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In modern Korean history, there was tragic civil war called Korean War between North. History of Nature Essay Korea , Korea , Korean Demilitarized Zone 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Economic! ? The Confederate Army Of The South Eric Vlasin Mrs. Person American Literature November 19, 2013 The . Civil War, the Electonic Engineering U.S. war that rocked the United States in the late 1800s, a war of a divided country, The war of the north and the south. The South wanting to Growth secede from the nation, is what flared the war into benefits versus university, action, and Economic Growth, the South would soon be in of English The Great danger. The South in Economic the civil war, what did they plan, what did they have, and who were the leaders? The average soldier. American Civil War , Army of Northern Virginia , Confederate States Army 2067 Words | 5 Pages. ?U.S ARMY ETHICS Ethics are standards that are based on value that uphold professionalism through beliefs such as duty, honor and integrity . that drives actions and attitudes (Fluker, 2009). John Rawls’! Ethical values ultimately relate and Economic, are in of government regards to what is Essay right and different, wrong. Modern Economic! This brings about the aspect of Unveiling the Roots of English Essay making decision that is rational in regards to what is right and wrong ethically. It is on this note that ethical values should be considered and especially when it comes to Economic Growth decision making.

There exist. Of Purpose To Study Engineering Essay! Business ethics , Ethics , Intrinsic value 943 Words | 5 Pages. How Sop Reflects to Essay Edp and How an Os Can Be Viewed as an Edp. ORIENTED PROGRAMMING How SOP reflects to EDP and the professors house, how an Modern Essay, OS can be viewed as an Rawls’ Essay, EDP Introduction to SOP and SOA . Modern! Service-Oriented Programming is a programming paradigm that uses services as the unit of computer work, to design and Unveiling of English Law: The Great Essay, implement integrated business applications and Modern Growth Essay, mission critical software programs. John Rawls’ Essay! Service-Oriented Architecture is Modern a set of A Company's Capital Essay principles and methodologies for Economic Growth Essay designing and developing Software in the form of different interoperable services. While SOP may inherently promote SOA. Growth Essay! Comparison of versus programming paradigms , Computer , Computer programming 701 Words | 3 Pages. for it, and Im willing to die for it. Modern Growth! I joined the Statement of Purpose Electonic Engineering army to become the Modern Economic best or put forth all the Culture: What is it effort I can into Growth, what I want to do.

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The Army Standards The Army Standards Jimmie Leigh Simmons Dr. Tina M. Modern Growth Essay! Lamb Business Ethics 301 Abstract The . John Of Justice! Army is nothing like any other military worldwide. They set themselves apart from Growth all other militaries. The standards are held to the professors a higher level than most. I enjoy being in the Army . As a Noncommissioned officer we are charged to Growth Essay uphold the John Essay standard and in Modern Economic Growth Essay force the standards. We must groom soldiers to Culture: Exactly? be a great product of the Army . There are measures we take into making a great.

Army , Military , Morality 1116 Words | 4 Pages. Management and the Army Mark Bietsch MGT330: Management for Modern Essay Organizations (BAC1250A) Professor Moore 28 July 2013 Management and the . Army The Army has a very well organized structure that has many different elements within its structure. Human Behavior: Vs. Nurture Essay! The Army uses many different regulations that cover the Modern Economic way it runs its organization to ensure it maintains and improves the Statement to Study Engineering U.S. way it is managed. The Army uses the Essay Human Resources Command Center (HRC) which is to the Roots of English Law: The Essay execute career management, sustainment, distribution. Army , Human resource management , Leadership 1706 Words | 5 Pages. people you work for. Being on Economic Essay, time and Nature Essay, where you are supposed to be is very important while serving in Modern Essay the army or any other branch of service . What Exactly? Essay! .The military waste millions of Economic dollars on the professors, appointments every year. Modern! This Plan of action is A Theory of Justice ambiguous and confusing. From the Modern Growth oral statements that were made from you I believe you wish for me to write 2000essay (Importance of Accountability in the army ) i.e.: appropriate place of duty, proper place and proper time. I Pride myself on being a soldier that is.

Armed forces , Army , Military 2093 Words | 5 Pages. ?The Salvation Army is an Evaluating Capital, international charitable organisation, the Salvation Army is a worldwide organisation consisting of . soldiers, officers and adherents known as Salvationists. Its founders Catherine and Modern Growth Essay, William Booth sought to house bring salvation to Modern Growth Essay the poor, destitute and hungry. Branches! It has a presence in 126 countries, running charity shops, operating shelters for the homeless and providing disaster relief and Economic, humanitarian aid to developing countries. The Salvation Army was founded in 1865 in Statement of Purpose Electonic in the U.S. Essay London. Economic Essay! Australia , Catherine Booth , Generals of of English Great Charter Essay The Salvation Army 702 Words | 3 Pages. One of the Economic Growth values the United States Army most seeks in its soldiers is accountability.

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Army , Artillery , Military 1315 Words | 3 Pages. ? Report for Modern Growth the Army Externalising its recruitment Procedure. Branches Of Government! B120 - TMA02 Tutor: Submitted by: Rob November 2014 1.0 . Growth! Opportunities and of Purpose Electonic U.S. Essay, dangers to Economic Growth be considered by the Army in externalising the recruitment processes. a. Preston (2012 P.36) shows how the two-way process of recruitment should be as much about the house applicant finding out Modern Growth Essay whether the Evaluating A Company's business is Modern Economic right for them as about whether they are deemed acceptable by Unveiling the Roots of English Law: The Charter, the business. Modern! c. Having employment opportunities for A Theory Essay the. 2003 in Economic film , Employment , Human resource management 1289 Words | 7 Pages. Effective Openings Dont start an SOP by introducing yourself. Culture: Exactly? Essay! The university knows your name. Its on Modern Growth Essay, your application form. Capital Essay! So dont open by Economic Essay, . Branches! saying I, Ravi Kapur, am applying to Economic Growth Essay Rice University for a degree in vs. Nurture Essay An effective opening grabs the Modern Economic readers attention and gets him into of English, your story right away. Modern Growth Essay! Be original, use your creativity. Here are a few ways you might begin: Make your reader Imagine . You could create a scenario from your past and to Study in the U.S. Essay, then indicate how it influenced you or you could. Question , The Reader , Word 1065 Words | 3 Pages. Modern Essay! ?Essay on house, Bureaucracy- Army Coalition in Pakistan By the turn of the Economic Essay decade, the Muslim League had lost all credibility in East Pakistan . because of its language policy.There the different branches of government mainstream Muslim League broke away and Modern Economic, formed the Awami League in 1949.

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Your platoon sergeant gave you an Nature, order to write a platoon SOP for. Assault rifle , Carbine , M16 rifle 362 Words | 2 Pages. Essay! 7 Core Army Values negative views on the issue. Benefits Of Community College Versus University! Another army value which is next is respect. Modern Growth Essay! In the A Company's Essay army . value definition for Modern Economic Growth Essay respect is to treat others the university way you would be treated. Modern Essay! Premium Seven Army Values In The Acronym Ldrship moral standing.

These 7 Army Values however reach FAR beyond the military. Too many people fail to realize the importance these values have on the way that one is. Premium Army Values bad mosquitoes, and. Core issues in ethics , Integrity , Military 658 Words | 3 Pages. the Rawls’ A Theory of Justice Army , and Essay, other Soldiers. Duty Fulfill your obligations. Respect Treat people as they should be treated. Selfless Service . A Theory Essay! Put the welfare of the Economic Essay nation, the A Company's Capital Structure Essay Army and your subordinates above your own. Honor Live up to the army values. Integrity Do whats right legally and morally. and Personal Courage Face fear, danger or adversity physical or moral. We are all drilled on these 7 army values from the Modern Economic Growth very first day of basic training and branches of government, throughout our Army career. Modern Economic! Army , Core issues in Culture: What Exactly? Essay ethics , Duty 1126 Words | 3 Pages. Professionalism by SPC Murray Professionals in the United States Army stand apart from others engaged in Economic Essay particular careers in the . civilian world. House! While many vocations contain some of the characteristics of Modern Economic Essay professional, a lot of careers do not include all of the elements necessary to Statement to Study Electonic Engineering in the Essay distinguish themselves as being as close to a professional as a United States soldier. Professionalism grows depending on Modern Economic, the time and service they have in the Army . Branches! A professional has specialized knowledge and Modern Economic Essay, skill which. Integrity , Management , Military 1916 Words | 5 Pages.

Serving in Human Nature vs. Nurture Essay the army In America, serving in the army is often associated with respect and honour. From an outsiders view, . Modern Economic Growth Essay! America has always been a very patriotic country based on John A Theory, a strong passion for Economic Growth freedom and democracy. So is Culture: is it Exactly? Essay that the Modern Essay driving power that makes so many young American men and women to enlist themselves in house the Army ? Yet it seems that not everyone looks upon Modern Economic Growth the army with the same amount of the professors house respect, and Economic, maybe America today isnt as patriotic as it used to be. Rawls’ Of Justice! In the text A. Economic Growth Essay! Combat , Iraq War , Military 1195 Words | 3 Pages. ?Serving in the army 1. The Professors House! The first text Why they serve by Sarah Palin is Modern Growth about a mother talking about her army son, Track.

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oedipus themes essay Ed Friedlander MD. This website collects no information. If you e-mail me, neither your e-mail address nor any other information will ever be passed on to any third party, unless required by law. Modern Economic Growth! I have no sponsors and do not host paid advertisements. All external links are provided freely to sites that I believe my visitors will find helpful. This page was last modified December 7, 2011.

If you are a student assigned to read Oedipus the King, and perhaps also to comment on Aristotle's ideas about tragedy and tragic flaws, this site will help you get started. Warning: This is NOT a family site, and Sophocles is NOT family entertainment. Oedipus the King is a monument to Sophocles's dramatic genius, and to the freedom of Athenian thought. Sophocles himself served as an army general. Two of college university, his plays (Ajax and Modern Economic Philoctetes) are performed today to help people understand post-traumatic stress disorder, suffered by good people who have undergone life's most horrible experiences. Oedipus the King develops a shocking -- perhaps even immoral -- idea about a human being's ultimate relationship to the universe. Whether Sophocles's idea is true, or whether he believed it, are for you to decide. Commentators on Sophocles, beginning with Aristotle, have tried to cover over the obvious.

This explains the nonsense about Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture Essay tragic flaws and hybris. We don't know whether there was a historical Oedipus. Oedipus means swollen feet. The Greeks pronounced it oy-DEEP-us. Oed- is the same root as oedema / edema (tissue swelling; the British preserve the Economic, initial o), while -pus is feet (hence octopus, the Rawls’ Essay, eight-footed animal.) Laius and Jocasta were king and queen of Modern Economic, Thebes, a town in Greece. One day, they had a baby boy. An oracle prophesied that the John Rawls’, boy would grow up and kill his father and marry his mother. Modern Growth Essay! To thwart the prophecy, Laius and Jocasta decided to kill their baby.

In those days, it was usual to leave an unwanted or defective baby in the wilderness. Laius and Jocasta did this. To be extra-sure, they pierced his little feet and tied them together. (Don't worry about Behavior: Essay why they bound or pierced the baby's feet, which would not have been necessary to Economic guarantee the abandoned child's death. It may have been introduced to explain the hero's name. It also helps later to confirm Oedipus's true identity.) A kindly shepherd found the baby. He gave the baby to John A Theory of Justice a friend, who took it to Modern Corinth, another town. House! (Corinth reappears in the New Testament.) The king and queen of Corinth couldn't have a baby of their own. So they adopted the foundling. Nobody ever told little Oedipus that his mother was never pregnant. One day, after he had grown up, a drunk mentioned his being adopted.

Oedipus questioned his parents, but they denied it. Oedipus visited various oracles to Modern Economic find out whether he was really adopted. All the oracles told him instead that he would kill his father and marry his mother. (None of this makes much sense. Again, don't worry about it. This is a folk tale.)

To thwart the John Rawls’ A Theory, oracles, Oedipus left Corinth permanently. (Again, don't worry. Yes, Oedipus should have considered that, since he might be adopted, any older man might be his father and any older woman his mother. But this is Modern Essay, a folk tale.) Travelling the roads, Oedipus got into a traffic squabble and killed a stranger who (unknown to him) was King Laius. In one version, there was a dispute over Behavior: Nature right-of-way on Modern Economic Growth Essay, a bridge. The Professors House! In those days, high rank got to go first, Oedipus identified himself as heir to the throne of Corinth, and for some reason (again, don't worry about it) Laius's people simply attacked instead of explaining that he was king of Thebes. Some versions say that the rude Laius drove over Oedipus's sore foot, making him lose his temper. Soon Oedipus's smarts saved the town of Thebes, and he was made king. (In a folk-tale within a folk-tale, Oedipus solved the Riddle of the Sphinx. What animal has four legs in the morning, two legs at noon, and three legs in the evening?

Of course the answer is a human being -- babies crawl and old folks use walking sticks.) Oedipus married Laius's widow, Queen Jocasta. He ruled well, and they had four children. Eventually, Oedipus and Economic Growth Jocasta found out what had really happened. Statement Of Purpose In The U.S. Essay! (You must assume that accidentally killing your father and marrying your mother is a disaster.) Jocasta committed suicide, and Oedipus blinded himself and became a wandering beggar. In the version that must have been the favorite of Sophocles's Athenian audience, Oedipus found sanctuary at Economic Growth, Colonus, outside of Athens. The kindness he was shown at A Theory Essay, the end made the city itself blessed. The moral of the folk tale?

Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed! In Iliad XXIII, we read about one Mecisteus, who went once to Thebes after the fall of Oedipus, to attend his funeral, and Growth he beat all the people of Cadmus, evidently at boxing (funeral games) which is the subject of the passage. In the Odyssey XI's catalogue of shades, We read, I also saw fair Epicaste mother of king Oedipodes whose awful lot it was to marry her own son without suspecting it. He married her after having killed his father, but the gods proclaimed the whole story to the world; whereon he remained king of Thebes, in the professors, great grief for the spite the Modern Economic Growth Essay, gods had borne him; but Epicaste went to the house of the mighty jailor Hades, having hanged herself for Rawls’ A Theory Essay, grief, and the avenging spirits haunted him as for an outraged mother -- to his ruing bitterly thereafter. That's what Homer has to say about Oedipus. I've been assured that Homer intended the passage to illustrate Oedipus's having the tragic flaw of pride.

I can't see what kind of sense this makes. A NYU student found a personal meaning: What is the moral of this story? Don't go to a fortune teller! Let life take its course. Your fate is already written and sealed. If you know all there is to Modern know about your life, then why bother living? You'll spend the A Theory, rest of your life worrying about what's to come.

Embrace life and Growth its surprises. Oedipus Wrecked -- humor. Rawls’ Essay! Wonders why Oedipus allowed himself to be made to feel so stigmatized by a mixup that wasn't his fault. Modern Growth Essay! Moral of the story: Being a victim of gurus, society, and circumstances does not relieve one of the responsibility of of Purpose Electonic Engineering in the, thinking for themselves. Essay! It does make for a tragic hero, however. Sphinxes -- and a lot on the background of the story. Law: Great! The author is with me on Growth Essay, the hamartia business, below. Thanks for the sphinx.

Long before we got civilized, ancient Europeans (Greeks, Vikings, others) were already talking about A Theory of Justice predestination. If something was going to Modern Essay happen, it would happen and John of Justice there was nothing you could do about it. Why would anybody talk like this? 1. Ancient people may have been impressed (or wanted to be impressed) by the fulfillment of prophecies. In our own world, most predictions by supposed psychics simply don't come true. But people want to believe in the supernatural, and people like to tell each other about the rare occasions when something happens that a psychic said would happen. So money-making psychics make lots of predictions and Growth Essay keep them vague.

People have such a strong desire to of Purpose to Study Engineering in the Essay believe in the power of supernatural prediction that they even invent stories of psychic predictions being fulfilled. The most famous example (Nostradamus and the gray monk in Varennes woods) continues to be told, even though the tale of Economic Essay, Louis XVI being disguised as a monk when he was captured there is just a lie. You'll need to decide for yourself whether prophecies of religionists (past or present) come true today, or have ever come true. Some Christians have taught that the Greek oracles were successful because they were diabolic, and that they went silent on the first Christmas (for example, Milton's Hymn on the Morning of Christ's Nativity). People want to believe in house, oracles.

2. Believing in predestination frees people from worry. Talking about unalterable destiny is Economic, extremely popular among soldiers going into battle -- a powerful antidote to obessive fear that would slow or distract a warrior. To Study Electonic In The U.S.! Soldiers tell each other, If the bullet has your name on it, you will die. Economic Essay! This seems to spur them on to bravery, self-sacrifice, peace-of-mind, and warm camaraderie. Talk about fate, predestination, and so forth has found its way into warriors' tales across many cultures.

In the Iliad , even Zeus (? same word as theos or God) is sometimes subject to Fate (though sometimes Zeus is fate). We also see this in peacetime, whenever people face frightful conflict. A Calvinist friend of mine who struggled with his sexual issues told me how comforted he felt knowing God had chosen him anyway. For some reason that I do not understand, he could believe in The Charter Essay, this. He could not believe that he was loved by God as His creation, or loved by God for the sake of Jesus, or even that his sexual orientation might not be the crime that he'd been made to Modern Economic Growth Essay believe it was. College University! Again, I'm no psychiatrist, but I'm glad he could find a formulation that brought him comfort. Most Christians believe that we are responsible for our behavior even though God knows what we will do.

So Christians have argued about predestination from New Testament days. Luke says that the people who chose Christ were predestined to do so. Dante asks the blessed souls in heaven about predestination, and is told they don't know the answer, either. Martin Luther spent much of his youth obsessing over Modern Growth how he was unable to be as good as he wanted. He found his answer not in the professors house, predestination, but in God's free gift of Modern Growth, grace in of community college university, Christ. For him, this was a comfort and assurance. If you want to know whether you are predestined to be saved, just say your prayers. Then you will know you are predestined for salvation. John Calvin was horrified about the implications of predestination, but emphasized it in his teaching. Other preachers like Jonathan Spiders Edwards and the Wesleys taught that Christ had died for everybody and Economic Growth Essay that everybody had a free choice. Milton has God foresee Adam's sin, and God explains that although He foresees it, he didn't make it happen, so he is A Company's Capital, justified in punishing Adam.

Racine's Phaedra marked a return to themes of Greek tragedy and people being the victims of cruel destiny. Economic Essay! Racine's milieu was Jansenism, a back-to-basics focus on hellfire and predestination that developed within Roman Catholicism. Boswell, who wrote the of community versus university, biography of Samuel Johnson, obsessed about predestination and became profoundly depressed thinking he could end up damned eternally. He's not the only person who's had this experience. In the US, the Free Will Baptist denomination emphasized evangelization and need to work hard to Modern Economic Growth Essay bring others to John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice Essay Christ, against Modern Economic Growth Essay those who thought that God's predestination made this unnecessary.

Some Hindus and Buddhists have taught that a person's behavior in Evaluating Capital, a past life predestines happiness or misery in Modern, the current one, by of community, the laws of karma. Individual believers may find that this frees them from bitterness over life's injustices (natural and human-made). You'll need to decide for yourself whether this is good or bad. Economic Growth! Belief in karma has awakened social conscience and kindness to strangers in those who believe that what goes around comes around. The theme of A Theory, predestination continues in secular literature. Chaucer (Troilus and Cressida, The Knight's Tale) deals with predestination. Modern Growth! The former is a character study, and the two lovers seem destined for trouble just because of who they are. Marlowe's Faustus and a popular fifties song proclaimed, Che sera sera -- what will be will be. Ambiguous -- do we make our own decisions or not? Prophecies that can't be thwarted are a favorite literary device, especially famous from Macbeth. Ideas about Rawls’ of Justice Essay predestination are parodied in Modern Growth, Tristram Shandy -- the baby is Nature vs. Nurture, predestined to have a small nose and Modern Growth an ugly name despite the conscious efforts of the the professors house, parents to avoid these supposed disasters.

Today, fulfilled prophecies are a staple of fiction. Although the vast majority of psychic predictions in the real world are failures, they come true as plot devices on the Silver Screen. A new face of the predestination debate comes from the physicists' model of the world. At least in Newtonian physics, if you know everything about a closed system at Modern Economic Essay, one moment of time, you can predict everything that will happen in the future. If our world is really like this, then physical laws predetermine what will happen in our brains, and what we will think and of Justice Essay do. Growth Essay! The laws of Nature vs. Nurture Essay, physics (ultimately) even determine our decisions about which side to take in a college bull session about predestination versus free will. In physics, an electron can bounce like a billiard-ball but go through each of two holes like a wave.

As a mainstream Christian, I'm accustomed of thinking that something can be two contrary things at the same time, and Modern Growth that apparent contradictions may not be real contradictions. The Good Lord feeds the Unveiling the Roots Law: The Great Charter, birds, but I know how birds really get their food. I give thanks to the Good Lord for the birth of Growth Essay, a child, but nobody requests equal time for stork science. I know how I get sick and how I recover, and thank the Human Behavior: vs. Nurture Essay, Good Lord for Essay, my recovery. The bread and benefits wine are Christ's body and blood -- I don't know how. The best (though not the most scholarly) answer I've heard to the Christian mystery of predestination goes something like this: When we are entering the New Jerusalem, we will see a sign overhead saying Enter of your free will. When we are inside, and look back, the reverse of the sign will say God chose us from before the Economic Growth Essay, foundation of the Evaluating Essay, world (Ephesians 1:4). The folk tale of Oedipus has a popular theme -- predestination. Sigmund Freud and the Oedipus complex aren't the subject of this site.

Mainstream psychiatry doesn't believe (and never believed) Freud's precise formulation. Modern Economic! Freud observed that while there are many stories about predestination and unavoidable dooms, the story of Oedipus has gotten under people's skins since ancient times. The actual reason, of course, is that it's about dysfunctional family relationships, which really do have a lot to do with behavioral/mental illness. Oedipus -- the legend, from Wikipedia. House! Tells about modern versions, including some modern ribaldry. Sophocles wrote Oedipus the King for the annual festival where playwrights competed for prizes. Modern Growth! It was a major civic occasion, with attendance expected. Sophocles the writer is phenomenally good, especially considering his era.

His writing is the professors house, tight, with each phrase contributing to the whole. He is full of succinct observations on life. And despite the limits of the form, he often manages to make his characters seem like real individuals. The title of our play is Economic Growth Essay, often given in its Latin translation Oedipus Rex, rather than in its original Greek (Oedipus Tyranneus), since the Greek term for king is the Statement of Purpose Electonic Engineering in the U.S. Essay, English tyrant which means a monarch who rules without the consent of the people. As the Growth Essay, play opens, the priest of Zeus and a bunch of non-speaking characters (old people, children) appear before King Oedipus with tree-branches wrapped with wool. It was evidently the custom to do this in Human Nature, front of Modern Economic Essay, a god's altar when you wanted something urgently. Oedipus greets them as a caring, compassionate leader. The priest explains (really for the audience's benefit) that Thebes is suffering from a plague. Plants, animals, and the professors people are all dying. Modern Growth! The people know Oedipus is not a god, but they believe that some god inspired him to solve the house, riddle of the sphinx and Economic Growth Essay save the town.

And since Oedipus has been king, he has done a splendid job. So now people look to him to find a cure for the plague. Oedipus explains (really for the audience's benefit) that he has sent Creon (Jocasta's brother) to the oracle of the god Apollo at Delphi to get an answer. He's late returning, but as soon as he gets back, Oedipus promises to do whatever the oracle says. Just then, Creon arrives. Since it's good news, he is wearing laurel leaves with berries around his head. Creon says, All's well that ends well. (I'm told that the Greeks loved irony.) Apollo said that the killer of Laius must be found and of community college banished, and the plague will end.

And Apollo has promised that a diligent investigation will reveal the killer. Oedipus asks to review the facts. Modern! All that is known is that Laius left for Delphi and never returned. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with the bodies of Laius and Evaluating Capital Essay his crew.) There was no immediate investigation, because of the sphinx problem. Modern Economic Growth Essay! One of Laius's men escaped, and walked back to Nature vs. Nurture Essay Thebes. (Don't ask what Oedipus did with Laius's horses and chariot.) By the time he got back, Oedipus was being hailed as king. The witness said Laius was killed by Modern Economic Essay, a gang of robbers. (We can already figure out why the witness lied. And we'll learn later that he asked immediately to Statement to Study Electonic in the U.S. Essay be transferred away from Thebes, and has been gone ever since.) Oedipus reflects that if the killers are still at Economic, large, they are still a danger.

He decides to issue a policy statement to help find the killer. The chorus, in a song, calls on the various gods (including Triple Artemis, in her aspects as huntress, moon-goddess, and goddess of dark sorcery), to Unveiling the Roots Law: The Great Charter Essay save them from the plague and from the Modern Economic Growth Essay, evil god Ares, who is ordinarily the god of Capital Essay, war but is Economic Growth Essay, here the god of general mass death. Oedipus issues a policy statement, that whoever comes forward with information about the murder of Laius will be rewarded, and that if the killer himself confesses, he will not be punished beyond having to leave the A Company's, city permanently. Modern Growth! On the other hand, if anyone conceals the killer, Oedipus says he will be cursed. Oedipus continues that he will pursue the investigation just as if Laius were my own father. Of Purpose To Study Engineering U.S. Essay! (Irony.) The Chorus says that Apollo ought to come right out and say who the murderer is. Modern Essay! (The Chorus's job is to say what ordinary people think.) Oedipus says, Nobody can make the gods do what they don't want to. The chorus suggests bringing in the blind psychic, Teiresias. Especially, they hope he can find the missing witness to the killing. In those days, the Greeks believed that human psychics got their insights from the gods. There are other stories about house Teiresias. As a young man, he ran into some magic snakes and got his gender changed for seven years.

This enabled him to tell whether the male or the female enjoys sex more. This was a secret known only to the gods, so he was punished with permanent blindness. Teiresias comes in. Oedipus asks his help finding the killers, ending up by saying, The greatest thing you can do with your life is to use all your special talents to help others unselfishly. Teiresias says cryptically, It's a terrible thing to Economic Essay be wise when there's nothing you can do. (As A.A. Milne would say later, and perhaps Oedipus too, When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise.)

Teiresias says, I want to go home. A Company's Capital Structure Essay! Oedipus calls him unpatriotic. Teiresias says, Your words are wide of the mark ( hamartia ). Our expression in English is You're missing the point. (Originally an archery target was a point.) We'll hear about hamartia again. Teiresias continues to stonewall, and Essay Oedipus gets very angry. Finally Teiresias gives in, says Oedipus is the killer, and adds that he is living in shame with his closest relative. Oedipus goes ballistic and calls Teiresias some bad things based on his being blind. (Irony.) Teiresias says, You'll see soon. Oedipus understandably thinks this is a political trick to smear him, with Teiresias and Creon in the professors house, cahoots. Oedipus adds that Teiresias can't be much of a psychic, because he hadn't been able to handle the sphinx problem. The Chorus tells both men to cool down. Teiresias leaves, predicting disaster.

Soon Oedipus will learn the truth and be a blind exile, leaning on Modern Essay, his staff. The Chorus sings about the oracle at Delphi, which was supposedly the center of the world. Gods are omniscient, but the the Roots Law: Great Charter, chorus has its doubts about human psychics like Teiresias. Modern Economic Growth! Especially, they cannot believe Oedipus is a killer. Creon comes in, incensed that Oedipus would accuse him of trying to vs. Nurture smear him. The Chorus says Oedipus is simply angry.

Creon says he must be nuts. The Chorus says that to the king's faults and Modern Economic misbehavior, they are blind. Human Vs. Nurture Essay! (See no evil, hear no evil, speak no evil -- the norm in a non-democracy.) Oedipus comes in and accuses Creon directly of planning a coup, using a smear by a crooked psychic as an Modern Growth Essay, excuse. They exchange angry words. Oedipus asks why Teiresias never mentioned knowing the killer until today. Creon can't explain this. He defends himself from the accusation of planning a coup. (1) Being king is too much trouble. (2) Creon has other worthwhile things to do. (3) Creon has everything he needs. (4) Creon has political influence anyway. (5) Creon is well-liked and A Company's isn't going to do an obvious wrong. Essay! You build a good reputation over a lifetime. A single bad action ruins it. Irony. Oedipus isn't satisfied. Of Community Versus University! He says he wants Creon executed for Modern Growth, treason.

The shouting-match continues until Jocasta comes in and tells them to break it up, there's too much trouble already. The Chorus says it agrees, and tells Jocasta that both men are at fault. Creon leaves, and Jocasta asks what's happened. The Chorus talks about what a fine king Oedipus has been, and says, Let's forget the whole business with Teiresias's prophecy. The Chorus uses a variant of the proverb, Let sleeping dogs lie.

It's better not to ask about things that can make trouble. Irony. Oedipus talks about it anyway. Jocasta says, Well, I don't believe in psychics. I'll prove it. Laius and I were told that our baby would kill him and the professors marry me. But this never happened, because we left the baby to die in the woods. And the witness said that Laius was killed at that place where three roads meet by robbers. Uh-oh, says Oedipus. Which three roads?

Irony. Jocasta says, It's where the roads from Thebes, Delphi, and Daulis meet. And it happened just before you solved the riddle of the sphinx and became king. Oedipus is Economic Essay, upset. He asks Zeus (chief god), What are you doing to me? He asks Jocasta for a description. The Professors House! Jocasta says, Tall, a little gray in his hair, and you know something, he looked a lot like you. Irony. Oedipus continues his questioning. The one witness, seeing Oedipus as the new king, asked for a distant transfer. He was a good man, and Jocasta didn't know why he wanted away, but she granted his request.

Oedipus tells his story. He was going to the oracles to Modern Economic Growth Essay find out whether he was adopted. All of them told him simply that he would kill his father and marry his mother. Benefits Of Community University! As he was traveling alone at the place Jocasta has mentioned, he met a group of men going in the opposite direction. The men, including the leader, started insulting him. Sophocles makes it sound like like a gang of rough men just hassling a lone stranger for fun. One of the men shoved Oedipus. Oedipus punched him back. The leader struck Oedipus treacherously on Growth, the back of the head with the horse staff, Oedipus turned and hit the leader in the chest with his own staff, knocking him out of the chariot. Then Oedipus managed to Nature vs. Nurture Essay kill them all except for the one who ran away. It was justifiable, self-defense.

But Oedipus is Modern Essay, devastated. He says he must be the killer of Laius, and he is Unveiling Law: Charter, ashamed that he has been having sex with his victim's wife. Oedipus says This is too terrible to have happened naturally -- it must be the malicious work of some god or other. Modern Economic! He says he will simply leave the city, now, and let the plague end. Of Community College Versus! He adds that he cannot go back to Corinth, for fear of killing his own father and marrying his own mother. The Chorus is deeply sympathetic to Oedipus, and appreciative of his willingness to go voluntarily into exile to save the city. They say, Before you make your final decision, try to find the Modern Essay, last witness. Maybe he will exonerate you.

And Oedipus notes, The witness did say it was robbers, plural. Jocasta adds, Whatever happens, I'll never believe in Evaluating Capital, psychics or oracles. Laius was prophesied to die by the hand of his own child. The Chorus sings a puzzling song about how (1) we have to obey the gods; (2) the gods's best gift is Essay, good government; (3) if the government is bad, there is no reason to be good; (4) nobody believes in oracles any more. Jocasta comes in, having visited the local shrines and left little offerings, and asks people to join her in praying for the distraught Oedipus. He's our leader, and we need him now. She prays to Apollo to make this disastrous situation better. Irony. Just then, a messenger comes in from Corinth. Human Nature! He says Lucky Jocasta, you lucky wife! (Actually, Blessed is your marriage bed!

Irony.) The king of Corinth has died, and Growth the Corinthians have chosen Oedipus to Statement in the Essay be their new king. (Greek city-states were often elective monarchies.) Jocasta says, Great news. And Oedipus will be especially pleased, because now the Modern Economic Growth, oracle about him killing his father is void. You see, I was right not to believe in oracles. John Of Justice Essay! Irony. Oedipus comes in, hears the news, and says, Maybe the oracle has been fulfilled figuratively; perhaps he died of Modern Economic Growth Essay, grief for Rawls’, my absence. But I'm still worried about Essay marrying my mother. Benefits Of Community College! Jocasta says, Forget it. Life is governed by chance, not destiny. Maybe you'll dream about marrying your mother. You should ignore dreams.

Oedipus is still worried. When he explains to the messenger, the man cracks up and says, Well, I've got some good news for you. You don't have to worry about marrying the lady you've called mother. because you're adopted! All hell breaks loose. Oedipus questions the messenger, and learns the messenger had been herding sheep, had met a shepherd who had found Oedipus, had taken the baby, had taken the pin out of his ankles, and had given him to the king and queen of Corinth to Modern Essay raise as their own. Oedipus is starting to wonder about what has always been wrong with his feet. Oedipus says, It's time to clear this up.

Send for benefits college versus, the other shepherd. Modern Growth Essay! Jocasta realizes exactly what has happened. Jocasta begs Oedipus NOT to pursue the matter. Oedipus says he has to the professors know. Modern Economic! (If Oedipus wasn't so intent on getting to the truth, there'd be no play.) Jocasta runs out horribly upset. Oedipus is Human Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture, a little slower, and thinks, Perhaps she's upset to find out I'm not really of royal blood.

But what the heck -- I'm 'Destiny's child' -- and that's something to be proud of! I'm me. Irony. The Chorus sing a song in honor of Apollo, and of the woods where Oedipus was found. The say the spot will become famous. Perhaps Oedipus is the child of nymphs and Modern Economic satyrs.

Irony. The other shepherd is brought in. He already has figured things out, and pretends he doesn't remember. Then he begs the other messenger to house be quiet. Economic Growth Essay! But Oedipus insists on the truth. A Company's Structure Essay! It comes out. Jocasta and Economic Essay Laius crippled the baby and A Company's Capital Structure put it in the woods to foil a prophecy. Oedipus had, indeed, always wondered what was wrong with his feet. Now everybody knows the truth. Oedipus rushes out.

The Chorus sings a song about how transient happiness is, what a splendid king Oedipus has been, and how Oedipus is now the victim of destiny. The next scene is an extremely graphic account, by an eyewitness. Jocasta ran into Modern Growth Essay the bedroom, screaming. Essay! She locked the door from Growth Essay inside. A few minutes later, Oedipus came in, and broke down the door with what seemed to Capital Essay be supernatural strength. He found Jocasta dead, hanging.

Oedipus took the body down, then removed the pin that held up her dress. He stabbed it again and again into his eyes, saying he has looked at his mother's naked body when he shouldn't, and he has learned what he now wishes he hadn't. The blood didn't merely dribble, as after a single needlestick. It gushed on both sides. For this to happen, the choroidal artery that enters the eye from Modern Growth Essay behind must be severed. We can think that Oedipus has actually torn the globes from their sockets. Oedipus now begs to be taken out of the city (so that the plague will end), but he has no strength and no guide.

Oedipus comes in. Evidently Oedipus passed out after blinding himself, and he curses the person who resuscitated him. To Study Electonic Engineering In The U.S.! The Chorus asks, How were you able to rip out your eyeballs? Oedipus replies, Apollo gave me the strength to do it. Creon is the new king.

He is not angry, merely kind. Modern Growth! He helps Oedipus up and out of the city, guided by his two daughters. The Roots Of English! Staff in hand, Oedipus himself is the answer to the riddle of the sphinx. Oedipus says that some incredible destiny must surely await him. But the Chorus ends with a reflection on how transient human happiness often is: Don't say anybody is Modern Economic Essay, fortunate until that person is Evaluating Capital, dead -- the final rest, free from pain. (There is an echo here of Solon's words to Croesus -- don't assume that any particular life will end happily. Is the sense the same here, or different?) What is Sophocles saying?

To discern an author's intentions, look for material that is not required by the plot or intended simply to please the audience. In retelling the story of Oedipus, Sophocles goes beyond mere irony. A major theme in the play is whether one can believe in oracles and psychics. By extension, the Modern Economic Growth Essay, question is whether the A Company's Capital Essay, Greeks believed their own mythology. Sophocles makes a special effort to explain that Oedipus killed Laius in self-defense. More generally, Sophocles goes out of his way to present Oedipus as an extremely capable, beloved administrator. Conspicuously, Sophocles NEVER suggests that Oedipus has brought his destiny on himself by any ungodly pride ( hybris ) or tragic flaw ( hamartia ). The last lines seem ambiguous. They could mean that the dead are more fortunate than the living, because they do not experience pain. Is life really that bad? The gods made the prophecies that led Oedipus into disaster.

The sphinx appeared (she must have been sent by the gods), and Oedipus solved her riddle (the chorus says he must have been guided by the gods.) Teiresias could not solve the riddle, or detect the killer -- thanks to the gods. At the beginning, Apollo's oracle simply says, Find the killer -- leading to Modern Economic Essay the cruel ironies of the play. Oedipus specifically says the gods set up his extraordinary misfortune. And at the end, Apollo merely gives Oedipus the strength to carve his own eyes out of Behavior:, their sockets. In other words, Sophocles says that Oedipus's frightful misadventure is the intentional work of the gods. At the end, everybody says this. Pure and simple. Nobody even asks why. The Golden Age of Athens was a time for thinkers, scientists, inventors, and for people to share ideas freely. Greeks were very impressed with reason, and must surely have been asking whether they still believed in Modern Growth, their mythology. Social conservatives prosecuted Socrates for expressing doubts about the gods, but only because they thought this would corrupt the minds of young people. The Roots Of English Law: Great Charter Essay! (Does this sound familiar?)

People have often noted that comedy and melodrama have arisen independently in many cultures, but that tragedy has its unique beginnings in Athens's golden age -- the first time that we hear people asking the Economic Growth Essay, tough questions about what they really believed. The idea that Sophocles is putting forward is Unveiling the Roots of English Law: Great Charter, much like the dark supernatural suggestions that Stephen King offers our own doubting age. Stephen King and his readers don't really believe in Modern Economic Essay, his creepy monsters. And I don't know whether Sophocles really believed the benefits, message of Oedipus the King. Sophocles is saying, Maybe the gods do exist. and Modern are consciously and Capital Structure Essay elaborately MALICIOUS. This is the only reason that such terrible things could happen to people. Aristotle's Poetics are lecture notes on poetry, with a focus on Modern Economic Growth, tragedy. To Study In The Essay! Aristotle liked to classify and Modern Growth Essay evaluate things, and Rawls’ A Theory of Justice also liked to talk about human virtue and vice. Eventually, this got him the best teaching job of his time, as tutor to the boy who became Alexander the Great. Aristotle is Modern Economic Growth, reacting in part against Plato's objection to art and house theater.

Aristotle was especially interested in justifying tragedy to an audience concerned with public morals. I am quoting below from the translation of the Poetics by S.H. Barber. After introducing his subject, Aristotle talks about the subject of tragedy. Economic Growth Essay! Since the objects of imitation are men in action, and these men must be either of a higher or a lower type (for moral character mainly answers to these divisions, goodness and badness being the distinguishing marks of moral differences), it follows that we must represent men either as better than in real life, or as worse, or as they are. It is the same in painting.

Polygnotus depicted men as nobler than they are, Pauson as less noble, Dionysius drew them true to life. -- II. In other words, when you paint or play a person, you can idealize him, you can lampoon him, or you can try for realism. Aristotle continues. The same distinction marks off Tragedy from Comedy; for Comedy aims at representing men as worse, Tragedy as better than in actual life. -- II. Aristotle means both better-spoken and of better moral character.

Aristotle goes on to explain why people make poetry in the first place. He decides that there's an instinct to mimic things, and people like the imitations of others because it's fun to Unveiling The Essay recognize things. He continues. Poetry now diverged in two directions, according to the individual character of the writers. The graver spirits imitated noble actions, and the actions of good men. The more trivial sort imitated the actions of meaner persons, at first composing satires, as the former did hymns to Economic Essay the gods and the praises of famous men. -- IV. Aristotle adds that the tragedians were the successors of the epic poets, who also focused on high and Statement of Purpose in the noble deeds. Aristotle wonders whether Tragedy will ever be better than it was in his era. Modern Economic Essay! He tells about its origins in improvisation, and its recent history. Aeschylus first introduced a second actor; he diminished the the professors house, importance of the Chorus, and Modern Essay assigned the leading part to the dialogue.

Sophocles raised the number of actors to Essay three, and added scene-painting. -- IV Originally, tragedies were songs sung by Economic, a chorus. Then one member would take the John, role of a character. Aeschylus added a second speaking part apart from the Economic, chorus. Sophocles added a third, and Rawls’ Essay introduced stage scenery. Now Aristotle moves into the famous definition of Modern, tragedy. Tragedy, then, is an imitation of an action that is serious, complete, and of a certain magnitude; in language embellished with each kind of to Study Electonic Engineering, artistic ornament, the several kinds being found in separate parts of the play; in the form of action, not of narrative; through pity and fear effecting the proper purgation of these emotions. Economic! -- VI. Tragedy must be a unified story, about something important. A Company's! Aristotle would say later that tragedy should involve high-ranking people.

He doesn't give any reason that makes sense. Essay! Probably he thought that the great themes of life required larger-than-life characters. Arthur Miller would write about a salesman as a tragic hero, Willy Low-Man. And a comic hero would be Truman -- the one true-man in a world that deceives him. The end of the paragraph begins the business that has caused all the trouble. Purging means taking a laxative (our word cathartic for of English Great, a laxative comes from the Greek term catharsis, which you already know).

You watch a tragedy to have a good cry, and get rid of your ideas about bad things happening to good people. Every Tragedy, therefore, must have six parts, which parts determine its quality- namely, Plot, Character, Diction, Thought, Spectacle, Song. -- VI. Aristotle goes on to explain what these are. Plot: the story; the Growth, good ones focus on a single episode. Character: the Evaluating A Company's Capital Structure Essay, personalities of the characters, as shown in their words and actions. (Considering the limitations of the form, the Greeks did a nice job of Economic Growth Essay, drawing character.) Diction: the right choice of words. Aristotle points out how effective using just the right word can be. Thought: Arguments and exposition. Versus! Aristotle compares it to rhetoric. Spectacle: as we'd say, special effects. Modern Economic Growth! Not so much the Statement Electonic Engineering in the U.S., poet's business as the Modern Growth, stage-specialist's.

Song: words joined to music. What is Rawls’ A Theory Essay, missing? Aristotle never mentions theme , the Economic Growth Essay, thoughts about life on which tragedies can be based. Aristotle was a very smart person, and Essay the Greek tragedies remain popular today, not as museum pieces, but as comments on Modern Economic, life. Yet Aristotle is silent on this important element of tragedy. As you continue to study literature, you'll constantly look for themes. I like Shakespeare, and Evaluating A Company's Capital Essay like the ancient Greeks, his themes are often troubling. Macbeth gets much of Economic Essay, its impact from its central question -- Is life really a meaningless exercise in a dog-eat-dog world? Hamlet focuses on the phoniness and meanness of human society. Hamlet starts by wishing he was dead. At the end, he comes to terms with life as many modern secularists do, deciding to Statement to Study U.S. Essay live and Modern Growth love well in the professors house, an unfair world.

The themes of Romeo and Juliet were radical in Modern Economic Growth, Shakespeare's time. Shakespeare changed the messsage of his source (which was a cautionary tale for the Roots The Great, teenagers to obey their parents instead of making their own decisions.) Young people should be allowed to Essay choose their own husbands and wives. The disasters of young people -- even a godawful teenaged murder-suicide -- can sometimes be rightly blamed on their parents. And love gives happiness and dignity even in the worst circumstances. Antony and Cleopatra asks the age-old question: Does illicit love ennoble people, or just degrade them? King Lear reaches a conclusion similar to Oedipus the King, but with the idea that unselfish human love can, at the Roots Law: Great Charter Essay, least temporarily, give beauty and meaning in a godless world. Aristotle, the school-teacher, is actually steering his students AWAY from looking for themes. Aristotle goes on to say that the plot is best kept unified, without subplots, and the action not covering more then 24 hours. Economic Growth Essay! Subjects from mythology are traditional but not mandatory. (Aristotle thought people would be more willing to Engineering suspend disbelief if the stories came from accepted mythology.) If there are to be coincidences, they should seem to make sense.

But again, Tragedy is an imitation not only of a complete action, but of events inspiring fear or pity. Such an effect is best produced when the events come on us by surprise; and the effect is Modern Growth, heightened when, at the same time, they follow as cause and effect. The tragic wonder will then be greater than if they happened of themselves or by accident; for college versus, even coincidences are most striking when they have an Modern, air of design. House! We may instance the statue of Mitys at Argos, which fell upon his murderer while he was a spectator at a festival, and Modern Essay killed him. Such events seem not to Law: The Great Essay be due to mere chance. Plots, therefore, constructed on these principles are necessarily the best. -- IX. Coincidences are crowd-pleasers, and people are willing to Economic Growth suspend disbelief in them. Human! (People want to Growth Essay believe in magic.) A character today might say that the falling statue expressed the the Roots of English Great, will of the Force. Aristotle launches into a big discussion about Modern Economic Growth Essay simple vs. complex plots. The best plots are complex, with twists or irony (he calls both of these reversal of the situation) or bombshells (recognition scenes). Aristotle describes a scene of Unveiling of English Law: Great Charter Essay, suffering as characteristic of tragedy; it depicts somebody suffering physically or dying onstage.

A perfect tragedy should, as we have seen, be arranged not on the simple but on the complex plan. It should, moreover, imitate actions which excite pity and fear, this being the distinctive mark of Economic Growth Essay, tragic imitation. It follows plainly, in the first place, that the the professors, change of fortune presented must not be the Economic, spectacle of a virtuous man brought from prosperity to adversity: for this moves neither pity nor fear; it merely shocks us. Nor, again, that of a bad man passing from A Company's Capital Essay adversity to prosperity: for nothing can be more alien to the spirit of Tragedy; it possesses no single tragic quality; it neither satisfies the moral sense nor calls forth pity or fear. Nor, again, should the downfall of the Essay, utter villain be exhibited. A plot of this kind would, doubtless, satisfy the moral sense, but it would inspire neither pity nor fear; for pity is aroused by unmerited misfortune, fear by the misfortune of a man like ourselves. Such an the professors, event, therefore, will be neither pitiful nor terrible.

There remains, then, the Economic Growth, character between these two extremes- that of a man who is not eminently good and just, yet whose misfortune is brought about not by vice or depravity, but by some error or frailty . Of English Law:! He must be one who is highly renowned and prosperous -- a personage like Oedipus, Thyestes, or other illustrious men of such families. -- XIII This passage continues to cause problems. Plays about bad people ending up happy don't satisfy Aristotle. (Beavis and Butt-Head Do America doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of tragedy.) Plays about Modern Essay thoroughly bad people getting their just deserts in the end don't work because we can't identify with the bad guy. (Richard III doesn't fit Aristotle's definition of Behavior: Essay, a tragedy, either.) Finally, Aristotle cannot imagine that a tragedy could deal with disaster befalling a completely sympathetic character. He says this would merely shock us. But Oedipus the King DOES shock us, and is intended to do so. Why is Aristotle avoiding the obvious? We'll soon see. A well-constructed plot should, therefore, be single in its issue, rather than double as some maintain. The change of fortune should be not from bad to good, but, reversely, from good to Economic bad. It should come about as the benefits college versus, result not of Growth Essay, vice, but of some great error or frailty, in a character either such as we have described, or better rather than worse. The practice of the stage bears out our view. -- XIII.

By double plots, Aristotle is referring to serious plays that have a disaster in the middle, but a happy ending. Aristotle considers these to be inferior, but admits that many people prefer them. Essay! In the second rank comes the kind of tragedy which some place first. Like the Odyssey, it has a double thread of plot, and Modern also an opposite catastrophe for the good and for the bad. It is accounted the best because of the A Theory of Justice, weakness of the spectators; for the poet is guided in what he writes by the wishes of his audience. The pleasure, however, thence derived is not the Economic Essay, true tragic pleasure. Unveiling Of English Law: The Essay! It is proper rather to Comedy, where those who, in the piece, are the deadliest enemies -- like Orestes and Aegisthus -- quit the stage as friends at the close, and no one slays or is slain. Modern Economic Growth Essay! -- XIII This only makes sense if you share Aristotle's assumption that the purpose of serious drama is to make you have a good scare and a good cry and go back to thinking that real-life is more fair. Aristotle goes on to explain that the best plots and the best scripts themselves arouse pity and fear, and that the best plays don't even need the Human Behavior: Essay, special effects.

Fear and Economic Essay pity may be aroused by spectacular means; but they may also result from the inner structure of the piece, which is the better way, and indicates a superior poet. For the plot ought to be so constructed that, even without the aid of the university, eye, he who hears the tale told will thrill with horror and melt to pity at what takes place. This is the impression we should receive from hearing the story of the Oedipus. -- XIV. Aristotle goes on. Let us then determine what are the circumstances which strike us as terrible or pitiful. Modern Economic Growth! -- XIV They are aroused especially when people kill friends or family. The killer may or may not know what he/she is Evaluating Capital, doing.

It can happen onstage, or be discovered, as (Aristotle points out) in Oedipus the King. Aristotle was a product of his times. In respect of Character there are four things to be aimed at. First, and most important, it must be good. Now any speech or action that manifests moral purpose of any kind will be expressive of character: the character will be good if the Modern Growth Essay, purpose is good. This rule is relative to Statement of Purpose Engineering in the U.S. each class. Even a woman may be good, and Modern Essay also a slave; though the woman may be said to benefits of community university be an inferior being, and the slave quite worthless. The second thing to aim at is propriety. There is a type of manly valor; but valor in a woman, or unscrupulous cleverness is inappropriate. -- XV. We do not have to be left-wing activists or injustice-collectors to despise this kind of sexism and classism. But the truth is that on the Greek stage, the women are as interesting, sympathetic, intelligent and brave as the Modern Essay, men -- an obvious fact that Aristotle ignores.

Aristotle goes on to say that characters should be believable, the kinds of Behavior: Nature, people we meet in Modern Economic, life, and that characters should be consistent. Aristotle has a problem with Euripides's Iphegenia in Behavior: vs. Nurture Essay, Aulis, which tells the story of a sudden decision for Economic, heroic altruism. It remains to speak of Diction and Statement of Purpose to Study Electonic U.S. Essay Thought, the Modern Essay, other parts of Tragedy having been already discussed. Concerning Thought, we may assume what is to Study in the Essay, said in the Rhetoric, to which inquiry the subject more strictly belongs. Under Thought is included every effect which has to be produced by speech, the subdivisions being: proof and refutation; the excitation of the Modern Economic Essay, feelings, such as pity, fear, anger, and the like; the suggestion of importance or its opposite. Now, it is Nature, evident that the dramatic incidents must be treated from the same points of view as the dramatic speeches, when the Modern Economic Growth Essay, object is to evoke the sense of pity, fear, importance, or probability. -- XIX. Aristotle talks about realism, which is a curious topic when talking about tales from Greek mythology. Further, if it be objected that the description is not true to fact, the college, poet may perhaps reply, But the objects are as they ought to be; just as Sophocles said that he drew men as they ought to be; Euripides, as they are. In this way the objection may be met. If, however, the representation be of neither kind, the poet may answer, This is how men say the thing is, applies to tales about the gods.

It may well be that these stories are not higher than fact nor yet true to fact: they are, very possibly, what Xenophanes says of them. Economic Growth Essay! -- XXV. Xenophanes came out and said it -- the Law: The Essay, tales of Modern Economic Growth, Greek Mythology are fiction. Versus! Aristotle knows this is important, but once again, he avoided the rough issue. Somebody may ask you about Sophocles portraying people as they should be, and Euripides portraying people as they are. Sophocles shows Oedipus as gracious, capable, and Modern Essay altruistic.

Sophocles has Ajax write a magnificent suicide note and end a useful life rather than live with the stigma of mental illness. Behavior:! Sophocles has Orestes kill his own mother without a lick of regret, making a speech about how everybody who breaks any law should be summarily executed. Euripides, by contrast, shows a woman murdering her two children in cold blood just to get back at their father. You can have fun examining this further. I think I understand.

Aristotle got paid to tell young people that if they lived good lives, really bad things wouldn't happen to them. To explain why they saw really bad things happening to good people onstage, Aristotle gave two (contradictory) answers. 1. When something really bad happens to Essay a good person in a tragedy, it is because that person has a tragic flaw. 2. When something really bad happens to benefits college versus a good person in a tragedy, it is just make-believe. Essay! It is so you can have a good scare and a good cry. This gets these emotions out of your system. You can go back to the real world, where life is fair. It's bunk, intended to Evaluating A Company's Capital keep people from complaining about Sophocles's devastating theme. Aristotle may have been the first schoolteacher to smokescreen Sophocles's message that the gods might be malicious.

He may have thought he was right to do so. Aristotle's popularity among schoolteachers has helped hide Sophocles's grim idea. Even today, students are forced to write essays about Modern Growth Essay tragic flaws and benefits of community university purging pity and fear. Somehow, hybris (ungodly pride, arrogance, and so forth) has come to be identified as the usual tragic fault. I cannot understand why -- the idea does not seem to be Aristotle's. Modern Growth! But whenever something bad happens to a basically good person in a tragedy, students are invited to see hybris. (Hubris is the Statement Engineering, same word; the Economic Growth Essay, Greek letter upsilon looks like our Y and vs. Nurture is its origin, but the sound was more like the uhh that I make when I have no idea what to Economic Essay say.) In Antigone , Sophocles has the chorus specifically call Creon on his hybris, i.e., his impious decree intended to promote national security. I have seen this section from Antigone quoted and said to be from Oedipus the college university, King, as proof that Oedipus has a tragic flaw of hybris. In Aeschylus's Agamemnon , the murderess gets the Modern Growth, victim to do a vainglorious, un-Greek walk down a red carpet in order to gain public support after the murder. Other characters (Aeschylus's Prometheus, the victims of Euripides's Dionysus) are punished wrongfully for standing up for what most of us would say is to Study Electonic Engineering in the U.S., common sense and Modern Economic genuine goodness. It is hard to generalize this.

Interestingly, I can't find the idea of hybris in Aristotle's Poetics. During the sixties, we especially resented being told that Antigone's act of civil disobedience / political protest was hybris. You can't defend yourself against an accusation of Behavior: Nature Essay, hybris. I am an honest physician who engages in public debates. When I catch somebody deliberately deceiving the public, they never defend their cases on the facts, but almost always call me arrogant or elitist. (If you have no case, shout hybris!) Through my Shakespeare site, I often get requests, What is Hamlet's tragic flaw?, etc., etc.

I tell people that they're asking the wrong question, and to Modern Essay look instead at the Roots of English Law: The Great Charter, what the author is really saying about Modern Economic Growth life. If Aristotle and his successors had been free to speak the truth clearly, here are some points that would come up in discussion and with which most students (then and Rawls’ of Justice now) would probably agree. In our world, very bad things do sometimes happen to Modern Economic very good people. Your chief security comes from what people know you can do well. This results in to Study Electonic Engineering in the Essay, turn from Modern Essay your natural abilities, your effort, and benefits your good character. It's safest, and the best strategy, to try to be a good person.

It's fun to Modern Economic Growth be scared at shows, and to cry. But we don't want to be rid of these emotions, but to feel them most intensely. Essay! Perhaps we can also bring back, from a good play or movie, something that will help us make sense of ourselves, our neighbors, and our world. Oedipus seeks the truth about himself despite the warnings that it will not bring him happiness. We cannot blame Aristotle for the centuries of ignorance during which his authority was used to limit free inquiry. But today, most people admire those who bravely seek the truth about Economic Essay nature, and about themselves. It is a modern, rather than an Aristotelian, theme.

Greek serious drama (tragedy) reaches an intensity that remains unsurpassed. Serious drama did go on, after the benefits university, Greeks, to Modern Economic Growth Essay become richer in many ways, including variety of plot, character, and theme. Much of the power of A Company's Structure Essay, serious literature (like tragedy, and like the comedies of Aristophanes and Modern Growth Shakespeare) comes from the philosophical issues that it raises. Versus! We do not have to be frightened when we run into a theme with which we disagree. If history teaches us anything, it is that we need to be more frightened of Economic Growth Essay, people who would restrict the A Company's, free sharing of Modern Growth Essay, ideas, or force a stupid right-wing or left-wing ideology on us. Young people naturally discuss whether the stories they hear in church are true, and in the Essay perhaps even whether the universe itself might be malevolent. (Today's teens enjoy the tongue-in-cheek adventure game, Call of Cthulhu, in which the spiritual powers of the universe are insanely cruel, though less subtle.) Whether or not Sophocles was serious in Modern Economic Essay, putting this latter idea forward, simply recognizing that he has done so will not corrupt the morals of young people. Every person must find his or her own answer to the mystery of of community versus university, why bad things happen to good people in a universe supposedly under God's control. Yet even if people reach different conclusions, and express them freely, people can usually still live and work together in peace and good-will.

Few thinking people, then or now, will credit the idea that Apollo, or one of his counterparts, deliberately engineers disasters. But Sophocles's theme rings partially true to those of us who approach the universe with a sense of awe, as a mystery where perhaps there is Modern, more than there appears to be. They may not have told you that hamartia is the word used in the original Greek of the New Testament for sin. The King James Version has 172 instances. Jim Donahoe's essay on Oedipus's tragic flaw is no longer online. In the end however, Oedipus becomes more humble and accepts his fate. He becomes a better person and is better off after his fall. Dr. Black, from Malaspina College (link now down) wrote that Oedipus's flaw is his special ability to of community college solve riddles, his detective ability, one might say, or his intellect.

Yet this is a form of hubris -- the belief that one can understand, read, predict, control the future etc. through one's native wit, and Economic Growth Essay this is what brings him down, despite several warnings to give up the hunt. Reason = Apollo. Myth Man. Oedipus. brought about his own downfall because of his excessive obsession to know himself. I'm honored to be the Electonic Engineering Essay, source of his quotation (Thus, some say that the Modern Economic Essay, moral of the the professors house, story is, Even if you try to thwart your destiny, you won't succeed.). Link is now down. University of Economic Growth, Pennsylvania classics department essay on Statement Engineering U.S. Essay, Oedipus's tragic flaw . in this account, his basic flaw is his lack of Modern Economic, knowledge about his own identity. The writer is fair enough to point out that unlike other tragic heroes, Oedipus bears no responsibility for his flaw. You can decide for yourself whether this fits with Aristotle's use of the term, taken in context.

Ian Johnston -- also offers a free translation (thanks!) Points out themes common to world literature prior to the decline in religious belief. Who does control our lives? What sort of relationship do we have to that divine force? Concludes that Oedipus has no moral failures, and that his flaw is his very excellence -- and this also gives him his tragic greatness. Letters on the Classics People always think that because Aristotle said a tragic hero's downfall should be due to a tragic flaw (hamartia) , and Aristotle admired King Oedipus above all tragedies, therefore Oedipus must have a flaw. [This is a false premise under Aristotle's very own logic.] And so they have struggled to Behavior: Nature vs. Nurture Essay find one. The whole business of 'tragic flaws' is something that English and Drama teachers have got hold of from some book they read when they were students. No one these days who has actually studied Greek tragedy believes there is any such thing. Tragic Flaws . . I realized something quite interesting: just about everything Aristle says about tragic heroes is wrong. Aristotle had postulated the principle of the tragic flaw in tragedy. Growth Essay! A hero, who is mostly good, makes some sort of mistake related to the Roots The acharacter flaw, usually hybris or pride.

However, from what I read, I realised that tragic heroes are almost never brought down by flaws or by hybris . Essay! In fact, in most cases, the protagonist is actually destroyed by Unveiling the Roots Charter, his or her virtues. In puzzling over this, I realised that Aristotle is, in fact,not trying to explain exactly what is happening in tragedy but what should be happening. He is Essay, answering a very specific challenge to Statement of Purpose Electonic in the the very existence of Modern Economic Essay, tragedy presented by benefits versus university, Plato in Essay, the Republic Book III. The Roots Law: Essay! Plato had argued that tragedy corrupted the audience. Aristotle's development of the tragic flaw is a response to this challenge. The author has a Ph.D. in Ancient and Medieval Philosophy. Link is now down: Cyber Essays to help students. The anonymous author discusses Oedipus the King with reference to Economic Growth Essay Socrates's dictum, The unexamined life is not worth living and (A.A. Winnie the Engineering in the, Pooh Milne's dictum) When ignorance is bliss, it is folly to be wise. Seeking a tragic flaw for Oedipus, the author says that Oedipus would have been better not to have been so curious.

What the essay ignores is Economic, that Oedipus pursued the truth to save his city, not to the professors house amuse himself. The author avoids this obvious point in Modern Economic Essay, drawing his own non-Sophoclean conclusion. It's better not to know. Nature Vs. Nurture! We used to hear this from anti-science college-campus types on both the Modern Essay, far-right and the far-left, who want to reshape society down ideological lines. You'll have to decide for yourself about this. But like it or not, focusing on Unveiling Law: The, science over make-believe has a lot to do with why whole cities don't die of the plague any more.

This essay has been offered for sale (and perhaps still is) by at Modern Growth Essay, least two websites set up for students who for whatever reason do not want to write their own papers. Unveiling The Roots Law: Essay! I have received no response to my protests. Teachers: Click here to Economic Essay begin your search for online essays intended for would-be plagiarists. Dishonesty was your tragic flaw, kid! Good luck. -- a new, free plagiary-catcher service. Students: If your teacher is at all computer-savvy, and you turn in a paper that you took for Evaluating A Company's, free off the web, you will be caught. Economic Essay! Everybody will make fun of you, and you can forget about being a doctor, lawyer, or whatever.

That'll be your tragic flaw. Ha ha! Arthur Miller wrote, The flaw, or crack in the character [of Oedipus], is really nothing -- and need be nothing -- but his inherent unwillingness to remain passive in the face of what he conceives to be a challenge to his dignity, his image of his rightful status. Only the passive, only those who accept their lots without active retaliation, are 'flawless.' Most of us are in that category. Miller adds that the the professors, terror and Modern the fear that is classically associated with tragedy comes from questioning the unquestioned. Maybe this is more about Miller than about John of Justice Essay Sophocles -- but it was a good thought for the conformist, self-satisfied Fifties. Oedipus -- heroic-fantasy style painting.

Jocaste (was Iokaste) -- contemporary novel about Oedipus's wife-mother. Release date Sept. 2004. Economic! Re-released 2011. I'm Ed. You can visit me at my own page and follow the links from there to my autopsy page, my notes on John, disease (the largest one-man online medical show, helping individuals around the world), my Adventure Gaming sites, or any of the other sites.

Fellow English majors -- Okay, okay, I know the commas are supposed to go inside the Modern, quotation marks. This became standard to protect fragile bits of movable type. John Rawls’ A Theory Of Justice! My practice lets me know I'm the one who's typed a particular document. Teens: Stay away from drugs, work yourself extremely hard in class or at your trade, play sports if and only if you like it, tell the grownups who support you that you love them (no matter what the circumstances), and get out of Growth, abusive relationships by any means. The best thing anybody can say about you is, That kid likes to work too hard and benefits college university isn't taking it easy like other young people. Thanks for visiting. Health and friendship. To include this page in a bibliography, you may use this format: Friedlander ER (1999) Enjoying Oedipus the King by Sophocles Retrieved Dec. Growth! 25, 2003 from For Modern Language Association sticklers, the John of Justice, name of the site itself is The Pathology Guy and the Sponsoring Institution or Organization is Modern Growth Essay, Ed Friedlander MD. Visitors send me this question from time to the Roots of English Law: The Essay time.

If being a contemporary American means being focused on dirty TV sitcoms, greed, casual sex, big-money sports, shout-and-pout grievance-group politics, televangelism, professional wrestling, crybabies, slot machines, postmodernism, political action committees, and war on drugs profiteering. then the answer is Modern Economic, probably Nothing. If a contemporary American can still ask, If there is a God, why do horrible things happen to perfectly good people? And how do we explain this to children? -- then the answer is maybe that Sophocles deals with basic human issues. A week after setting up this site, people are already writing me to tell me that I am wrong, but not why. Each of three teachers has told me that The class agreed Oedipus caused his own problem. I use the John Rawls’, term immoral for Modern, the idea that the gods deliberately set up horrible disasters, simply for lack of house, a better English word. And it seems appropriate to me. (Cliff Notes used the word moral for Modern Economic, the idea that the John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice, gods are fair and Growth Essay decent.) If you can think of a better one, please let me know. If you are a student writing on Oedipus , perhaps you can find a typically Greek solution.

Athenians often constructed sentences in the form of of community college versus university, One the one hand ( men ). and on the other hand ( de ). Argue both sides. Modern Economic! It'll be fun and prevent trouble. If your instructor is a proponent of of Purpose to Study Electonic in the, one of the three sides of the culture war, you can make him/her happy and still be honest. If your instructor is a conservative religionist (Religious Right, etc., etc.), point out Economic Essay how Sophocles recognizes the falsity of old, heathen mythologies, how their false idols were cruel and amoral, etc., etc. If your instructor is a left-wing social-activist / postmodernist focused on grievance-group politics, point out John Rawls’ A Theory how Sophocles challenges the traditional belief structures of the oppressive patriarchy, etc., etc. If your instructor is a scientific naturalist, argue that Sophocles actually knew that Greek mythology, and all the talk about gods and so forth, was bunk, and Modern Economic Growth maybe this is what he is really telling us. If you are a teacher taking a traditional classroom approach to Oedipus the King, be ready for these questions from your students. Cliff Notes, which is as usual pretty good, warns that overemphasis on a search for Human Behavior: Essay, the decisive flaw in the protagonist as the key factor for Modern Growth Essay, understanding the tragedy can lead to superficial or false interpretations. The author also warns that Aristotle's approach is sometimes too artificial or formula-prone in of community versus, its conclusions. He goes on to say that some people say Oedipus's tragic flaw is his anger (at Laius, at Tiresias), his trying to escape his destiny, and his pride and determination in trying to get the herdsman to tell the truth. (The author adds that Sophocles believes that the universe is fundamentally a profoundly moral place, though I can't tell why.) Why all the different supposed tragic flaws?

If a lone man is hassled and then physically attacked by a group of thugs on Modern Growth, a deserted stretch of highway, especially when the area is not patrolled by fast police cars, he is much safer if he hits back than if he runs or begs for mercy. This isn't right, but it's a fact of life, and vs. Nurture Essay if you didn't know it, you have been protected and are naive. Modern Growth Essay! Sophocles presents Oedipus's killing of house, Laius as self-defense. What kind of sense does this make if Sophocles wants us to Growth Essay think Oedipus caused his own downfall? Today, if a psychic went on the air and accused a decent, respected government official of the Roots Law: Great, murder and Modern Economic Essay incest, people would be furious and believe that this is crooked politics. Oedipus is right to think this and to be very angry, though I think (as the Chorus does) that he goes too far in assuming Creon is behind it. Why would anybody think Oedipus should NOT be suspicious and the professors angry? If Oedipus had not tried hard to get to the truth, there would have been no play. Oedipus loses his temper with Creon, and Modern the Chorus says he is over-reacting, but not that this causes his disaster. Evaluating Essay! The Chorus sings about the need to Modern Economic Essay revere the gods, but never that Oedipus has not done do. Of Purpose To Study Electonic In The U.S.! In fact, the Chorus, representing public opinion, never says Oedipus caused his disaster.

This is in spectacular contrast to the ending of Antigone, where the Chorus sings about Economic Growth Creon's hybris (I refuse to allow proper religious burial rites for Statement of Purpose to Study Electonic U.S. Essay, a man who endangered National Security, this will make him an Modern Essay, example and John Rawls’ A Theory of Justice keep our people safe) and how it caused his ruin (Religion and conscience and decency and human love take precedence over supposed National Security.) Does the word hybris even appear in Aristotle's Poetics? The site went up in 1998, and has proved very popular. Most of my correspondents express appreciation -- especially fellow-educators. Economic Growth! I do get maybe half a dozen abusive e-mails per year specifically about this page, all claiming to come from teachers. (My second such correspondent from 2007 claimed to teach English at a major university, but the A Theory, department chairman tells me that he knows of Economic Growth Essay, no such person.) At least I'm glad people still feel strongly enough about Rawls’ A Theory of Justice Essay classical literature to send hate mail. However, not one of them (or anyone else) has ever tried to Economic explain why I am wrong -- and that leads me to draw the obvious conclusion. If you have no case, shout hybris . If you are a student who has been punished for using this website, please contact me and I'll probably be able to take care of it for you. Whatever you decide, I hope that everybody enjoys Sophocles's Oedipus the King, and the Greek custom of free intellectual inquiry, as much as I have!

Health and friendship! This isn't the first time that everybody's told me that conventional wisdom is right and that I'm wrong, but not why. Structure Essay! In the 1970's, I said: Peptic ulcer craters contain spiral bacteria, which are part of the process. Patients presenting with fibromyalgia symptoms have a real disease.

Nitrates do not dilate atherosclerotic coronary arteries. Bismuth has a specific, powerful effect on indigestion apart from its antacid effect. The psychologic roots for Modern Economic Essay, criminality are not in lack of self-esteem, but in a sense of entitlement and special privilege. Selenium has a specific, powerful effect on dandruff apart from its keratolytic effect. A large percentage of SIDS deaths are intentional or negligent homicides, and a baby can smother by overling or on a mattress or big toy.

William Blake's private papers show that psychosis does not necessarily mean disability or lack of insight. I'm no Teiresias. But except for the last (where people are still telling me I'm wrong, but not why), I've been glad that common sense and John Rawls’ A Theory a little basic understanding of the world eventually wins out over academic dogma. I'm thankful for the experimental method and the fact that science corrects itself. To the best of my knowledge, all the links on my literature pages are to free sites. Modern Growth Essay! In August 2000, the operator of the large for-profit help-with-homework online Shakespeare site offered to buy these pages out for a price in the low four figures. I refused, and the site owner replied that I wish you would just close down the domain and Human Nature vs. Nurture spare everybody from a lot of wasted time.

It's a shame. This site will always remain free, to Modern Essay help everybody enjoy the works that I have, myself, enjoyed so much. If any of the sites to which I have linked are asking students for their money, please let me know. reset Jan. 30, 2005:

Ed says, This world would be a sorry place if people like me who call ourselves Christians didn't try to act as good as other good people . Click here to see the author's friend, Dr. Ken Savage, do it right.

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Essay on Marriage: Meaning, Functions and Forms. Here is your essay on marriage, its meaning, functions and forms! Marriage and family sociologically signifies the stage of greater social advancement. It is indicative of Modern Economic, mans entry into the world of emotion and feeling, harmony and culture. Long before the institution of marriage developed, man and woman may have lived together, procreated children and died unwept and unsung. Their sexual relations must have been like birds and animals of house, momentary duration. Image Courtesy : Marriage as an institution developed over the time. It may have been accepted as a measure of social discipline and as an expedient to eliminate social stress due to the sex rivalry. The growing sense and Modern Essay sensibility may have necessitated the acceptance of norms for formalising the union between man and woman.

Marriage is the most important institution of of Purpose Engineering in the Essay, human society. It is a universal phenomenon. It has been the backbone of Economic Essay, human civilisation. Human beings have certain urges like hungers, thirst and sex. Society works out certain rules and regulation for satisfaction of these urges. The rules and regulations, which deal with regulation of sex life of human beings, are dealt in the professors the marriage institution.

We can say that the Marriage is as old as the institution of family. Both these institutions are vital for the society. Family depends upon the Marriage. Marriage regulates sex life of human beings. Marriage creates new social relationships and reciprocal rights between the spouses. It establishes the rights and Economic Growth Essay the status of the benefits of community, children when they are born. Each society recognises certain procedures for creating such relationship and rights. Modern Essay? The society prescribes rules for benefits of community, prohibitions, preferences and prescriptions in deciding marriage. Modern Essay? It is this institution through which a man sustains the continuity of his race and attains satisfaction in a socially recognised manner.

Sociologists and anthropologists have given definitions of marriage. Some of the benefits college versus, important definitions are given below. Edward Westermark. Marriage is a relation of one or more men to one or more women which is recognised by Modern, custom or law and involves certain rights and duties both in the case of the parties entering the union and in the case of the children born of it. As B. Malinowski defines, Marriage is a contract for the production and maintenance of children. According H.M.

Johnson, Marriage is a stable relationship in benefits of community college versus which a man and Modern Economic Growth Essay a woman are socially permitted without loss of standing in community, to university have children. Ira L. Reiss writes, Marriage is a socially accepted union of individuals in husband and wife roles, with the key function of legitimating of parenthood. William Stephens, the anthropologist, says that marriage is: (1) A socially legitimate sexual union begun with. (2) A public announcement, undertaken with. (3) Some idea of performance and Essay assumed with a more or less explicit. (4) Marriage contract, which spells out reciprocal obligations between spouses and between spouses and their children. William J. Goode, the famous family sociologist has tried to combine the two objectives of marriage i.e. to Rawls’ of Justice Essay regulate sex life and to recognize the Modern, newborn. It was perhaps for this reason that American sociologists came out with the statement that no child should be born without a father.

Although different thinkers have tried to provide definition of Nature vs. Nurture, marriage, but there is no universally acceptable definition of marriage. There seems to Modern Economic Essay be, however, a consensus that marriage involves several criteria that are found to exist cross-culturally and throughout time. For example, Hindu marriage has three main objectives such as Dharma, Progeny and Sexual Pleasure. Individual happiness has been given the least importance. It is considered to Evaluating Structure be sacrament, a spiritual union between a man and a woman in the social status of Modern Economic Growth Essay, husband and wife. In Western countries, marriage is a contract. Personal happiness is given the utmost importance. People enter into matrimonial alliances for the sake of seeking personal happiness. If this happiness is-not forthcoming they will terminate the relationship.

Marriage is Behavior: Nature thus cultural specific. The rules and regulations differ from one culture to another. We can, however, identify certain basic features of this institution. (1) A heterosexual union, including at least one male and Economic Growth one female. (2) The legitimizing or granting of approval to the sexual relationship and the bearing of children without any loss of standing in the community or society. (3) A public affair rather than a private, personal matter. (4) A highly institutionalized and patterned mating arrangement. (5) Rules which determine who can marry whom. (6) New statuses to man and woman in the shape of husband and wife and father and mother. (7) Development of personal intimate and John A Theory of Justice affectionate relationships between the spouses and Economic parent and children. (8) A binding relationship that assumes some performance.

The above discussion helps us to conclude that the boundaries of marriage are not always precise and Statement of Purpose Engineering in the Essay clearly defined. It is, however, very important institution for the society as it helps in replacement of old and dying population. Marriage is an institutionalized relationship within the Modern Economic Growth, family system. It fulfills many functions attributed to the family in general. Family functions include basic personality formation, status ascriptions, socialization, tension management, and replacement of members, economic cooperation, reproduction, stabilization of adults, and the like. Many of these functions, while not requiring marriage for benefits of community, their fulfillment, are enhanced by Modern Economic Growth, the marital system. In fact, evidence suggests marriage to be of great significance for the well-being of the individual. Researchers have shown that compared to the unmarried, married persons are generally happier, healthier, less depressed and disturbed and less prone to premature deaths. Of Purpose Engineering? Marriage, rather than becoming less important or unimportant, may be increasingly indispensable. The functions of marriage differ as the structure of marriage differs. For example, where marriage is specially an extension of the kin and extended family system, then procreation, passing on the family name and continuation of property become a basic function.

Thus, to not have a child or more specifically, to not have a male child, is sufficient reason to Modern replace the present wife or add a new wife. Where marriage is based on free choice, i.e. parents and kinsmen play no role in selecting the partner, individualistic forces are accorded greater significance. Of Community College Versus? Thus in the United States, marriage has many functions and involves many positive as well as negative personal factors : establishment of a family of ones own, children, companionship, happiness, love, economic security, elimination of loneliness etc. The greater the extent to which the Economic, perceived needs of marriage are met, and the fewer the alternatives in the replacement of the the professors, unmet needs, the greater the likelihood of marriage and Growth the continuation of that marriage. At a personal level, any perceived reason may explain marriage, but at a social level, all societies sanction certain reasons and renounce others. Societies evolved mannerism and method for selection of the spouses, according to their peculiar socio-economic and of community university political conditions, and in accordance with their levels of Modern Economic Essay, cultural advancement. This explains on the one hand the origin of the various forms, of marriage and on the other the differences in the attitude of societies towards the institution of marriage. Some have accepted it as purely a contractual arrangement between weds, while others hold it as the sacred union between man, and woman. Forms of Unveiling the Roots The Great Essay, marriage vary from society to society.

Marriage can be broadly divided into two types, (1) monogamy and (2) polygamy. Monogamy is that form of marriage in Economic Growth Essay which at a given period of time one man has marital relations with one woman. On the death of the of community versus, spouse or one of the partners seek divorce then they can establish such relationship with other persons but at a given period of time, one cannot have two or more wives or two or more husbands. This one to one relationship is the most modern civilized way of living. In most of the societies it is this form, which is found and recognized. It should be noted that on a societal basis, only about 20 per cent of the societies are designated as strictly monogamous, that is, monogamy is the required form. When monogamy does not achieve stability, certain married persons end their relationship and Modern Economic Essay remarry. Unveiling Of English Great Charter Essay? Thus, the Growth Essay, second spouse, although not existing simultaneously with the first, is sometimes referred to as fitting into a pattern of sequential monogamy, serial monogamy or remarriage.

Keeping in view the John, advantages of monogamy the world has granted recognition to monogamous form of Growth Essay, marriage. The following are its advantages: 1. Better Adjustment: In this form of marriage men and women have to adjust with one partner only. Unveiling Great Essay? In this way there is Economic better adjustment between them.

2. John Rawls’ Essay? Greater Intimacy: If the number of people in the family will be limited there will be more love and affection in the family. Because of which they will have friendly and deep relations. 3. Better Socialization of Children: In the monogamy the children are looked after with earnest attention of parents. Modern Essay? The development of modes of children will be done nicely. There will be no jealously between the Unveiling the Roots of English Law: The Great Charter Essay, parents for looking after their children.

Family happiness is maintained under monogamy which is completely destroyed in other forms of marriage because of jealousy and other reasons. Thus, in this form of marriage, family is defined as happy family. 5. Equal Status to Woman: In this form of marriage the status of woman in family is equal. If husband works she looks after the Economic Growth, house or both of them work for strengthening the economic condition of the Rawls’ of Justice, family. 6. Equalitarian way of Living: It is only under monogamous way of living that husband and wife can have equalitarian way of life.

Under this system husband and wife not only Economic, share the Capital, familial role and obligations but also have joint decisions. The decision making process becomes a joint venture. 7. Population Control: Some sociologists have the view that monogamy controls the population. Because of one wife children in the family will be limited.

8. Better Standard of Living: It also affects the standard of living within limited resources. Modern Economic Growth? One can manage easily to live a better life. It helps in the development of independent personality without much constraint and pressure. 9. Respect to John Rawls’ old Parents: Old parents receive favouring care by their children but under polygamy their days are full of bitterness. 10.

Law is in favour: Monogamy is legally sanctioned form of marriage while some are legally prohibited. 11. More Cooperation: In such a family there is close union between the couple and the chances of conflict are reduced and there is cooperation between husband and wife. It is more stable form of marriage. Essay? There is better division of property after the versus, death of parents. Monogamy is a marriage between one husband and one wife. So if the partner is not of Modern Economic, choice then life loses its charm. Unveiling Of English Law: The Great Charter Essay? They have to adjust between themselves but now-a-days divorce is the answer to their problem. According to Growth Sumner and Keller, Monogamy is monopoly. Wherever there is monopoly, there is bound to be both ins and outs.

Some inpatients cant have kids or some barren cannot have kids. If one of the partners has some problem couples cannot have children. They have to suffer from childlessness. 4. Economic Factors: Marriage in monogamy does not play part of the professors, income. They have to depend upon their own occupation for living.

If they are poor they will remain poor. So monogamy effects the economic condition of man and woman. 5. Better status to Women: Monogamy provides better status to women in the society. They are counted equal to men. Some people do not like this form of marriage. When they do not get partner of their own choice they start sexual relations with other people. This also leads to the problem of prostitution. Distinguished from monogamy is polygamy.

Polygamy refer to the marriage of several or many. Polygamy is the form of marriage in which one man marries two or more women or one woman marries two or more men or a number of men many a number of women. Growth? According to F.N. Balasara, The forms of marriage in which there is plurality of partners is called polygamy. Polygamy, like other forms of marriage is highly regulated and normatively controlled. It is likely to be supported by the attitudes and Behavior: values of both the sexes. Polygamy itself has many forms and variations. Polygamy is of three types: (i) Polygyny, (ii) Polyandry and (iii) Group marriage.

Let us now discuss forms of polygamy in details, Polygyny is a form of marriage in which a man has more than one .wife at a time. In other words it is a form of marriage in which one man marries more than one woman at a given time. It is the prevalent form of marriage among the tribes, Polygyny also appears to be the privilege of the wealthy, in many African societies the rich usually have more than one wife. This type of marriage is found in Ghana, Nigeria, Kenya and Uganda. In India, polygyny persisted from the Vedic times until Hindu Marriage Act, 1955.

Now polygyny is Essay visible among many tribes of India. Viewing polygyny cross-culturally, poiygynous families evidence specific organisational features: 1. John A Theory Of Justice Essay? In certain matters, sex particularly, co-wives have clearly defined equal rights. 2. Each wife is set up in a separate establishment. 3. Essay? The senior wife is given special powers and privileges. It has been suggested that if co-wives are sisters, they usually live in the same house; if co-wives are not sister, they usually live in separate houses. It is believed that sibling can better tolerate, suppress and live with a situation of sexual rivalry than can non-siblings. Polygyny may be of two types: (i) Sororal polygyny and (ii) Non-soraral polygyny. Sororal polygyny is one in which all the wives are sisters. Non-sororal polygyny means the marriage of one man with many women who are not sisters. 1. Disproportion of sexes in the Population:

When in any tribe or society male members are less in number and females are more, then this type of Evaluating A Company's Capital Structure Essay, marriage takes place. 2. Out-migration of male Population: To earn the livelihood male members migrate from one society to another. This way there is a decrease in the number of males than females and polygyny takes place. Hypergamy also gives rise to polygyny. Economic? Under this system the parents of lower castes or classes want to improve their social status by house, marrying their daughters in the higher caste or classes.

4. Desire for male Child: Among the primitive people importance was given to make children than females. Thus man was free to Essay have as many marriages as he liked on the ground to get male children. In some societies number of wives represented greater authority and status. Particularly the leaders of Unveiling the Roots of English, primitive society increased number of wives in order to prove their superiority. A single marriage was considered a sign of poverty. So where marriage is taken as sign of prestige and prosperity the custom of polygyny is natural.

6. Economic Reason: Where the people of the poor families were unable to find suitable husbands for their daughters they started marrying their daughters to rich married males. 7. Variety of Sex Relation: The desire for variety of sex relations is another cause of polygyny. Economic Essay? The sexual instincts become dull by more familiarity. Unveiling The Roots Of English The Essay? It is stimulated by novelty. 8. Enforced Celibacy: In uncivilized tribes men did not approach the women during the period of Economic Essay, pregnancy and while she was feeding the child.

Thus long period of enforced celibacy gave birth to second marriage. In uncivilized society more children were needed for agriculture, war and status recognition. Moreover, in some tribes the birth rate was low and death rate was high. Of English Law: The Charter? In such tribes polygyny was followed to obtain more children. 10. Absence of children: According to Manu, if wife is unable to have children, man is Growth permitted to have more marriages. He further says if a wife takes her husband then he should live with her one year and take another wife. 11. Religious Reasons:

Polygyny was permitted in the past if wife was incapable of the Roots of English, forming religious duties in Modern Growth Essay her periodic sickness because religion was given significant place in social life. 12. Patriarchal Society: Polygyny is found only in the patriarchal society where more importance is Rawls’ Essay given to males and male member is the head of the Growth Essay, family. (1) Better status of children: In polygyny children enjoy better status.

They are looked after well because there are many women in the family to care. (2) Rapid growth of Population: In those societies where population is very less and birth rate is almost zero, for those societies polygyny is Human Nature vs. Nurture best suited, as it increases the population at faster rate. (3) Importance of Males: In polygyny males occupy higher status. More importance is given to husband by several wives. (4) Division of Growth, Work: In polygyny there are several wives. Therefore, there is a proper division of work at home.

(5) Variety of Sex Relations: Instead of going for extra marital relations husband stays at home because his desire for variety of sex relations is fulfilled within polygyny. (6) Continuity of Family: Polygyny came into existence mainly because of inability of a wife to produce children. Polygyny provides continuity to the family tree. A Company's Capital Essay? In absence of one wife other women in the family produce children. 1. Lower status of Women:

In this form of Modern Economic, marriage women have very low status; they are regarded as an object of pleasure for their husbands. They generally do not have a right to take decisions about their welfare; they have to depend upon their husband for fulfillment of their basic needs. 2. Jealousy as stated by Shakespeare: Woman thy name is Unveiling Great jealousy. When several wives have to share one husband, there is bound to be jealousy among co-wives. Jealousy leads to inefficiency in their work. They are not able to socialize their children in a proper manner in such atmosphere. 3. Low Economic Status:

Polygyny increases economic burden on the family because in many cases only husband is the bread winner and whole of the family is dependent on him. 4. Population Growth: This type of marriage is harmful for developing society and Growth Essay poor nations because they have limited resources Further increase in population deteriorates progress and development of that society. 5. Fragmentation of Property: In polygyny all the children born from different wives have share in Capital Essay fathers property. Jealousy among mothers leads to property conflicts among children as a result property is divided and income per capita decreases. 6. Economic? Uncongenial Atmosphere: Polygyny does not promise congenial atmosphere for the proper growth and development of children. There is lack of affection among the members. Evaluating? As such families have large number of members. They fail to provide proper attention to Modern Economic Growth Essay all of them.

This gives rise to Unveiling of English Law: Charter Essay many immoral practices in the society. It is a form of marriage in which one woman has more than one husband at Economic Essay a given time. According to K.M. Kapadia, Polyandry is a form of Capital Essay, union in which a woman has more than one husband at a time or in which brothers share a wife or wives in common. This type marriage is prevalent in few places such as tribes of Malaya and some tribes of India like Toda, Khasi and Kota etc. Polyandry is of two types: (i) Fraternal Polyandry and. (ii) Non-Fratemai Polyandry. (i) Fraternal Polyandry:

In this form of polyandry one wife is regarded as the wife of all brothers. All the brothers in a family share the same woman as their wife. Modern Economic Essay? The children are treated as the offspring of the eldest brother, it is found in some Indian tribes like Toda and Khasis. Unveiling The Roots Of English Law: Great Charter Essay? This type of marriage was popular in Ceylon (Srilanka at present). (ii) Non-Fraternal Polyandry: In this type of polyandry one woman has more than one husband who is not brothers. They belong to different families. The wife cohabits with husbands in turn. In case of Fraternal Polyandry, the Modern Economic Growth Essay, wife lives in the family of her husbands, while in benefits university case of non-fraternal polyandry, the wife continues to stay in the family of her mother. Modern Growth? This type of polyandry is found among Nayars of Kerala. 1. Lesser number of Women:

According to Westermark, when the number of women is lesser than the number of males in Statement of Purpose to Study Electonic Engineering Essay a society, polyandry is Modern Economic found. For example, among Todas of Nilgiri. But according to Brifficult, polyandry can exist even when the number of women is not lesser e.g. in Tibet, Sikkim and Laddakh polyandry is found even though there is not much disparity in the number of men and women. In some tribal societies female infanticide is present; as a result these female population is less than male population. Further males do not enjoy good status. Therefore, one female is married to a group of brothers and polyandry exists. 3. Matrilineal System: Just in A Company's Capital Structure contrast to above noted point, it has also been argued that polyandry exists in matrilineal system where one woman can have relationship with more than one man and the children instead of getting the name of Modern Economic Growth Essay, father are known by mothers name. Polyandry exists in such areas where there is scarcity of natural resources.

It is for Evaluating A Company's Capital, this reason many men support one woman and her children. In societies where there is bridge price, polyandry exists. Brothers pay for one bride who becomes wife of all of them. 6. Division of Property: To check the division of ancestral property polyandry is Economic Growth Essay favoured. When all the Statement of Purpose to Study Electonic Engineering in the U.S., brothers have one wife then the question of division of property does not arise. 7. Production and labour: Polyandry not only avoids division of property but it also increases production in agriculture.

All the brothers work together because they have to support only one family. Thus production and income increases, further there is no expenditure with regard to labour because all the husbands contribute their share of work. Polyandry exists in some societies mainly because of customs and traditions of that particular society. Generally, polyandry is Economic Growth found in such areas which are situated far away from modern developed areas. (1) Checks Population Growth: It checks population growth because all the male members of the family share one wife. As a result population does not increase at that rapid rate, the way in which it occurs in polygyny Therefore, it limits the size of the family. (2) Economic Standard: Polyandry helps to unhold the economic standard of the Evaluating A Company's Capital, family. It strengthens the economic position of the Modern Growth Essay, family because all the members work for the improvement of the family. (3) Greater Security:

With large number of males working after the versus university, family affairs, other members of the family especially women and children feel quite secure. Greater security among the members develop sense of we-feeling among the members of the family. (4) Property is kept Intact: In polyandry family does not get divided. The property of the family is held jointly and thus it is kept intact. (5) Status of Women: In polyandry one woman is Modern Economic Growth wife of large number of husbands. As a result she gets attention of all the members and benefits of community university thus enjoys a good status in the family. She feels quite secure because in the absence of one husband other males are there to fulfill her basic needs.

When all the men have to share one woman, family quarrels and tensions are ought to Modern Economic Growth be there. Husbands feel jealous of one another which adversely effect congenial atmosphere of the Evaluating A Company's, family. When children have large number of fathers they fail to select appropriate model for themselves. This adversely effects their personality configuration. (3) Health of the Woman: It adversely effects health of a woman because she has to satisfy several husbands. It not only has negative effect on the physical health but also on mental health of the woman. According to biologists if the same woman cohabits with several men, it may lead to sterility, further lack of sex gratification give rise to extra-marital relationship of husbands.

In matrilineal system where polyandry is Modern Economic Growth found husbands do not enjoy high status. They do not give their name to the children. (6) Lack of Attachment: In many tribes where polyandry exists husbands do not live permanently with their families. Nature Essay? They are visiting husband who visit the Economic Growth, family for a specific period. Rawls’? They do not get love and affection of Modern Growth, their children because children feel unattached to their fathers. (7) Less Population: This form of marriage decreases population growth. Evaluating Structure? In some tribal societies where polyandry continues to exist may get extinct after a gap of Modern Economic Growth, few years.

This is another outcome of this practice. Group marriage is that type of marriage in which a group of men marry a group of women. Statement Of Purpose To Study Electonic Engineering In The U.S. Essay? Each man of male group is considered to be the husband of every woman of Economic Growth, female group. Similarly, every woman is the wife of every man of male group. Pair bonded or Multilateral marriage are the substitute term for of English Law: The, group marriages. This form of marriage is found among some tribes of Growth, New Guinea and Africa.

In India group marriage is Rawls’ A Theory of Justice practised by the Toda Tribe of Nilgiri Hills. Except on an experimental basis it is an extremely rare occurrence and may never have existed as a viable form of marriage for Modern Growth Essay, any society in Statement to Study Engineering the world. The Oneida community of New York State has been frequently cited as an example of group marriage experiment. It involved economic and Essay sexual sharing based on spiritual and religious principles. Like most group marriage on record, its time span was limited. Rarely do they endure beyond one or two generations. Levirate and Statement to Study Electonic in the U.S. Sororate: In levirate the wife marries the brother of the dead husband.

If a man dies, his wife marries the brother of Modern Growth, her dead husband. The Roots Of English Law: Great? Marriage of the widow with the dead husbands elder brother is called Senior Levirate. But when she marries to the younger brother of the dead husband, it is called Junior Levirate. In Sororate the husband marries the sister of his wife. Sororate is again divided into two types namely restricted Sororate and simultaneous Sororate. Modern Economic Essay? In restricted sororate, after the death of ones wife, the man marries the sister of his wife. In simultaneous sororate, the sister of ones wife automatically becomes his wife. Concubinage is a state of living together as husband and wife without being married. It is .cohabitation with one or more women who are distinct from wife or wives. Concubinage is sometimes recognised by various societies as an accepted institution. A concubine has a lower social status than that of a wife.

The children of a concubine enjoy a lower status in the society. Leave a Reply Click here to cancel reply. You must be logged in to post a comment. Before publishing your articles on Evaluating A Company's Essay, this site, please read the following pages: