall of Minoan, x, and didnt find it, or, I was not looking anymore, and then I found x. A novel says, I looked for x, and found a, b, c, g, q, r, and speech examples w. The novel consists of apa citation format website all the irrelevant garbage, the effort to redeem that garbage, to integrate it into Life Itself, to redraw the boundaries of Life Itself. Identity Examples. The novel is a fundamentally ironic form; hence its power of self-regeneration. Apa Citation Format Website. The short story is a fundamentally unironic form, and for this reason I think it is examples doomed.

When the film good will hunting, available literary forms no longer match the available real-life content, the novel can reabsorb the mismatch and use it as material. The canonical example is Don Quixote , a work which, according to his prologue, Cervantes conceived in a prison cell in Seville. Cervantes wanted to write a chivalric romance, but the gap between this form and his experience was too great. Examples. Then he broke through the formal prison: he made the good will, gap the subject of a book. Many of the Best American stories are set in prisons and psychiatric hospitals. They are trying to break out, but I dont think they will.

One of the most interesting contributions, Kelly Links Stone Animals, is about a family who moves into a new house that, very gradually, turns out to be haunted. First a toothbrush becomes haunted, then the coffee machine, the examples, downstairs bathroom. The haunted rooms can no longer be used; the hamartia in oedipus, house becomes equivalent to Cervantess cell: all the narrative possibilities have been sealed off. The family has less and less space in which to live. The last sentence is creepy and vaguely polemical: In a little while, the dinner party will be over and the war will begin. Indeed, let the identity speech, war begin. Todays literary situation is such that virtually all writers must, at least initially, write short stories. Several of the hamartia in oedipus, Best American stories, Stone Animals among them, are really novelistic plots crammed into twenty pages. The short story is trying to expand into a catchall genre.

In fact, the novel is, at present, the only catchall genre we have; and identity speech examples it is shrinking. Novels have gotten so short lately, with the exception of poem strategies those that have gotten very long. Most of the long novels fit under James Woods designation of hysterical realismwhich, while ostensibly opposed to Puritan minimalism, actually shares its basic assumption: writing as a form of self-indulgence and vanity. The difference is that, instead of eschewing what they consider to be wicked, the identity speech, hysterical realists are forever confessing it. The recursions of David Foster Wallace and Dave EggersI confess that I, reprehensibly, want to be loved; this very confession is another reprehensible ploy to make you love meare a dreary Catholic riposte to a dreary Protestant attack. It would be equally productive for every writer to start every book with an apology for The Role of Educational Business, cutting down trees which could have been put to better use building houses for the homeless; followed by a second apology for the paper consumed by the first apology. Here is the crux of the problem, the single greatest obstacle to American literature today: guilt.

Guilt leads to the idea that all writing is self-indulgence. Writers, feeling guilty for not doing real work, that mysterious activitywhere is it? On Wall Street, at Sloane-Kettering, in identity examples Sudan?turn in poem strategies shame to speech examples, the notion of writing as craft. (If art is aristocratic, decadent, egotistical, self-indulgent, then craft is useful, humble, ascetic, anorexica form of whittling.) Craft solicits from them constipated vignettesas if to say: Well, yes, its bad, but at least there isnt too much of it. As if writing well consisted of overcoming human weakness and bad habits. As if writers became writers by omitting needless words. American novelists are ashamed to find their own lives interesting; all the poem strategies, rooms in the house have become haunted, the available subjects have been blocked off. What remains to identity speech examples, be written about? (A) nostalgic and historical subjects; (B) external, researched subjects, also sometimes historical; (C) their own self-loathing; and/or (D) terrible human suffering. For years, Lorrie Moore has only The Role of Educational Trends, written about cancer. In A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius , Dave Eggers implies that anyone who does not find his story compelling is unsympathetic to cancer victims; he describes in gory detail how he plans to eviscerate such people, how he plans to be eviscerated by identity speech, them in website turn. For writers who arent into cancer, there is the Holocaust, and of course the items can be recombined: cancer and identity examples the Holocaust, cancer and Exploring the Validity of the Statement that the Eruption of Thera American nostalgia, the Holocaust and American nostalgia.

For the last combination, you cant do better than Michael Chabons The Amazing Adventures of speech Kavalier Clay , with its memorable opening sentence: In later years, holding forth to an interviewer or to poem strategies, an audience of aging fans at identity speech examples a comic book convention, Sam Clay liked to declare, apropos of his and of Educational Institutions in New Business Essay Joe Kavaliers greatest creation, that back when he was a boy, sealed and speech hog-tied inside the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York, he had been haunted by dreams of Harry Houdini. All the elements are there: the nicknames, the Exploring the Validity Statement the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall Crete, clauses, the five ws, the physical imprisonment, the nostalgia. (As if a fictional character could have a greatest creation by the first sentenceas if he were already entitled to be holding forth to fans.) Throughout the novel, Chabon does actually generate a fair amount of identity speech examples nostalgiabut then he goes and dumps the will hunting, entire burden of character development on the Holocaust. Joe Kavalier is a master magician, an escape artist, a writer of fabulous comic books, a charismatic and fundamentally mysterious personuntil, that is, Chabon explains to speech examples, us that the the Validity of the that the Eruption the Downfall of Minoan Crete, reason Kavalier became an escape artist was to escape from Hitler. The reason he could produce a blockbuster cartoon superhero was that he had a psychological need to create a hero who could knock Hitlers lights out on a weekly basis. W. G. Sebalds Austerlitz has a nearly identical premise, minus the American nostalgia. It, too, features an identity, authorial stand-in, a la Sam Clay, who finds in some other person a source of format website narrative. Austerlitz is, like Kavalier, a human enigma who disappears for years on end, leaving trails of clues; in the end, the solution is nothing other than the Final Solution. Austerlitzs and Kavaliers parents both perished, peculiarly enough, in examples the same Czech ghetto, Terezin. Austerlitz and Kavalier are both obsessed with moths; they both have Holocaust-induced problems with women. (Austerlitzs one love affair, with a woman called Marie, fizzles out in oedipus, during a trip to Marienbad, where he is speech oppressed by an inexplicable terror; later we understand that its because he is actually Jewish, and his parents were killed in best brother the Holocaust, and once they went on vacation to Marienbad.)

Its not that the big pathologies cant be written about, or cant be written about well; Oatess The Cousins ( Best American 2005), for example, is identity speech about both the Holocaust and apa citation format website cancer, and is still a good story. It consists of the letters between two cousins, aging women: one survived the Holocaust and became a famous writer, the other grew up in America and identity speech examples became a retiree in Florida. They were supposed to meet as children, but never did. The twist is that both cousins are interesting and mysterious; both have suffered; and they are bound by some hereditary, unarticulated, Zolaesque link. Among the the Validity Statement the Downfall of Minoan Crete, novelists who write about the Second World War, I confess that my favorite is identity examples Haruki Murakami.

Murakamis The Wind-Up Bird Chronicle opens with a small, personal mysterythe disappearance of the narrators catwhich turns out to be related to how the narrator never really understood his wife, who also disappears. The two disappearances are subsequently linked to apa citation format, the occupation of identity Manchuria, the best man speeches, torture killing of a Japanese soldier, and various other personal and global events. The narrator is identity speech moved by all the big historical themes that pass through the novel, but he suffers more immediately from the loss of his catas in Brueghels picture of the farmer ploughing his field while Icarus drowns. We never learn exactly what the Manchurian occupation has to do with the missing cat. The big historical mysteries are related to, but do not seamlessly explain, the small everyday mysteries. By contrast, I feel sure that if Sebald or Chabon had written Wind-Up Bird , the narrator would have discovered that his own father had been killed in the Manchurian campaign, and thats why his wife left him and his cat ran away. Murakami isnt the worlds greatest novelist; you could say that his novels are all botched on some basic level. The turns in the plot are often achieved unsatisfyingly, by dreams, or by a character deciding to sit in the bottom of apa citation format website a well; the narrators receive an inordinate amount of oral sex from bizarrely dressed middle-aged women.

But botchedness also gives Murakamis novels a quixotic dynamism. Murakamis latest work, Kafka on the Shore , contains a prescient discussion on identity speech examples, the subject of minor novelsin fact, on a minor novel called The Miner . Poem Strategies. The Miner is identity speech examples about a young man who has an unhappy love affair, runs away from home, ends up working in The Role in New Trends a mine alongside the dregs of society, and then returns to his ordinary life. Nothing in the novel shows he learned anything from identity examples, these experiences, that his life changed, that he thought deeply now about the meaning of life or started questioning society, Murakamis narrator explains: it is completely unclear why the author decided to write The Miner which makes it particularly valuable to the narrator, by virtue of its very openness. Literature needs novels like The Miner , where you go into the mine and nothing happens; novels unlike Germinal , where you go into the mine and come out of Educational Institutions in New Essay, a socialist. Perhaps modern American literature has kept the worst parts of Zola. We lost the examples, genetic mysticism and the graphomaniaall of of the Statement that of Thera of Minoan Crete us, perhaps, except Joyce Carol Oatesand we kept the guilty social conscience. Dear American writers, break out speech examples, of the jail! Sell the haunted house, convert it to Institutions, tourist villas.

Puncture the airtight vessel known as Brooklyn New York. Write long novels, pointless novels. Identity Speech Examples. Do not be ashamed to grieve about personal things. Dear young writers, write with dignity, not in best man speeches guilt. How you write is how you will be read. My Life and Times in American Journalism. Like Oedipus, we flout the warning, and well act surprised, even outraged, when we find out what weve done. Every now and then he looked up to identity, ask what Evo was saying, since at his seventy-two years of age, Hugo Blanco is apa citation format website nearly deaf. The problem with autonomy and examples end-of-life decisions is largely a problem of information.

It is not possible to be a German. If it were, hardly anyone would like to be one. If anyone would stop doing his job should his income drop to $100,000 a year, he should not be doing that job. Issue 4 Gut-Level Legislation, or, Redistribution Mark Greif. Issue 4 My Life and Times in American Journalism Philip Connors. All useful poetry criticism since the 60s has come either from academics or from the Validity of the Statement that of Thera Crete, people committed to little magazines. Literature is only an art. If it improves you, it does so the way health, riches, and elegant clothes do.

There are plenty of clones, yes, but like Dolly the sheep, they age quickly and soon die. In the age of BookScan, only an identity speech examples, unpublished writer is allowed to keep his dignity. It is in an aroused consciousness that the solace and of the Statement the Eruption of Thera Caused Crete excitement of literature are to be found. As vague a categorical designation as literary fiction is, it bestowed on non-genre novels the gift of a brand. In paying homage to sincerity, post-ironic fiction more often confirms its exile from the truth. Our generation seems far too aware that reading is safe and fun, that literature is speech spectacle.

Issue 4 Why Repeat These Sad Things? Meline Toumani. Issue 4 The Mystery Guest Gregoire Bouillier. Issue 4 Afternoon of the Sex Children Mark Greif. Issue 4 Two Stories John Haskell. Issue 4 Melodramatic Installations Ilya Kliger. Issue 4 Three Stories Rebecca Schiff. Issue 4 The Joy of Edge Tools Misha Hoekstra. You, dear reader, are also supposed to in oedipus, be a clone among clones. And really, whod be the identity speech, wiser? Never trust a man who insists that he is Exploring the Validity that the Eruption of Minoan sincere.

How does Vollmann intend to speech, be helpful, to save a life, to benefit someone? Issue 2 Babel in California Elif Batuman. Issue 9 Summer in Samarkand, Part II Elif Batuman. A specter is haunting the academythe specter of close reading. Go to poem strategies, Uzbekistan now . . . or you will never get departmental funding ever again?

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6 Punctuation Tips For A Sexier Resume. #1 Thing Recruiters Want You To Know About Getting A Job AppDynamics. How To Land A Job At Northside Hospital. 3 Tips For Getting A Job At Medidata Solutions. The Secret To Networking When You Don#039;t Have Any Time. 3 Ways Emotionally Intelligent Leaders Make The Most Of Online Collaboration. You want a resume, cover letter, and identity examples, LinkedIn profile that presents you in the best possible light. With all of the emphasis on loading your documents with keywords, accomplishments, and The Role Institutions Essay, metrics that make the identity case for you being the Statement the Eruption Caused the Downfall Crete perfect fit for the position youre after, have you overlooked proper punctuation?

Some might wonder what the big deal is about punctuation. Surely if you start your sentences with a capital letter and end them with a period, thats all you need to worry about, right? Unfortunately not. The text in career documents is examples often so packed with information that seemingly inconsequential punctuation missteps can distort your meaning, or worse: cause the Exploring of the the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete reviewer to speech examples, pause in confusion. Film Good Will Hunting. That pause is bad news for you: it may make the reviewer see you as a less-than-attractive candidate, questioning your ability to communicate or pay attention to details, both highly valued skills in todays workplace. Just as a modern spouse becomes more alluring to a partner by doing the dishes and identity speech, laundry, using proper punctuation makes you downright sexy to a hiring manager. Both efforts make lives easier for the people who are important to you, so go the format website extra mile by identity speech examples following these important rules (and do the dishes): In addition to The Role Institutions Business Essay, appearing at speech examples the beginning of sentences and in section headings, capital letters also signify important words. But using too many important words in your documents slows the reader down or seems pretentious. Film. For example, I sometimes see text like this in examples resumes: Expertise in Human Resources, Training, and Recruiting Try: Expertise in human resources, training, recruiting instead. Other than proper names like your own name or the names of products, you will rarely need to capitalize words that dont appear at the beginning of a line or sentence. Youll also want to capitalize your own job title above each position listed on your resume.

However, if you reference someone elses job title in poem strategies your career documents, the general rule is that it is only capitalized when the person#8217;s name follows (Vice President Joe Smith) not when merely referring to the position (as in reporting to the vice president). Of course, every rule tends to identity examples, have its exceptions, and there are a few for best man speeches, capitalization. However, these are good to examples, start with. Of The That Of Thera The Downfall Crete. Use hyphens for compound adjectives that precede a noun, such as client-focused approach or full-time employees. And if you have two adjectives that modify the same base word, use a hyphen after the first, as in mid- and senior-level management. Do not use a hyphen in a compound adjective if the first word ends in ly, as in highly qualified candidate. Semicolons can either separate two independent clauses when the second clause is identity speech not directly related to best brother, the first, or they can be useful when you want to list items that already include a comma. For example, Proficient in software including Microsoft Excel, Word, and identity speech examples, PowerPoint; CorelDRAW; and Adobe Photoshop. Colons are used to join two independent clauses when the good hunting second clause is directly related to the first. The most common usage in career documents is for lists, as in Proficient in the following software: MS Excel, Word, and PowerPoint. Theres fierce debate between those who advocate using serial commas (putting a comma before the final and in a series) and those who dont. The best practice for resumes is to identity, use serial commas, as they can really make your career documents easier to understand. This is especially true when you list series of Exploring of the that the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall of Minoan items where two things may be grouped together (think: sales and identity, marketing). But even sentence construction like Facilitate mock interviews, identify position and tailor interview questions may cause the reader to stumble. At first read, it may sound like the candidate is responsible for identifying a position and identifying someone who tailors clothes! So my advice is to poem strategies, avoid ambiguity by speech examples always using serial commas in brother career documents.

The current convention is to use one space after a period, not two. Same goes for colons. I know, I know. Identity. If you grew up learning to type on poem strategies an IBM Selectric, back in the stone ages like I did, this is a hard habit to break. But, if you keep using two spaces, youll look as antiquated as the typewriter.

Trust me, knowing these six punctuation tips will make you a real turn on to an employer. Now that youve reviewed some of the punctuation rules that youll want to speech, be aware of, Ill share the most important rule of all: however, you choose to use punctuation throughout your career documents, do it consistently! Even more jarring than not following proper punctuation rules is following them only film good will hunting some of the time. Of course, these rules may change depending on speech the document you may be writing. Or, if you have a profession (like journalists do) that demands adherence to a specific style guide, like AP, Gregg, or Chicago#8230; Hot, I know. ;-) For a more in-depth look at punctuation, I recommend checking out Susan Whitcombs book Resume Magic . Its a great resource for every aspect of preparing your resume, and has a particularly good section on in New Trends punctuation. And, if youd like to see resumes with some real sex appeal, check out my samples on ProfessionDirection.com. This post was originally published on an earlier date.

Kristin S. Johnson is speech examples a TORI award-winning, 6-times certified resume writer, job search coach, and social media consultant. Her approach is cutting-edge, creative, and kind. As owner of best brother Profession Direction, LLC, she works with professionals and aspiring executives across the identity examples country. Disclosure: This post is sponsored by a CAREEREALISM-approved expert. Of The Statement That Of Thera Of Minoan. You can learn more about expert posts here .

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competence essay Berkshire's Corporate Performance vs. the SP 500. Annual Percentage Change. Average Annual Gain ? 1965-2001. Overall Gain ? 1964-2001. Notes: Data are for calendar years with these exceptions: 1965 and 1966, year ended 9/30; 1967, 15 months ended 12/31.

Starting in 1979, accounting rules required insurance companies to value the equity securities they hold at market rather than at the lower of examples cost or market, which was previously the requirement. In this table, Berkshire's results through 1978 have been restated to conform to the changed rules. Hamartia In Oedipus! In all other respects, the results are calculated using the numbers originally reported. The SP 500 numbers are pre-tax whereas the Berkshire numbers are after-tax . If a corporation such as Berkshire were simply to have owned the SP 500 and accrued the appropriate taxes, its results would have lagged the SP 500 in identity examples years when that index showed a positive return, but would have exceeded the poem strategies, SP in years when the index showed a negative return. Over the identity, years, the tax costs would have caused the aggregate lag to be substantial. BERKSHIRE HATHAWAY INC. To the Shareholders of Berkshire Hathaway Inc.: Berkshires loss in net worth during 2001 was $3.77 billion, which decreased the per-share book value of both our Class A and Class B stock by 6.2%.

Over the last 37 years (that is, since present management took over) per-share book value has grown from $19 to $37,920, a rate of hamartia in oedipus 22.6% compounded annually.* * All figures used in this report apply to Berkshire's A shares, the successor to the only stock that the identity, company had outstanding before 1996. The B shares have an economic interest equal to 1/30th that of the A. Per-share intrinsic grew somewhat faster than book value during these 37 years, and in 2001 it probably decreased a bit less. We explain intrinsic value in our Owners Manual, which begins on page 62. I urge new shareholders to read this manual to The Role Institutions in New, become familiar with Berkshires key economic principles.

Two years ago, reporting on 1999, I said that we had experienced both the identity, worst absolute and relative performance in our history. I added that relative results are what concern us, a viewpoint Ive had since forming my first investment partnership on May 5, 1956. Meeting with my seven founding limited partners that evening, I gave them a short paper titled The Ground Rules that included this sentence: Whether we do a good job or a poor job is to be measured against will hunting the general experience in securities. We initially used the Dow Jones Industrials as our benchmark, but shifted to the SP 500 when that index became widely used. Our comparative record since 1965 is chronicled on the facing page; last year Berkshires advantage was 5.7 percentage points.

Some people disagree with our focus on speech, relative figures, arguing that you cant eat relative performance. But if you expect ? as Charlie Munger, Berkshires Vice Chairman, and best man speeches, I do ? that owning the SP 500 will produce reasonably satisfactory results over time, it follows that, for long-term investors, gaining small advantages annually over that index must prove rewarding. Just as you can eat well throughout the year if you own a profitable, but highly seasonal, business such as Sees (which loses considerable money during the identity examples, summer months) so, too, can you regularly feast on investment returns that beat the hamartia, averages, however variable the absolute numbers may be. Though our corporate performance last year was satisfactory, my performance was anything but. I manage most of Berkshires equity portfolio, and identity speech, my results were poor, just as they have been for several years. Of even more importance, I allowed General Re to take on business without a safeguard I knew was important, and on film hunting, September 11 th , this error caught up with us. Ill tell you more about my mistake later and what we are doing to identity examples, correct it. Another of apa citation my 1956 Ground Rules remains applicable: I cannot promise results to partners. But Charlie and I can promise that your economic result from examples, Berkshire will parallel ours during the period of good your ownership: We will not take cash compensation, restricted stock or option grants that would make our results superior to yours.

Additionally, I will keep well over 99% of my net worth in identity examples Berkshire. My wife and I have never sold a share nor do we intend to. Charlie and I are disgusted by man speeches brother, the situation, so common in the last few years, in identity speech examples which shareholders have suffered billions in losses while the The Role of Educational Business, CEOs, promoters, and other higher-ups who fathered these disasters have walked away with extraordinary wealth. Indeed, many of these people were urging investors to identity speech, buy shares while concurrently dumping their own, sometimes using methods that hid their actions. To their shame, these business leaders view shareholders as patsies, not partners. Though Enron has become the symbol for shareholder abuse, there is no shortage of egregious conduct elsewhere in corporate America. Brother! One story Ive heard illustrates the all-too-common attitude of managers toward owners: A gorgeous woman slinks up to examples, a CEO at The Role in New Trends Essay a party and through moist lips purrs, Ill do anything ? anything ? you want.

Just tell me what you would like. With no hesitation, he replies, Reprice my options. One final thought about identity speech Berkshire: In the brother, future we wont come close to replicating our past record. To be sure, Charlie and I will strive for above-average performance and will not be satisfied with less. But two conditions at Berkshire are far different from what they once were: Then, we could often buy businesses and securities at much lower valuations than now prevail; and identity, more important, we were then working with far less money than we now have. Some years back, a good $10 million idea could do wonders for us (witness our investment in Washington Post in 1973 or GEICO in 1976). In Oedipus! Today, the combination of examples ten such ideas and hamartia, a triple in the value of each would increase the speech, net worth of Berkshire by only of 1%. We need elephants to The Role Institutions Business Essay, make significant gains now ? and they are hard to find.

On the positive side, we have as fine an array of examples operating managers as exists at any company. Poem Strategies! (You can read about many of them in identity a new book by hamartia, Robert P. Miles: The Warren Buffett CEO .) In large part, moreover, they are running businesses with economic characteristics ranging from good to superb. The ability, energy and loyalty of these managers is simply extraordinary. We now have completed 37 Berkshire years without having a CEO of an operating business elect to leave us to work elsewhere. Our star-studded group grew in 2001. Identity Speech Examples! First, we completed the purchases of two businesses that we had agreed to buy in hamartia in oedipus 2000 ? Shaw and Johns Manville. Then we acquired two others, MiTek and examples, XTRA, and contracted to buy two more: Larson-Juhl, an acquisition that has just closed, and best man speeches, Fruit of the Loom, which will close shortly if creditors approve our offer. Identity Speech! All of these businesses are led by smart, seasoned and trustworthy CEOs. Additionally, all of hamartia in oedipus our purchases last year were for speech, cash, which means our shareholders became owners of these additional businesses without relinquishing any interest in the fine companies they already owned. We will continue to follow our familiar formula, striving to increase the value of the of Educational Institutions Trends, excellent businesses we have, adding new businesses of similar quality, and issuing shares only grudgingly. Acquisitions of identity speech 2001. A few days before last years annual meeting, I received a heavy package from hamartia, St.

Louis, containing an unprepossessing chunk of metal whose function I couldnt imagine. There was a letter in the package, though, from Gene Toombs, CEO of identity a company called MiTek. He explained that MiTek is the worlds leading producer of this thing Id received, a connector plate, which is used in making roofing trusses. Gene also said that the U.K. Exploring The Validity Of The That Caused! parent of MiTek wished to speech, sell the company and that Berkshire seemed to the Validity of the Statement that the Eruption of Thera the Downfall Crete, him the ideal buyer. Liking the sound of his letter, I gave Gene a call. It took me only a minute to realize that he was our kind of examples manager and MiTek our kind of business. We made a cash offer to the U.K. owner and before long had a deal. Genes managerial crew is exceptionally enthusiastic about the that, company and wanted to participate in the purchase. Therefore, we arranged for 55 members of the identity speech, MiTek team to buy 10% of the company, with each putting up a minimum of hamartia $100,000 in cash. Many borrowed money so they could participate.

As they would not be if they had options, all of these managers are true owners . They face the identity examples, downside of Exploring of the Statement the Eruption of Minoan Crete decisions as well as the upside. They incur a cost of capital. And they cant reprice their stakes: What they paid is what they live with. Charlie and I love the identity, high-grade, truly entrepreneurial attitude that exists at MiTek, and we predict it will be a winner for all involved. In early 2000, my friend, Julian Robertson, announced that he would terminate his investment partnership, Tiger Fund, and the Validity Statement that the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall Crete, that he would liquidate it entirely except for four large holdings. One of these was XTRA, a leading lessor of truck trailers.

I then called Julian, asking whether he might consider selling his XTRA block or whether, for identity speech examples, that matter, the companys management might entertain an offer for the entire company. Julian referred me to Lew Rubin, XTRAs CEO. He and I had a nice conversation, but it was apparent that no deal was to be done. Then in June 2001, Julian called to say that he had decided to sell his XTRA shares, and I resumed conversations with Lew. The XTRA board accepted a proposal we made, which was to be effectuated through a tender offer expiring on of Thera of Minoan Crete, September 11 th . The tender conditions included the usual out, allowing us to identity, withdraw if the stock market were to close before the offers expiration. Poem Strategies! Throughout much of the 11 th , Lew went through a particularly wrenching experience: First, he had a son-in-law working in the World Trade Center who couldnt be located; and second, he knew we had the identity, option of backing away from our purchase. The story ended happily: Lews son-in-law escaped serious harm, and Berkshire completed the poem strategies, transaction. Trailer leasing is a cyclical business but one in which we should earn decent returns over identity examples time. Brother! Lew brings a new talent to Berkshire, and we hope to expand in leasing. On December 3 rd , I received a call from Craig Ponzio, owner of Larson-Juhl, the U.S. leader in custom-made picture frames. Identity Speech! Craig had bought the company in 1981 (after first working at its manufacturing plant while attending college) and thereafter increased its sales from $3 million to $300 million.

Though I had never heard of Larson-Juhl before Craigs call, a few minutes talk with him made me think we would strike a deal. He was straightforward in describing the business, cared about good who bought it, and was realistic as to price. Two days later, Craig and Steve McKenzie, his CEO, came to Omaha and in ninety minutes we reached an agreement. In ten days we had signed a contract. Larson-Juhl serves about 18,000 framing shops in identity speech the U.S. and is also the industry leader in Canada and hamartia, much of Europe. We expect to see opportunities for making complementary acquisitions in the future. As I write this letter, creditors are considering an offer we have made for Fruit of the Loom. The company entered bankruptcy a few years back, a victim both of too much debt and poor management. And, a good many years before that, I had some Fruit of the Loom experience of my own. In August 1955, I was one of five employees, including two secretaries, working for speech, the three managers of Graham-Newman Corporation, a New York investment company. Graham-Newman controlled Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron (PR), an anthracite producer that had excess cash, a tax loss carryforward, and a declining business.

At the apa citation website, time, I had a significant portion of my limited net worth invested in PR shares, reflecting my faith in the business talents of my bosses, Ben Graham, Jerry Newman and Howard (Micky) Newman. This faith was rewarded when PR purchased the speech examples, Union Underwear Company from Jack Goldfarb for $15 million. Exploring The Validity Of The Statement Of Thera Caused The Downfall! Union (though it was then only a licensee of the name) produced Fruit of the Loom underwear. The company possessed $5 million in cash ? $2.5 million of which PR used for the purchase ? and was earning about $3 million pre-tax, earnings that could be sheltered by the tax position of PR. And, oh yes: Fully $9 million of the remaining $12.5 million due was satisfied by non-interest-bearing notes, payable from speech examples, 50% of poem strategies any earnings Union had in excess of $1 million. ( Those were the days; I get goosebumps just thinking about such deals.) Subsequently, Union bought the licensor of the Fruit of the Loom name and, along with PR, was merged into identity speech examples, Northwest Industries. Fruit went on to achieve annual pre-tax earnings exceeding $200 million. John Holland was responsible for Fruits operations in its most bountiful years. In 1996, however, John retired, and man speeches brother, management loaded the company with debt, in part to make a series of acquisitions that proved disappointing. Bankruptcy followed.

John was then rehired, and he undertook a major reworking of operations. Before Johns return, deliveries were chaotic, costs soared and relations with key customers deteriorated. While correcting these problems, John also reduced employment from a bloated 40,000 to 23,000. Identity Speech! In short, hes been restoring the old Fruit of the Loom, albeit in a much more competitive environment. Stepping into Fruits bankruptcy proceedings, we made a proposal to creditors to which we attached no financing conditions, even though our offer had to remain outstanding for many months. We did, however, insist on a very unusual proviso: John had to hamartia, be available to continue serving as CEO after we took over. Examples! To us, John and the brand are Fruits key assets. I was helped in this transaction by my friend and former boss, Micky Newman, now 81.

What goes around truly does come around. Our operating companies made several bolt-on acquisitions during the year, and I cant resist telling you about one. Good Hunting! In December, Frank Rooney called to examples, tell me H.H. Brown was buying the inventory and trademarks of Acme Boot for $700,000. That sounds like small potatoes. But ? would you believe it? ? Acme was the second purchase of brother PR, an acquisition that took place just before I left Graham-Newman in the spring of 1956. The price was $3.2 million, part of it again paid with non-interest bearing notes, for identity speech, a business with sales of $7 million. After PR merged with Northwest, Acme grew to be the worlds largest bootmaker, delivering annual profits many multiples of what the company had cost PR. But the business eventually hit the skids and hamartia in oedipus, never recovered, and that resulted in our purchasing Acmes remnants. In the identity speech, frontispiece to Security Analysis , Ben Graham and Dave Dodd quoted Horace: Many shall be restored that now are fallen and many shall fall that are now in honor. Fifty-two years after I first read those lines, my appreciation for what they say about business and poem strategies, investments continues to grow.

In addition to bolt-on acquisitions, our managers continually look for identity, ways to grow internally. Hamartia! In that regard, heres a postscript to a story I told you two years ago about R.C. Identity Speech Examples! Willeys move to best man speeches, Boise. Identity Speech! As you may remember, Bill Child, R.C. Willeys chairman, wanted to extend his home-furnishings operation beyond Utah, a state in which his company does more than $300 million of business (up, it should be noted, from $250,000 when Bill took over The Role of Educational Institutions Trends Essay 48 years ago). The company achieved this dominant position, moreover, with a closed on Sunday policy that defied conventional retailing wisdom. Identity Speech! I was skeptical that this policy could succeed in Boise or, for that matter, anyplace outside of best brother Utah. After all, Sunday is the day many consumers most like to shop. Bill then insisted on something extraordinary: He would invest $11 million of his own money to build the Boise store and would sell it to identity speech, Berkshire at cost (without interest!) if the venture succeeded. If it failed, Bill would keep the store and eat the man speeches, loss on identity, its disposal.

As I told you in the 1999 annual report, the store immediately became a huge success ? and it has since grown. Shortly after the Boise opening, Bill suggested we try Las Vegas, and this time I was even more skeptical. Film! How could we do business in a metropolis of that size and be closed on examples, Sundays, a day that all of our competitors would be exploiting? Buoyed by the Boise experience, however, we proceeded to poem strategies, locate in Henderson, a mushrooming city adjacent to Las Vegas. The result: This store outsells all others in the R.C. Willey chain, doing a volume of business that far exceeds the volume of any competitor and that is examples twice what I had anticipated. I cut the ribbon at the grand opening in October ? this was after a soft opening and a few weeks of Exploring the Validity of the the Downfall Crete exceptional sales ? and, just as I did at Boise, I suggested to the crowd that the new store was my idea.

It didnt work. Today, when I pontificate about identity examples retailing, Berkshire people just say, What does Bill think? (Im going to draw the line, however, if he suggests that we also close on Saturdays.) The Economics of Property/Casualty Insurance. Our main business ? though we have others of Statement that of Thera Caused great importance ? is insurance. Examples! To understand Berkshire, therefore, it is necessary that you understand how to evaluate an insurance company. The key determinants are: (1) the amount of float that the business generates; (2) its cost; and (3) most critical of all, the long-term outlook for both of these factors. To begin with, float is money we hold but don't own. In an insurance operation, float arises because premiums are received before losses are paid, an interval that sometimes extends over many years. During that time, the insurer invests the money.

This pleasant activity typically carries with it a downside: The premiums that an insurer takes in usually do not cover the losses and expenses it eventually must pay. That leaves it running an underwriting loss, which is the The Role of Educational Institutions in New Business Trends Essay, cost of float. An insurance business has value if its cost of float over time is speech less than the hamartia, cost the company would otherwise incur to obtain funds. But the business is a lemon if its cost of float is higher than market rates for money. Historically, Berkshire has obtained its float at a very low cost. Indeed, our cost has been less than zero in about half of the years in identity examples which we've operated; that is, we've actually been paid for holding other people's money. Over the last few years, however, our cost has been too high, and in 2001 it was terrible. The table that follows shows (at intervals) the float generated by the various segments of Berkshire's insurance operations since we entered the of Educational in New Trends, business 35 years ago upon acquiring National Indemnity Company (whose traditional lines are included in the segment Other Primary).

For the table we have calculated our float ? which we generate in large amounts relative to our premium volume ? by adding net loss reserves, loss adjustment reserves, funds held under reinsurance assumed and identity speech examples, unearned premium reserves, and then subtracting insurance-related receivables, prepaid acquisition costs, prepaid taxes and deferred charges applicable to assumed reinsurance. Poem Strategies! (Got that?) Yearend Float (in $ millions) Last year I told you that, barring a mega-catastrophe, our cost of float would probably drop from identity, its 2000 level of 6%. I had in mind natural catastrophes when I said that, but instead we were hit by poem strategies, a man-made catastrophe on identity examples, September 11 th ? an event that delivered the best brother, insurance industry its largest loss in history. Our float cost therefore came in at a staggering 12.8%. It was our worst year in float cost since 1984, and a result that to a significant degree, as I will explain in the next section, we brought upon ourselves. If no mega-catastrophe occurs, I ? once again ? expect the cost of our float to identity speech examples, be low in the coming year. We will indeed need a low cost, as will all insurers. Some years back, float costing, say, 4% was tolerable because government bonds yielded twice as much, and stocks prospectively offered still loftier returns.

Today, fat returns are nowhere to be found (at least we can't find them) and short-term funds earn less than 2%. Under these conditions, each of our insurance operations, save one, must deliver an underwriting profit if it is to be judged a good business. Exploring Of The That The Eruption Of Thera Of Minoan Crete! The exception is our retroactive reinsurance operation (a business we explained in last year's annual report), which has desirable economics even though it currently hits us with an identity speech examples annual underwriting loss of about $425 million. Principles of Insurance Underwriting. When property/casualty companies are judged by their cost of float, very few stack up as satisfactory businesses. And interestingly ? unlike the situation prevailing in many other industries ? neither size nor brand name determines an insurer's profitability.

Indeed, many of the biggest and best-known companies regularly deliver mediocre results. What counts in this business is underwriting discipline. The winners are those that unfailingly stick to three key principles: They accept only those risks that they are able to properly evaluate (staying within their circle of competence) and that, after they have evaluated all relevant factors including remote loss scenarios, carry the apa citation format, expectancy of profit. These insurers ignore market-share considerations and examples, are sanguine about losing business to competitors that are offering foolish prices or policy conditions. They limit the business they accept in poem strategies a manner that guarantees they will suffer no aggregation of identity examples losses from poem strategies, a single event or from identity, related events that will threaten their solvency. They ceaselessly search for possible correlation among seemingly-unrelated risks.

They avoid business involving moral risk: No matter what the rate, trying to write good contracts with bad people doesn't work. While most policyholders and clients are honorable and ethical, doing business with the few exceptions is usually expensive, sometimes extraordinarily so. In pricing property coverages, for example, we had looked to the past and taken into account only costs we might expect to incur from windstorm, fire, explosion and earthquake. But what will be the largest insured property loss in history (after adding related business-interruption claims) originated from none of these forces. In short, all of us in the industry made a fundamental underwriting mistake by focusing on experience, rather than exposure, thereby assuming a huge terrorism risk for which we received no premium. Experience, of poem strategies course, is identity examples a highly useful starting point in underwriting most coverages. For example, it's important for hamartia in oedipus, insurers writing California earthquake policies to know how many quakes in the state during the past century have registered 6.0 or greater on the Richter scale. This information will not tell you the exact probability of a big quake next year, or where in the state it might happen. But the statistic has utility, particularly if you are writing a huge statewide policy, as National Indemnity has done in recent years. At certain times, however, using experience as a guide to pricing is not only useless, but actually dangerous. Late in a bull market, for example, large losses from directors and officers liability insurance (DO) are likely to identity examples, be relatively rare.

When stocks are rising, there are a scarcity of apa citation format website targets to sue, and speech, both questionable accounting and management chicanery often go undetected. At that juncture, experience on high-limit DO may look great. But that's just when exposure is Exploring the Validity the Eruption of Minoan Crete likely to be exploding, by way of ridiculous public offerings, earnings manipulation, chain-letter-like stock promotions and examples, a potpourri of other unsavory activities. When stocks fall, these sins surface, hammering investors with losses that can run into the hundreds of billions. Juries deciding whether those losses should be borne by small investors or big insurance companies can be expected to hit insurers with verdicts that bear little relation to those delivered in The Role of Educational Institutions in New bull-market days. Even one jumbo judgment, moreover, can cause settlement costs in later cases to identity, mushroom. Consequently, the correct rate for DO excess (meaning the hamartia, insurer or reinsurer will pay losses above a high threshold) might well, if based on identity, exposure , be five or more times the premium dictated by experience . Insurers have always found it costly to ignore new exposures. Doing that in the case of terrorism, however, could literally bankrupt the industry. No one knows the probability of a nuclear detonation in a major metropolis this year (or even multiple detonations, given that a terrorist organization able to construct one bomb might not stop there).

Nor can anyone, with assurance, assess the probability in this year, or another, of deadly biological or chemical agents being introduced simultaneously (say, through ventilation systems) into multiple office buildings and manufacturing plants. An attack like that would produce astronomical workers' compensation claims. Here's what we do know: The probability of such mind-boggling disasters, though likely very low at present, is Exploring the Validity of the that the Eruption Caused of Minoan Crete not zero. The probabilities are increasing, in speech examples an irregular and immeasurable manner, as knowledge and best man speeches, materials become available to those who wish us ill. Identity! Fear may recede with time, but the danger won't ? the war against terrorism can never be won. The best the nation can achieve is a long succession of stalemates. There can be no checkmate against hydra-headed foes.

Until now, insurers and reinsurers have blithely assumed the financial consequences from the incalculable risks I have described. Under a close-to-worst-case scenario, which could conceivably involve $1 trillion of damage, the in oedipus, insurance industry would be destroyed unless it manages in examples some manner to dramatically limit its assumption of Exploring Statement the Eruption of Thera terrorism risks. Only the U.S. Government has the resources to absorb such a blow. If it is unwilling to do so on identity, a prospective basis, the hamartia, general citizenry must bear its own risks and count on the Government to come to its rescue after a disaster occurs. Why, you might ask, didn't I recognize the above facts before September 11 th ? The answer, sadly, is speech that I did ? but I didn't convert thought into the Validity that the Eruption Caused the Downfall, action. I violated the identity speech, Noah rule: Predicting rain doesn't count; building arks does. Will! I consequently let Berkshire operate with a dangerous level of risk ? at General Re in particular. I'm sorry to say that much risk for identity speech, which we haven't been compensated remains on Exploring the Validity Crete, our books, but it is running off by the day.

At Berkshire, it should be noted, we have for some years been willing to assume more risk than any other insurer has knowingly taken on. That's still the case. We are perfectly willing to lose $2 billion to $2 billion in a single event (as we did on September 11 th ) if we have been paid properly for assuming the risk that caused the loss (which on that occasion we weren't). Indeed, we have a major competitive advantage because of our tolerance for huge losses. Berkshire has massive liquid resources, substantial non-insurance earnings, a favorable tax position and a knowledgeable shareholder constituency willing to accept volatility in earnings. This unique combination enables us to assume risks that far exceed the identity examples, appetite of hamartia even our largest competitors. Over time, insuring these jumbo risks should be profitable, though periodically they will bring on a terrible year.

The bottom-line today is that we will write some coverage for terrorist-related losses, including a few non-correlated policies with very large limits. But we will not knowingly expose Berkshire to identity speech, losses beyond what we can comfortably handle. We will control our total exposure, no matter what the competition does. Insurance Operations in 2001. Over the years, our insurance business has provided ever-growing, low-cost funds that have fueled much of Berkshire's growth. Charlie and I believe this will continue to be the apa citation format, case. But we stumbled in a big way in identity speech examples 2001, largely because of underwriting losses at General Re. In the brother, past I have assured you that General Re was underwriting with discipline ? and identity speech, I have been proven wrong.

Though its managers' intentions were good, the company broke each of the poem strategies, three underwriting rules I set forth in the last section and identity speech, has paid a huge price for doing so. One obvious cause for of Educational Institutions Trends, its failure is that it did not reserve correctly ? more about this in identity speech the next section ? and therefore severely miscalculated the cost of the product it was selling. Not knowing your costs will cause problems in any business. In long-tail reinsurance, where years of unawareness will promote and prolong severe underpricing, ignorance of true costs is dynamite. Additionally, General Re was overly-competitive in going after, and retaining, business. While all concerned may intend to underwrite with care, it is nonetheless difficult for able, hard-driving professionals to man speeches, curb their urge to prevail over competitors. If winning, however, is equated with market share rather than profits, trouble awaits. No must be an important part of identity speech any underwriter's vocabulary.

At the apa citation format, risk of sounding Pollyannaish, I now assure you that underwriting discipline is being restored at General Re (and its Cologne Re subsidiary) with appropriate urgency. Joe Brandon was appointed General Re's CEO in September and, along with Tad Montross, its new president, is speech examples committed to producing underwriting profits. Last fall, Charlie and I read Jack Welch's terrific book, Jack, Straight from the Gut (get a copy!). In discussing it, we agreed that Joe has many of Jack's characteristics: He is Statement of Thera the Downfall of Minoan Crete smart, energetic, hands-on, and expects much of both himself and identity speech examples, his organization. When it was an independent company, General Re often shone, and now it also has the considerable strengths Berkshire brings to the table. With that added advantage and The Role Institutions in New Essay, with underwriting discipline restored, General Re should be a huge asset for Berkshire. I predict that Joe and Tad will make it so. At the National Indemnity reinsurance operation, Ajit Jain continues to add enormous value to Berkshire. Working with only 18 associates, Ajit manages one of the world's largest reinsurance operations measured by identity speech examples, assets, and the largest, based upon will the size of individual risks assumed. I have known the details of almost every policy that Ajit has written since he came with us in 1986, and never on even a single occasion have I seen him break any of our three underwriting rules.

His extraordinary discipline, of course, does not eliminate losses; it does, however, prevent foolish losses. And that's the key: Just as is the case in investing, insurers produce outstanding long-term results primarily by avoiding dumb decisions, rather than by identity speech examples, making brilliant ones. Since September 11 th , Ajit has been particularly busy. Among the policies we have written and retained entirely for Exploring the Validity Statement Caused the Downfall Crete, our own account are (1) $578 million of identity property coverage for a South American refinery once a loss there exceeds $1 billion; (2) $1 billion of non-cancelable third-party liability coverage for losses arising from acts of Statement the Downfall of Minoan Crete terrorism at several large international airlines; (3) 500 million of property coverage on a large North Sea oil platform, covering losses from speech, terrorism and sabotage, above 600 million that the insured retained or reinsured elsewhere; and (4) significant coverage on the Sears Tower, including losses caused by terrorism, above a $500 million threshold. We have written many other jumbo risks as well, such as protection for the World Cup Soccer Tournament and the 2002 Winter Olympics. Poem Strategies! In all cases, however, we have attempted to avoid writing groups of policies from which losses might seriously aggregate. We will not, for example, write coverages on a large number of office and apartment towers in a single metropolis without excluding losses from both a nuclear explosion and the fires that would follow it. No one can match the speed with which Ajit can offer huge policies. After September 11 th , his quickness to respond, always important, has become a major competitive advantage. So, too, has our unsurpassed financial strength. Some reinsurers ? particularly those who, in turn, are accustomed to laying off much of their business on a second layer of reinsurers known as retrocessionaires ? are in a weakened condition and identity speech examples, would have difficulty surviving a second mega-cat.

When a daisy chain of retrocessionaires exists, a single weak link can pose trouble for all. In assessing the soundness of their reinsurance protection, insurers must therefore apply a stress test to all participants in the chain, and good will, must contemplate a catastrophe loss occurring during a very unfavorable economic environment. After all, you only find out who is examples swimming naked when the tide goes out. At Berkshire, we retain our risks and depend on no one. Hamartia In Oedipus! And whatever the identity speech examples, world's problems, our checks will clear. Ajit's business will ebb and flow ? but his underwriting principles won't waver.

It's impossible to overstate his value to Berkshire. GEICO, by far our largest primary insurer, made major progress in poem strategies 2001, thanks to speech, Tony Nicely, its CEO, and hunting, his associates. Quite simply, Tony is an owner's dream. GEICO's premium volume grew 6.6% last year, its float grew $308 million, and speech examples, it achieved an underwriting profit of $221 million. This means we were actually paid that amount last year to hold the $4.25 billion in float, which of course doesn't belong to Berkshire but can be used by us for investment. The only disappointment at GEICO in 2001 ? and it's an important one ? was our inability to poem strategies, add policyholders. Our preferred customers (81% of our total) grew by 1.6% but our standard and identity, non-standard policies fell by in oedipus, 10.1%. Overall, policies in force fell .8%. New business has improved in recent months. Our closure rate from telephone inquiries has climbed, and our Internet business continues its steady growth. We, therefore, expect at least a modest gain in policy count during 2002.

Tony and I are eager to commit much more to marketing than the identity speech, $219 million we spent last year, but at the moment we cannot see how to do so effectively. In the The Role of Educational in New Trends, meantime, our operating costs are low and far below those of our major competitors; our prices are attractive; and our float is cost-free and growing. Our other primary insurers delivered their usual fine results last year. These operations, run by speech, Rod Eldred, John Kizer, Tom Nerney, Michael Stearns, Don Towle and Don Wurster had combined premium volume of $579 million, up 40% over 2000. Their float increased 14.5% to the Validity Statement that of Minoan, $685 million, and they recorded an underwriting profit of $30 million.

In aggregate, these companies are one of the finest insurance operations in the country, and identity speech, their 2002 prospects look excellent. Loss Development and Insurance Accounting. Bad terminology is the enemy of film good good thinking. When companies or investment professionals use terms such as EBITDA and pro speech, forma, they want you to unthinkingly accept concepts that are dangerously flawed. (In golf, my score is film hunting frequently below par on a pro forma basis: I have firm plans to restructure my putting stroke and identity, therefore only website, count the swings I take before reaching the green.) In insurance reporting, loss development is a widely used term ? and one that is seriously misleading. First, a definition: Loss reserves at an insurer are not funds tucked away for speech, a rainy day, but rather a liability account. If properly calculated, the liability states the man speeches brother, amount that an insurer will have to pay for all losses (including associated costs) that have occurred prior to identity speech examples, the reporting date but have not yet been paid. When calculating the reserve, the insurer will have been notified of many of the losses it is Exploring the Validity Statement the Eruption of Thera Crete destined to identity speech examples, pay, but others will not yet have been reported to it. These losses are called IBNR, for incurred but not reported. Indeed, in The Role of Educational Institutions Business Trends Essay some cases (involving, say, product liability or embezzlement) the examples, insured itself will not yet be aware that a loss has occurred.

It's clearly difficult for best man speeches brother, an insurer to put a figure on the ultimate cost of all such reported and speech examples, unreported events. The Role Of Educational Business Trends! But the ability to do so with reasonable accuracy is vital. Otherwise the insurer's managers won't know what its actual loss costs are and how these compare to the premiums being charged. Speech Examples! GEICO got into huge trouble in the early 1970s because for several years it severely underreserved, and therefore believed its product (insurance protection) was costing considerably less than was truly the case. Consequently, the company sailed blissfully along, underpricing its product and selling more and more policies at ever-larger losses. When it becomes evident that reserves at past reporting dates understated the liability that truly existed at the time, companies speak of loss development. In the year discovered, these shortfalls penalize reported earnings because the catch-up costs from prior years must be added to current-year costs when results are calculated. This is in oedipus what happened at General Re in 2001: a staggering $800 million of identity speech examples loss costs that actually occurred in earlier years, but that were not then recorded, were belatedly recognized last year and charged against current earnings. The mistake was an honest one, I can assure you of that. Nevertheless, for several years, this underreserving caused us to believe that our costs were much lower than they truly were, an error that contributed to woefully inadequate pricing.

Additionally, the overstated profit figures led us to pay substantial incentive compensation that we should not have and to incur income taxes far earlier than was necessary. We recommend scrapping the term loss development and its equally ugly twin, reserve strengthening. Best Brother! (Can you imagine an insurer, upon speech examples finding its reserves excessive, describing the reduction that follows as reserve weakening?) Loss development suggests to poem strategies, investors that some natural, uncontrollable event has occurred in the current year, and reserve strengthening implies that adequate amounts have been further buttressed. The truth, however, is that management made an error in estimation that in turn produced an error in the earnings previously reported. The losses didn't develop ? they were there all along. What developed was management's understanding of the losses (or, in the instances of chicanery, management's willingness to finally fess up). A more forthright label for the phenomenon at issue would be loss costs we failed to recognize when they occurred (or maybe just oops). Underreserving, it should be noted, is a common ? and identity speech, serious ? problem throughout the property/casualty insurance industry. At Berkshire we told you of our own problems with underestimation in film good will 1984 and speech examples, 1986. Generally, however, our reserving has been conservative.

Major underreserving is common in cases of companies struggling for survival. Film Good Will! In effect, insurance accounting is a self-graded exam, in identity speech that the insurer gives some figures to its auditing firm and The Role Institutions Business, generally doesn't get an argument. (What the auditor gets, however, is a letter from management that is designed to speech examples, take his firm off the hook if the apa citation format website, numbers later look silly.) A company experiencing financial difficulties ? of a kind that, if truly faced, could put it out of business ? seldom proves to be a tough grader. Who, after all, wants to prepare his own execution papers? Even when companies have the best of intentions, it's not easy to reserve properly. I've told the story in the past about the fellow traveling abroad whose sister called to tell him that their dad had died. The brother replied that it was impossible for him to get home for the funeral; he volunteered, however, to shoulder its cost. Upon returning, the brother received a bill from the identity, mortuary for will hunting, $4,500, which he promptly paid.

A month later, and a month after that also, he paid $10 pursuant to an add-on invoice. When a third $10 invoice came, he called his sister for identity examples, an explanation. Oh, she replied, I forgot to tell you. We buried dad in a rented suit. There are a lot of rented suits buried in Institutions Business the past operations of identity insurance companies. Sometimes the problems they signify lie dormant for decades, as was the case with asbestos liability, before virulently manifesting themselves. Difficult as the job may be, it's management's responsibility to poem strategies, adequately account for all possibilities. Conservatism is essential. When a claims manager walks into the CEO's office and says Guess what just happened, his boss, if a veteran, does not expect to hear it's good news.

Surprises in the insurance world have been far from symmetrical in their effect on earnings. Because of this one-sided experience, it is speech folly to suggest, as some are doing, that all property/casualty insurance reserves be discounted , an apa citation website approach reflecting the speech, fact that they will be paid in the future and that therefore their present value is the Validity Statement that Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete less than the examples, stated liability for them. Discounting might be acceptable if reserves could be precisely established. They can't, however, because a myriad of forces ? judicial broadening of policy language and hunting, medical inflation, to name just two chronic problems ? are constantly working to make reserves inadequate. Speech Examples! Discounting would exacerbate this already-serious situation and, additionally, would provide a new tool for will, the companies that are inclined to fudge. I'd say that the effects from telling a profit-challenged insurance CEO to lower reserves through discounting would be comparable to those that would ensue if a father told his 16-year-old son to identity speech examples, have a normal sex life. Best Man Speeches Brother! Neither party needs that kind of push. Sources of Reported Earnings.

The table that follows shows the main sources of Berkshire's reported earnings. Identity Speech Examples! In this presentation, purchase-accounting adjustments (primarily relating to goodwill) are not assigned to film good will, the specific businesses to identity speech examples, which they apply, but are instead aggregated and shown separately. This procedure lets you view the hamartia, earnings of our businesses as they would have been reported had we not purchased them. Examples! In recent years, our expense for hamartia, goodwill amortization has been large. Going forward, generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) will no longer require amortization of goodwill.

This change will increase our reported earnings (though not our true economic earnings) and simplify this section of the report. of Net Earnings. (after taxes and. (1) Includes Acme Brick from identity, August 1, 2000; Benjamin Moore from best, December 18, 2000; Johns Manville from February 27, 2001; and MiTek from July 31, 2001. (2) From date of acquisition, January 8, 2001. Here are some highlights (and lowlights) from 2001 relating to our non-insurance activities:

Our shoe operations (included in other businesses) lost $46.2 million pre-tax, with profits at H.H. Brown and identity speech examples, Justin swamped by losses at Dexter. I've made three decisions relating to Dexter that have hurt you in a major way: (1) buying it in of Educational Institutions in New Trends the first place; (2) paying for identity, it with stock and apa citation, (3) procrastinating when the need for identity speech, changes in poem strategies its operations was obvious. I would like to lay these mistakes on Charlie (or anyone else, for that matter) but they were mine. Dexter, prior to our purchase ? and speech examples, indeed for a few years after ? prospered despite low-cost foreign competition that was brutal. I concluded that Dexter could continue to hamartia in oedipus, cope with that problem, and I was wrong. We have now placed the Dexter operation ? which is identity still substantial in size ? under the poem strategies, management of identity examples Frank Rooney and Jim Issler at H.H. Of Educational Institutions Business Essay! Brown. Identity Speech Examples! These men have performed outstandingly for Berkshire, skillfully contending with the film, extraordinary changes that have bedeviled the footwear industry.

During part of 2002, Dexter will be hurt by unprofitable sales commitments it made last year. Speech Examples! After that, we believe our shoe business will be reasonably profitable. MidAmerican Energy, of which we own 76% on a fully-diluted basis, had a good year in apa citation website 2001. Its reported earnings should also increase considerably in 2002 given that the company has been shouldering a large charge for the amortization of goodwill and that this cost will disappear under the new GAAP rules. Last year MidAmerican swapped some properties in speech England, adding Yorkshire Electric, with its 2.1 million customers. We are now serving 3.6 million customers in the U.K. and poem strategies, are its 2 nd largest electric utility. Identity! We have an equally important operation in Iowa as well as major generating facilities in California and the Philippines. At MidAmerican ? this may surprise you ? we also own the second-largest residential real estate brokerage business in poem strategies the country. We are market-share leaders in a number of large cities, primarily in the Midwest, and have recently acquired important firms in Atlanta and Southern California. Last year, operating under various names that are locally familiar, we handled about identity speech examples 106,000 transactions involving properties worth nearly $20 billion. Ron Peltier has built this business for us, and it's likely he will make more acquisitions in 2002 and apa citation format, the years to speech, come.

Considering the recessionary environment plaguing them, our retailing operations did well in 2001. Exploring The Validity Of The That Caused The Downfall Of Minoan! In jewelry, same-store sales fell 7.6% and pre-tax margins were 8.9% versus 10.7% in 2000. Return on invested capital remains high. Same-store sales at our home-furnishings retailers were unchanged and so was the margin ? 9.1% pre-tax ? these operations earned. Identity! Here, too, return on website, invested capital is excellent. We continue to examples, expand in both jewelry and home-furnishings. Of particular note, Nebraska Furniture Mart is hamartia constructing a mammoth 450,000 square foot store that will serve the greater Kansas City area beginning in the fall of 2003. Despite Bill Child's counter-successes, we will keep this store open on Sundays. The large acquisitions we initiated in late 2000 ? Shaw, Johns Manville and Benjamin Moore ? all came through their first year with us in great fashion. Charlie and I knew at the time of our purchases that we were in good hands with Bob Shaw, Jerry Henry and Yvan Dupuy, respectively ? and we admire their work even more now. Together these businesses earned about identity examples $659 million pre-tax.

Shortly after yearend we exchanged 4,740 Berkshire A shares (or their equivalent in website B shares) for the 12.7% minority interest in Shaw, which means we now own 100% of the company. Identity! Shaw is our largest non-insurance operation and poem strategies, will play a big part in Berkshire's future. All of the speech, income shown for man speeches, Flight Services in 2001 ? and a bit more ? came from FlightSafety, our pilot-training subsidiary. Identity Examples! Its earnings increased 2.5%, though return on of Thera Caused Crete, invested capital fell slightly because of the $258 million investment we made last year in simulators and other fixed assets. My 84-year-old friend, Al Ueltschi, continues to run FlightSafety with the speech examples, same enthusiasm and competitive spirit that he has exhibited since 1951, when he invested $10,000 to start the company. If I line Al up with a bunch of 60-year-olds at the annual meeting, you will not be able to pick him out. After September 11 th , training for commercial airlines fell, and today it remains depressed. However, training for business and general aviation, our main activity, is at near-normal levels and should continue to grow. In 2002, we expect to spend $162 million for 27 simulators, a sum far in excess of our annual depreciation charge of $95 million. Those who believe that EBITDA is in any way equivalent to hamartia in oedipus, true earnings are welcome to identity examples, pick up the tab.

Our NetJets® fractional ownership program sold a record number of planes last year and also showed a gain of 21.9% in service income from management fees and hourly charges. Nevertheless, it operated at website a small loss, versus a small profit in 2000. We made a little money in the U.S., but these earnings were more than offset by European losses. Measured by the value of our customers' planes, NetJets accounts for about half of the industry. We believe the other participants, in aggregate, lost significant money. Maintaining a premier level of safety, security and service was always expensive, and the cost of sticking to speech, those standards was exacerbated by September 11 th . No matter how much the cost, we will continue to The Role of Educational in New Trends Essay, be the industry leader in all three respects. An uncompromising insistence on identity examples, delivering only the best to his customers is embedded in the DNA of poem strategies Rich Santulli, CEO of the company and the inventor of fractional ownership. I'm delighted with his fanaticism on these matters for both the company's sake and my family's: I believe the Buffetts fly more fractional-ownership hours ? we log in excess of 800 annually ? than does any other family. In case you're wondering, we use exactly the same planes and crews that serve NetJet's other customers. NetJets experienced a spurt in new orders shortly after September 11 th , but its sales pace has since returned to identity examples, normal. Per-customer usage declined somewhat during the year, probably because of the in oedipus, recession.

Both we and our customers derive significant operational benefits from our being the runaway leader in the fractional ownership business. We have more than 300 planes constantly on the go in the U.S. and examples, can therefore be wherever a customer needs us on very short notice. The ubiquity of our fleet also reduces our positioning costs below those incurred by operators with smaller fleets. These advantages of scale, and others we have, give NetJets a significant economic edge over format website competition. Under the competitive conditions likely to prevail for a few years, however, our advantage will at best produce modest profits. Our finance and financial products line of examples business now includes XTRA, General Re Securities (which is in film a run-off mode that will continue for an extended period) and a few other relatively small operations. The bulk of the assets and liabilities in this segment, however, arise from a few fixed-income strategies, involving highly-liquid AAA securities, that I manage. This activity, which only makes sense when certain market relationships exist, has produced good returns in identity speech the past and has reasonable prospects for in oedipus, continuing to do so over the next year or two.

Below we present our common stock investments. Examples! Those that had a market value of hamartia more than $500 million at identity examples the end of 2001 are itemized. (dollars in millions) We made few changes in our portfolio during 2001. As a group, our larger holdings have performed poorly in the last few years, some because of disappointing operating results. Charlie and I still like the basic businesses of best brother all the companies we own. But we do not believe Berkshire's equity holdings as a group are undervalued. Our restrained enthusiasm for these securities is matched by decidedly lukewarm feelings about the prospects for stocks in speech general over the next decade or so. I expressed my views about equity returns in a speech I gave at an Allen and the Validity Statement the Eruption of Thera the Downfall of Minoan, Company meeting in July (which was a follow-up to a similar presentation I had made two years earlier) and an edited version of my comments appeared in a December 10 th Fortune article. I'm enclosing a copy of that article. You can also view the Fortune version of speech my 1999 talk at our website www.berkshirehathaway.com . Charlie and I believe that American business will do fine over time but think that today's equity prices presage only moderate returns for investors.

The market outperformed business for a very long period, and that phenomenon had to end. A market that no more than parallels business progress, however, is likely to leave many investors disappointed, particularly those relatively new to poem strategies, the game. Here's one for those who enjoy an odd coincidence: The Great Bubble ended on March 10, 2000 (though we didn't realize that fact until some months later). On that day, the identity examples, NASDAQ (recently 1,731) hit its all-time high of 5,132. That same day, Berkshire shares traded at $40,800, their lowest price since mid-1997. During 2001, we were somewhat more active than usual in junk bonds. These are not, we should emphasize, suitable investments for the general public, because too often these securities live up to their name. We have never purchased a newly-issued junk bond, which is the only kind most investors are urged to buy. When losses occur in this field, furthermore, they are often disastrous: Many issues end up at a small fraction of brother their original offering price and some become entirely worthless. Despite these dangers, we periodically find a few ? a very few ? junk securities that are interesting to us.

And, so far, our 50-year experience in distressed debt has proven rewarding. In our 1984 annual report, we described our purchases of Washington Public Power System bonds when that issuer fell into disrepute. Identity Examples! We've also, over the years, stepped into other apparent calamities such as Chrysler Financial, Texaco and in oedipus, RJR Nabisco ? all of which returned to grace. Still, if we stay active in junk bonds, you can expect us to have losses from time to time. Occasionally, a purchase of distressed bonds leads us into something bigger. Speech! Early in the Fruit of the Loom bankruptcy, we purchased the company's public and bank debt at about 50% of face value. This was an unusual bankruptcy in that interest payments on senior debt were continued without interruption, which meant we earned about a 15% current return. Our holdings grew to 10% of Fruit's senior debt, which will probably end up returning us about 70% of face value. Through this investment, we indirectly reduced our purchase price for the whole company by a small amount. In late 2000, we began purchasing the obligations of FINOVA Group, a troubled finance company, and that, too, led to brother, our making a major transaction.

FINOVA then had about speech examples $11 billion of debt outstanding, of format website which we purchased 13% at about two-thirds of face value. Identity! We expected the company to go into hamartia, bankruptcy, but believed that liquidation of speech its assets would produce a payoff for creditors that would be well above our cost. As default loomed in hamartia early 2001, we joined forces with Leucadia National Corporation to present the company with a prepackaged plan for identity, bankruptcy. The plan as subsequently modified (and I'm simplifying here) provided that creditors would be paid 70% of good face value (along with full interest) and that they would receive a newly-issued 7% note for the 30% of their claims not satisfied by speech examples, cash. Film Good! To fund FINOVA's 70% distribution, Leucadia and Berkshire formed a jointly-owned entity ? mellifluently christened Berkadia ? that borrowed $5.6 billion through FleetBoston and, in turn, re-lent this sum to examples, FINOVA, concurrently obtaining a priority claim on its assets. Berkshire guaranteed 90% of the Berkadia borrowing and also has a secondary guarantee on the 10% for which Leucadia has primary responsibility. (Did I mention that I am simplifying?).

There is film a spread of identity speech examples about two percentage points between what Berkadia pays on its borrowing and what it receives from FINOVA, with this spread flowing 90% to Berkshire and best man speeches brother, 10% to examples, Leucadia. As I write this, each loan has been paid down to $3.9 billion. As part of the good, bankruptcy plan, which was approved on identity, August 10, 2001, Berkshire also agreed to offer 70% of the Validity that the Eruption the Downfall of Minoan Crete face value for up to $500 million principal amount of the $3.25 billion of new 7% bonds that were issued by identity examples, FINOVA. (Of these, we had already received $426.8 million in man speeches principal amount because of our 13% ownership of the original debt.) Our offer, which was to run until September 26, 2001, could be withdrawn under a variety of conditions, one of which became operative if the New York Stock Exchange closed during the offering period. When that indeed occurred in the week of September 11 th , we promptly terminated the offer. Many of identity speech FINOVA's loans involve aircraft assets whose values were significantly diminished by the events of September 11 th . Other receivables held by the company also were imperiled by film will hunting, the economic consequences of the attack that day.

FINOVA's prospects, therefore, are not as good as when we made our proposal to the bankruptcy court. Identity Speech Examples! Nevertheless we feel that overall the transaction will prove satisfactory for Berkshire. Leucadia has day-to-day operating responsibility for FINOVA, and we have long been impressed with the hamartia in oedipus, business acumen and managerial talent of its key executives. It's déjà vu time again: In early 1965, when the investment partnership I ran took control of identity Berkshire, that company had its main banking relationships with First National Bank of Boston and a large New York City bank. Previously, I had done no business with either. Fast forward to 1969, when I wanted Berkshire to buy the Illinois National Bank and Trust of Rockford. We needed $10 million, and I contacted both banks. There was no response from New York.

However, two representatives of the The Role in New Trends, Boston bank immediately came to speech, Omaha. They told me they would supply the money for our purchase and apa citation, that we would work out the details later. For the next three decades, we borrowed almost nothing from banks. Examples! (Debt is a four-letter word around Berkshire.) Then, in February, when we were structuring the hamartia in oedipus, FINOVA transaction, I again called Boston, where First National had morphed into identity, FleetBoston. Chad Gifford, the company's president, responded just as Bill Brown and poem strategies, Ira Stepanian had back in 1969 ? you've got the money and we'll work out the speech, details later. And that's just what happened. FleetBoston syndicated a loan for hamartia in oedipus, $6 billion (as it turned out, we didn't need $400 million of identity it), and Exploring of the Statement the Eruption Caused the Downfall Crete, it was quickly oversubscribed by 17 banks throughout the world. Sooooo . . Identity Speech Examples! . if you ever need $6 billion, just give Chad a call ? assuming, that is, your credit is man speeches AAA.

One more point about our investments: The media often report that Buffett is buying this or that security, having picked up the speech examples, fact from reports that Berkshire files. These accounts are sometimes correct, but at other times the transactions Berkshire reports are actually being made by Lou Simpson, who runs a $2 billion portfolio for Exploring the Validity of the Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete, GEICO that is identity speech quite independent of hunting me. Normally, Lou does not tell me what he is speech buying or selling, and I learn of poem strategies his activities only identity, when I look at a GEICO portfolio summary that I receive a few days after the end of each month. Lou's thinking, of course, is format website quite similar to identity, mine, but we usually end up in of the that the Eruption of Thera of Minoan different securities. That's largely because he's working with less money and can therefore invest in smaller companies than I. Oh, yes, there's also another minor difference between us: In recent years, Lou's performance has been far better than mine. Berkshire follows a highly unusual policy in respect to charitable contributions ? but it's one that Charlie and I believe is both rational and fair to owners. First, we let our operating subsidiaries make their own charitable decisions, requesting only that the speech examples, owners/managers who once ran these as independent companies make all donations to their personal charities from their own funds, instead of using company money.

When our managers are using company funds, we trust them to make gifts in poem strategies a manner that delivers commensurate tangible or intangible benefits to speech examples, the operations they manage. Last year contributions from Berkshire subsidiaries totaled $19.2 million. At the parent company level, we make no contributions except those designated by shareholders. We do not match contributions made by directors or employees, nor do we give to best brother, the favorite charities of the Buffetts or the Mungers. However, prior to our purchasing them, a few of our subsidiaries had employee-match programs and we feel fine about their continuing them: It's not our style to tamper with successful business cultures. To implement our owners' charitable desires, each year we notify registered holders of A shares (A's represent 86.6% of identity our equity capital) of a per-share amount that they can instruct us to contribute to as many as three charities. Best Man Speeches Brother! Shareholders name the examples, charity; Berkshire writes the check.

Any organization that qualifies under the Internal Revenue Code can be designated by shareholders. That The Eruption Caused The Downfall Crete! Last year Berkshire made contributions of $16.7 million at identity examples the direction of man speeches 5,700 shareholders, who named 3,550 charities as recipients. Since we started this program, our shareholders' gifts have totaled $181 million. Most public corporations eschew gifts to religious institutions. These, however, are favorite charities of our shareholders, who last year named 437 churches and speech, synagogues to The Role of Educational in New Essay, receive gifts. Additionally, 790 schools were recipients. A few of our larger shareholders, including Charlie and me, designate their personal foundations to get gifts, so that those entities can, in turn, disburse their funds widely. I get a few letters every week criticizing Berkshire for contributing to Planned Parenthood.

These letters are usually prompted by an organization that wishes to see boycotts of examples Berkshire products. The letters are invariably polite and The Role of Educational in New Business Trends, sincere, but their writers are unaware of a key point: It's not Berkshire, but rather its owners who are making charitable decisions ? and these owners are about as diverse in identity speech their opinions as you can imagine. For example, they are probably on both sides of the abortion issue in roughly the same proportion as the American population. We'll follow their instructions, whether they designate Planned Parenthood or Metro Right to Life, just as long as the charity possesses 501(c)(3) status. It's as if we paid a dividend, which the shareholder then donated. Our form of disbursement, however, is more tax-efficient. In neither the purchase of goods nor the hiring of format personnel, do we ever consider the religious views, the gender, the speech examples, race or the sexual orientation of the persons we are dealing with. It would not only be wrong to do so, it would be idiotic. We need all of the talent we can find, and we have learned that able and The Role of Educational in New, trustworthy managers, employees and suppliers come from a very wide spectrum of humanity. To participate in our future charitable contribution programs, you must own Class A shares that are registered in the name of the actual owner, not the identity, nominee name of a broker, bank or depository. Shares not so registered on August 31, 2002 will be ineligible for the 2002 program.

When you get the contributions form from us, return it promptly. Best Man Speeches Brother! Designations received after the due date will not be honored. The Annual Meeting. This year's annual meeting will be on Saturday, May 4, and we will again be at the Civic Auditorium. The doors will open at 7 a.m., the movie will begin at 8:30, and the meeting itself will commence at 9:30. There will be a short break at speech noon for food. (Sandwiches can be bought at the Civic's concession stands.) Except for that interlude, Charlie and I will answer questions until 3:30. The Role Business Trends! Give us your best shot. For at least the next year, the Civic, located downtown, is the only site available to us. We must therefore hold the meeting on identity, either Saturday or Sunday to avoid the traffic and parking nightmare sure to occur on a weekday.

Shortly, however, Omaha will have a new Convention Center with plenty of parking facilities. Assuming that we then head for the Center, I will poll shareholders to see whether you wish to of Educational in New Business Trends Essay, return to the Monday meeting that was standard until 2000. We will decide that vote based on speech examples, a count of shareholders, not shares. (This is of the Statement the Eruption of Thera Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete not a system, however, we will ever institute to decide who should be CEO.) An attachment to the proxy material that is enclosed with this report explains how you can obtain the credential you will need for admission to identity, the meeting and other events. Format Website! As for plane, hotel and car reservations, we have again signed up American Express (800-799-6634) to examples, give you special help. Best! They do a terrific job for us each year, and identity speech examples, I thank them for it. In our usual fashion, we will run buses from the larger hotels to the meeting. Apa Citation Website! Afterwards, the buses will make trips back to the hotels and to identity, Nebraska Furniture Mart, Borsheim's and the airport. Even so, you are likely to find a car useful. We have added so many new companies to apa citation, Berkshire this year that I'm not going to detail all of the products that we will be selling at the meeting.

But come prepared to carry home everything from bricks to candy. And underwear, of course. Assuming our Fruit of the Loom purchase has closed by May 4, we will be selling Fruit's latest styles, which will make you your neighborhood's fashion leader. Buy a lifetime supply. GEICO will have a booth staffed by a number of identity speech its top counselors from around the country, all of man speeches them ready to supply you with auto insurance quotes. In most cases, GEICO will be able to identity, give you a special shareholder discount (usually 8%). This special offer is permitted by 41 of the 49 jurisdictions in Exploring of the Statement that the Eruption Caused the Downfall of Minoan Crete which we operate. Bring the details of your existing insurance and identity, check out whether we can save you money. At the Omaha airport on Saturday, we will have the usual array of aircraft from NetJets® available for your inspection. Just ask a representative at the Civic about viewing any of website these planes.

If you buy what we consider an appropriate number of items during the weekend, you may well need your own plane to take them home. And, if you buy a fraction of a plane, we might even throw in a three-pack of briefs or boxers. At Nebraska Furniture Mart, located on a 75-acre site on 72 nd Street between Dodge and Pacific, we will again be having Berkshire Weekend pricing, which means we will be offering our shareholders a discount that is customarily given only to employees. Speech Examples! We initiated this special pricing at NFM five years ago, and sales during the Weekend grew from $5.3 million in Exploring the Validity of the Statement Caused 1997 to $11.5 million in examples 2001. To get the discount, you must make your purchases on Thursday, May 2 through Monday, May 6 and also present your meeting credential. The period's special pricing will even apply to Institutions Business Trends, the products of several prestigious manufacturers that normally have ironclad rules against speech examples discounting but that, in best brother the spirit of identity speech our shareholder weekend, have made an exception for you. We appreciate their cooperation. NFM is open from poem strategies, 10 a.m. to 9 p.m. on weekdays and 10 a.m. to 6 p.m. on Saturdays and Sundays. Borsheim's ? the speech, largest jewelry store in the country except for Tiffany's Manhattan store ? will have two shareholder-only events. The first will be a cocktail reception from 6 p.m. to 10 p.m. on Friday, May 3. The second, the main gala, will be from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. on Sunday, May 5. The Role Business Trends Essay! Shareholder prices will be available Thursday through Monday, so if you wish to avoid the large crowds that will assemble on Friday evening and Sunday, come at other times and identify yourself as a shareholder.

On Saturday, we will be open until 6 p.m. Borsheim's operates on speech examples, a gross margin that is fully twenty percentage points below that of its major rivals, so the more you buy, the more you save (or at least that's what my wife and daughter tell me). Come by and let us perform a walletectomy on you. In the mall outside of Borsheim's, we will have some of the poem strategies, world's top bridge experts available to speech, play with our shareholders on Sunday afternoon. We expect Bob and Petra Hamman along with Sharon Osberg to host tables. Patrick Wolff, twice U.S. chess champion, will also be in the mall, taking on all comers ? blindfolded! Last year, Patrick played as many as six games simultaneously ? with his blindfold securely in place ? and this year will try for poem strategies, seven.

Finally, Bill Robertie, one of only two players who have twice won the identity speech, backgammon world championship, will be on film will hunting, hand to test your skill at that game. Come to the mall on speech, Sunday for the Mensa Olympics. Gorat's ? my favorite steakhouse ? will again be open exclusively for best man speeches brother, Berkshire shareholders on Sunday, May 5, and will be serving from identity, 4 p.m. until 10 p.m. Film Good Hunting! Please remember that to identity, come to Gorat's on poem strategies, Sunday, you must have a reservation. To make one, call 402-551-3733 on April 1 ( but not before ). If Sunday is sold out, try Gorat's on one of the other evenings you will be in town.

Show your sophistication by ordering a rare T-bone with a double order of hash browns. The usual baseball game will be held at Rosenblatt Stadium at identity speech 7 p.m. on Saturday night. In New Business! This year the Omaha Royals will play the Oklahoma RedHawks. Identity! Last year, in an attempt to emulate the career switch of Babe Ruth, I gave up pitching and tried batting. Bob Gibson, an Omaha native, was on the mound and I was terrified, fearing Bob's famous brush-back pitch. Exploring The Validity Of Thera The Downfall Of Minoan Crete! Instead, he delivered a fast ball in the strike zone, and with a Mark McGwire-like swing, I managed to connect for a hard grounder, which inexplicably died in the infield. I didn't run it out: At my age, I get winded playing a hand of identity speech bridge. I'm not sure what will take place at the ballpark this year, but come out and be surprised.

Our proxy statement contains instructions for obtaining tickets to the game. Those people ordering tickets to the annual meeting will receive a booklet containing all manner of information that should help you enjoy your visit in Omaha. There will be plenty of Exploring the Validity of the the Eruption Caused the Downfall of Minoan action in examples town. So come for Woodstock Weekend and join our Celebration of best brother Capitalism at identity speech examples the Civic. Finally, I would like to thank the wonderful and incredibly productive crew at World Headquarters (all 5,246.5 square feet of it) who make my job so easy. Exploring The Validity Of The Statement That Of Thera The Downfall Crete! Berkshire added about 40,000 employees last year, bringing our workforce to 110,000. At headquarters we added one employee and now have 14.8. (I've tried in vain to get JoEllen Rieck to change her workweek from four days to five; I think she likes the national recognition she gains by being .8.)

The smooth handling of the examples, array of duties that come with our current size and scope ? as well as some additional activities almost unique to Berkshire, such as our shareholder gala and designated-gifts program ? takes a very special group of people. And that we most definitely have.

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Nov 22, 2017 Identity speech examples,

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explication du texte de Lambeaux C Juliet, dans le groupement sur l'enseignement. Un homme doux, bourru , méditatif, aux yeux bleu pâle, bons et malicieux, cerclés de petites lunettes rondes. Examples? Avec une ample barbe grise, une épaisse tignasse blanche, aux longues mèches rebelles, qui lui tombent sur le front, et qu’à tout moment, d’un geste machinal, il repousse en arrière. Best Man Speeches? Il te paraît ineffablement vieux. Speech? Les matins d’hiver, il prend sa chaise et vient s’installer près du poêle. The Role Of Educational Institutions Essay? Aussitôt vous l’imitez, vous disposant en cercle, genoux contre genoux. Speech Examples? Le poêle ronfle, le bois qui brûle sent bon, tu peux voir par la fenêtre les fines branches nues des bouleaux osciller dans le vent, et tu t’abandonnes à cette quiétude, t’enivres du bien-être qui naît de cette chaleur et cette intimité. The Role Of Educational Institutions Business? Il s’exprime avec lenteur, d’une voix grave et basse, attentif à ce qu’il lit sur vos visages. Examples? Tu l’écoutes avec une concentration si totale que ses paroles se gravent dans ta mémoire, et que la leçon qu’il fait, tu n’auras pas à l’apprendre. Film Good Will? Combien tu aimes l’école ! Chaque fois que tu pousses la petite porte de fer et t’avances dans la cour, tu pénètres dans un monde autre, deviens une autre petite fille, et instantanément, tu oublies tout du village et de la ferme.

Ce qui constitue ton univers le maître, les cahiers et les livres, le tableau noir, l’odeur de la craie, les cartes de géographie, ton plumier et ton cartable, cette blouse noire trop longue que tu ne portes que les jours de classe tu le vénères. Speech Examples? Et la veille des grandes vacances, alors que les autres, au comble de l’excitation, crient, chantent et chahutent, tu quittes l’école en pleurant. Hamartia In Oedipus? Les deux dernières années, quand venait ton tour d’être interrogée, il renonçait à vérifier si tu savais ta leçon, t’attribuait d’office la meilleure note. Identity Speech? Ton sérieux, ta maturité et ta soif d’apprendre l’avaient impressionné, et bien qu’il ne t’eût jamais rien dit de ce qu’il pensait de toi, tu sentais qu’il te voyait comme un petit phénomène et te tenait en particulière estime. Poem Strategies? Un jour, bien plus tard, alors que prise de nostalgie, tu revivais les heures avides et enchantées que tu avais connues là, dans cette petite salle de classe, à littéralement boire ses paroles, tu oses t’avouer que tu avais fini par le considérer comme un père. Identity Examples? Un père que tu as aimé ainsi qu’on aime à cet âge, d’un amour entier, violent, absolu. Format? La veille des vacances, tu quittais l’école en pleurant, moquée par tes camarades. Examples? Mais prisonnière de ton chagrin, tu avançais parmi eux en aveugle, hébétée, ne percevant rien de ce qui t’entourait. Charles Juliet, Lambeaux, 1995.

Le maître dans le roman : portraits. Institutions Trends? Que nous apprennent ces divers tableaux sur le rapport à l’apprentissage sur la société du temps, et sur l’élève ? La description. Identity? L’ethos interne du discours. Poem Strategies? L’illusion référentielle, une vision fidèle de l’époque. Le groupement en entier : lecture et mise en rapport. A faire à la maison : · Quand le texte le permet, résumez rapidement le portrait physique de chaque maître. · Quels sont ceux qui présentent un portrait mélioratif et pourquoi ? · Peut-on dire que les souvenirs des adultes sont particulièrement vivaces ? Justifiez vos propos.

La place du physique. Il est logique que dans le processus mémoratif, le corps, la gestuelle soient un des premiers éléments dont on speech, se rappelle, et qu’on décrive. Format? Cependant on speech, constate ici des constantes. Tous les maîtres sont des hommes, tous aussi sont d’un certain âge. Un ridicule qui met en exergue la cruauté Le rapport instauré est rarement bon et les souvenirs souvent pénibles, Une autorité incontestées. Le succédané de la figure paternelle. Un enseignement qui n’est doux que quand il est sollicité Les notions d' ascendance et de conférence y sont essentiels, à savoir que : l'élément auquel le groupe confère l'autorité (personne, organisme, institution, État, valeur morale, croyance spirituelle, etc.) exerce une ascendance sur les membres du groupe ( fascination , soumission , obéissance , etc) ; la conférence (ou l'attribution) de l'autorité à un élément provient de divers mécanismes psychologiques, tels que la crainte , le respect , la reconnaissance , la fascination , etc. Good Hunting? et a différentes conséquences, telles que l' obéissance , la paralysie du jugement, le consentement , l' approbation , l' assentiment , l' exécution , etc . Charles Juliet Lambeaux.

A la suite du placement de sa mère dans un hôpital psychiatrique (suite à une tentative de suicide et pour son état mental dépressif), Charles Juliet est placé à trois mois dans une famille de paysans suisses qu'il ne quittera plus. Identity? L'enterrement de sa mère, morte de faim dans l'asile (délaissé par le gouvernement de la France occupée de cette époque), et l'attitude de son père envers lui le marqueront à jamais. Il a un grand besoin d'amour qu'il obtient auprès de sa mère adoptive, mais aussi de ses sœurs adoptives. Poem Strategies? A sept ans, il assiste à l'enterrement de sa mère naturelle morte de faim pendant la Guerre dans l'asile qui ne nourrissait plus les internés. Speech Examples? A douze ans, il entre dans une école militaire d' Aix-en-Provence , où il subira de dures épreuves. In Oedipus? Il en sort à vingt ans, étant admis à l'École de Santé Militaire de Marseille. Identity? Trois ans plus tard, il abandonne ses études de médecine pour se consacrer exclusivement à l'écriture.

Il travaille pendant 3 ans dans la solitude avant de voir paraître son premier livre, Fragments , préfacé par Georges Haldas ( Meurtre ou sacrifice ). Of The That Of Thera Caused The Downfall Of Minoan? De ces années lentes remontent également des rencontres importantes avec d'autres artistes ( Michel Leiris , Bram van Velde , Raoul Ubac , Pierre Soulages , Samuel Beckett . Speech? ). In Oedipus? Il vit alors à Marseille dans le 2 e arrondissement. Il reçoit la reconnaissance du public avec L'Année de l'éveil ( Grand prix des lectrices de Elle , 1989), récit romancé de son expérience d'enfant de troupe. Identity Examples? Il publie également aux éditions P.O.L un important Journal en plusieurs volumes. Ses poèmes et autres ouvrages sont par la suite traduits en allemand, espagnol, italien, anglais (E.U.), polonais, japonais, vietnamien, turc, coréen et chinois. Des extraits de ses ouvrages figurent aujourd'hui dans des manuels scolaires. Charles Juliet a réalisé plusieurs séries d'émissions à France-Culture et deux pièces radiophoniques ont été diffusées sur les antennes de cette station. Son œuvre autobiographique, notamment Lambeaux , nous en apprend beaucoup sur la personnalité de Charles Juliet.

Il se voit comme un débutant, se comparant à un néophyte dans un passage du livre ou il évoque sa difficulté d'écrire. D'une manière générale, il a tendance à se sous-estimer. Apa Citation Website? Il se dévalorise, se diminue, car il a, selon ses dires, une exigence beaucoup trop haute qui l'entraîne à douter de ses propres moyens et capacités. Speech Examples? Il n'a pas confiance en lui, en son talent, et se sent inférieur aux écrivains qu'il admire. Il s'analyse toujours de manière honnête, aborde fréquemment les difficultés de l'écriture et apporte également une réflexion sur l'autobiographie (difficulté d'exprimer avec des mots ce qu'il ressent et douleur causée par le rappel de certains souvenirs). Dans Lambeaux , Charles Juliet a voulu rendre hommage à ses deux mères, l'une biologique et l'autre adoptive.

Cadet d’une famille de 4 enfants, il est placé dans une famille suisse suite à l’internement de sa mère dans un hôpital psychiatrique (à cause d’une tentative de suicide). Poem Strategies? Elle mourra de faim le jour de ses 38 ans, victime de l' extermination douce orchestrée par les nazis. Dans la première partie du livre, il retrace les pensées, l’hésitation, les doutes ou exprime la souffrance de sa mère grâce aux mots qu’elle n’avait pas. Examples? À la fin de la première partie, peu avant sa mort, il raconte comment sa mère a exprimé son besoin de vocabulaire : La première partie retrace donc un portrait détaillé de sa première mère, son premier et vrai amour, ses années d'étude à l'école. In Oedipus? Il raconte aussi la mort spirituelle de sa mère à la fin de ses maigres études. Si vous trouviez.

Les mots dont j’ai besoin. Vous me délivreriez. La seconde partie est l' autobiographie de l'auteur : son enfance, son amour pour sa famille adoptive, ses études (école militaire d'Aix-en-Provence, service de santé militaire de Lyon puis apprentissage autodidacte de la littérature ), et enfin son éveil à soi-même : après avoir vaincu sa longue dépression, il devient écrivain et réalise enfin combien passionnante est la vie. N.B : Tout le roman est écrit à la deuxième personne. Examples? Il parle de sa mère adoptive par le pronom elle et parle de lui-même.

Dans cet ouvrage, l'auteur a voulu célébrer ses deux mères : l'esseulée et la vaillante, l'étouffée et la valeureuse, la jetée-dans-la-fosse et la toute-donnée. Poem Strategies? La première, celle qui lui a donné le jour, une paysanne, à la suite d'un amour malheureux, d'un mariage qui l'a déçue, puis quatre maternités rapprochées, a sombré dans une profonde dépression. Examples? Hospitalisée un mois après la naissance de son dernier enfant, elle est morte sept ans plus tard dans d'atroces conditions. Of Educational In New Business? La seconde, mère d'une famille nombreuse, elle aussi paysanne, a recueilli cet enfant et l'a élevé comme s'il avait été son fils. Speech? Après avoir évoqué ces deux émouvantes figures, l'auteur relate succinctement son parcours : l'enfance paysanne, l'école d'enfants de troupe, puis les premières tentatives d'écritures. In Oedipus? Ce faisant, il nous raconte la naissance à soi-même d'un homme qui, a la faveur d'un long cheminement, est parvenu à triompher de la détresse impensable dont il était prisonnier. Identity Speech? Voilà pourquoi Lambeaux est avant tout un livre d'espoir. Charles Juliet avait au début l'intention d'écrire ce livre sous forme d'une lettre à sa mère (ce livre était un projet de longue date : l'auteur a longuement enquêté et réfléchi sur la vie de sa mère biologique, qu'il n'a pas connue), ce livre se présente donc comme tel : il utilise le pronom tu , ce qui est la principale particularité de cette autobiographie . The Validity Of The Statement That The Eruption The Downfall Of Minoan Crete? Il le gardera d’ailleurs pour se désigner dans la deuxième partie. Identity Speech Examples? À de nombreux points de vue, la construction de ce livre rappelle des lambeaux même si Charles Juliet a déclaré ne pas en avoir conscience en écrivant ce livre.

La disposition des paragraphes tout comme le déroulement du récit suggèrent en effet des fragments d'écrits, agencés tout de fois de manière à former un tout cohérent, retraçant ainsi l'état d'esprit des personnages. Cet ouvrage est toutefois considéré comme avant tout un livre d'espoir, démontrant qu'il est toujours possible de vaincre la dépression et de mener finalement une existence d'autant plus heureuse. Une autre particularité de ce roman est qu'il n'y a aucun nom propre, aucun nom de villes ou villages, parfois la première lettre, aucune information de temps, malgré quelques passages qui nous donnent une idée. 1. Poem Strategies? Par quels moyens narratifs l’auteur passe-t-il du singulier au général ? 2. Examples? La vision de l’enseignement ici vous semble-t-elle plaisante ? Par la vision de l’enseignant, comment le narrateur dépeint-il ici son propre portrait ? Le texte se décompose en trois parties. La présence du professeur l’enserre, portrait en ouverture, qui permet d’entrer dans la salle, et retour au personnage qui semble avec cette structure en boucle (épinadiplose) tenir le narrateur entre ses bras. A/ Le maitre et la classe. 1. Film Good? Portrait du maître. a. Identity Speech Examples? Thème éclaté, l’objectivité et la modalisation subjective.

2. Man Speeches? Description de la classe. a. Identity? L’importance de la vision d’hiver, qui rassemble les élèves autour de la figure du maître et sa métaphore la chaleur et la flamme. 3. Hamartia? L’univers de l’école en quelques mots symboliques. a. Identity Examples? Un ensemble de choses et de lieux typiques, appartenant à l’imagerie collective, métaphorique de l’enseignement. 1. Website? La valeur du tu (le maitre tutoie, dédoublement de la personnalité adulte enfant, regard distancé) L’usage du pronom personnel Tu interpelle le lecteur, et l’implique dans le récit.Ce tu se transforme parfois en vous qui devient alors l’ensemble de la classe, des élèves. 2. Speech Examples? Les contradictions de son attitude par rapport aux autres enfants. a. Of Educational Institutions In New Trends Essay? Les antithèses aux vacances, le vocabulaire émotif, le vocabulaire amélioratif.

a. Identity Examples? Le maître comme un père, l’école comme un foyer. C/une autre conception de l’école. 1. Poem Strategies? Des lieux et des objets typiques d’une époque. 2. Identity Speech Examples? Un enseignant d’autrefois. 3. Best Man Speeches? Une humanité qui renvoie à la notion d’apprentissage par ascendance.

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