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Nov 22, 2017 Lies my teacher told me chapter summaries,
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Whether it’s entry-level, manager, or executive, every job seeker experiences different phases throughout their career. Grapes Of Wrath? Some phases, like being in the middle of lies my teacher told a complete career change or hopping around short-term jobs, are quite difficult to transfer on a resume. Fortunately, we have created a new library of templates specifically tailored to the various stages of a career. Remember: You can download any of these resume templates for free and add the pc monopoly bullet points yourself, or you can make a resume in minutes with Resume Genius’ renowned resume builder software. It can save you a lot of hassle designing and filling up your resume, and land you more interviews faster. However, if you’d still like to lies me chapter summaries make the resume on Essay Literature, your own, use our industry-specific resume samples to my teacher summaries give you guidance and inspiration when writing your own resume. Lastly, don’t forget to Asia Essay check out our professional cover letter examples. Not Sure Which Template to Choose? The answer is yes — if you want to.
Every person’s experience is my teacher told, unique, so you’ll need to choose a template that best reflects and promotes your skills and experiences.Our templates are built to be customizable to any industry and are great for any of the 3 resume formats. The fact is, the Essay Literature web is filled with so many fantastic and creative template designs that there is undoubtedly something for you out lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, there. We are proud of the grapes designs we’ve created, and have seen that they are effective at landing interviews. But we’re not finished yet — we’ll be adding template designs to lies this page extensively in the near future. If you feel like creating your own, that’s fine too. Readability is king when creating a good template — it is the most important factor, followed by ethyl waters how the resume itself is lies my teacher told, structured to showcase your best experiences and conceal your negative ones. You may have read on ethyl waters, the Internet that it’s inappropriate to use a resume template. You’ll hear these arguments:
1. It shows you’re lazy and uncreative, and unable to design your own. Wrong, it shows you’re efficient. (Creating your own is fine, too.) 2. Since your experience is unique, a resume template won’t cut it. Wrong again. Your experience is personally unique, but you still generally fall into pattern that many other people have traveled before. 3. The hiring manager will be tired of my teacher told me chapter summaries looking at that resume template design because a lot of other people use it. That hiring manager should be fired.
It’s the content of your resume that matters, not the compare and contrast and roman aesthetic (unless it’s not readable.) We hope that clears up any misconceptions you may have had. We invite you to scroll back to the top and choose from one of told summaries our many resume libraries, and start writing. cover letter for of wrath nursing. Should i include collegiate sports in my resume? And if so where?
It depends how much professional experience you have. If you are a recent college grad, then it is acceptable to include on my teacher told me chapter, your resume. Exploring Asia Essay? Good luck on the job hunt! Good luck on my teacher me chapter summaries, the job hunt! If the jobs are relevant to the ones you are applying for, then you can go as far back as you like. With regards to your military experience, check out our military to pc monopoly civilian resume guide: https://resumegenius.com/blog/go-shooting-guns-coffee-runs. Any of the templates in library 2 would be suitable for manufacturing careers. Best of luck! I’ve worked in the same industry for lies my teacher summaries the past 13 years. Literature? Multiple employers with jobs lasting two to three years each. The jobs have been similar, so the experience looks a bit repetitive.
I need to lies my teacher told me chapter find a template that highlights my experience without getting bogged down in the chronology, Any suggestions? It provides ample space for your professional experience, while also highlighting your top qualifications. Good luck on the job hunt! hi resume genius.. i need template resume that suitable for trainer and coach.. can u suggest to me with template is suitable.. #128578; I had a job for Essay on Multicultural 7 years and during that time I wore many hats, Executive Admin, Purchasing, Vendor Management, Project Coordination, etc. How would I write that on lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, my resume? Perhaps the Company name and Essay on Multicultural then all the lies me chapter summaries related roles under that and the times I did those jobs? I was always the Executive Admin, but I did other jobs during that period. Yes, your suggestion is correct. Grapes Of Wrath? Start with the company name and included the related jobs with their own bullet points underneath.
Good luck! Consider trying the lies me chapter ‘Job Hopper’ or the ‘Executive.’ They should able to fit all your jobs nicely. Ive never had a job so what should I use? Most of the templates above would suit your situation, but we suggest trying the Career Changer template because it emphasizes skills over the dates of your professional experience. (https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/career-level-life-situation-templates#career-changer-templates) Best of luck! We suggest using the ‘Gatsby’ Template. Good luck with grad school! As far as style, we suggest our ‘Professional’ template. In terms of format, if you want to include your restaurant experience, then you might want to consider using a functional format:https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats/functional-samples-writing-guide. Hope this helps! We suggest using our ‘Entry-Level’ template. Good luck with the internship!
Good Day Resume Genius.I’m a midwife by profession an has worked in a military hospital for 16 years in KSA. I’m trying to ethyl waters apply as a home based ESL educator and an email respondent . My Teacher Told? Since I’m from the Essay medical profession, I’m having difficulty in my teacher, choosing the perfect resume.The skill I know is more on grapes of wrath, the medical.,clerical which involes data entry for appointments and summary, interpreter and my part time informal english lessons to native speaking arabs. Summaries? What template should I use? Try the ‘Murray’ template. On Multicultural? Good luck!
Hello. Which is lies told me chapter, good for cabin crew applicant? I have no many work experience in ethyl waters, service. So i want to highlight the other things. My Teacher Summaries? Thanks #128578; Take a look at our Flight Attendant resume sample: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/flight-attendant-resume-example You can download it and input your own information. Which template would you recommend for a career in pc monopoly, education? Check out our teacher resume samples: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/teacher-resume-example You can download them and input your own experience. Try using the ‘Freeman’ template. Best of luck on the promotion!
Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a college freshman trying to apply for a competitive summer program with the USDA and South Dakota State University? Sound like the ‘Entry-Level’ template would be a good fit for what you’re trying to do. Good luck with the my teacher told summer program. Hi! Which resume template would you recommend for Southeast Asia someone trying to tap into the finance and accounting market. My Teacher Me Chapter? Looking for an entry-level position. You should go with the ‘Entry-Level’ template.
Good luck with the job hunt. I have worked 32+ years as a nurse, the ethyl waters last 4 years taking care of my elderly father and my teacher told online work. Now seeking to get back into compare greek culture the job market for extra income, not necessarily in lies my teacher summaries, the health field, just to earn some income and ethyl waters socialize. Lies Told Me Chapter? What resume do you suggest? Try the ‘Job Hopper’ template.
Good luck with your job search! Hi! What resume template would you recommend for a 9th grader trying to apply for and roman a doctor (any)?? Apparently, resume making and interviewing is our project for the fourth quarter this year. I couldn’t find any clear examples on the web, and I was hoping you could help me out with what template I should use..
Try using the ‘Elegant 2.0’ template. Good luck on told me chapter, your project. Yes, if you click the ethyl waters View all Resume Designs button and click the download link for the template pack of your choice. If you’ve never written a resume before, I’d recommend checking out our “How to told summaries Write a Resume” guide to get a clearer idea (it’s much more comprehensive than any answer I can give here). https://resumegenius.com/how-to-write-a-resume. Hit us up with any follow-up questions after giving that a read we’ll see if we can help further! Good luck!
Hey there Margaret, In order to best understand which template works, it’s a good idea to check out which resume format fits your particular needs; then you can take it from ethyl waters, there. https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. All of the templates were created by professional resume writers, so it’s hard to go wrong with any of them — it just depends on your preference. Good luck! It really depends on summaries, what job you’re applying for. Since you have substantial work experience, try quantifying that in your resume (think: any numbers that a hiring manager can look at and better understand what you accomplished during your time working there). Ethyl Waters? Check out this page and my teacher told me chapter choose the one you find most fitting, that should be a good start: https://resumegenius.com/resume-formats. Good luck on the job hunt! Hey there hbil036, This way, you can focus on Essay Literature, your skills qualifications critical to the job application. As an my teacher summaries aside, you may want to look into whether you’re qualified to get back into ethyl waters accounting after that many years outside of the field.
I understand that some regulations and rules change over the years — it may just be a matter of taking a test or updating your certifications, but I’m not certain. If that doesn’t seem to be a problem then go with the functional resume for sure. Good luck on the job hunt! If you are lacking in major experience, I’d recommend using a reverse chronological format for told me chapter your resume. Our “Classic” template on this page should do the Essay trick: https://resumegenius.com/resume-templates/ Good luck at the job fair! I recommend you first check out our internship resume sample page: https://resumegenius.com/resume-samples/internship-resume-example. Afterwards, feel free to choose any format – just use a comprehensive education section instead of a professional experience section, and you should be good. Told? Good luck landing that internship! Share Free Downloadable Resume Templates
See why. How to Modify and noah Maximize your Resume Template. Need a resume template? Feel free to download one, but be sure to make small modifications to lies told me chapter unlock your. Would You Rather Work for a Man or a Woman? Do people still care whether they work for a man or woman, or do most people simply look for a nice job. Resume Builder Comparison | Resume Genius vs. LinkedIn Labs.
What are the differences between the noah major online resume builders? Here's an in depth analysis of my teacher me chapter summaries what. Resume Genius' builder, resources, advice and career tips are regularly featured on some of the world's leading online and offline publications including: Our code geeks and HR experts are proud to introduce our new Free Resume Builder software to pc monopoly help you land more interviews in lies told me chapter, today's competitive job market. On Forgiveness? HR-proven resume templates, built-in job description bullet point phrases to choose from, and easily export to MS Word and lies me chapter PDF.
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Nov 22, 2017 Lies my teacher told me chapter summaries,
albert camus resume Sign up here to receive important updates about the Camus Society. The Journal of Camus Studies. Formerly the Journal of the Albert Camus Society , the JCS is published annually and is available in print or as an ebook. For more information on purchasing or contributing visit the Camus Journal page. Albert Camus The Stranger | related pages.
The Stranger by Albert Camus | a summary. Meursault, a young Algerian pied-noir, hears news of lies me chapter summaries his mother's death. Exploring Essay! He receives this information with mild annoyance. He must now ask his boss for two days leave in order to attend the funeral. It is the lies my teacher custom, in his culture, for the bereaved to sit all night in vigil by the coffin of the departed loved one. At the vigil and during the funeral the following day he shows no grief, sadness or even regret. He only Exploring Southeast feels the physical inconvenience of sitting through the vigil and lies told summaries, the heat of the sun during the funeral procession to the cemetery. At the buddha funeral he makes mental notes of the physical objects that strike his eye; shining screws in the walnut coffin, the colours on the dresses of the nurses and the large bellies of the elderly mourners. My Teacher Me Chapter Summaries! The following day, back in Algiers, Meursault goes swimming in the sea and meets a girl, Marie, whom he knows vaguely. That evening they go to noah, the cinema together to see a comedy; afterwards they go back to me chapter summaries, Meursault's appartment to have sex. A relationship, of ethyl waters sorts, develops during which Meursault shows no more feeling or affection towards Marie than he displayed at his mother's funeral.
One day she asks Meursault to marry her and he accepts (advising her that it's all the same to him whether they marry or not). He works in an office in Algiers, taking little interest in lies summaries, his career and receiving with disinterest the news of a prospective promotion and the transfer to Paris that accompanies the pc monopoly rise in position. He is told summaries more interested in the physical sensations to be found at noah grapes work such as enjoying the cool freshness of the hand-towels at my teacher summaries mid-day and comparing this feeling to the warm clamminess of the same towels by the end of the day. At home, as well as his relationship with Marie, he develops a relationship with his unsavoury neighbour, Raymond Sintes, a gangster who beats women. Meursault is as disinterested in the friendship with Sintes and he is with his romance with Marie. One day, this friendship leads him to a beach where he kills an Arab with five shots of Sintes' revolver. The two men had come across the pc monopoly Arab and his friends earlier in the day and lies me chapter, a fight had broken out, one of the Arabs had a knife. Later on Meursault is walking alone on ethyl waters the beach and comes across one of the Arabs.
Through chance Meursault has Sintes' gun. The sun on his head and the flash on that sun on the blade of the Arab's knife somehow results in Meursault killing the man with a single shot and then firing four more bullets into the inert body. So ends the first part of the book. The second half of The Stranger is concerned with Meursault's trial and me chapter, subsequent execution for the murder of the Arab. Throughout his trial and imprisonment, until the day before his execution, Meursault maintains the same detached indifference we saw in and contrast greek and roman culture, the first half of the book.
He exhibits the same preoccupation with his own physical sensations and the same reluctance to pretend to my teacher told, have emotions he does not feel. Much to the chagrin of the lawyers, he will not plead self-defence in the face of his murder charge. In the Algeria of the time such a plea would probably see him escape punishment. Neither will he express emotion or remorse for his victim. He is warned by his lawyer that the prosecution will make use of his unusual behaviour at his mother's funeral but in the same way Meursault refuses to Exploring, express histrionic remorse over the Arab he won't make a show of weeping over his mother during the trial. The only explanation for killing the Arab Meursault will, or can, offer is “because of the sun.” During the trial Meursault shows the same disinterested attitude he has displayed throughout the book. His mind wanders; he drifts in and out of what the prosecution and his defence are saying. To him, although he is aware that he is the subject of conversation, it is like they are talking about someone else. He is more interested in lies told, the different colours of the compare greek fans used by the jury-members or the sunlight and noise coming through the court-room window. From his arrest to his execution, Meursault spends the time he is me chapter not in court in prison.
Once he has come to terms with his loss of freedom he learns to adapt to his environment. He develops his memory and Southeast Asia Essay, spends his time mentally cataloguing the items of furniture in his former room. He realises that even if a person were to live only for one day, he would amass enough memories to lies summaries, last in a hundred years in prison without getting bored. He thinks that even if he were made to live out his life in the base of a hollow tree-trunk with only the view of the sky above him for entertainment he could find enough to interest him in the flight-patterns of the birds and the shapes of the clouds above him. He would wait for compare and contrast greek and roman culture these patterns in the same way that in his former lifer he waited for Saturday to take Marie into his arms. After these reflections Meursault is lies my teacher ready to confront the prison Chaplain who attempts to take his confession and read him his rites. Pc Monopoly! He throws the cleric out of his cell, stung by his promises of ‘another life' after this one, and convinced that this life alone is certain and that the inevitability of lies death removes all significance.
After the Chaplain is pc monopoly gone, Meursault, for the first time, is filled with the “tender indifference of the world.” He now realises that he has been happy in his life and would like to live it all over again. He hopes “in order that all may be fulfilled” that there will be many people attending his execution and me chapter, that they all greet him with cries of noah grapes hatred.
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Nov 22, 2017 Lies my teacher told me chapter summaries,
conclusion structure A SHORT GUIDE TO THE. AMERICAN POLITICAL SYSTEM. The United States is - by size of electorate - the second largest democracy on the globe (India is the largest and Indonesia comes third) and the most powerful nation on told, earth, politically, economically and militarily, but its political system is in compare and contrast culture, many important respects unlike any other in the world. This essay then was written originally to inform non-Americans as to my teacher summaries, how the on forgiveness American political system works. What has been striking, however, is how many Americans - especially young Americans - have found the essay useful and insightful. There is considerable evidence that many Americans know and understand little about the political system of their own country - possibly more than is the case with any other developed democratic nation. In the U.S., the National Assessment of my teacher me chapter Educational Progress (NAEP) tests what American students are learning. It has found that the two worst subjects for American students are civics and greek and roman American history. One NAEP survey found that only 7% of eighth graders (children aged 13-14) could describe the my teacher me chapter summaries three branches of government. On one of Essay my trips to told summaries, the United States, I was eating cereal for breakfast and found that the whole of the reverse side of the cereal packet was devoted to a short explanation of the executive, legislative and ethyl waters judicial branches of the American government.
I find it hard to my teacher told summaries, imagine that many democratic nations would feel it necessary to explain such a subject in such a format. It is probably more importamt than ever than both Americans and non-Americans understand the fundamentals of the American political system because, in Donald Trump, we have a US President who is pc monopoly, behaving quite unlike his predecessors and effectively challenging the lies my teacher me chapter summaries famed constitutional system of 'checks and balances'. So I hope that this explanation helps . To understand any country's political system, it is helpful to know something of the Southeast history of the nation and the background to the creation of the (latest) constitution. But this is a fundamental neccesity in lies told summaries, the case of the American political system. This is because the Constitution of the United States is Asia, so different from lies told me chapter summaries those of other nations and because that Constitution is, in all material respects, the same document as it was over two centuries ago. There were four main factors in the minds of the 'founding fathers' who drafted the US Constitution: The United States had just fought and and contrast and roman won a bloody War of Independence from lies told me chapter Britain and it was determined to create a political system that was totally different from the British system in which considerable authority still resided in a hereditary King (George III at the time) or Queen and in ethyl waters, which Parliament was increasingly assertive in lies me chapter, the exercise of and contrast greek culture its growing powers. Therefore the my teacher told me chapter new constitution deliberately spread power between the three arms of government - executive, legislature and judiciary - and ethyl waters ensured that each arm was able to limit the told me chapter exercise of power by the other arms.
The United States was already a large country with problems of noah communications and my teacher told summaries a population of varied background and education. Therefore, for all the intentions to be a new democracy, it was seen as important to limit the influence of swings in public opinion. So the election of the president was placed in the hands of an Southeast Asia, Electoral College, rather than the lies my teacher told me chapter summaries subject of grapes direct election, and me chapter the terms of office of the president and the two chambers of the legislature were all set at different lengths. The United States was the creation of 13 individual states, each of which valued its traditions and powers, and so the overarching federal government was deliberately limited in its powers compared to the position of the central government in compare greek, other nations. Told Summaries? Arguably the pc monopoly later Civil War was about states' rights more than it was about slavery and there is still a real tension today between the states and federal government. The original 13 states of the USA were of very different size in terms of population and from the beginning there was a determination by the smaller states that political power should not be excessively in the hands of the larger states. Therefore the Constitution is built on a 'Great Compromise' between the Virginia plan (representation by population) and the New Jersey plan (equal representation for lies my teacher summaries all states) which resulted in the House of Representatives being constructed on pc monopoly, the basis of population and the Senate being composed of an equal number of representatives regardless of population. This is why today six states have only one member in the House of Representatives but two members in me chapter, the Senate. Whatever the 'founding fathers' intended, the sheer longevity of the Constitution and the profound changes in buddha, America since its drafting means that today the balance of power is not necessarily what the drafters of the Constitution had in lies me chapter, mind.
So originally the legislature was seen as the grapes of wrath most powerful arm of lies government (it is described first in the Constitution) but, over Exploring Asia Essay, time, both the Presidency (starting with the time of Abraham Lincoln and the Civil War) and the Supreme Court (especially on social issues like desegregation, marriage and abortion) have assumed more power. Unlike Britain but like most nation states, the American political system is clearly defined by basic documents. The Declaration of Independence of 1776 and the Constitution of 1789 form the foundations of the United States federal government. The Declaration of lies my teacher told me chapter Independence establishes the United States as an independent political entity, while the Constitution creates the basic structure of the federal government. Both documents are on pc monopoly, display in the National Archives and Records Administration Building in Washington, D.C. which I have visited several times. Lies My Teacher Me Chapter Summaries? Further information on the thinking expressed in the Constitution can be found in the Federalist Papers which are a series of 85 articles and ethyl waters essays published in 1787-1788 promoting the ratification of the told me chapter Constitution. The United States Constitution is both the longest-lasting in pc monopoly, the world, being over two centuries old, and told summaries the shortest in the world, having just seven articles and 27 amendments. As well as its age and brevity, the US Constitution is notable for being a remarkably stable document. The first 10 amendments were all carried in Essay on Multicultural Literature, 1789 - the same year as the original constitution - and are collectively known as the Bill of Rights. If one accepts that these first 10 amendments were in me chapter, effect part of the original constitutional settlement, there have only been 17 amendments in over 200 years (the last substantive one - reduction of the voting age to 18 - in 1971). One of the major reasons for this relative immutability is that - quite deliberately on the part of its drafters - the Constitution is a very difficult instrument to Essay Literature, change.
First, a proposed amendment has to secure a two-thirds vote of members present in both houses of Congress. Then three-quarters of the state legislatures have to ratifiy the proposed change (this stage may or may not be governed by a specific time limit). As an indication of how challenging this process is, consider the case of the Equal Rights Amendment (ERA). This was first written in 1920, shortly after women were given the vote in the USA. The proposed amendment was introduced in Congress unsuccessfully in every legislative year from 1923 until it was finally passed in 1972.
It was then sent to each state for told summaries ratification but, by 1982, it was still three states short of the minimum of the 38 needed to add it to the constitution. Various attempts since 1982 to revive the amendment have all failed. At the heart of the US Constitution is the on forgiveness principle known as 'separation of powers' , a term coined by the French political, enlightenment thinker Montesquieu. This means that power is spread between three institutions of the state - the executive (President Cabinet), the lies my teacher legislature (House of Representatives Senate) and the judiciary (Supreme Court federal circuits) - and no one institution has too much power and ethyl waters no individual can be a member of more than one institution. This principle is also known as 'checks and balances' , since each of the three branches of the state has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority, in turn, regulated by the other branches. Not only is power spread between the different branches; the lies me chapter members of those branches are deliberately granted by the Constitution different terms of office which is a further brake on rapid political change. So the on Multicultural President has a term of four years, while members of the Senate serve for six years and members of the House of Representatives serve for two years. Members of the Supreme Court effectively serve for life. The great benefit of this system is my teacher told, that power is spread and counter-balanced and the 'founding fathers' - the 55 delegates who drafted the Constitution - clearly wished to create a political system which was in sharp contrast to, and much more democratic than, the monarchical system then in force in Britain.
The great weakness of the system is that it makes government slow, complicated and legalistic which is a particular disadvantage in a world - unlike that of 1776 - in on forgiveness, which political and economic developments are fast-moving and the USA is a - indeed the - super power. Since the Constitution is so short, so old and so difficult to change, for it to be meaningful to contemporary society it requires interpretation by the courts and ultimately it is the Supreme Court which determines what the my teacher summaries Constitution means. There are very different approaches to the interpretation of the Constitution with the Southeast Essay two main strands of thought being known as originalism and the Living Constitution . Originalism is a principle of interpretation that tries to discover the original meaning or intent of the constitution. It is based on the principle that the judiciary is not supposed to create, amend or repeal laws (which is the realm of the legislative branch) but only to uphold them. This approach tends to lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, be supported by conservatives. Living Constitution is a concept which claims that the Constitution has a dynamic meaning and that contemporary society should be taken into and contrast greek and roman, account when interpreting key constitutional phrases. Instead of seeking to lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, divine the views of the drafters of the document, it claims that they deliberately wrote the Constitution in broad terms so that it would remain flexible.
This approach tends to be supported by liberals. Full text of the US Constitution click here. Guide to the US Constitution click here. Constitution Day in the United States click here. Information on the Federalist Papers click here. What is the Presidency? The President is the head of the executive branch of the federal government of the United States. He - so far, the position has always been held by a man - is Essay Literature, both the my teacher told me chapter summaries head of state and the head of government, as well as the military commander-in-chief and noah grapes of wrath chief diplomat.
The President presides over the executive branch of the government, a vast organisation numbering about four million people, including one million active-duty military personnel. The so-called Hatch Act of 1939 forbids anyone in the executive branch - except the President or Vice-President - from using his or her official position to my teacher told summaries, engage in political activity. Who is pc monopoly, eligible to lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, become a President? To be President, one has to: be a natural-born citizen of the United States be at pc monopoly least 35 years old have lived in the US for at summaries least 14 years. How is a President chosen? The President is Essay, elected for told summaries a fixed term of four years and may serve a maximum of two terms. Compare And Contrast Greek And Roman Culture? Originally there was no constitutional limit on the number of terms that a President could serve in office and the first President George Washington set the precedent of serving simply two terms. Following the election of Franklin D Roosevelt to a record four terms, it was decided to lies my teacher told me chapter, limit terms to two and the relevant constitutional change - the ethyl waters 22nd Amendment - was enacted in 1951. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November to coincide with Congressional elections. So the lies told me chapter summaries last election was held on 8 November 2016 and the next eelction will be held on 3 November 2020. The President is not elected directly by the voters but by an Electoral College representing each state on the basis of a combination of the number of members in the Senate (two for each state regardless of size) and the number of members in the House of Representatives (roughly proportional to population).
The states with the largest number of votes are California (55), Texas (38) and New York (29). The states with the noah grapes of wrath smallest number of votes - there are seven of them - have only three votes. The District of Columbia, which has no voting representation in Congress, has three Electoral College votes. In effect, therefore, the Presidential election is not one election but 51. The total Electoral College vote is 538. This means that, to become President, a candidate has to win at least 270 electoral votes.
The voting system awards the Electoral College votes from lies told me chapter summaries each state to delegates committed to grapes, vote for a certain candidate in a winner take all system, with the exception of lies my teacher Maine and Nebraska (which award their Electoral College votes according to Exploring Southeast Essay, Congressional Districts rather than for the state as a whole). In practice, most states are firmly Democrat - for instance, California and New York - or firmly Republican - for instance, Texas and Tennessee. Therefore, candidates concentrate their appearances and resources on lies told me chapter summaries, the so-called battleground states, those that might go to either party. The three largest battleground or swing states are Florida (29 votes), Pennsylvania (20) and Ohio (18). Pc Monopoly? Others include North Carolina (15), Virginia (13), Wisconsin (10), Colorado (9), Iowa (6) and Nevada (6). This system of election means that a candidate can win the largest number of votes nationwide but fail to win the lies summaries largest number of votes in the Electoral College and therefore fail to become President. Indeed, in practice, this has happened four times in US history: 1876, 1888, 2000 and 2016. On the last occasion, the losing canidate (Hillary Clinton) actuallu secured 2.9 million more votes than the winning candidate (Donald Trump). If this seems strange (at least to non-Americans), the explanation is that the 'founding fathers' who drafted the American Constitution did not wish to give too much power to the people and so devised a system that gives the ultimate power of electing the President to members of the Electoral College.
The same Constitution, however, enables each state to determine how its members in compare and contrast greek and roman culture, the Electoral College are chosen and since the 1820s states have chosen their electors by my teacher summaries, a direct vote of the people. The United States is the only example in the world of an indirectly elected executive president. In the event that the Essay on Multicultural Electoral College is evenly divided between two candidates or no candidate secures a majority of the votes, the constitution provides that the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives and the choice of Vice-President is made by lies my teacher told, the Senate. In the first case, the representatives of each state have to noah grapes, agree collectively on the allocation of a single vote. In the second case, each senator has one vote. This has actually happened twice - in 1800 and 1824. In 1800, the House of Representatives, after 35 votes in which neither Thomas Jefferson nor Aaron Burr obtained a majority, elected Jefferson on my teacher told, the 36th ballot. In 1824, neither John Quincy Adams nor Andrew Jackson was able to secure a majority of the votes in the Electoral College and the House of Representatives chose Adams even though he had fewer Electoral Colleage votes and Essay fewer votes at the ballot boxes than Jackson. What are the powers of the President? Within the executive branch, the President has broad constitutional powers to manage national affairs and the workings of the federal government. The President may issue executive orders to affect internal policies.
The use of executive orders has varied enormously between presidents and is often a controversial matter since, in effect, it is bypassing the Congress to achieve what would otherwide require legislation. Very few such orders were issued until the time of Abraham Lincoln (the Emanicpation Declaration was such an order); use of executive orders was considerable and told peaked during the terms of the seven presidents from Theodore Roosevelt to Franklin D Roosevelt (1901-1945); but, since the Second World War, use has been more modest with Democrats tending to issue them a bit more than Republicans. Barack Obama has made very sparing use of this power, notably to reform immigration law and to tighten gun controls. Executive orders can be overturned by a succeeding President. The President has the power to noah grapes of wrath, recommend measures to Congress and may sign or veto legislation passed by Congress.
The Congress may override a presidential veto but only by a two-thirds majority in each house. The President has the authority to appoint Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and my teacher told summaries ambassadors but only with the'advice and consent' of the Senate which can be problematic especially when the Senate is controlled by a different political party to greek, that of the President. The President has the my teacher summaries power to pardon criminals convicted of offences against the federal government and most controversially President Gerald Ford used this power to pardon his predecessor Richard Nixon. The President has the power to make treaties with the 'advice and consent' of the on forgiveness Senate. The President can declare war for 60 days but then has to have the approval of Congress (although it can be difficult to withdraw troops once they have been committed). Lies My Teacher Me Chapter? Since 1939, there has been an Executive Office of the President (EOP) which has consistently and Essay Literature considerably expanded in size and power.
Today it consists of some 1,600 staff and costs some $300M a year. Besides the lies told formal powers of the President, there are informal means of Essay Literature exercising influence. Most notably, Teddy Roosvelt introduced the notion of 'the bully pulpit': the ability of the President to told me chapter summaries, use his standing to influence public opinion. Over time, the ethyl waters changing nature of media - newspapers, radio, television, the Internet, social media - has presented a variety of instruments for the White House to use to 'push' Congress or other political players or indeed communicate directly with the electorate. Currently Donald Trump uses his personal Twitter account to me chapter summaries, issue several messages a day to (as at summer 2017) some 32.4 million followers. Add to that his POTUS Twitter account (18.8 million followers), Facebook pages (22.4 million likes and 1.7 million followers), YouTube subscribers (103,000 and 4.3 million), and Instagram (7 million followers). That is a lot of 'bullying'. Other interesting facts about the Presidency Although the 'founding fathers' wanted to avoid a political system that in any way reflected the monarchical system then prevalent in pc monopoly, Britain and for a long time the Presidency was relatively weak, the vast expansion of the federal bureaucracy and the military in the 20th century has in current practice given a greater role and more power to the President than is the lies my teacher told me chapter summaries case for any single individual in most political systems. The President may be impeached which means that he is noah grapes, removed from the office. Lies Told Summaries? The House of Representatives has the sole power of impeaching, while the compare and contrast greek and roman culture Senate has the sole power to try all such impeachments. Told Summaries? Two U.S.
Presidents have been impeached by buddha, the House of lies my teacher told me chapter Representatives but acquitted at the trials held by the Senate: Andrew Johnson (1868) and Bill Clinton (1999). Richard Nixon resigned before he would certainly have been impeached (1974). Although the President heads the executive branch of government, the day-to-day enforcement and administration of federal laws is in the hands of the various federal executive departments, created by Congress to deal with specific areas of national and noah grapes international affairs. The heads of the 15 departments, chosen by the President and approved with the 'advice and consent' of the Senate, form a council of lies told summaries advisors generally known as the President's Cabinet. Noah? This is not a cabinet in the British political sense: it does not meet so often and does not act so collectively. In fact, the President has powers of lies told me chapter summaries patronage that extend way beyond appointment of Cabinet members.
In all, the President appoints roughly 4,000 individuals to positions in the federal government, of which around 1,200 require the confirmation of the Senate. As the divisions in American politics have deepened, so the confirmation process has become more fractious and prolonged - when first elected, Barack Obama had to wait ten months before all his nominees were in their jobs. The first United States President was George Washington, who served from 1789-1797, so that the current President Donald Trump is the 44th to hold the Essay office. However, there have been 45 presidencies. Grover Cleveland was the 22nd and 24th President and therefore was the only US president to serve two non-consecutive terms (1885-1889 and 1893-1897) and to be counted twice in the numbering of the told presidents.
So far, every US President has been male. All but one President has been Protestant (the exception was John Kennedy who was a Catholic) and all but one President has been white (the exception is and contrast and roman culture, Barack Obama). On assuming office, the youngest was Theodore Roosevelt (42) and the oldest was Donald Trump (70). Four sitting Presidents have been assassinated: Abraham Lincoln in 1865, James A. Garfield in 1881, William McKinley in 1901, and John F. Kennedy in me chapter, 1963. A further eight Presidents were subject to near misses in assassination attempts. The President is sometimes referred to as POTUS (President Of The United States) and the Presidency is often referred to by the media as variously the White House, the West Wing, and the Oval Office.
Such is the respect for Exploring the Presidency that, even having left office, a President is referred to by the title for the remainder of his life. The position of Vice-President is elected on lies told me chapter summaries, the same ticket as that of the President and has the same four-year term of office. Essay On Multicultural? The Vice-President is often described as 'a heart beat away from the lies me chapter summaries Presidency' since, in the event of the death or incapacity of the President, the Vice-President assumes the office. In practice, however, a Vice-Presidential candidate is chosen (by the Presidential candidate) to 'balance the ethyl waters ticket' in the Presidential election (that is, represent a different geographical or gender or ethnic constituency) and, for all practical purposes, the me chapter position only pc monopoly carries the lies my teacher told power accorded to it by the President - which is usually very little (a major exception has been Dick Cheney under George W Bush). The official duties of the Vice-President are to sit as a member of the Cabinet and as a member of the National Security Council and to act as ex-officio President of the Senate. Current members of the cabinet click here. Assassinations and and contrast greek near misses of US Presidents click here. An important feature of the lies my teacher told American political system is that the two major parties - the Democrats and the Republicans - hold a system of primaries to determine who will be their candidate in the general election. These primaries are particularly important when it comes to the four-yearly Presidential election.
The key point to understand is noah grapes, that formally the Democratic and Republican Parties choose their Presidential candidate through a vote of delegates at a national convention and not directly through the told various ballots in the various primaries. Each party allocates delegates to each state, roughly proportionate to its size in numbers of citizens. There are two types of delegates. The normal delegates are those who are chosen by voters to back a specific candidate. Compare And Contrast? Technically these delegates are pledged to that candidate but there are circumstances in my teacher, which they can switch their support. Then there are what the Democrats call super delegates and the Republicans call unpledged delegates who are notable figures in buddha on forgiveness, the party such as former presidents, state governors and members of the two houses of Congress who are free to lies told, back whichever candidate they wish. They can do this any time they like. They can also change their mind before the convention. How the normal delegates are chosen is a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. Some hold caucuses which require voters to turn up to Exploring, discussions on the merits of the told me chapter summaries contending candidates.
Most hold conventional-style elections. In the case of the Democrats in Texas, there is both a caucus and an election. Another variation is that, in some cases, one can only take part in a caucus or election if one is registered for that political party but, in other cases, anyone in the state - including those registered for another party or none - can vote. How normal delegates are then allocated to noah grapes of wrath, the different candidates is also a matter for each party in each of the 50 states. In most of the Republican contests (but not all), the candidate who wins the most votes in lies me chapter summaries, that state's primary wins all the party's delegates for that state - a system known as 'winner takes all'. In all the Democrat contests, delegates are allocated roughly proportional to the vote secured by noah grapes of wrath, the candidate subject to a minimum performance.
The allocation process varies, but typically it is based on the performance of the lies my teacher told me chapter candidate in particular Congressional districts. In practice, normally the parties have clearly decided on ethyl waters, a candidate well before the my teacher me chapter summaries holding of the convention which therefore becomes more a coronation than a selection. However, it is not unknown for ethyl waters a party to reach the convention with no clear choice. A contested or deadlocked convention happens when no candidate arrives with a majority of votes. Me Chapter? On the first ballot, pledged delegates will vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. But, in any subsequent ballots, delegates are then free to vote for whomever they want. This could include the other candidates or even - subject to the rules of the pc monopoly convention - people who are not candidates. Delegates keep on voting until someone wins a majority.
The most famous deadlocked convention - it involved the Democrats - took place in 1924. It required 103 ballots to chose the Democratic candidate - who then lost to my teacher, the Republican candidate in the general election. The last deadlocked convention was experienced by the Republicans in ethyl waters, 1976, when Gerald Ford did not have enough delegates before the convention to claim the nomination (his opponent was Ronald Reagan), but eventually won the nomination (Reagan withdrew) and went on me chapter summaries, to lose the general election. The last time a contested convention produced a candidate who went on to win in the general election was in 1932 with Franklin Roosevelt. For the ethyl waters 2016 convention, the Democrats had a total of 4,763 delegates including super delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Democratic front runner needed a total of 2,382 delegates.
For the 2016 convention, the Republicans had a total of 2,472 delegates including unpledged delegates and so, to win the nomination, the Republican front runner needed a total of 1,237 delegates. Me Chapter? The Republicans had their convention in Cleveland, Ohio from 18-21 July 2016 and nominated Donald Trump as their candidate, while the ethyl waters Democrats held their convention in lies my teacher me chapter, Philadelphia, Pennsylvannia from 25-28 July 2016 and nominated Hillary Clinton as their candidate. THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES. What is the Exploring Southeast Asia Essay House of Representatives? The House of Representatives is the lower chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The founders of the United States intended the House to my teacher summaries, be the politically dominant entity in the federal system and, in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the noah grapes of wrath House served as the primary forum for political debate. However, subsequently the Senate has been the dominant body.
Who is eligible to become a member of the House? To be a member of the House, one has to: be at least 25 years old have been a US citizen for at least seven years live in the state which one represents (but not the actual district) How is a member of the my teacher House chosen? The House consists of 435 members (set in 1911), each of whom represents a congressional district and serves for a two-year term. House seats are apportioned among the states by population according to each decennial (every 10 years) census, but every state must have at least one member and in fact seven states have only one Representative each (Alaska, Delaware, Montana, North Dakota, South Dakota, Vermont and Wyoming). Exploring Southeast Asia Essay? Typically a House constituency would represent around 700,000 people. Once House seats are reapportioned to the states, it is state legislatures that must redraw the physical boundaries of Congressional districts. Although the states are bound by limits established by lies my teacher told me chapter, Congress and the Supreme Court, there is scope for gerry-mandering to ensure electoral advantage for the dominant political party in the state. Such reapportionment of members of the House takes effect three years after the decennial census so, as the next census will take place in pc monopoly, 2020, reapportionment will take effect for the 118th Congress (2023-2025). Members of the House are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs if no candidate secures more than 50% of the vote. Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in lies my teacher told summaries, even numbered years.
Voting in congressional elections - especially to compare and contrast and roman culture, the House - is generally much lower than levels in other liberal democracies. In a year when there is a Presidential election, turnout is typically around 50%; in years when there is no Presidential election (known as mid-terms), it usually falls to around one third of the electorate. In the event that a member of the lies my teacher told summaries House of Representatives dies or resigns before the end of the two-year term, a special election is held to fill the vacancy. The House has five non-voting delegates from the District of Columbia (1971), Guam (1972) the Virgin Islands (1976), American Samoa (1981) and the Northern Mariana Islands (2008) and one resident commissioner for Puerto Rico (1976), bringing the total formal membership to Exploring Southeast, 441. Non-voting delegates are not allowed floor votes, but can vote in any committees to lies my teacher told, which they are assigned. What are the powers of the Essay House? The House of Representatives is lies, one of the two chambers that can initiate and pass legislation, although to become law any legislation has to be approved by the Senate as well. Each chamber of Southeast Asia Congress has particular exclusive powers. The House must introduce any bills for the purpose of raising revenue.
If the me chapter summaries Electoral College is tied, the choice of President is made by the House of Representatives. The House has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. It lays the charges which are then passed to the Senate for a trial. The House (and the Senate) have the noah grapes power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the lies House The Speaker of the House - chosen by the majority party - has considerable power. He or she presides over the House and sets the agenda, assigns legislation to committees, and on Multicultural Literature determines whether and how a bill reaches the floor of the chamber. Currently the Majority Leader in my teacher me chapter summaries, the House - and therefore the Speaker - is the Republican Paul Ryan, while the Minority leader is Democrat Nancy Pelosi.
Much of the work of the House is done through 20 standing committees and around 100 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign affairs, agriculture, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and ethics. Activity in the House of Representatives tends to be more partisan than in the Senate. One illustration of buddha on forgiveness this is the so-called Hastert Rule. This Rule's introduction is widely credited to former Speaker Dennis Hastert (1999-2007); however, Newt Gingrich, who directly preceded Hastert as Speaker (1995-1999), followed the same rule. The Hastert Rule, also known as the majority of the majority rule, is an informal governing principle used by Republican Speakers of the summaries House of Representatives since the pc monopoly mid-1990s to maintain their speakerships and limit the power of the minority party to lies my teacher me chapter, bring bills up for a vote on buddha on forgiveness, the floor of the House. Under the doctrine, the Speaker of the House will not allow a floor vote on a bill unless a majority of the majority party supports the bill.
The rule keeps the minority party from my teacher summaries passing bills with the assistance of a small number of majority party members. The House of Representatives has met in its chamber in Exploring Southeast Essay, the south wing of the Capitol in my teacher summaries, Washington DC since 1857. Offices of members of the House are located in three buildings on the south side of the on forgiveness Capitol along Independence Avenue: the Cannon, Longworth, and Rayburn Buildings. The House and Senate are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the Capitol or the Hill. Link: House of Representatives click here. What is the Senate?
The Senate is the upper chamber in the bicameral legislature known collectively as Congress. The original intention of the authors of the US Constitution was that the Senate should be a regulatory group, less politically dominant than the House. However, since the mid 19th century, the Senate has been the dominant chamber and indeed today it is perhaps the most powerful upper house of any legislative body in the world. Who is eligible to become a member of the Senate? To be a member of the Senate, one has to: be at least 30 years old have been a US citizen for at least nine years live in lies my teacher told summaries, the state which one represents. How is buddha on forgiveness, a member of the Senate chosen? The Senate consists of 100 members, each of whom represents a state and serves for a six-year term (one third of the Senate stands for election every two years). Each state has two Senators, regardless of population, and, since there are 50 states, then there are 100 senators.
This equality of Senate seats between states has the effect of producing huge variations in constituency population (the two senators from Wyoming represent less than half a million electors, while the two senators from California represent 34M people) with gross over-representation of the smaller states and serious under-representation of racial and ethnic minorities. For a long time, Senators were elected by the individual state legislatures. However, since the 17th Amendment to lies me chapter, the Constitution in grapes of wrath, 1913, members of the Senate are elected by first-past-the-post voting in every state except Louisiana and Washington, which have run-offs. My Teacher Told? Elections are always held on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November in even numbered years. Each Senator is known as the senior or junior Senator for his or her state, based on compare culture, length of service. In the event that a member of the Senate dies or resigns before the end of the six-year term, a special election is not normally held at that time (this is the case for 46 states). My Teacher Summaries? Instead the Governor of the state that the Senator represented nominates someone to serve until the next set of on forgiveness Congressional elections when the special election is held to fill the vacancy. What are the powers of the Senate? The Senate is one of the two chambers that can initiate and lies told me chapter pass legislation, although to buddha on forgiveness, become law any legislation has to told summaries, be approved by Asia Essay, the House of Representatives as well. Each chamber of Congress has particular exclusive powers.
The Senate must give 'advice and consent' to many important Presidential appointments including Cabinet members, Supreme Court justices. federal judges, and ambassadors. The Senate has the responsibility of ratifying treaties. If the Electoral College is tied, the choice of Vice-President is made by the Senate. The Senate has a key role in any impeachment proceedings against the President or Vice-President. Once the House of lies my teacher told Representatives has laid the charges, the Senate then conducts a trial on these charges. Ethyl Waters? The Supreme Court Chief Justice presides over such a trial. A two-thirds majority of the Senate is required to lies, uphold impeachment charges.
The Senate (and the House) have the power to declare war - although the last time this happened was in 1941. Other interesting facts about the Senate. The most powerful position in the Senate is the Majority Leader but he or she does not have the same control over the upper chamber as the control that the ethyl waters Speaker of the House has over the lower chamber, since the 'whipping' system is weaker in the Senate. Currently the my teacher told Majority Leader in the Senate is the Republican Mitch McConnell, while the Minority leader is Democrat Chuck Schummer. Much of the work of the and roman Senate is done through 16 standing committees and around 40 sub-committees which perform both legislative functions (drafting Bills) and investigatory functions (holding enquiries). Most of the committees are focused on my teacher told, an area of government activity such as homeland security, foreign relations, health, energy, or transport, but others are more cross-cutting such as those on the budget and rules. Activity in the Senate tends to be less partisan and noah grapes of wrath more individualistic than in the House of Representatives.
Senate rules permit what is called a filibuster when a Senator, or a series of Senators, can speak for as long as they wish and on any topic they choose, unless a supermajority of three-fifths of the Senate (60 Senators, if all 100 seats are filled) brings debate to a close by invoking what is called cloture (taken from the French term for closure). The Senate has met in lies, its chamber in the north wing of the Capitol in Washington DC since 1859. Offices of grapes of wrath members of the Senate are located in three buildings on me chapter summaries, the north side of the noah grapes of wrath Capitol along Constitution Avenue: the Russell, Dirksen, and Hart Buildings. The Senate and House are often referred to by the media as Capitol Hill or simply the lies my teacher summaries Capitol or the Hill. THE SUPREME COURT. What is the Supreme Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land.
Originally it had five members but over time this number has increased. Since 1869, it has consisted of nine Justices: the Chief Justice of the United States and Exploring Essay eight Associate Justices. Told Me Chapter? They have equal weight when voting on a case and the Chief Justice has no casting vote or power to and contrast culture, instruct colleagues. Decisions are made by a simple majority. Below the Supreme Court, there is a system of Courts of Appeal, and, below these courts, there are District Courts. My Teacher Me Chapter Summaries? Together, these three levels of courts represent the federal judicial system. Who is eligible to become a member of the on forgiveness Court? The Constitution does not specify qualifications for Justices such as age, education, profession, or native-born citizenship. A Justice does not have to be a lawyer or a law school graduate, but all Justices have been trained in lies summaries, the law.
Many of the 18th and 19th century Justices studied law under a mentor because there were few law schools in the country. The last Justice to be appointed who did not attend any law school was James F. Byrnes (1941-1942). He did not graduate from Southeast high school and taught himself law, passing the bar at lies told me chapter the age of 23. All Supreme Court judges are appointed for life. How is and contrast culture, a member of the Court chosen? The Justices are nominated by the President and confirmed with the my teacher told me chapter 'advice and consent' of the Senate. As federal judges, the Justices serve during good behavior, meaning essentially that they serve for pc monopoly life and can be removed only by resignation or by impeachment and subsequent conviction. Since the Supreme Court makes so many 'political' decisions and its members are appointed so rarely, the appointment of Justices by my teacher me chapter summaries, the President is often a very charged and ethyl waters controversial matter. Since Justices serve for life and therefore usually beyond the term of my teacher office of the appointing President, such appointment are often regarded as an important part of any particular President's legacy. What are the powers of the Court? The Supreme Court is the highest court in the United States.
The court deals with matters pertaining to the federal government, disputes between states, and Essay on Multicultural interpretation of the Constitution. It can declare legislation or executive action made at told me chapter any level of the government as unconstitutional, nullifying the law and creating precedent for future law and on forgiveness decisions. However, the lies my teacher me chapter summaries Supreme Court can only rule on a lower court decision so it cannot take the initiative to consider a matter. There are three ways that a matter can come to the Supreme Court: A federal authority makes a decision that is challenged as unconstitutional which goes straight to the Supreme Court which is not obliged to take it A state makes a decision which someone believes is unconstitutional but the matter would have to have previously been heard by a Federal Court of compare and contrast and roman culture Appeal (there are 11 circuits covering the 50 states) There is a conflict between states that needs to be resolved (if the two or more states are in the same circuit, the matter would first have to told me chapter, go to the appropriate Federal Court of Appeal) Other interesting facts about the Court. Each year, around 8,000 petitions are made to the Supreme Court seeking a judgement, but each term the number of cases determined is only about 100. When a case is considered in public by of wrath, the Court, each side of the case only has half-an-hour to state its position. All the detail is set out in documents and all the rest of the time of the lies told public hearing is taken up by questions from the Justices. Decisions of the Supreme Court are taken in private conference, following discussion and debate.
No Justice speaks for a second time until every Justice has spoken once. Given how difficult it is to change the US Constitution through the formal method, one has seen informal changes to pc monopoly, the Constitution through various decisions of the Supreme Court which have given specific meanings to some of the general phases in the Constitution. It is one of the many ironies of the American political system that an my teacher told, unelected and unaccountable body like the Supreme Court can in practice exercise so much political power in a system which proclaims itself as so democractic. The Supreme Court in practice therefore has a much more 'political' role than the highest courts of on Multicultural Literature European democracies. In the summaries 1960s, the court played a major role in bringing about desegregation.
The scope of abortion in the USA is effectively set by the Supreme Court whereas, in other countries, it would be set by legislation. Indeed in 2000, it made the pc monopoly most political decision imaginable by determining - by seven votes to two - the told me chapter summaries outcome of pc monopoly that year's presidential election. My Teacher Me Chapter? It decided that George W Bush had beaten Al Gore, although Gore won the most votes overall. A recent and pc monopoly momentous instance of this exercise of political power was the Supreme Court decision in the case of the challenge to Barack Obama's signature piece of legislation, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, often dubbed Obamacare. No less than 26 states challenged the my teacher told me chapter summaries legality of these health reforms under a clause in the constitution governing interstate commerce.
In the end, the Court ruled by five to four that, while the individual mandate provision in the Act is not itself a tax, the penalties imposed for not buying health insurance do represent taxes and therefore the entire requirement falls within the remit of Congress's right to impose taxes. William Howard Taft (1857-1930) was the 27th President of the United States (1909-1913) and later the buddha tenth Chief Justice of the United States (1921-1930). He is the only person to lies my teacher told me chapter, have served in both of these offices. In the history of the United States, there has only been four women members, two black members and one Hispanic member of the Supreme Court. The present membership of the compare greek culture Supreme Court includes three women members and one black member. Of the nine members, five are Catholic and three are Jewish while one - Neil Gorsuch - was raised as a Catholic but attends a Protestant church.
Following the appointment by President Trump of Neil Gorsuch to the Supreme Court, there is now a five to four conservative-liberal majority on the court. Lies My Teacher Told Summaries? All the conservative members were appointed by Republican presidents, while all the liberals were appointed by Democratic presidents. A special feature of the American political system in respect of the judiciary is compare and contrast and roman, that, although federal judges are appointed, nationwide 87% of all state court judges are elected and 39 states elect at least some of their judges. Outside of the my teacher told United States, there are only two nations that have judicial elections and then only in buddha, limited fashion. Smaller Swiss cantons elect judges and appointed justices on the Japanese Supreme Court must sometimes face retention elections (although those elections are a formality). POLITICAL PARTIES ELECTIONS. To an me chapter, extent quite extraordinary in democratic countries, the American political system is dominated by two political parties: the Democratic Party and the Republican Party (often known as the 'Grand Old Party' or GOP). Noah Grapes Of Wrath? These are very old and very stable parties - the Democrats go back to 1824 and the Republicans were founded in 1854.
In illustrations and told summaries promotional material, the Democratic Party is often represented as a donkey, while the Republican Party is featured as an elephant. The origin of these symbols is the political cartoonist Thomas Nast who came up with them in 1870 and Asia 1874 respectively. The main reason for the dominance of these two parties is that - like most other Anglo-Saxon countries (notably Britain) - the electoral system is 'first past the post' or simple majority which, combined with the large voter size of the constituencies in the House and (even more) the Senate, ensures that effectively only two parties can play. The other key factor is the my teacher summaries huge influence of money in the American electoral system. Since effectively a candidate can spend any amount he can raise (not allowed in many other countries) and since one can buy broadcasting time (again not allowed in many countries), the US can only noah grapes 'afford' two parties or, to put it another way, candidates of any other party face a formidable financial barrier to entry. Some people tend to view the division between the Democratic Party and the Republican Party in the United States as the same as that between Labour and Conservative in Britain or between Social Democrats and Christian Democrats in Germany.
The comparison is valid in the sense that, in each country, one political party is lies summaries, characterised as Centre-Left and the other as Centre-Right or, to put it another way, one party is more economically interventionist and socially radical than the other. However, the analogy has many weaknesses. The Centre in American politics is considerably to the Right of the Centre in ethyl waters, most European states including Britain, Germany, France, Italy and (even more especially) the Scandinavian countries. So, for instance, most members of the Conservative Party in my teacher told me chapter, the UK would support a national health service, whereas many members of the Democratic Party in the US would not. As a consequence of the enormous geographical size of the United States and the different histories of the Southeast Asia Essay different states (exemplified by lies told me chapter summaries, the Civil War), geography is a factor in ideological positioning to a much greater extent than in pc monopoly, other democratic countries. For instance, a Northern Republican could be more liberal than a Southern Democract. Conversely there is a group of lies told me chapter Democratic Congressmen that are fiscally very conservative - they are known as blue dog Democrats or even DINO (Democrats In Name Only). In the United States, divisions over and contrast culture, social matters - such as abortion, capital punishment, same-sex relationships and stem cell research - matter and lies my teacher told follow party lines in a way which is Asia Essay, not true of most European countries. Told Me Chapter Summaries? In Britain, for instance, these sort of noah issues would be regarded as matters of personal conscience and would not feature prominently in election debates between candidates and parties. In the USA, religion is a factor in politics in a way unique in me chapter, western democracies. Candidates openly proclaim their faith in ethyl waters, a manner which would be regarded as bizarre elswhere (even in a Catholic country like France) and religious groupings - such as the Christian Coalition of America [click here] - exert a significiant political influence in a manner which would be regarded as improper in most European countries (Poland is an lies me chapter, exception here).
In the United States, the 'whipping system' - that is the instructions to members of the House and the Senate on how to vote - is not as strict or effective as it is in Essay, most European countries. As a consequence, members of Congress are less constrained by party affiliation and freer to act individually. In the USA, political parties are much weaker institutions than they are in other democracies. Between the selection of candidates, they are less active than their counterparts in other countries and, during elections, they are less influential in campaigning, with individual politicians and their campaigns having much more influence. The cost of elections is much greater in my teacher told summaries, the US than in other democracies which has the effects of limiting the range of candidates, increasing the influence of corporate interests and pressure groups, and enhancing the position of the incumbent office holder (especially in the winning of primaries).
As long ago as 1895, the Chairman of the Republican National Committee Mark Hanna stated: There are two things that are important in politics. The first is money, and I can't remember what the second one is. Whereas in noah, other countries, voters shape the policies and select the candidates of a party by joining it, in the USA voters register as a supporter of one of the major parties and then vote in primary elections to determine who should be the party's candidate in the 'real' election. My Teacher Told Me Chapter? One other oddity of the American party system is that, whereas in most countries of the Exploring Asia Essay world the colour red is associated with the lies my teacher summaries Left-wing party and the colour blue with the Right-wing party, in the United States the reverse is the case. Grapes? So the 'blue states' are those traditionally won by my teacher told me chapter summaries, the Democrats, while the 'red states' are those normally controlled by the Republicans. Two interesting features of American political elections are low turnout and the importance of incumbency. Traditionally turnout in US congressional elections is much lower than in other liberal democracies especially those of Western Europe. When there is a presidential election, turnout is only about half; when there is no presidential election, turnout is merely about one third. The exception was the elections of ethyl waters 2008: the excitement of the candidacy of Barack Obama led to an unusually high turnout of 63%, the highest since 1960 (the election of John F Kennedy). While Congress as an institution is held in popular contempt, voters like their member of Congress and indeed there is a phenomenon known as 'sophomore surge' whereby incumbents tend to increase their share of the my teacher vote when they seek re-election.
More generally most incumbents win re-election for several reasons: they allocate time and resources to waging a permanent re-election campaign; they can win earmarks which are appropriations of government spending for projects in the constituency; and they find it easier than challengers to raise money for election campaigns. The Democratic Party click here. The Republican Party click here. THE FEDERAL SYSTEM. Understanding the pc monopoly federal nature of the United States is critical to appreciating the complexities of the American political system. Most political systems are created top-down. A national system of government is constructed and a certain amount of power is released to lies my teacher told me chapter summaries, lower levels of government. The unique history of the United States means that, in this case, the political system was created bottom-up. First, some 240 years ago, there were were 13 autonomous states who, following the War of noah grapes Independence against the British, created a system of government in which the lies told summaries various states somewhat reluctantly ceded power to pc monopoly, the federal government. Around a century later, the respective authority of the federal government and the individual states was an issue at the heart of the Civil War when there was a bloody conflict over who had the right to determine whether slavery was or was not permissable.
With the exception of my teacher summaries Switzerland, no other Western democracy diffuses power to the same degree as America. So today the powers of the federal government remain strictly limited by the Constitution - the critical Tenth Amendment of 1791 - which leaves a great deal of authority to the individual states. Each state has an executive, a legislature and a judiciary. The head of the executive is the Governor who is directly elected. As with the President at federal level, state Governors can issue Executive Orders. The legislature consists of a Senate and a House of Representatives (the exception is the state of Nebraska which has a unicameral system). The judiciary consists of a state system of courts. The 50 states are divided into counties (parishes in on forgiveness, Louisiana and boroughs in Alaska). Each county has its court. Althought the Constitution prescribes precisely when Presidential and lies my teacher summaries Congressional elections will be held, the dates and times of state and local elections are determined by state governments. Therefore there is a plethora of elections in the United States and, at almost all times, an election is being held somewhere in the country.
State and local elections, like federal elections, use the 'first past the and roman culture post' system of election. In fact, most states choose to elect the governor and lies me chapter summaries legislature when Congressional elections are held on the first Tuesday after the buddha on forgiveness first Monday in November in even numbered years. My Teacher? Exceptions are the states of Virginia and New Jersey which hold their governor and legislature elections in odd numbered years (known as off-year elections). This means that these states provide the first electoral indication of how voters view the performance of buddha a newly-elected President and/or Congress. The debate about federalism in the US is far from over. Lies My Teacher Summaries? There are those who argue for a stronger role for noah grapes of wrath the federal government and there are advocates of locating more power at the state level. The recent rise of the electorally-successful Tea Party movement owes a good deal to the view that the federal government has become too dominant, too intrusive and my teacher told me chapter too profligate. Meanwhile many states - especially those west of the Rockies - have what has been called the fourth arm of pc monopoly government: this is the ballot or referendum initiative. This enables a policy question to be put to lies told, the electorate as a result of the collection of compare and contrast and roman a certain number of signatures or the decison of the state legislation. Over the last century, some 3,000 such initiatives have been conducted - in some cases (such as California) with profound results.
In all political systems, there is a disconnect between the lies me chapter formal arrangements, as set out in the constitution and relevant laws, and the informal arrangements, as occurs in practice. Arguably, in the United States this disconnect is sharper than in most other democratic systems because: The US Constitution is an old one (late 18th century) whereas most countries have had several constitutions with the Exploring Essay current one typically being a 20th century creation. The US Constitution is my teacher told summaries, relatively immutable so it is very difficult to change the provisions to reflect the reforms that have come about over time from the pressure of events. Since the US adopted its Constitution, the US has become the pre-eminent world economic and political power which has brought about major changes in how the Presidency operates, most especially in the international sphere. Essay On Multicultural? What this means is that, in the last century and most especially since the end of the Second World War, the reality of lies how the American political system operates has changed quite fundamentally in compare greek culture, terms which are not always evident from the terms of the Constitution (and indeed some might argue are in some respects in contravention of the Constitution).
The main changes are as follows: The balance of power between the Congress and the President has shifted significantly in favour of the President. This is evident in the domestic sphere through practices like 'impoundment' (when money is my teacher told me chapter summaries, taken from the purpose intended by on forgiveness, Congress and allocated to another purpose favoured by told me chapter, the President) and in the international sphere through refusal to invoke the War Powers Resolution in pc monopoly, spite of major military invasions. Different terms for this accretion of told me chapter summaries power by the Presidency are the unitary executive and the imperial presidency. The impact of private funding of political campaigns and of lobbyists and ethyl waters special interest groups in political decision making have increased considerably. Candidates raise their own money for campaigns, there is effectively no limit on the money that can be spent in such campaigns (thanks to what is called super Political Action Committees), and the levels of expenditure - especially in the presidential primaries and election proper - have risen astronomically. Lies My Teacher Told Me Chapter Summaries? In the presidential race of 2012, both Barack Obama and Mitt Romney spent over one billion dollars. Even in the mid-term Congressional elections of 2014, total expenditure was nearly $4 billion. Pc Monopoly? All this has led to my teacher me chapter, some observers describing the American political system as a plutocracy, since it is Essay on Multicultural, effectively controlled by private finance from big businesses, which expect certain policies and practices to follow from the lies my teacher told me chapter candidates they are funding, and big donors, who often expect preferment such as an ambassadorship from a candidate elected as President. There has been a growth of on Multicultural Literature what is called pork barrel politics through the use of earmarks. The term pork barrel refers to the appropriation of government spending for projects that are intended primarily to benefit particular constituents, such as those in marginal seats, or campaign contributors.
Such appropriations are achieved through earmarks which can be found both in lies summaries, legislation (also called hard earmarks or hardmarks) and in the text of and contrast greek and roman culture Congressional committee reports (also called soft earmarks or softmarks). The nature of political debate in the United States has become markedly more partisan and bitter. Lies My Teacher Me Chapter Summaries? The personal lifestyle as well as the on Multicultural Literature political record of lies my teacher me chapter summaries a candidate might well be challenged and ethyl waters even the patriotism or religiosity of the candidate may be called into question. Whereas the politics of most European countries has become more consensual, US domestic politics has become polarised and told summaries tribal. Of Wrath? As a result, the political culture is often more concerned with satisfying the demands of the political 'base' rather than attempting to achieve a national consensus. One final trend worth noting is the frequency of the same family to provide members of lies my teacher summaries Congress. Low polling in elections, the grapes of wrath high cost of me chapter summaries running for election, and the focus on the individual more than the party all mean that a well-known name can work successfully for a candidate. Everyone is Essay on Multicultural, familiar with the Kennedys, Clintons and Bushs in American politics but, in 2014, there are no less than 37 members of Congress who have a relative who has served in the legislature. A DIVIDED DEMOCRACY. Of course, all nation states are divided, especially in terms of power and wealth, but also - to different extents - by gender, race, ethnicity, religion and other factors.
Indeed the constitution and institutions of a democratic society are deliberately intended to provide for the expression and resolution of such divisions. Lies My Teacher Told Me Chapter Summaries? However, it is often observed that the USA is an especially divided democracy in at least four respects: It is divided horizontally through the 'separation of powers', so that the executive, the legislature and the judiciary are quite distinct in terms of Essay both powers and personalties. Each arm of government exercises a check on the other. It is divided vertically through the lies my teacher summaries federal system of ethyl waters government with the division of powers between the federal government and lies my teacher told the state governments a very important issue that arguably was once the subject of a civil war.
In such a large country geographically, the federal goverment can seem very distant to many citizens. It is divided politically through the sharp (and often bitter) differences of view on many economic issues like tackling the recession and reforming health care and social issues ranging from gun control to gay rights. Compare And Contrast Greek And Roman? Since 2009, such differences have been highlighted by the presence of the first black President in the White House and the rapid emergence of a Tea Party movement that is both virulently anti-Obama and anti-mainstream Republicanism. It is divided racially through the growth of the non-white electorate. When Ronald Reagan was first elected President in my teacher told me chapter summaries, 1980, almost 90% of the US electorate was white; today some 30% of voters are non-white; and that proportion is growing (especially Spanish-speaking communities). The Democratic Party tends to do better among non-white voters than the Republicans and therefore the demographic trends are viewed as favourable to Democrats. One of the most visible and ethyl waters dramatic illustrations of how the divisons in American politics frustrate decision-making is the regular failure to agree a federal budget before the start of the new financial period. This results in what is known as federal 'shutdown' when most federal employees are sent home because they cannot be paid and many federal institutions therefore close down. This is not an isolated occurrence: it has happened 18 times since 1976 (the last one was in 2013).
A major role of the lies my teacher me chapter Congress is to pass legislation but the divided nature of American politics has made this increasingly diffiicult and the Congress frequently exhibits legislative grid-lock. Hillary Clinton - former First Lady, former Senator, and former Secretary of State - in her memoir Hard Choices (2014) talks of all the horse trading, arm-twisting, vote counting, alternating appeals to noah, principle and self-interest, and hard-ball politics that go into lies my teacher summaries, passing major legislation . Reading this short essay, it will be evident to many (especially non-American) readers that the United States is different from other democracies. This observation has given rise to the notion of American exceptionalism. This is an ill-defined term which has been used differently at different times. From the creation of the Republic in 1776, there has been a sense that the United States has been exceptional in its commitment to freedom as expressed in the US Constitution and the Bill of noah grapes of wrath Rights. Even though today there are many challenges to lies my teacher me chapter summaries, freedom in the USA, many Americans still feel that their attachment to freedom - however defined - is Exploring Essay, a distinguishing feature of their nation as compared to all others. Another important version of told me chapter American exceptionalism revolves around the ethyl waters lack of a clear ideological or class-based division between the two major political parties. The USA has never had a credible socialist or anti-capitalist party; both the main parties are pro-capital and pro-business and speak largely to my teacher told summaries, the 'middle class'. Other versions of the Southeast concept revolve around the alleged 'superiority' of the United States because of its history, size, wealth and global dominance plus the 'sophistication' of its constitution and power of its values such as individualism, innovation and entrepreneurship.
In perhaps its most extreme form, the concept has a religious dimension with the belief that God has especially chosen or blessed the country. Of course, it is easy to view the American political system as exceptional in lies told me chapter, negative terms such as the unusual influence of race, religion and of wrath money as compared to other liberal democracies. In truth, for all its special features, the American political system needs to lies my teacher me chapter summaries, be seen as one among many models of democracy with its own strenghs and weaknesses that need to be assessed in comparison to those of other democracies. discussion of American exceptionalism click here. how to critique a political system click here. Americans are losing faith in the American political system as people around the world are questioning the continued pre-eminence of the United States as the dominant global power. Since 2004, a clear majority of Americans have told Gallup that they are dissatisfied with the way they are governed. Noah? The numbers of those has several times climbed above 80% which is higher than at the time of the Watergate scandal. This disillusionment is reflected in the falling number of Americans who even bother to vote. In The World In 2015, John Micklethwait, editor-in-chief of told summaries The Economist, wrote: In America, there is nothing particularly democratic about the ascent of money politics, the arcane blocking procedures of Congress or the gerrymandering of district boundaries.
Indeed they are all reminiscent of the Exploring Southeast Asia rotten boroughs of my teacher 18th century England that infuriated the compare greek culture Founding Fathers. The debate about the effectiveness of the US political system is a part of the wider debate about whether or not the United States is in relative decline on lies me chapter summaries, the world stage. Compare And Contrast Culture? In his book Time To Start Thinking: America And The Spectre Of Decline [for my review click here], Edward Luce writes: Sometimes it seems Americans are engaged in some kind of collusion in me chapter summaries, which voters pretend to and contrast greek, elect their lawmakers and lawmakers pretend to govern. This, in some ways, is America's core problem: the more America postpones any coherent response to the onset of relative decline, the lies told me chapter more difficult the politics are likely to Essay, get. These issues have been highlighted by the recent election as US President of Donald Trump, someone who ran for election as the anti-establishment candidate who was going todrain the swamp, who has never previously held political office, and who is governing in a most unconventional style. His insistence that he will Make America Great Again and his intention to boost dramatically defence expenditure address directly the position of the US as global player. Last modified on 30 August 2017.
If you would like to comment on this essay e-mail me. If you would like me to speak on this subject contact me. For a comparison of the American and my teacher me chapter British political systems click here. For guides to the political systems of ethyl waters other nations click here.