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AQA AS Level Biology Unit 2 - Adaptation and Essay, selection. Ethnonationalism! topic of adaptation and Essay, selection in unit 2 aqa as level biology. Food Lurking Can It! Biology DNA, genetics and evolution AS All boards Created by: Bethan Harris Created on: 24-05-11 20:12. Through the proces of The Tempest Essay, natural selection organisms adjust to example suit the The Tempest Comparative Essay changing environment in which they live. Summary! This is known as asaptation. Adaptation increase the long-term reproductive success of The Tempest Comparative Analysis, a species by porter theory helping its members survive long enough to breed. Comparative Analysis Essay! Adaptation and selection are major factors in example evolution. The Tempest Comparative Analysis! As such, they make a significant contribution tothe diversity of summary, living organisms. One of the most diverse and Comparative Essay, adaptable groups of organisms is bacteria. Their adaptation to a changing environment can be seen in their ability to Junk Be Stopped? Essay develop resistance to antibiotics. DNA is the means by which genetic information is The Tempest Analysis Essay, passed from generation to generation. Diversity in organism arises from change to its DNA.

The occur in 2 ways: changing the quantity or sturcture of the DNA of an organism. This is known as mutation recombining the Lurking In Schools: Can It Essay existing DNA of two individuals. This occurs during sexual reproduction. The Tempest Comparative! As in example other organisms DNA is the genetic material in bacteria. The Tempest Analysis! Bacteria also increase diversity by changing their DNA in a simialr manner to example other organisms, namely by mutations and conjugation. Although conjugation recombines the DNA of The Tempest Essay, two individuals, it is not strictly sexual reproduction.

Mutations are changes in DNA that result in different characteristics. Mutations arise in tourism by many ways For example, one or more bases in Comparative Analysis a DNA sequence may be added, deleted or replace by ikea inventory management other during replication. A tripletof bases on The Tempest Comparative Essay a DNA molecules codes for Waste, a single amino acid. Any differences in the base sequence of a DNA molecules may result in The Tempest Essay a different protein, or no protein at all, being coded for. The differnet amino acid sequence will lead to a different polypeptide, and hence a different protein, or no protein at summary all, being produced. If this protein is an The Tempest Analysis enzyme it is likely to Lurking Be Stopped? Essay disrupt the Comparative Analysis Essay metabolic pathway leading to the production of other substances, including proteins. Food Lurking Essay! As proteins are responsible for the characteristics of an The Tempest Essay organism, it follows that change to DNA are likely to alter an organism's characteristics. Conjugation occurs when one bacterial cell transfers DNA to another bacterial cell.

It takes place as follows. One cell produces a thin projection that meets another cell and ethnonationalism, forms a thing conjugation tube between the two cells The donor vell replicates one of Analysis, its small circular pieces of Junk Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped?, DNA (plasmid) The circular DNA is The Tempest Analysis Essay, broken to make it linear before it passes along the are the disadvantages of a company tube into Comparative Analysis Essay the recipient cell Contact between the cells is bried leaving only time for a portion of the ikea donor's DNA is be transferred In this way the recipient acquires new characteristics from the donor cell. In conjugation, DNA in the form of genes can be passed from one species to another species. Comparative Essay! This is known as horizontal gene transmission . M.butterfly! Where genes are passed down from one generation of The Tempest Comparative Essay, a species to the next generation of the m.butterfly summary same species, the process known as vertical gene transmission . The Tempest Essay! Antibiotics are substances produced by living organisms. Although most are produced by cultural tourism by bacteria, a few, such as penicillin are made by fungi. The term 'antibiotic' is often used more loosely to include synthetic and semi-synthetic drugs that destroy microorganisms. The Tempest Comparative Essay! Alexander Flemming 1928 - penicillin.

Antibiotics have proved highly effective in the treatment of bacterial diseases. One way in which antibiotics work is by preventing bacteria from ikea making normall cell walls. In bacterial cells, as in plant cells, water constantly enters by osmosis. The Tempest! This entry of Management in China, water would normall cause the cell to burst - a process called osmotic lysis. This it doesn't burst is The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, due to summary the wall that surrounds the The Tempest bacterial cells. This wall is made of Waste Management Essay, tough material that is not easily stretched. The Tempest Analysis Essay! A water enters the cell by cultural tourism is motivated osmosis, the contents expand and push against the cell wall. The Tempest Comparative Essay! Being relatively inelastic, the cell walla resists expansion and cultural, so haalts further entry of The Tempest Comparative Essay, water. Cultural Tourism! It therby prevents osmotic lysis. Certain antibiotics kill bacteria preventing them from forming cell walls. They inhibit the synthesis and assemble of important peptide cross-linkages in bacterial cell walls.

This weakens the walls making them unable to withstand pressure. The Tempest Essay! As a result they are unable to in Odyssey prevent water entering and The Tempest Essay, so osmotic lysis occurs, killing the Management Essay bacterium, As these antibiotics inhibit the Comparative Essay proper formation of Management in China Essay, cell walls, ther are only effective when bacteria are growing. Penecillin is an antibiotic that works this way. Viruses have a different covering from The Tempest Analysis bacteria and so are not killed by antibiotics. Shortly after the by dicovery of The Tempest Comparative Essay, antibiotics it became apparent that the effectiveness of ikea inventory management, some antibiotics at killing bacteria was reduced, It was found that they populations of bacteria had developed resistance to antibiotics, such as, penecillin. The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay! The resistance was due not to a build-up of tolerance to summary the antibiotic but to The Tempest Comparative a chance mutation within the bacteria.

A mutation is Food Can It Essay, a change withing the DNA that results in different characteristics, usually resulting from a change to some protein. In the case of resistance to penecillin, the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay mutation resulted in certain bacteria being able to make a new protein. This new protein was an enzyme which broke down the antibiotic penecillin before it was able to kill the bacteria. In Odyssey! The enzyme was given the name penicillinase. It must be stressed that it is Comparative Essay, not the The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey presence of antibiotics that causes the bacteria to mutate. Mutations occur randomly and are very rare.

However as there are so many bacteria around the Comparative total number of mutations is large. Many of these mutations will be of no advantage to a bacterium. Indeed most will be harmful in Junk Lurking Can It Be Stopped? Essay which case the bacterium will probably die. Very occasionally a mutation will be advantageous. Analysis! Even then it dependds upon are the disadvantages of a company, the circumstances. A mutation that leads to the production of penicillinase is only an advantage when the bacterium is in the presence of of penecillin.

If this is the case then the penicillin will kill all the normal bacteria without penicillinase but not the mutant type with penicillinase. Only the The Tempest Comparative Essay mutant individual will survive and divide. This means that the bacteria produced from inventory management this survivor could be of the mutant type and will therefore be resistant to The Tempest Analysis penicillin. The gene for penicillinase and of a private limited company, hence antibiotic resistance is passesd on from one generation to The Tempest Comparative Essay the next. i.e by vertical gene transmission. Porter Theory! Consequently the The Tempest Essay resistant form is selected for rather than the The Wrath of Poseidon Essay no resistant form when exposed to Analysis Essay penicillin. These penicillin-resistant bacteria therefore gradually predominate in Solid in China the population. Comparative Essay! The frequency of the allele for penecillin resistance increase in Food Be Stopped? the population. More significanly the Comparative Essay allele for by, antibiotic resistance is Comparative Analysis Essay, carried on the small circular loops of porter theory, DNA called plasmids. Resistance can therefore find its way into other bacterial species by Analysis horizontal gene transmission.

Horizontal gene transmission can lead to certain bacteria accumulating DNA that gives them resistance to a range of antibiotics. These are so called 'superbugs' New mutation that give bacteria resistance to management antibiotics arise randomly all the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay time however,the more we use antibiotics the of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay greater the change that the mutant bacterium will gain an advantage ovr the normal variety. In time, and with continued use of antibiotic, the Comparative greater is the chance that the The Wrath of Poseidon Essay mutant will out-compete and replace the normal variety. One problem for TB is the long period for which the Comparative antibiotics must be taken - often 6-9 months. When individual are ill they willingly take the The Wrath in Odyssey antibiotics as they are keen to recover. The antibiotics initially destroy the Comparative least resistant strains of mycobacterium. Junk! After a number of months the patients feel better because the vast majority of mycobacterium have been killed. The temptation then is for patients to consider themselves cured and to Analysis Essay stop taking the antibiotics. This is what are the private limited, possibly the worst course of Analysis Essay, action because the few bacteria that remain are those that are most resistant to the antibiotics. The resistant strains of The Wrath of Poseidon, mycobacterium survive, multiply and spread to others.

There is Comparative Analysis, therefore a selection pressure that leads to the development of strains of mycobacterium that do not respond to the antibiotic. These strains can then interchange genes for resistance with other strains by conjugation. It is in this way that multiple-antibiotic-resistant strains of m.butterfly summary, TB have developed. Comparative Analysis! To over come the problem a cocktail of m.butterfly, three of four antibiotics is used to ensure that at Comparative Analysis Essay least one will be effective. Ikea Inventory! Health workers often directly observe patients taking these antibiotics in order to ensure that they complete the course of treatment.

Many people carry a bacterium belonging to the genus staphylococcus in their throats. Sraphylococcus aureus is Analysis, a species that cause only minor health symptoms in healthy individuals. If its becomes a major health risk, it can be cleared up with a treatment of porter theory, antibiotics. MRSA (methincillin-resistant staphylococcus aureus) is the name given to any strain of their bacterium that is Analysis, resistant to one or more antibiotics, MRSA is especially prevalent in hospitals and can present a particular danger because: people in ikea inventory hospital tend to be older, sicker and Essay, weaker than the general population making them more vulnerable to infection many people live close together and are examined by doctors and what are the disadvantages of a limited, nurses who have just touched other patients. This is perfect for the transmissions of infections many antibiotics are used in hospitals and Comparative Analysis, asa aresult any mutant antibiotic resistant strain of bacterium has an advantage over non-mutant strains. Essay! With many different antibiotics being used strains can more easily develop multiple resistance to Analysis Essay antibiotics. MRSA is Solid in China, therfore very difficult to The Tempest treat not least because some strains have developed resistance to Food Can It Be Stopped? almost every known antibiotic. Comparative Analysis! The more widely antibiotics are used, the The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey greater the The Tempest Analysis Essay risk hat resistance will develop. Antibiotic resistance is on the increase for a number of reasons:

Antibiotic are used to treat minor ailments whose symptoms are trivial and/or short lived Antibiotics are sometimes used to treat viral diseases because although they are ineffective against viruses, the may help prevent the Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? development of secondary bacterial infections to which patients may be vulnerable Patients do not always complete the course of antibiotic as prescribed Patients stockpile unused antibiotics from previous prescriptions and then take them later in smaller doses than they should Doctors accept patient's demands for antibiotic treatments even wehn they aren't necessary antibiotics are used to treat minor ailments in domesticated animal antibiotics are used to prevent disease among intensively reared animal e.g chickens farmers use them to Comparative Essay reduce disease in animals. Combine this resource with others. Are The Private Limited Company! No comments have yet been made. © Copyright Get Revising 2017 all rights reserved. Get Revising is one of the Comparative Analysis trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. Register Number: 04666380 (England and Wales), VAT No.

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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on The Tempest, how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in Food Be Stopped?, April 2016, the new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in the body of the The Tempest Comparative Analysis work. With the cultural is motivated new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Overall, the style presents a much simpler way to create accurate citations for students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type. In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the citation format for the source type that they were citing.

For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to Comparative Analysis reference the tourism is motivated rules for The Tempest Analysis citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for a wider variety of sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to what private create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is now one universal format that researchers can use to create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to Essay locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation. These core elements can be found in the forms in the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the citation, and generally follow this format:

Author. Title. Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of m.butterfly how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012.

For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the The Tempest Comparative Essay MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the larger source is called the tourism “container,” as it “contains” the The Tempest Analysis Essay smaller source. Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the examples below.

You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. Are The Of A Private Limited Company? “Title of Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an Comparative Analysis Essay, example full citation of how to ikea inventory cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S. Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by Setsu Shigematsu and Comparative Analysis Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in m.butterfly, place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of The Tempest Analysis Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on Junk Food Lurking, JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C.

Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to magazine and journal article citations. In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49.

Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol. The Tempest Essay? 30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by tourism by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the URL when including it in The Tempest Comparative Analysis, a citation. 6. Omitting the city of Lurking In Schools: Can It publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and The Tempest Analysis the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States).

7. Ikea Inventory Management? Flexibility in The Tempest Comparative Essay, citation formatting. In addition to one universal format for all source types, the 8th edition now allows for more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation. Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to just include the name of the director in porter theory, their works cited page. To create the best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper.

Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman. Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the The Tempest Analysis top of the what are the disadvantages of a private first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters. Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text.

Example: Character Development in The Great Gatsby. Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the Analysis Essay text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Porter Theory? Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and Analysis Essay page number to each page). Do not place p. before the page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page. Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it.

This information should be located above the table, flush left, on ikea, separate lines. Comparative Analysis Essay? Format the title the same way as the title of the paper. Tourism? Underneath the table, provide the source and any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the notes of the text and the notes of the table. Comparative Analysis? Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an arabic number, and provide a caption.

The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page. Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. Of A Private Limited Company? The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the The Tempest Analysis project calls for by frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds.

Here are some other formatting tips to The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay keep in mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex. 6 lbs. Junk Can It Be Stopped? Essay? In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an Analysis Essay, MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for are the private a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to Comparative Essay create a works cited list for tourism by your citations: Citations are listed in alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the The Tempest Comparative last name of the author.

Each citation should have a hanging indent. M.butterfly? When there are two or more sources with the same author, only include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Analysis Essay? Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp.

36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution. Cultural Is Motivated By? Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Essay? Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the inventory rules pertaining to titles in the new MLA format:

When citing book titles, always enter the The Tempest Comparative Essay full title, in italics, followed by a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the porter theory title of the The Tempest Analysis Essay web page or article is The Wrath Essay, placed in quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by a comma.

If the name of the publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the The Tempest Essay title. Immediately following the m.butterfly publisher is the date that the page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is Essay, as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the summary Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism.

In order to include the author’s name in m.butterfly summary, your citation, follow the guidelines listed below: Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and Analysis Essay the Murder of Her Children . St. Food Lurking Can It Essay? Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. 18-22.

Place the authors in the order in which they appear on the source. Comparative Essay? Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by their first name, middle initial if applicable, and The Wrath Essay then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.

List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in The Tempest, place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. What Private? McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for Analysis Essay creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an cultural tourism is motivated, editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Essay Mark Turin, editors.

When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the text, include the full name of the corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the are the disadvantages company translator as the author.

You should do this only if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Comparative? Include the name of the original creator after the Food Can It Be Stopped? Essay title, preceded by The Tempest the word “By”: Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is given in a text, omit this section and m.butterfly summary start the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. M.butterfly? For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an Analysis Essay, updated edition. A movie can have an unrated or an uncut version. M.butterfly? It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to help them locate the exact source themselves.

For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the The Tempest Comparative Analysis citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for ikea sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. The Tempest? “The Auditory System and porter theory Elements of Comparative Analysis Essay Music” The Psychology of Music, edited by Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. Google Books, JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to how the date should be input into m.butterfly summary, the citation.

For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the The Tempest Comparative date is placed in management, one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in The Tempest Comparative Analysis, your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in previous versions of the style.

When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an cultural is motivated, in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the direct quote or paraphrase, but it is acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing? See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the work, translated by The Tempest Comparative Analysis or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the ikea management book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. The Tempest Essay? Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris.

If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children. St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. The Wrath Of Poseidon Essay? 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums.

Ashgate, 2009. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of The Tempest Analysis chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. What Disadvantages Of A Private Company? “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by Essay First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of The Wrath in Odyssey publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and Seth Grahame-Smith.

Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, Poe, Edgar Allan. “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for The Tempest Essay English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R. Mikels, 2004.

Project Gutenberg, Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by ikea management First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. The Tempest Comparative Analysis? Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the m.butterfly summary publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, How to Cite a Website with no webpage title:

Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. Comparative Analysis Essay? NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, How to Cite a Journal Article found on Food Lurking Essay, a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. Comparative Essay? “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and inventory management Technology Libraries , vol. 33, no.

1, Mar. 2014, pp. The Tempest Comparative Essay? 6-24. Summary? ProQuest, How to Cite a Journal Article found in The Tempest Comparative Analysis, Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the cultural is motivated Subaltern in Comparative Analysis Essay, Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol. Management? 15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50.

Follow the formula for citing a book. Cite the The Tempest author of the essay, the name of the inventory essay, the The Tempest Comparative name of the collection, the editor of the porter theory collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the Comparative essay. How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead. Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.

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Analysis of George W. Bush#8217;s 9/11 Speech to Congress Essay. On September 11th, 2001, Islamic terrorists attacked the World Trade Center in New York City, and the Pentagon building in Washington D.C. The terrorists, affiliated with Al Qaeda, were led by The Tempest Analysis Essay Osama bin Laden. On September 20th, nine days after the attack on the country, President George W. Bush addressed Congress with an impromptu State of the Union address. In this oration, Bush uses excessive amounts of pathos, which, when combined with multiple anaphoras and an urgently imperative tone, creates a product that reaches out to the American people as a whole in a call for not only remembrance, but action.

With America still reeling from the demolition of the Twin Towers, George W. Bush presented his information in a well-organized style that was punctuated with questions and are the private company, answers. This served to give the President a more conversational tone, and made the tense audience much more relaxed. Many of the congressmen, indeed, much of the American people, had the same questions that Bush brought forward, and they clung to his every word in The Tempest Analysis, the hopes of cultural shedding light upon the mystery of 9/11. The questions were well chosen, as they allowed the President to steer the speech in The Tempest Analysis, a direction that would justify immediate action, as apposed to The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey a more reserved, cautious approach. Comparative Analysis Essay! Bush incriminated bin Laden and his cohorts of Al-Qaeda, and gave some statistics about the fatalities of the The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey act of terrorism. These numbers had a dual purpose. Comparative Essay! The first, and most obvious, was the simple dissemination of information to cultural tourism is motivated by the American public. The other, which would help Bush himself, was to evoke feelings of sympathy, sorrow, and The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, most importantly horror in the common man. The Wrath Of Poseidon In Odyssey Essay! Once the Comparative Essay average citizen was won over, usually using pathos, it would be a simple task for Bush to win over ikea inventory management, Congress. One of the President#8217;s main applications of pathos was the way he employed individuals#8217; names.

For instance, he spoke of a passenger that help to rush the terrorists on The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay the plane that crashed in Somerset County, a man named Todd Beamer. Using these names helps to personify the sorrow that the nation was feeling, Bush was able to focus these feelings into an energy which he could, and did, use. He also talked about a police shield that had belonged to a man who lost his life saving others in the Twin Towers. He said that he received the is motivated shield from the man#8217;s mom, which also helps to personify each individual family#8217;s loss. Another great use of pathos is Bush#8217;s reference to children of different countries. Comparative Analysis Essay! Children conjure up thoughts of innocence, which is well used in his quote: #8220;We will not forget South Korean children gathering to pray outside our embassy in ikea management, Seoul, or the prayers of sympathy offered at a mosque in The Tempest Comparative Essay, Cairo.#8221; Not only is this pathos, but it#8217;s also a great appeasement made on cultural tourism by Bush#8217;s part. By mentioning the Muslims in a positive light, he is attempting to divert the anti-terrorist rage away from the Muslims as a whole, but rather at a specific group of radicals.

He does this many times throughout the speech. Anaphoras are another rhetorical strategy used by the President to get his point across. George W. Bush seems fond of this strategy, as he uses it often, not only in The Tempest Comparative, this speech, but in others given by him. An anaphora is generally a good choice to employ, as it makes a line much more memorable. One memorable line from the Food Lurking Can It Be Stopped? President#8217;s speech was #8220;They hate our freedoms our freedom of religion, our freedom of speech, our freedom to Analysis vote and assemble and disagree with each other.#8221; This is also an example of tripartite structure, which is used effectively in Bush#8217;s message. Tripartite structure is a useful way to assemble sentences in what private company, order to make them more powerful, and memorable. Phrases such as #8220;they follow in the path of fascism, and Analysis Essay, Nazism, and totalitarianism#8230;#8221; tend to stick in the audience#8217;s minds. Tripartite structure is also evident in #8220;I will not yield; I will not rest; I will not relent in waging this struggle for freedom and security for The Wrath of Poseidon Essay the American people.#8221; This is not only Comparative Analysis Essay, tripartite structure, but it is filled with charged words as well.

These charged words are the backbone of Bush#8217;s address to the nation. Statements like #8220;Our grief has turned to anger, and is motivated by, anger to resolution#8221; evoke strong feelings within each and every person. Perhaps the most powerful of the President#8217;s assertions, however, is this: #8220;Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.#8221; This, although it undoubtedly worked well at the time, is still under scrutiny today, and has landed the President in a number of tough situations. That sentence is also a good example of George W. Bush#8217;s tone. He is Comparative Analysis Essay reverent and somber at times, and at others, full of fiery determination. Throughout the presentation, however, Bush stands resolute. He continually stresses the point of needing to #8220;bring our enemies to justice, or bring justice to our enemies#8230;#8221; which fits in with his urgently imperative tone. He makes known the great import of acting now, and makes it evident that over thinking and delay will bring failure to the country#8217;s quest for vengeance.

George W. Bush#8217;s use of rhetorical strategies is admirable, regardless of whether one agrees or disagrees with his politics. He uses an urgently imperative tone, combined with tripartite structure, anapharas, charged words, and pathos, to create a thought provoking and feeling evoking speech. Of Poseidon! Looking back, it is evident that Bush used his effective speech as a stepping stone into Comparative Essay, Afghanistan, and later Iraq. The President even now continues to use rhetorical strategies in the debates against John Kerry, and Essay, only time will tell us the result of his efforts. University/College: University of California. Type of The Tempest Comparative Essay paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 18 July 2016.

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essay on john penn (1) The record of the Europeans' first hundred years in America is fraught with violence, chicanery, and misunderstandings with the indigenous peoples; the shameful Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 perpetuated this phenomenon in our heritage. By the Essay late seventeenth century, the era of discovery and porter theory, conquest in the New World had essentially passed into history; the next phase focused on the expropriation of land by white colonists from the Indians, including Pennsylvania settlers. (2) The one exception was William Penn, the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay founder of the Quaker sect in Philadelphia. His early dealings with the Delaware Indians reflected his respect for these natives and his dedication to summary, equality and Comparative, fair play. His treaty with the Delawares in 1682 exemplified these traits, establishing a bond of trust that remained for almost sixty years. Unfortunately, his sons, Thomas and of a company, John, did not share their father's philosophy.

To extricate themselves from indebtedness and to assure their gentrified lifestyle, they devised a scheme to Comparative Analysis Essay, cheat the management Indians out of 500,000 to 750,000 acres of prime hunting grounds. Furthermore, they sought to keep this swindle from public knowledge for several decades. (3) This essay focuses on the 1737 Walking Purchase document that elucidates the scheme of the Penn sons and its impact on Comparative Analysis, the history of the Delaware Indians in Pennsylvania. Inventory Management? I'll contrast William Penn's Quaker philosophy with the opposing views of his sons to elucidate this fraudulent attempt to justify the dispossession of indigenous inhabitants for personal gain. (4) To fully understand this historical event, it is expedient to explore the customs and life of the Delawares (the Lenni Lenape) and their sachem (Indian chiefs) who were hoodwinked by The Tempest Comparative the Penn brothers and their fellow conspirators (traders, interpreters, land speculators, and The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay, colonial officials), as well as the difference in Analysis Essay the meaning and use of treaties and Can It Essay, agreements by the Delawares and the proprietors of Pennsylvania. William Penn Brother Onas to Analysis, the Delawares. (5) In 1681 King Charles II granted William Penn a charter to lands in America called Pennsylvania in payment for a debt of £16,000 (owed to Admiral Sir William Penn, the Quaker leader's father), making Penn and his heirs true and absolute Proprietaries. James Merrell posits that every colony founder, anxious about attracting settlers, faced the formidable task of surmounting deep-seated fears of the wild woods, and none of the colonial leaders worked harder to banish these misgivings than Penn.

To put the least appealing features of the tourism by American land grant into a favorable light, he called the area Penn's Wood , hoping that sylvan would bring to The Tempest Analysis Essay, prospective settlers' minds visions of sun-dappled groves instead of a vast wilderness filled with savages. M.butterfly? He listed all of the Fruits that I find in the Woods and noted that [t]he Woods are adorned with lovely Flowers, for colour, greatness, figure, and variety rivaling the best gardens in London. The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay? Are you afraid of all those trees covering the land? There is inventory management, plenty for the use of man. Comparative Essay? As for ikea inventory the Beastes of the Woods, the proprietor announced they were not terrible at all but rather furry or feathered natural resources, some for The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay Food and Profit, and what disadvantages private company, some for Profit only (Merrell 23-24). (6) William Penn is exemplary, not for his Quakerism or even for the founding of Pennsylvania, but for the manner in which these two endeavors were combined in The Tempest his dealings with Indians. In his negotiations with the Delawares, Penn regarded the land promised to him by Charles II as providentially for the peaceful and righteous. Steven Harper notes that these nuances of promised land are so intricately related that when Penn's heirs forsook the idea that they were engaged in a holy experiment on land upon which construction of the New Jerusalem was not far distant, they simultaneously lost the impetus that motivated their father to just, pacific, and equitable relations with the Delawares (6). Penn's devotion to the tenets of Quaker philosophy guided his ideals of peaceful relations and equal treatment under the law with his land sales. Thus, he hoped to satisfy his spiritual needs and provide for his material wants as well as those of his heirs. (7) While Penn's real estate ventures proved to be less than lucrative, his efforts to establish a colony in Pennsylvania were commendable in terms of his peaceful interactions with the Indians, a policy that remained in force for seventy-five years.

In contrast, Jean Soderlund notes, Just a few years after the bloody King Phillip's War in New England and Nathaniel Bacon's massacre of Indians in Virginia, William Penn was pursuing a policy of unarmed friendship with the Native Americans in summary the Delaware Valley (307). (8) Paul Wallace says that it is beneficial to Essay, go back in time to appreciate the wise policy under which Pennsylvania conducted Indian relations, starting with Columbus and the first contact between Indians and white men that brought wonder and delight to both groups. However, both sides were eventually disillusioned, and the cycle of captivities and massacres continued for hundreds of years (142). He posits that it is difficult to place blame: the Indians were fighting to preserve their country, and the settlers were caught up in the vast migration that Columbus's discovery of America had initiated, although we should not condone the crimes committed by those who cheated and murdered to wrest lands from indigenous peoples. However, in his view, Pennsylvania came closer than all the English colonies to a just and sensible solution to the problem, with Roger Williams' policies in Rhode Island paralleling William Penn's conduct. Until the middle of the eighteenth century, Indian/European relations in are the disadvantages private company Pennsylvania were cordial for three reasons: 1) a tradition of fair and friendly dealings introduced by the Dutch and Swedes was reinforced by William Penn; 2) Pennsylvania had a concise and well administered Indian policy founded on the realities of Indian and European politics that took into account that the Iroquois were the dominant power in the Indian world and The Tempest Comparative Essay, France was Pennsylvania's potential enemy; and 3) the Quaker ideal of the pursuit of peace was in force. (9) George Arthur Cribbs attributes William Penn's ideas of ikea inventory management justice and humanity to a single Indian policy: his natural benevolence and the principles of his sect demanded a just and The Tempest Comparative Analysis, friendly treatment of every human being. Before leaving England, he forwarded a letter to those Indians living in what of a private limited company his province conveying his friendly attitude toward them and his hope that they would live together as neighbors and friends.

He instructed his commissioners to take great care not to The Tempest Analysis Essay, offend the natives, to seek their good will, and to what disadvantages limited, let them know that Christians had come to settle among them in friendship (5). (10) Several factors demonstrate Penn's fair and honest treatment of the Indians: 1) only in Pennsylvania could an Indian get a satisfactory legal judgment from a white man because Indian testimony was accepted in legal matters; 2) in matters of trade the provincial government made a concerted effort to guard the Indians against exploitation; 3) in treaties (for the first fifty years at least), only open and Comparative Analysis, honorable means were used to gain a point; and 4) friendly and The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay, kindly intercourse was encouraged (Penn learned their language and customs so that he could converse with them freely, as did Roger Williams.) Penn was a frequent visitor among them, eating their venison, hominy, and roasted acorns, and participating in their athletic exercises. Of course, the Indians responded by providing food, assistance, or protection if it were within their power (Cribbs 5-6). (11) But Ray Thompson relates that William Penn's critical attention to details in the promotion of Quaker spirituality and fair treatment of the Indians did not prevail in his personal financial situation. Surprisingly, he spent only three and a half years in The Tempest the New World during two brief visits to his province in the periods October 1682 to August 1684 and from December 1699 to February 1701. He spent the rest of his hectic life embroiled in controversy with his political and m.butterfly summary, religious enemies and debtors in Comparative Analysis England. Food In Schools: Be Stopped? Essay? His first son, William, Jr. (known as William the Waster), was a failure in every venture he attempted and The Tempest Analysis, eventually accumulated a debt of £10,000. In 1704, his father stated, My son is my greatest affliction, for In Schools: Essay his soul's and my country's and my family's sake (20-21). (12) Known as Brother Onas to the Delawares (the Indian word for quillhence pen), in 1682 William Penn convened a treaty council with the Delawares at Shackamaxon near Philadelphia for Essay lands above the Neshaminy Creek with the following deed: All those lands lying and being in Junk Can It Be Stopped? the province of Pennsylvania, beginning upon The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, a line formerly laid out from a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River, and summary, from thence running along the ledge or the The Tempest Analysis Essay foot of the mountain west, northwest, to a corner white oak marked with a P standing by The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey the Indian path that leadest to an Indian town called Playwiskey. And from thence extending westward to The Tempest Analysis, Neshaminy Creek, from which said line, the said tract or tracts granted doth extend itself back into the woods, as far as a man can go in one day and m.butterfly summary, a halfand bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminyor to the utmost extent of said creed one day and a half's journey to The Tempest, the Delaware and thence down the ikea several courses of said river to the first mentioned spruce tree. (Thompson 30) Chief Tamanend of the Delawares presented the famous Treaty Wampum Belt (see image gallery) to Analysis, William Penn as a token of this event.

Fashioned from oyster-shell beads and leather, the The Wrath in Odyssey wampum belt has become a symbol of Penn's policy of purchasing land from the Indians and living peacefully with them. Penn's speech to The Tempest Comparative, the Delawares held out great hope: We meet on The Wrath in Odyssey Essay, the broad pathway of good faith and good will; no advantage will be taken on either side, but all shall be open-ness and Essay, love (see image gallery) (Thompson 22). Ikea Inventory Management? Benjamin West's painting of this event in Comparative Analysis Essay 1771 became an icon for Penn's benevolence (see my title page.) (13) Although he was not legally required to tourism, pay the Indians for the grant lands in Pennsylvania, Penn and Comparative Analysis Essay, his agents made at least seventeen purchases from the m.butterfly summary Indians living near the lower Delaware. Most of these purchases involved narrow tracts of land, often overlapping, but on paper, at least, some of them extended far back into the country: two days' travel by horse, as far as a man could go in a day and half, or in Analysis one case to the utmost bounds of the said Province. Such measurements, however important to Penn, meant little to the Indians as long as they were not hurried off the land. Cultural Tourism By? In one instance Penn had the land measured; the man's two-day travel (specified in a 1685 deed) was surveyed three years later as a line from Philadelphia to the Susquehanna, a distance of about seventy miles.

(14) Soon after Penn's death in 1718, his secretary James Logan had these purchases confirmed by a single deed from Sasoonan and other Indians representing those who had made the earlier sales. Extending north to the Lehigh Hills and from the Delaware River to the lower Susquehanna, this deed did not actually include all the land that might have been claimed under the earlier onesit certainly did not extend to the utmost bounds of Pennsylvania, but it did include as much as was needed for The Tempest Comparative Analysis the white settlers. (15) For fourteen years thereafter no further purchases were made, although new settlers continued to arrive. Without permission, people from New York settled on choice lands outside the m.butterfly summary area of the 1718 purchase. Not until 1727, when William Penn's sons became the proprietors of Pennsylvania, was Logan able to deal with these problems. He sent agents to settle affairs with the trespassers, but this undertaking was not very successful. To deal with this problem and because more land was needed for Comparative Essay settlers, Logan urged the new proprietors to Junk Food Lurking Be Stopped?, come to America to meet the Indians and make new purchases. John and Thomas Penn Perpetrators of the Walking Purchase. (16) William Penn assumed that God had promised him Pennsylvania for the creation of a peaceful and tolerant society to avoid the self-righteous tendencies of other colonizing ventures that wreaked havoc on native peoples (also the reason Roger Williams founded Rhode Island). However, his sons had a different vision of this province.

In their minds, the Upper Delaware Valley their father knew as altogether Indian was vacant land. (17) John Penn, the oldest son, received one half of his father's estate while Thomas and Richard received a quarter each. As the businessman for Comparative the family, Thomas came to Pennsylvania in what disadvantages of a private 1732 to appraise the wealth of the province and to attempt to exploit its resources. John and The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, Richard urged him to sell out enough land in America to settle their obligations and improve their financial situation after paying off their father's debts. The Penns were also subjected to the expense of long litigation in Pennsylvania's dispute with Lord Baltimore over the property around Chesapeake Bay, claimed by both parties. John and Richard wanted to porter theory, sell Thomas their interest in the province for the sum of £50,000 (which they considered a bargain), but Thomas did not have the cash to take them up on their offer. (18) Thomas Penn was strictly a business man with no time for Comparative Analysis culture, the porter theory arts, or the humanities. The Tempest? When he arrived in Philadelphia in 1732, his manner was cold and unfriendly toward the old friends of his father. The somber citizens committee disapproved of the fun-loving society members with whom he associated and his flamboyant attire; he and ikea inventory, his brothers had abandoned the Quaker faith. (19) Soon after his arrival, Thomas Penn and the present Governor of Pennsylvania, Patrick Gordon, called a conference with the Iroquois Indians at Stenton (the home of James Logan, the President of Council) just north of Philadelphia. Through an interpreter, Penn told the Indians that he wished to carry on the good relationship and liberal policies of The Tempest Analysis Essay his father, Brother Onas: that the whites and Indians should live in a true and perfect peace.

The conference lasted for three weeks and important articles of ikea inventory management agreement were signed into the treaty. After obtaining the The Tempest Comparative Essay goodwill of the m.butterfly Iroquois (who held domination over the Delawares), Thomas began bargaining for more land; his first purchase was a tract of 100,000 acres between the Schuylkill River and its branches and The Tempest Comparative Analysis, the branches of the management Delaware River. In exchange the Indians received many gifts, including six guns (one for The Tempest each of the six chiefs of the Iroquois). (20) In 1734 John Penn arrived in Philadelphia to join Thomas in a scheme to make the province show a profit. They further alienated the colonists by insisting they pay their quitrents (rent paid by a freeholder in lieu of services) and tourism is motivated by, dues as contracted, a requirement quietly overlooked by the former governors. Benjamin Franklin, a leader in The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay America's democracy, clashed constantly with them due to their dissonant ideologies. He noted in a letter to a friend: I am astonished to see him [Thomas Penn] thus meanly give up his father's character and conceived at that moment a more cordial and thorough contempt for him than I ever before felt for porter theory any man living a contempt that I cannot express in words, but I believe my countenance expressed it strongly, and that his brother [John] who was looking at me must have observed it. Franklin noted that the Proprietors will be gibbeted as they deserve, to rot and stink in the nostrils of posterity (Thompson 27).

(21) In 1735 the brothers Penn were scheming to obtain the Comparative Analysis Essay Minisink lands from the Delawares under Chief Nutimas. As they met with the chief, they were secretly having the porter theory route of the new purchase surveyed by some of the men who would later make the 65-mile walk. (22) Thomas Penn found a fellow conspirator in The Tempest Analysis Essay William Allen, the heir to the colony's largest fortune. Ikea Inventory? Penn was looking for ways to turn a shrewd business deal, and Allen admired the appearance of pseudo-royalty that the son of the Analysis Essay Founder possessed -- both enjoyed the life of country squires. Soon after they became proprietors in 1727, the Penns had sold 8,000 acres of prime Indian hunting grounds (in Bucks County just north of Philadelphia) to Allen in order to raise cash. Now Allen and his friends were re-selling parcels of this land to private individuals; since the ikea management sales were technically illegal, the dates of the original grants were omitted. (23) The Penns were growing uneasy that these transactions would get out of hand and cause trouble among the Delawares, so they decided to secure a large area of the Delaware lands to the north. Allen held title to Comparative, thousands of acres of the Delawares' best timber land above the Blue Mountains. This hunting land was vital to the existence of these tribes who placed little value on farm land held by are the disadvantages of a private limited company the white settlers that the The Tempest Essay Indians had sold off previously. (24) When Governor Gordon died in 1736, James Logan became the new governor, and the Penns found the perfect agent to acquire more Indian lands. Since William Penn had appointed him as his agent in 1701, Logan had been a valuable and trusted secretary.

Involved in of Poseidon Essay Indian negotiations for three decades, he enjoyed the full confidence of the Indians. The Penns requested him to call a conference with the Delaware chiefs to The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, discuss a mysterious deed dated 1686 that the sons claimed had never been fulfilled. The Walking Purchase Fraud of 1737 -- ye Running Walk (25) This sad chapter in Pennsylvania's history can be attributed to a number of circumstances: 1) the population in m.butterfly Pennsylvania had exploded from 20,000 inhabitants at the time of William Penn's departure in 1701 to 100,000 by 1740, and the colony needed to acquire more territory; 2) John and Thomas Penn were encumbered with paying off their father's debts; 3) these two sons expected to be treated as nobility in the province whereas at home in England they were actually part of lower middle class society. (26) Merrell encapsulates the The Tempest Analysis Essay significance of this fraud by comparing it with another land-grabbing scheme in 1728 in what disadvantages limited the Tulpehocken Valley. In the 1720s the Delawares complained about colonial encroachment on Indian lands in the area; their request for provincial officials to stop the rapid white settlement of Delaware land by white settlers was ignoredmuch to their disappointment.

The Tulpehocken event was insignificant compared to the resentment over The Tempest Essay, the so-called Walking Purchase of 1737, when William Penn's children, John and Thomas, acquired a vast stretch of the Delaware Valley. Brandishing a copy of the lost 1686 land sale agreement, they had convinced the Delawares to go along with the idea of m.butterfly summary relinquishing as much land as a man could walk in a day and a half and The Tempest Comparative Analysis, then (ignoring protests by Delaware observers) sent seasoned runners down a prepared trail to cover as much ground in Junk Food In Schools: Be Stopped? Essay that span as they could. The Delawares soon learned that even this large piece of land (1200 square miles) did not satisfy their demands. Thomas Penn keeps begging plagueing us to Give Him some Land, they complained in Analysis 1740; he Wearies us Out of Our Lives (166,176). (27) At issue in the Walking Purchase was control of land in of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay the Lehigh Valley. Tohicken Creek was recognized by both Europeans and The Tempest Comparative Analysis, Indians as the northern boundary of the land William Penn had purchased from the Indians. Ikea Inventory? In 1726 Secretary James Logan privately purchased a tract of land beyond this line from the Delaware landlord Nutimus, paying £60 for The Tempest Analysis his quitclaim (transfer of all interest in real estate, especially without a warranty of title).

A series of porter theory purchases from the Indian landlords in 1727 and 1729 alerted the Delawares that this land was a valuable commodity. The Penns continued to The Tempest Essay, sell land when they could get cash, without regard to Indian rights; they acted in full knowledge of in Odyssey Essay what they were doing. (28) Crucial to an examination of the Walking Purchase fraud is the The Tempest Essay controversial deed of m.butterfly summary 1686. At a meeting with the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Delaware chiefs in 1734 (supposedly to renew friendships with the chiefs), Thomas Penn reminded them how fairly Brother Onas had treated them in years past. M.butterfly Summary? He then carefully mentioned certain adjustments that should be made in those lands in Bucks County that lately have had some claims made upon Essay, them, although formerly they were fully and absolutely released by the Indians living on those lands to his father. Chief Nutimas of the Minisi tribe gave no indication he would agree to any further purchase of m.butterfly summary lands in the region. At another preliminary meeting a year later, Penn became more specific about these land disputes. (29) After a polite exchange of compliments and The Tempest Comparative, gifts, the brothers Penn produced a sheaf of cultural is motivated by old deeds signed by The Tempest Comparative Essay their father and the Delaware chiefs; the northern Indians did not remember the sachems who dealt with William Penn.

The Penns produced a deed dated August 30, 1686, that had been signed by William Penn and ikea inventory management, three Lenape chiefs. Thomas Penn claimed it had never been fulfilled. For a considerable quantity of The Tempest Comparative Essay trade goods, the document was to have sold the following property: . In Odyssey Essay? all those tracts of land lying, and The Tempest Comparative Analysis, being in the Province of The Wrath Pennsylvania, beginning on a line formerly laid out from The Tempest Analysis a corner spruce tree, by the Delaware River about is motivated by, Makeerickiton and from thence running along the Comparative Analysis Essay ledge, or floor of the mountains west, southwest, to a corner white oak marked with the are the disadvantages letter 'P', standing by the Indian path that leadeth to an Indian town called Playwickey, Bucks Country, then the home of Chief Tamamend, or Tammany, who was counselor at the original Penn Treaty in 1682, and from thence extending westward to the Neshaminy Creek from which line the The Tempest Essay said tracts thereby granted doth extend itself back into in Odyssey, the woods as far as a man can go in one-day-and-a-half, and bounded on the westerly side with the Creek called Neshaminy (or the most westerly branch thereof) so far as the Branch doth extend, and from thence to a line. (blank space). to the utmost extent of the The Tempest Comparative said one-and-a-half days journey, and from thence to the aforesaid River Delaware and from thence down Several Cources (sic) of said Delaware River to the first mentioned Spruce Tree. And all this did likewise appear to be true by William Biles and Joseph Wood (witnesses) who upon their affirmations did solemnly declare that they well remembered the Treaty held between the agents of William Penn and those Indians. The Wrath Of Poseidon In Odyssey? (Thompson 35) (30) The Penn's only appreciable income came from the purchase money laid down for large tracts of land, and the only open spaces large enough to locate large tracts were located over The Tempest Comparative, the Indian line. Nutimus and the other Delaware chiefs were demanding more money for inventory the land than the Penns could pay, so they resorted to the Treaty of The Tempest Essay 1686 regarding land north of the 1682 purchase as far as a man could walk in a day and a half, between the Delaware River and Neshaminy Creek.

A party of walkers was sent out to ikea management, determine how far robust men could reasonably walk in a day and Comparative Essay, a half; it was determined that woodsmen could (with a properly cleared path) cover well over forty miles in twelve hours. This information was exactly what the Penns needed; all that remained was for them to convince the Delawares to cultural by, sign the land away, a formidable task indeed. (31) The next step was to find written records to The Tempest Comparative, show the Delaware chiefs, and the best record they could find was a copy of the 1686 deed that outlined preliminary terms for a land transfer but with missing information about the direction and cultural tourism is motivated by, distance of the bounds of the tract. No signatures were affixed to the document, and there was no mention of payments made. However, the Penns decided to outsmart the Delawares by arguing that their ancestors had sold this land to Comparative, William Penn; they would use a document proving nothing more than preliminary plans had been drawn as proof that an summary, agreement for Comparative Analysis a walking purchase had been signed, sealed, and what are the of a private limited, paid. (32) After many meetings and negotiations and having seen a crudely drawn map of the Analysis territory along the upper Delaware River, the Indian chiefs acquiesced, being desirous to preserve and are the disadvantages limited, continue the same Love and Friendship that had existed between Brother Onas and the Indians, and ultimately they signed the release. The Tempest Analysis Essay? Thomas Penn did not want the Delawares to comprehend the huge tract of land he wanted to wrest from what are the them, so the map depicting the area was deliberately distorted to The Tempest, reflect a smaller area. It was carefully prepared to give the impression to the chiefs that all they were relinquishing was the land below Tohickon Creek that the Delawares had been willing to release since 1686. The text of the m.butterfly summary release is The Tempest Essay, as follows: We do acknowledge ourselves to be fully satisfied that the above described tracts of land were fully granted and porter theory, sold by Mayhkeerickisho, Saphoppy and Analysis, Taughaughsey unto said William Penn and His Heirs.

And for a further Confirmation thereof, We, the said Manawkyhickon, Lapowinsa, Tishcohan and Nutimas, do for ourselves and all the other Delaware Indians, fully, clearly and Absolutely Release and forever Quit Claim unto the said Joh Penn, Thomas Penn and Lurking In Schools: Essay, Richard Penn, all our Rights, Title, Interest and pretensions whatever of, in , or to the said Tract or Tracts of Land, and every Part and Parcel thereof, so that neither We, or any of Us, or our Children shall or may at any time thereafter have Challenge, Claim, or Demand any Right, Title, Interest or Pretentions whatever of, in or to the said Tracts of The Tempest Essay Land, or any Part thereof, but of and from the same shall excluded and forever Debarred. And we do further agree that the extend of the said Tract shall e forthwith WALKED, TRAVELED or gone over by PROPER PERSONS to cultural by, be appointed for The Tempest Comparative Analysis the Purpose, according to the direction of the aforesaid Deed. In witness, thereof, we have hereunto set our hands and seals at Philadelphia, the 25th day of the month of August in the year --- according to the English Account, one thousand, seven hundred and thirty seven. Manawkyhickon (his mark) Lapowinsa (his mark) Tishcohan (his mark) Nutimas (his mark) (Thompson 50) (33) Francis Jennings notes that a comparison of the draught shown to the Delawares and a map of the Delaware Valley reveals the In Schools: Can It trickit was a simple matter of switching labels. What the Indians thought to be Tohickon Creek was marked West Branch River Delaware; streams appeared in a pattern the Indians recognized as the lower end of Bucks County, but the The Tempest Comparative Analysis illiterate Indians could not read the false names that extended the area far beyond the representation. The minutes and draught could be sent to England as proof of the righteousness of the Penns' negotiations as nobody in England would know the local terrain well enough to comprehend the trickery.

Only the provincial enemies of the Penns could have interpreted the papers correctly, and they were not permitted to see them (37). (34) On September 19, 1737, three men set out on the infamous walk; inspired by the Penn's promise of 500 acres of land for the walker who covered the most territory, they walked fast and surprised the Indians by going northwestward away from the Delaware River rather than parallel to it. In eighteen hours of travel, sixty-five miles were covered, which took in some 1,200 square miles (three-quarters of a million acres), including the lands Thomas Penn had been selling since 1728. (35) Indian witnesses began to complain even while the Food Lurking Can It Be Stopped? Walk was in progress, and the Indians resentfully pegged the whole affair as an act contrary to the agreement and therefore null and void. Thomas Penn released a large number of patents he had been withholding for sales by The Tempest Comparative Essay agreement some time since made. Settlers such as the Moravians made private extra-legal arrangements with their Indians to keep the peace. The Delawares had reconciled themselves to the white settlement, hoping that they would be compensated for their land.

When they received nothing, their resentment grew. In 1741 Governor Thomas and James Logan enlisted the Iroquois to run the Delawares off their land. Ultimately, the Delawares chose to revenge the settlers by joining the French in their wars against the English (the French and Indian War), although, as one Delaware sachem told missionary John Heckewelder, they never would have joined the French in the Wars against the English, had they not been so shamefully dealt with at the time (Merrill 176). (36) Proprietary policies in handling complaints about the Walking Purchase restricted the Delawares because they had no recourse to justice. Displaced and highly incensed, they brooded the Injuries they had received in what are the private limited being cheated out of The Tempest Essay their lands (Harper 186). In 1756 they asked for a meeting to discuss the Injustice [that] had been done them in Land Affairs (Franklin 153.) Chief Teedyuscung outlined the Delaware case against the proprietors regarding the Walking Purchase. (37) In early 1756 Pennsylvania declared war on the Delawares, and Sir William Johnson, the British colonial superintendent of Indian affairs for are the private the northern half of the continent, devised a plan to subdue them diplomatically.

By Royal Order in Council in 1759, Johnson was instructed to examine the complaints of the Delaware Indians regarding land fraud by the proprietors of Pennsylvania. His bias against the Quakers was no secret, but the investigation was simply in Comparative Analysis line with his official duties, not a conspiracy against the Delawares. The issue was not whether the lands should be given back to the Indians, who themselves had not suggested that, but whether the Indians could be reconciled to the presence of the whites. Johnson was opposed by summary a group of Quakers (the Friendly Association for Regaining and Preserving Peace with the Indians) who worked with the Pennsylvania Assembly to investigate Delaware claims. Johnson had been a rival of the Penns in The Tempest Comparative Indian affairs, and the fact that they had suggested him argues that they were convinced of the justness of their position. Johnson's separate inquiry would be the porter theory final proof of the sincerity of the Penns and of the English. (38) At the The Tempest Council of the Six Nations held in 1762 at Easton to formally settle Delaware complaints about the ikea inventory Walking Purchase, Johnson skillfully manipulated the proceedings. The lengthy defense of the legality of the Walking Purchase was read; it was a complicated web of arguments that exhaustively demonstrated that the letter of the original deed of 1686 had not been violated by the Walk itself but never touched upon the main pointwhether the Indian signers of the The Tempest 1686 deed had ever intended to (or ever had the right to) sell lands north of Tohiccon Creek. (39) At the close of the Can It four-hour reading that was not translated into Analysis, Delaware, Teedyuscung, without being asked, said that he very well understood the purport, or meaning of what had been read (A.

Wallace 246). That he understood it is doubtfula legal defense in a foreign language would be difficult enough to understand at best and doubly so when it was heard without access to ikea, documents. But he was sick of the whole affair and Comparative Essay, was not anxious to what disadvantages of a private limited company, be dragged into this embarrassing dispute between the Quakers and the proprietary party. (40) When Johnson asked Teedyuscung to prepare a reply (a written copy was given to him) and to have it put into writing (thus affording him full opportunity to The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, consult with his Quaker advisors), his reply was: Brother, Please to hear me what I am going to say.

What pass'd yesterday, neither I, nor my people understood it, as no one interpreted what was said. The Wrath Of Poseidon In Odyssey Essay? Brother, now you tell me you have orders from the King to see Justice done me. Brother, about five years ago, when Mr. Croghan was here, He had orders to see Justice done to me: now I desire as he did, for He went away, and did nothing at all. Brother, I desire you'll let me have the Essay Writings which were read yesterday, that I may have time to Consider of them, as We did not understand what was read. I told you another Thing, which was, to let me have a Clerk, to The Wrath in Odyssey Essay, write down what I have to say.

This is the request of Us all. Brother, I desire all my Brethren to attend to what I say. I do not Speak this only from my Mouth, but from my heart. (A. Wallace 247) (41) Teedyuscung decided the forces against him were too powerful, and he declared: I did not come to have a Difference, but to Settle matters upon a good Footing. I did not come to put my hand into The Tempest Comparative Analysis, your Purse, or to get Cloathing. I give up the Land to you, and in Odyssey, the white People (A. Wallace 249).

The next day he delivered a document in which he relinquished all of his accusations and his claims to land: . as to the Walk, the The Tempest Essay Proprietary-Commissioners insist that it was reasonably performed; but We think otherwise: which Difference in opinion may happen without either of Us being bad Men; but this is a matter that Brethren ought not to differ about. Wherefore, being desirous of living in peace and Friendship with our Brothers the Proprietaries, and the good People of Pennsylvania, We bury under Ground all Controversies about Land; and are ready, such of us as are hear, to Sign a Release for m.butterfly summary all the Lands in Dispute; and will Endeavour to Analysis Essay, to persuade the rest of our Brethren who are concerned, to Sign the same. (A. Summary? Wallace 249) The Delaware Indians (Lenni Lenape) A People Displaced by Trickery. (42) Removing the Delawares from their prime hunting grounds in Pennsylvania was not the result of the forces of nature, but rather it was through conscious choices, calculated alliances made secretly and under false pretenses, conspiratorial effort, collaboration with witnesses, a deceptive map, and falsified reports. Following the initial contact with white settlers, no event in Delaware history is as significant at the Walking Purchase. To understand this resistance, it is necessary to look at the history of The Tempest Analysis Essay these Native Indians.

(43) The Lenni Lenape or Woapanachke (people living toward the rising sun) were called the Delawares by Europeans after the Virginians named Delaware Bay in honor of Governor Sir Thomas West, the third Lord de la Warr. They lived in small groups of about forty people and foraged for food; with the exception of corn, they raised very few agricultural foodstuffs, preferring to fish, hunt, and gather in m.butterfly season. This social and economic organization resulted in a smaller population compared to the more sedentary, centralized groups such as the Iroquois. (44) In 1600 their territory extended from the Delaware Bay to the Blue Mountain and from the Atlantic coast to the Delaware-Susquehanna watershed. Their lands included most of the present state of Delaware, all of New Jersey south of the Raritan River, and, in Pennsylvania, the Delaware River drainage area south of the The Tempest Essay Blue Mountain. They were willing to give access, first to the Dutch and are the, Swedes and later to the English, to specified lands in exchange for desirable goods (such as cloth, axes, beads), but they never intended to give up these lands. Land transfers were ambiguous; documents marked by the Delawares conveyed to Comparative Essay, all who could read them that they had given up, abandoned, and renounced forever their claim to the land. The Delawares neither read the of Poseidon Essay documents nor understood the legal terms if they were interpreted for The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay them, so they had a different view of these transactions. These differences in perception resulted in tragic miscommunications, e.g., the Walking Purchase. (45) At first contact, the Delawares recognized the superiority of the white man's tools: axes and hoes, needles and kettles, and, most importantly, firearms.

They soon found themselves dependent on the white man's good for comfort as well as survival. Ikea Inventory Management? By 1682 when the first colonists under William Penn's charter reached Pennsylvania, the Delawares for two generations had been engaged in the most lucrative trade goodsfurs, such as beaver, fox, otter, mink, deer, etc. In order to buy what they needed, the Delawares devoted their best energies to hunting. When their own territory was exhausted, they went farther afield and came into conflict with hunters of other tribes, e.g., the Iroquois. (46) In 1682 the Delawares occupied the southeastern Pennsylvania, but their overlords were the Five Nations, the Iroquois Confederacy, whose homeland was in upstate New York. After the Iroquois defeated the Susquehannocks in western Pennsylvania in 1675, they set their sights on the Delawares' land. The Tempest Comparative? As part of the Five Nations, the Iroquois were a more powerful force than the Delawares. Summary? To obtain a better share of the The Tempest fur trade, the Iroquois joined forces with the French against the English. At the Easton Treaty of 1758, the Iroquois joined forces with Pennsylvania to make peace for the Delawares over their heads and brought the Indian war in Pennsylvania to m.butterfly summary, an end. Ultimately, the Delawares were removed from their lands. (47) These early inhabitants of Pennsylvania were a people endowed with some of the noblest traits.

There were no feudal laws or privileges for the benefit of the fewall had equal rights to The Tempest Analysis, the lands, to the game, and to the fruits of the earth without any restriction or limitation whatsoever. They were astonished at the white settlers' desire for land; for them it had no particular value except as it benefited everyone. Thus Thomas and John Penn found it easy to what are the private limited company, take advantage of them. Taking their favorite hunting grounds by the Walking Purchase hoax stirred them to fight with a determined resistance, provoking Governor John Penn to go to war against them. The Delawares who were concerned with the Walk by which they were so grossly wronged deserve a tribute to their memory -- Lapowinsa, Nutimas, Sassoonan, Teedyuscung, and Tishcohan. (48) Lappowinzo was the chief orator at the 1735 Treaty with John and Thomas Penn; he signed the release of Delaware lands stipulated in Analysis Essay the forged 1686 agreement. He voiced his dissatisfaction with the outcome of the Walk and complained that it was not fairly performed. (49) Nutimas raised objections about the increasing encroachments of white settlers at a meeting with Thomas Penn in 1733 on matters related to land. He became the protagonist of the disadvantages private limited company Delawares who opposed acceptance of the The Tempest Analysis Walking Purchase confirmation deed. When he learned of the results of the Walk, he attached his name to ikea, a complaint in 1740.

As a result, when he and other Delawares went to Philadelphia in 1742 to attend a council with Governor Thomas, Thomas instigated an The Tempest, Iroquois chief to grossly insult the Delawares and tourism is motivated by, ordered them from the lands they occupied. (50) Sassoonan first saw William Penn in May 1683 when Penn negotiated the Analysis land purchases made later that year; he signed the 1728 deed that confirmed all of Penn's land purchases. The Wrath Of Poseidon In Odyssey? He was unaware that white settlers would eventually force his people from their hunting. The Tempest? Thomas Penn made sure Sassoonan was not present for the signing of the Walking Purchase release. (51) Teedyuscung is noted for his long and arduous efforts to porter theory, regain the lands belonging to his people; his ordeal ended with his murder in The Tempest Comparative Analysis 1763 by land-hungry settlers. His role in the 1762 Walking Purchase case was complicated by the Quaker faction's efforts to use him to ikea, create a controversy over the proceedings.

(52) Tishcohan complained to the government in Philadelphia in 1734 and was summoned to a meeting with John and Thomas Penn where he formally lodged a protest with the proprietors, alluding particularly to one white man who had settled north of the Lehigh on the pretense that the Penns had given him permission this they could not allow; they had not sold the land. The Penns evaded the issue by producing the forged 1686 document. Tishcohan signed the Comparative Essay release for the Walking Purchase. White Conspirators Selfish Motives. (53) Colonial mediators engaged in negotiations and dealings with the m.butterfly summary Delawares bore little resemblance to William Penn's benevolent blueprint.

They never shed prejudices that Europeans brought to America; instead, they embraced the idea that getting along with the Indians was only Comparative a necessary step on m.butterfly, the road to a future when those Indians would follow the Comparative forest into oblivion. No provincial go-between could resist the land fever that afflicted British America, and none could deny the temptation to play on what of a private company, the Delewares' trust to acquire more, such as George Crogan (a trader), Conrad Weiser (an interpreter), William Allen (a land speculator), and James Logan (a Pennsylvania official). (54) George Crogan was the most successful of the many traders in Pennsylvania who negotiated with the Delawares for furs. Arriving in America in 1741, he quickly sought and gained the moral and financial support of the Analysis wealthy merchants and colonial officials of Philadelphia. He set up trading houses in porter theory Lancaster and into the Ohio Valley with commodities such as rum, guns, gun powder, lead, flints, tomahawks, vermilion, blanketing, linen and calicoes, wampum, lace, thread, ready-made clothing, knives, brass and tin kettles, axes, traps, looking glasses, rings and silver jewelry of Analysis all kinds in exchange for disadvantages of a private limited skins and furs that he sold to both colonial and British merchants. As early as three years after his arrival, he purchased 1200 acres of land in Harper's Ferry, Pennsylvania; in 1768 he received 100,000 acres in The Tempest the Fort Stanwyx land lottery. (55) Was his main focus on fair trade with the Indians?

According to Merrill, to in Odyssey, advance his friendship with the Comparative Analysis Essay Delawares, he learned their language, customs, and traits of character; most importantly, he regarded them as human beings (44-45). But his questionable acquisition of Indian lands and rapid rise to power belie this reading. In 1756 he was appointed Deputy Superintendent for Indian Affairs for the Crown and porter theory, served at The Tempest the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and was instrumental in the settlement of the Delaware dispute about the Walking Purchaseto the detriment of the m.butterfly summary Delawares. (56) Conrad Weiser's appetite for land was not as acute as was George Crogan's, but he too constantly pressed Indians to surrender more territory. He began his life in Pennsylvania as a squatter in the Delawares' Tulpehocken domain and went on to a career that earned him substantial grants from friendly Indians and grateful proprietors. His methods of land acquisition included bribery, secret deals, and unleashing squatters on Indian lands. The Tempest Comparative? The Delawares regarded him as one of the inventory world's greatest thieves. In the land rush, he did not envision, did not work toward, did not even want a world in which Indians and The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, colonists could co-existquite the contrary; his greatest fear was that the Europeans and Indians would mingle. He served as the interpreter for the Delawares at the Easton Council of the Six Nations in 1762 and collaborated with the Junk Food Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? Essay proprietaries to make sure Teedyuscung, the Delaware representative, was plied with enough liquor to keep him inebriated. (57) William Allen, a wealthy, eminent merchant in Philadelphia, gained favor with the Penn brothers and made use of the power this liaison gave him to The Tempest Comparative Essay, select and take only those lands that suited him.

He had little regard for Indian rights and claims. In 1727 he purchased thousands of acres of the best land above the Blue Mountains plus one tract of five thousand acres in 1735 at the present Nazareth and three thousand acres in 1736 along the Lehigh River in and around the present Allentown. These tracts were purchased without any right or even the tourism knowledge of the Indians. He carefully omitted the dates on which he received these grants when he sold them to purchasers; Thomas Penn certainly was aware of these transactions. Allen was mayor of Philadelphia in 1735, a recorder from 1741 to Analysis, 1750, and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court from 1750 to 1774. (58) James Logan, a shrewd and are the disadvantages of a, diplomatic provincial secretary, was the Penn family's executive in the province for much of the first half of the eighteenth century. With the authority vested in Essay him, no other single person (including William Penn himself) was more influential in Pennsylvania land policy.

Under his watch, Pennsylvania cleared land lying along the Delaware River northeast of Philadelphia of Delaware Indian claims. He made his fortune in land investments and trade with the Indians. He had a private financial interest in tourism is motivated by the Durham ironworks and Comparative Analysis Essay, settlement just south of the Lehigh and by 1737 he devised a scheme to take the forest land surrounding the are the company ironworks from the Delawares. The Tempest Essay? He had been the task of forging a permanent alliance between Pennsylvania and the powerful Six Nations, but by alienating the inventory management Delawares he was threatening to do the The Tempest Analysis Essay province a double disservice. M.butterfly Summary? With a falsified map of the 1686 purchase, he persuaded the illiterate Indian owners that the The Tempest Analysis Essay lands around the ironworks were included in the 1686 agreement. (59) The chroniclers of cultural is motivated history have portrayed these men as good examples of valorous forefathers in America's pre-Revolutionary War era, but delving deeper into their goals and The Tempest Comparative Essay, performances reveals a different scenarionone of them regarded the The Wrath of Poseidon Delawares as fellow human beings who rightfully owned the land on which they lived. Treaties and Agreements White vs. Indian View. (60) Merrill notes that for The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay treaties between Indians and proprietaries in Pennsylvania, ultimately all paths led to ikea, a clearing and all conversations to a councilold and wise People on both sides met in a National way by Treaties.

To forge or refurbish the chain of friendship (and when the chain broke in the 1750s), mere messengers would not suffice. Comparative? A meeting of the great Delaware sachems and cultural tourism is motivated by, the officials was paramount (253). (61) The Indian treaty was a form of Analysis Essay literature with no single author. The Delawares suggested the rites and metaphors to be used, but they had to be adapted by the Pennsylvania officials. Nothing quite like the Indian treaties exists anywhere else in the literature of the world.

The Indian speakers live on in the actual words they spoke, face to porter theory, face with their conquerors. The plain facts as the treaties presented them are alive with poetry no less than truth (Franklin xviii). (62) Benjamin Franklin printed the proceedings of thirteen councils, thus providing a fascinating stage on which the peoples of early America acted out the contest for continent. However, these minutes present a distorted view; the information on the printed page was the result of decisions by The Tempest Essay colonists who recorded the words spoken during a session and then altered them for publication. Thus omission, distortions, and deletions (some intentional, some not) crept into the published accounts. The written record did not cover an in Odyssey Essay, important part of Comparative Essay these meetings talks in the bushes were essential; the Delawares believed in the harmonious feeling nurtured over days or weeks, not on some piece of tourism by paper. Comparative? The colonial record keeper missed much of what happened.

(63) Treaty councils changed over the course of the colonial era. Lurking Essay? Earlier congresses (usually held in Philadelphia) were small, drawing two- or three-dozen people, and the recorders barely sketched the negotiations. The Tempest Comparative Essay? After 1720 when Pennsylvania's population expanded, assemblies took place in Lancaster or Easton with large numbers of Delawares and scores of colonists. The Wrath Essay? Fuller written accounts of the speeches and rituals of the treaties were more common, but the key issues were the The Tempest Comparative Essay samepeace and war, trade and land. (64) Surrounded by the powerful French and English in what are the of a private the early part of the eighteenth century, the Delawares were aware that only by remaining neutral could they survive in the face of immensely superior numbers and Analysis Essay, wealth. Therefore, at treaty after treaty, they made concessions only Be Stopped? when it was absolutely necessary, looked out for the interests of the Indian trade and exacted or coaxed whatever they could in The Tempest Comparative the way of goods and munitions given as peace-making presents. (65) The negotiators and mediators knew treaty culture bestfrom the council ground at midday to cultural is motivated by, an Indian camp late at night to Comparative Essay, a governor's chambers at sunriseand their job was to soothe frayed nerves and short tempers to achieve friendship from generation to generation, none of which checked colonial expansion or erased bitter memories of past crimes. Councils where colonists acquired land (often by shady means) helped pave the way for European invasion of the interior of The Wrath in Odyssey Essay Pennsylvania while adding to The Tempest Analysis, the bad memories. In Odyssey Essay? At the end of the colonial period, the Pennsylvania officials and the Delawares, thoroughly disillusioned by what treaties had wrought, were ready to give up on them.

The very instruments that could have promoted harmony were useful in keeping the Indians in the dark. If the Pennsylvania proprietaries' defense against charges of land fraud took several hours to deliver in English, the translator gave (in Delaware) only a brief synopsis of the proceedings. (66) By the 1760s, it was clear to both the colonists and the Delawares that treaties could never truly unite the two groups in Comparative Analysis the face of colonial expansion. After almost a century of treaties between William Penn's province and the Delawares, these gatherings, intended to bring them together, had essentially driven them apart. Understanding had ended in hatred.

After 1750, the The Wrath in Odyssey Delawares were fully aware that treaties had been the means for The Tempest colonists to acquire Indian landswithout the promised peace. (67) Negotiators George Crogan and what are the disadvantages of a company, Conrad Weiser were less in demand as go-betweens by Comparative Analysis Essay the 1770s; both men were disgusted by and disdainful of the Delawares. Even these two men, so skilled at crossing the cultural divide, limited how much they wanted to get along and how close they wished to come. Porter Theory? There was a deep divide between colonial and Indian worlds; instead of crossing that fault line, the negotiators personified and perpetuated it. The Tempest Comparative Essay? It is no wonder the treaty culture failed. (68) The Walking Purchase fraud of 1737 is cultural tourism, one of many attempts to justify the dispossession of indigenous peoples, beginning with the Roman Catholic church documents that sanctioned the Christian Crusades and continuing through Columbus's discovery of the New World and the colonial conquests in the New World. (69) Why was this event hidden for many years? The answer is revealing: American historians have attempted to keep a low profile on the Walking Purchase because it was one of the The Tempest most sordid pages in porter theory the records of Indian-white settle relationsmore so due to the involvement of the Founder of Pennsylvania's sons. The Delawares complained about the injustice of the Comparative Analysis Walking Purchase even before the completion of the walk, but they were totally ignored. Cultural? In 1742 while the dispossessed and insulted Delawares sought justice for the loss of their lands, Pennsylvania officials worked to shade, twist, and The Tempest Comparative, finally bury the realities of the Walking Purchase.

In the beginning, it appeared to be only The Wrath in Odyssey a small affair that lay chiefly between the Proprietaries of Pennsylvania and the Delawares, but in 1762 the incident became public knowledge when the Assembly of Pennsylvania (through their agent, Benjamin Franklin) brought the affair to the British Crown for investigation. (70) For the next century, little attention was paid to The Tempest Comparative Analysis, this event until the Penn papers and memorabilia were given to the Historical Society of Pennsylvania in of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay 1867. William J. Buck, a well known local historian, was given the task of cataloging the documents; he examined all the old deeds and documents pertaining to the Walking Purchase in great detail. Curious as to why the Penn family papers were so long withheld from the public, he noted that the records of Thomas Penn were missing from July 2, 1736 to November1738. He believed these papers were intentionally destroyed by the Penn family to Analysis Essay, conceal the Walking Purchase fraud. (71) Buck examined the so-called Treaty of 1686 and noted that it was a crude forgery. Not only was William Penn's signature unlike Penn's well-known handwriting, but the terms of the treaty were ambiguous with a blank space to be filled in at a later date. Thomas Penn acknowledged that the 1686 Deed was a copy, but the original has never been found, nor was it ever recorded. (72) The consensus of historians through the first two centuries after the Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? Essay Walking Purchase occurred has been that the The Tempest Essay Delawares were passive victims, but more recent accounts show that they were active participants who influenced, shaped, and forged their destinies. Indeed they were conscious of the cultural tourism is motivated Walking Purchase fraud and complained about it from their first knowledge of it. The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay? Their vicious attacks on m.butterfly summary, the Pennsylvania frontier beginning in 1756 are the The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay direct result of Junk Lurking In Schools: Be Stopped? Essay those unresolved complaints.

Buck, William J. History of the Indian Walk . Printed for the Author, 1886. Cribbs, George Arthur. The Frontier Policy of Pennsylvania . The Tempest Essay? Pittsburgh, PA, 1919. Harper, Steven Craig. Promised Land: The Holy Experiment and porter theory, the Walking Purchase. Ph.D.

Dissertation. Lehigh University, 2001. Indian Treaties Printed by The Tempest Essay Benjamin Franklin: 1736-1762 . Philadelphia: Historical Society of porter theory Pennsylvania, 1938. Jennings, Francis. The Scandalous Indian Policy of William Penn's Sons: Deeds and Documents of the Essay Walking Purchase. Pennsylvania History 37 (1970): 19-39. Merrell, James H. Into the American Woods: Negotiators on the Pennsylvania Frontier . New York: W.W.

Norton Co., 1999. Soderlund, Jean R., ed. William Penn and the Founding of Pennsylvania 1680-1684 . Philadelphia: U of Junk Lurking Can It Pennsylvania P, 1983. Thompson, Ray. The Tempest Comparative Essay? The Walking Purchase Hoax of 1737 . Fort Washington: Bicentennial Press, 1973. Wallace, Anthony F.C. King of the Delawares: Teedyuscung 1700-1763 . New York: Syracuse UP, 1990.

Wallace, Paul A. Indians in Pennsylvania . Harrisburg: Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission, 1991.

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fashion photo essay We had an amazing time exploring Iceland as you can see in our Iceland video–now, here is The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, a preview of our adventures through photos. The beauty of Iceland is immeasurable, so rather than trying to summarize it, I’m going to let the photographs speak for themselves and get right to it in our Iceland photo essay: Evening snorkeling in The Wrath in Odyssey Silfra at žingvellir National Park. We went on The Tempest Comparative Analysis, the “Under the cultural, Midnight Sun” evening snorkeling tour and The Tempest Analysis, along with our guide, we were the only people in the river so we had the entire area to Junk Food Lurking, ourselves. The water in Silfra is a stunningly bright blue and some of the clearest water on The Tempest Analysis, earth.

Crossing a single lane bridge while driving along Route 1 in south Iceland. In 1996, following a volcano eruption, a flood destroyed bridges and Route 1 in ikea inventory management southern Iceland. Analysis Essay. This is a memorial created from Junk Lurking In Schools: Can It Essay twisted bridge girders that were destroyed in the flood. Lookout spot along Route 1 for viewing a glacier outlet in Vatnaj¶kull National Park in south Iceland. Rock formation spotted in a field while road tripping the south coast of Iceland. Near the entrance of Vatnaj¶kull National Park with a glacier in the background. There was a dust storm in this lava field near Route 1 when we were driving by. The ever changing landscape in Essay Iceland always makes for interesting scenery when driving Route 1.

Driving on a rainy day out to the Drumb³ Base Camp for ikea our White Water Canoeing trip. Relaxing in a stretch of calm water of the Hv­t¡ River while white water canoeing. Cliff jumping into the Hv­t¡ River during our white water canoeing trip. Micah and The Tempest Analysis Essay, I were too cold to jump into the freezing water, but others from In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? Essay our group were more brave. Boat that gives tours of J¶kuls¡rl³n, the glacier lagoon. Ice at the glacial lagoon, J¶kuls¡rl³n.

Walking along the black sand beach where the icebergs from J¶kuls¡rl³n float out to The Tempest Comparative Essay, the ocean. Walking around the lava fields at žingvellir National Park. Exploring inside a secret lava cave located in žingvellir National Park. River running through žingvellir National Park near the area where the world’s oldest parliament was established in 930. –xar¡rfoss, a waterfall along the tectonic rift in porter theory žingvellir National Park. The upper falls at The Tempest, Gullfoss, which translates to summary, mean Golden Falls. Gullfoss is located along the Comparative Analysis Essay, famous Golden Circle route. Gullfoss is located in the canyon of the Hv­t¡ river and plunges over a cavern that is105 ft. Are The Disadvantages Of A Private Limited. deep. The Strokkur geyser in Comparative Analysis Essay the geothermally active valley of cultural tourism is motivated, Haukadalur erupts every few minutes to heights anywhere between 15-40 meters high.

Hot Spring at Comparative Analysis, the geothermally active valley of Haukadalur. Steam from the hot springs and The Wrath, mud pots at the Gunnuhver geothermal area in The Tempest Analysis the Reykjanes peninsula. Taking a stroll with Inga from Tiny Iceland at porter theory, Gunnuhver, a geothermal area in the Reykjanes peninsula. Camper van parked near Valahnºkur, a black sand beach in the Reykjanes peninsula. Ship resting in the field along the Analysis, road in the Reykjanes peninsula. Plane in the field just off of Junk Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? Essay, Route 1. This barn looks as though it was engulfed by Comparative, a lava flow many years ago.

We spotted numerous houses like this along the The Wrath Essay, coast. Beautiful and friendly Icelandic horses that came to say hi to us. Hvalsneskirkja is a church that was built out of The Tempest Comparative Essay, stone in porter theory 1887. Pools near the entrance of the Blue Lagoon. Don’t try to swim here though, as the water is not warm like it is once you get inside to The Tempest Analysis, the actual lagoon. Pools of glacial water at the base of the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Sk³gafoss is one of the largest waterfalls in Iceland and drops around 200 ft. off of The Wrath, a cliff. The famous Hallgr­mskirkja Church and statue of Leif Ericson in Analysis downtown Reykjav­k. The statue was a gift from the people of the tourism, United States to the people of Iceland. The Sun Voyager sculpture in Comparative Analysis Essay Reykjavik is an ode to the sun.

Funky buildings with street art making a statement in Reykjavik. How to Essay, get a fresh drink of The Tempest Analysis Essay, pure glacial water from a small stream. Our glacier hike guide, Magnus, pointing out some interesting facts. View from the start of our hike on the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier. Our guide showing us how to is motivated by, walk on the glacial ice. Getting the ropes ready for ice climbing along the icefalls coming from the Vatnaj¶kull ice cap. Looking out to the coast while standing on the icefall of the Fallj¶kull outlet glacier.

Our guide climbing up the icefall walls without any ropes. Working on setting up the second rope line along a steeper wall for even more ice climbing. Rappelling down the Analysis Essay, ice wall after climbing all the way to the top. It was hard to tell where the cultural tourism is motivated, glacier stopped and The Tempest Analysis, the clouds started when we were hiking. Looking down into Be Stopped?, a water filled crevice on the glacier. Finishing up the remainder of The Tempest Comparative Essay, our hike, our other guide, leading us in, out and around the crevices. LOVE these photos! We just back from two weeks in Iceland- what an incredible trip and Food Lurking Be Stopped? Essay, country! We’ve started blogging our trip a bit but we are still working things up. It looks like you guys also had an amazing time! Thanks!

We did have an amazing time! Glad you guys enjoyed it as well. I will have to go check out Comparative Essay your posts about it–always fun to have exciting Iceland stories to read!! Ÿ™‚ Wow, fabulous photos! What an amazing looking adventure! Thanks, Mary! We had a really great time! Excellent photos.

Looks like you had great weather to photograph Hallgr­mskirkja Church. I went and toured the of Poseidon, south, but I want to go back to drive the entire Ring Road. Thank you! We did have great weather that day in Reykjav­k, one of the The Tempest Comparative, few nice weather days of the m.butterfly, trip Ÿ™‚ It was still amazing the other days though, even with the Comparative Essay, rain! I would love to limited company, drive the entire Ring Road as well–we decided we have to do that next time we visit! Hope you get to as well! Woah, rappelling down the ice looks EPIC! Amazing post! Thanks!

Rappelling down the ice was sooo fun!! The glacier hike/ice climb was definitely our favorite activity of the trip! Great photos! They do speak for Comparative Analysis Essay themselves… Ok, I think I need to open an Iceland specific savings account. It’s been high on my list for awhile but never seems to make the cut in the end (mostly due to are the disadvantages of a private limited, expenses). These photos are so incredible… I’ve got to get there! Looks like you had a fantastic experience. Lol, I think you should!! It’s such a great place!

We had an The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay, amazing time Ÿ™‚ We were surprised though, it wasn’t quite as expensive as we thought it would be! We used hotel points and frequent flier miles to what are the private limited company, offset some of the costs, and the tours are spendy, but thankfully there is The Tempest Analysis, so much else that you can do for free/cheap as well. AWESOME pictures! Now I want to visit. Cultural Tourism Is Motivated. Hope you had a thick wetsuit for that snorkeling! Thanks! It was such a great trip! And, yes, thankfully, we had drysuits on for snorkeling, so it was actually pretty warm Ÿ™‚

I’m dying to go to Iceland, it looks like a photographers dream place to visit – so different and exotic than my world. I love all the nature, thanks for sharing this. Thanks! It is definitely a great spot for photographers, you would love it! It’s so beautiful! We are flying to Iceland in two days – going to be spending two weeks there! Your pictures have me so amped up!

How did you organize that rappelling experience? I would love to do something like that! How long were you there for, and The Tempest, what month did you visit in? I can’t wait to ikea inventory management, share my stories with you via my blog when we get back! Ÿ™‚ Sorry for the delayed response! I hope you are having a great time in Iceland already! We were there for 6 days in May. The Tempest Comparative Analysis Essay. The rappelling was on Junk Food Can It Essay, a glacier hike/ice climbing tour. We did the Glacier Xtreme tour with Glacier Guides–it was one of the trips from The Tempest Analysis Essay Skaftafell. M.butterfly Summary. We would highly recommend it–it was so much fun!!

Hope you get a chance to go and Analysis Essay, have a great trip–look forward to The Wrath of Poseidon Essay, reading about it! Jessica - a passion and a passport. WHOAAAA I need to The Tempest Essay, get to summary, ICELAND like yesterday! When I finally do book my trip, I want a detailed itinerary of EVERYTHING you guys did! Ÿ™‚ promise?! Ÿ™‚ And those photos are phenomenal! Thanks!! Ÿ™‚ And yes, promise! I’ll let you know everything we did for sure! Let me know when you go–you will love it! We have lots more about our trip coming up the next few weeks, so stay tuned Ÿ™‚ Gorgeous photos! I’ve been dreaming about visiting Iceland for years and finally made the trip last month. It’s taken me so long to Comparative Analysis, go through all the photos I took (almost 1,000 in three days!) but I managed to blog a few of them.

We visited several of the places you mention, although we didn’t have chance to go on a glacier hike. In Odyssey Essay. Looks like it was amazing! That’s a lot of photos in The Tempest Comparative 3 days, wow! I can see how you could take that many though! I’m glad you enjoyed it too Ÿ™‚ The glacier hike was fun–we really enjoyed it. I will have to go check out more of your photos and posts from what of a limited company Iceland! Thankyou for sharing your amazing images of a place I can only The Tempest, dream about inventory, ever visiting – what a wonder travel blogging is! That water must have been so cold!! Have a great weekend ahead.

I am joining you through Travel Photo Monday. Thanks so much for stopping by! It was a beautiful country! The water was cold, but when we were snorkeling we had drysuits on thankfully! The canoeing was pretty chilly though! Ÿ™‚ WOAW, what incredible photos.

Each one looks more spectacular than the The Tempest Essay, other. I guess you had a fantastic trip, eh? You make me want to hop on a plane, like right now! Thanks!! We did have a great time Ÿ™‚ We want to hope on a plane and porter theory, head back too, lol! Absolutely amazing photos! The colours, composition and quality are stunning.

How did you find Gullfoss waterfall? I was taken away by its might and power. Thanks so much! Really appreciate it! We enjoyed Gullfoss too–it was so pretty and powerful! Wow that is so amazing, I had no idea that so many beautiful things are in Iceland. Thank you so much for sharing. I think that my bucket list is so full that I will not be able to do this.

But I have your wonderful pix to Analysis, act like I was. I feel so humbled. Tourism. WOW again. God bless you all. Thanks, Kymee! Iceland is indeed gorgeous! I know how you feel about the places you want to visit–there are so many it seems hard to Comparative Essay, imagine making it to ikea inventory, them all! I hope you get to Iceland one day, but if not at least you get to see how pretty it is Ÿ˜‰ Obviously I still want to go to Iceland myself, but I feel I don’t even need to Essay, after seeing this incredible photos, well done! Thanks so much! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ It was so pretty I feel like it’s hard to limited company, take a bad photo, haha!

We loved it there though, such a beautiful place! OMG, your photos are AMAZING!! Love the texture and the way you captured the unique non-traditional vacation moments. Can’t wait to visit Iceland Ÿ™‚ Thank you–really appreciate it! Ÿ™‚ It was such a fun place; we had an amazing time and so many unique experiences.

Hope you love it too when you get there! Just stunning! Iceland was the most beautiful place I’ve ever visited and I can see that there are so many more things to discover there. The Tempest Analysis. Snorkeling in Silfra at žingvellir…. M.butterfly Summary. wow! Hope to be back soon, and the same for you. Thank you! I agree, it was so beautiful and hope we both make it back soon too! There is so much more we want to see there as well! Snorkeling was great–especially since we had so many layers on–wasn’t very cold Ÿ™‚ Wow, stunning stunning photos! I live in Minneapolis (saw you were from here) and Essay, went to Junk Lurking In Schools: Can It Be Stopped? Essay, Iceland with my dad two years ago, and The Tempest Analysis Essay, fell in love with it.

Amazing place! Great blog! Found it through the TBEX monthly challenge! Thank you so much and glad you stopped by to check us out! Always fun to run into fellow Minnesotans Ÿ™‚ Glad you enjoyed Iceland as well! Superb photos.

I did Highway 1 around Iceland and the photos bring me back. Summary. Its a great country with so much spectacular landscapes and scenery (that you capture so well). One of the Comparative Analysis Essay, best countries I was in. Thanks so much! One of ikea inventory management, our favorite countries as well!

Sounds like fun to go all the way around the ring road–we hope to The Tempest Analysis Essay, do it next time. Management. Only made it half way this time. Every time I see photos from Iceland I struggle to The Tempest Analysis Essay, believe this is is motivated, actually planet earth… Ÿ™‚ Wonderful photo essay indeed! Oliver recently posted…Dreams. Henry David Thoreau. Thanks! We are always thinking the same thing–such a crazy landscape! I really enjoy photo essays and The Tempest Analysis Essay, these pictures are especially good! Iceland is management, beautiful but boy am I glad to not be in that cold!

Thanks so much, Daidri! Appreciate it. It was a bit chilly at times, but thankfully it was in the 50s the majority of our trip, so it was pretty decent weather for May! Definitely nothing like a tropical beach though Ÿ™‚ Wow! Amazing photos!

This landscape looks fantastic! Thanks so much, Urska! It was so unique–we loved exploring all the crazy landscapes! Iceland is our favorite country! So excited to head back for the third time in Comparative September. Wow, third time?! That’s awesome! Hope you have a great time Ÿ™‚ It’s been our favorite country so far too–we are trying to plan a second trip out m.butterfly summary there–hopefully next spring we can make it back!

Isn’t Iceland just amazing. The Tempest Analysis Essay. I was just there in March and did a lot of the same things you guys have done. Looking at your photos I definitely wish I would have gone snorkeling and climbing/hiking on the ice. Those photos are just stunning. I am already planning my next trip back. We are planning another trip back too–isn’t it such an amazing spot?! Glad you had a great time. Ikea Inventory Management. You will have to put ice climbing and The Tempest Essay, snorkeling on The Wrath of Poseidon in Odyssey, the list for next time! Ÿ™‚ Incredible photos, Jenna! Love the way you arranged the gallery€”feels like the Comparative, perfect “Iceland In a Nutshell” tour.

Scrolling through really brought back a ton of m.butterfly summary, amazing memories of my trip to Iceland several years back. (Have a few pictures that are startlingly similar to some of yours here actually!) Thanks for sharing Ÿ™‚ Thank you! Really appreciate it Ÿ™‚ Isn’t Iceland such an amazing spot?! Glad to bring back some memories!! looks like you had an The Tempest Comparative, amazing time. Great photos. I read need another trip to Iceland as my last was not great! Oh no!

What happened on your last trip? We loved Iceland and of Poseidon in Odyssey Essay, had a wonderful time–I hope you get to The Tempest Comparative Analysis, go back and by, enjoy it one day! Sign up via email to receive our FREE monthly breakdown which includes photo of the month, money saving tips and more!