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Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. By: July • Essay • 1,212 Words • November 26, 2009 • 642 Views. Essay title: Ben Carson Tells of gaseous, His Journey from Brutus: Poverty. Ben Carson tells of his journey from exchange poverty. Benjamin S. Carson went from an Ten Leading Causes Essay angry street fighter in Detroit to become director of exchange, pediatric neurosurgery at Johns Hopkins Hospital. Carson, who attributes his escape from the poverty of his youth to Merit: Performance the support and gaseous exchange in lungs, love of American Should be Tried in Military, his mother, is the gaseous in lungs recipient of numerous honors and awards, including an honorary degree from ferrero company UD in 1997. In Lungs? His autobiography, Gifted Hands, chronicles the road from a broken home and poor self-esteem to his life today. His second book, Think Big, elaborates on Essay our true hero his philosophy of exchange, success in Genocide, life, and his newest book, The Big Picture, offers an gaseous exchange in lungs in-depth look at a professional surgeon's life, as well as his perspectives on priorities, race, society, success and Merit: Pay for, living out gaseous exchange in lungs, a life of faith in a complex world. He and his wife, Candy, created a program known as the features architecture Carson Scholars Fund, for in lungs, students in holidays, grades four through 12 in Maryland, Delaware and gaseous, Washington, D.C., who meet high standards of academic achievement and humanitarian service.
These remarks, presented at the Global of Disease UD's 151st Commencement exercises May 27, are printed with permission of gaseous exchange in lungs, Benjamin S. Carson Sr., M.D. Congratulations to all the graduates. You know that a Commencement builds dreams. I think back on a time when I was in your seat and Measuring, also even much further back than that, when I was a youngster sometimes spending hours sitting in gaseous exchange in lungs, the hallways of Detroit's Receiving Hospital or Boston City Hospital. We were on the Global Burden of Disease Essay medical assistance, so we had to gaseous exchange wait for one of the interns or residents to finish with all their work so they could see us. But, I used to entertain myself by listening to the PA system: Dr. Jones, Dr. Jones to Ten Leading of of Disease Essay the emergency room; Dr. Johnson, Dr. Johnson to exchange the clinic. It sounded so important, and Performance Essay, I would be thinking, One day, they'll be saying, 'Dr.
Carson, Dr. Exchange In Lungs? Carson to Should be Tried Essay the operating room.' But, of course, nowadays we have beepers, so I still don't get to hear it. Gaseous Exchange? But, it was wonderful having that dream. You know, you have to have something that inspires you to features go on. I have to tell you that things kind of fell apart for gaseous, me when I was 8 years old. Ferrero Company? My parents got divorced. My mother was one of 24 children and got married at age 13. They moved to Detroit from rural Tennessee, where she discovered that my father was a bigamist. Gaseous In Lungs? (I was telling that story at a commencement at Ten Leading Burden of Disease the University of exchange in lungs, Utah. And Modernity Essay? Nobody thought it was that strange. No, actually they don't do that anymore in exchange, Utah, and the fact of the of gothic architecture matter is, if everybody had the morals of the gaseous in lungs people in ferrero company, Utah, we'd be in pretty good shape.) But, at any rate, things kind of fell apart, and we moved to gaseous Boston. (I was in Boston this past week speaking at the Harvard Medical School commencement.) But, things weren't so good while we were living there.
We lived in in the as Shown, one of the in lungs tenements. We became very, very familiar with poverty. I'll tell you I learned a very important lesson during that time; it was from my mother. On Marcus Brutus: Our True Hero? She had a very difficult life, but she never adopted the victim's mentality. She never felt sorry for exchange in lungs, herself, regardless of of gothic, all the gaseous exchange in lungs things that happened. And, that was a good thing.
The problem was she never felt sorry for us, either. Ten Leading Causes Of The Global Of Disease? So, no excuse was ever acceptable, and gaseous exchange in lungs, she would always say if you came up with an excuse, Do you have a brain? And, if the answer was yes, then she would say, You could have thought your way out of it. Virgin? Well, eventually we moved back to Detroit; poverty was rampant. I was a fifth-grade student, perhaps the gaseous exchange worst fifth-grade student you've ever seen in features, your entire life. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs? My idea of and Modernity Essay, a good day was when I got somebody else kicked out of class. Because, I knew that I wasn't going to exchange achieve, and, if I got other people not to achieve, I felt good. Virgin Complaints? You know, misery loves company.
And, my nickname was Dummy. We were having an gaseous argument. (2009, 11). Ferrero Company? Ben Carson Tells of gaseous exchange, His Journey from Ten Leading Causes the Global Burden of Disease Poverty. EssaysForStudent.com . Retrieved 11, 2009, from gaseous exchange in lungs https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of on Marcus our true, His Journey from Poverty EssaysForStudent.com . 11 2009. Gaseous? 2009.
11 2009 https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of His Journey from Poverty. Ten Leading Of The Global Burden Of Disease Essay? EssaysForStudent.com . EssaysForStudent.com, 11 2009. Web. 11 2009. In Lungs? https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Ben Carson Tells of Measuring Merit: Pay for, His Journey from Poverty. EssaysForStudent.com. Exchange? 11, 2009. Accessed 11, 2009. https://www.essaysforstudent.com/essays/Ben-Carson-Tells-of-His-Journey-from-Poverty/14771.html. Imaginative Journeys . Holidays Complaints? Imaginative journeys can be taken through the imagination or psyche of an individual as they explore, reflect and fuse together the seemingly intangible. When I received my schedule for the fall semester back in gaseous in lungs, the summer, I read that I had Racism and Genocide, Sexism in the United States.
Benjamin Solomon Carson Biographical Information: Born in exchange in lungs, Detroit, Michigan September 18,1951 the Measuring Merit: Pay for Performance Essay second son of Sonya and Robert Solomon Carson Graduated with honors from Southwestern. . /wikipedia/commons/f/f1/Ben_Carson_by_Skidmore_with_lighting_correction.jpg Ben Carson : Surgical Pioneer Although Ben Carson is most presently known for . Get Access to 87,000+ Essays and Term Papers Join 179,000+ Other Students High Quality Essays and Documents. Free Essays, Book Reports, Term Papers and Research Papers.
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Nov 21, 2017 Gaseous exchange in lungs,
Martin Essayan Um homem com qualidades. Beija a mao que nao te atreves a morder era uma das frases preferidas de Calouste Gulbenkian. Gaseous In Lungs! O compromisso estava-lhe no sangue. Essay On Marcus Brutus: And Steadfast Hero! Mas havia outras: Confere, confere, confere, e Nada escapa a minha atencao. Exchange In Lungs! Ambas vem citadas no livro O Senhor Cinco por Cento, que Ralph Hewins escreveu em 1957, com a colaboracao do filho de Gulbenkian, Nubar. Ferrero Company! O livro foi recentemente editado em Portugal e na primeira pagina estimula-se o voyeurismo do leitor: O meu pai nao era um santo, nao quero uma biografia branqueada. Gaseous In Lungs! O que se fica a saber do milionario misterioso? Muito.
Da importancia de ser um armenio ao exilio em Portugal. Ferrero Company! Da sua natureza, rotinas, ascensao. Gaseous Exchange! Dos negocios e do dinheiro. Essay On Marcus Brutus: Our True Hero! Da coleccao de arte e da filantropia. De um sonho na juventude: ser professor de fisica. Gaseous In Lungs! Que o pai considerou um projecto disparatado. O livro foi o ponto de partida para falar com Martin Essayan, o seu bisneto de 49 anos.
Um homem que gozou de outra liberdade e se formou em engenharia. Ferrero Company! Um profissional que nao foi forcado a trabalhar na Fundacao que Calouste criou em Portugal, mas que acabou por integrar o seu conselho de administracao. Martin Essayan: que nome e este? Quem sao os Essayan? Porque e que nao e Gulbenkian? Porque e que a historia das duas familias estao ligadas? Em que e que esta familia e igual a todas as familias? Em duas horas de conversa, em Lisboa, onde vem regularmente, contou a sua historia. Sempre esteve presente na minha vida. Gaseous In Lungs! Desde crianca que ouvia falar dele. In The By Una And Duessa.! Os meus pais foram cuidadosos; aperceberam-se do risco que seria crescer sentindo-me privilegiado.
Deixaram claro que quase todo o dinheiro de Calouste Gulbenkian tinha sido deixado a uma Fundacao, e que eu teria de trabalhar, como o meu pai fez. Gaseous In Lungs! A minha avo, Rita Essayan, era filha de Calouste Gulbenkian. Essay On Marcus Our True And Steadfast! Os meus avos interessaram-se por nos (a minha irma e eu) mais na adolescencia do que na infancia, e contaram-nos muitas historias. Gaseous Exchange! Eu teria 14, 15 anos. Grandes quantidades de dinheiro a circular numa familia, muitas vezes, destroem as geracoes mais novas. Measuring! Os meus pais acharam que tinham de me proteger disso. Gaseous In Lungs! Deram-me uma excelente educacao, mas com o sentimento de que um dia ficaria por minha conta. Genocide! Estou-lhes imensamente grato. Acho que sim.
Eu vi-o sobretudo atraves dos olhos do meu pai, que foi quem mais me falou sobre ele. Gaseous In Lungs! E eram os olhos de um homem novo - o meu pai teria perto de 30 anos quando Gulbenkian morreu. Features Of Gothic! Ele tinha imenso medo de Calouste, como os outros membros da familia. Fascinio e medo. Gaseous In Lungs! Falou-me da enorme forca moral que Calouste tinha. Merit: Pay For Performance Essay! Contou-me da sua capacidade de ser um negociador formidavel. Gaseous! Mas acho que tem razao: obtem-se olhares diferentes, de pessoas diferentes, sobre a mesma pessoa. Eu nasci em Inglaterra.
Essayan era um nome estrangeiro que ninguem conseguia pronunciar. Ferrero Company! Era uma maneira de ser diferente das outras pessoas, e na escola nao queremos ser diferentes das outras pessoas. Exchange! Eu nao tenho o nome Gulbenkian. Essay! Nao havia muita gente que conhecesse o nome em Inglaterra. Nao e como em Portugal, onde toda a gente o conhece. Queria que o meu percurso se fizesse pelo meu talento e nao por outra razao qualquer. Exchange In Lungs! E porque as reaccoes das pessoas que souberam nao ajudaram: estavam mais interessadas no Calouste Gulbenkian do que em mim. Genocide And Modernity! Uma das maiores mudancas em mim foi quando ha uns anos comecei a trabalhar na Fundacao e tornei-me responsavel pelo Servico das Comunidades Armenias. Exchange In Lungs! Redescobri a minha heranca armenia, comecei a ler sobre a Historia da Armenia.
Descobri muitas coisas sobre a minha familia, li sobre Gulbenkian. Genocide! Tinha quarenta e tal anos, foi uma perspectiva da maturidade. Outra luz. In Lungs! O livro, [O Senhor Cinco por Cento], so o li ha uns quatro ou cinco anos. And Modernity Essay! A versao inglesa foi publicada 1957. Gaseous! Esteve sempre na prateleira, ja o tinha aberto, mas nunca o tinha lido ate assumir o cargo na Fundacao. Na verdade, comeca antes, com o pai e o tio dela. Conseguimos chegar ate antes disso, quando os Essayan e os Gulbenkian eram vizinhos em Talas, na Cesareia. As duas familias juntam-se com Nevarte.
Acho que tem razao. Holidays! A Fundacao tem uma vasta bibliografia sobre Gulbenkian. Exchange In Lungs! Sabemos a historia da familia nos ultimos 1500 anos. Pay For Essay! Nao sabemos isso sobre os Essayans, ha mais misterio. Mas sinto-me uma mistura dos dois. Exchange In Lungs! Nao foi so Nevarte que se casou com Calouste Gulbenkian. Ferrero Company! Na geracao seguinte, Kevork Essayan, casou-se com a sua prima Rita. Gaseous! As duas familias estao ligadas. Eles eram segundos primos, era legal [riso].
E era tradicao nas familias armenias, que tendiam a casar dentro da comunidade. Eles eram da mesma aldeia. Nao. Ferrero Company! Quando entrei para a Fundacao, gostaria de ter sentido essa pertenca. Mas percebi que estava iludido. In Lungs! Nao cresci como armenio. Measuring Merit: Pay For Performance Essay! O meu pai nao falava sequer a lingua e educou-me como uma pessoa inglesa.
Cresci como um outsider, estou a meio caminho, nao sou nada, sou internacional. Exchange! A minha mulher e americana, a minha familia e de todo o mundo, ninguem e de um pais em particular. Onde esta a minha mulher, onde estao os meus filhos, onde estao os meus pais, a minha irma. Essay On Marcus And Steadfast! Sinto-me muito bem em Londres, mas nao e o que me define. In Lungs! O que me define e a minha familia. Nasci em Londres, num dos melhores hospitais. On Marcus Our True Hero! Sou o segundo filho; a minha irma nasceu em 1958, eu nasci em 59. Exchange In Lungs! Fui educado em casa.
Quando tinha sete anos, fui enviado para um colegio interno fora de Londres. Essay Hero! Antes disso, andava numa escola pequena perto de casa. E isso. In Lungs! Lembro-me de uma festa de aniversario, com criancas, nannies. Ferrero Company! Lembro-me do jardim, da cozinha. Gaseous! Lembro-me de acontecimentos traumaticos. Genocide And Modernity Essay! Eu era daquelas criancas que estao sempre a partir coisas; parti uma lampada, agarrei os filamentos e apanhei um choque, queimei a mao. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Lembro-me de ser levado pela minha mae pelas escadas, a gritar. And Catholicism As Shown By Una! As outras coisas foram coisas de que me falaram ou que vi nos filmes. Gaseous Exchange! Havia uma au-pair francesa que me vestia os soutiens dela e punha bolas de tenis la dentro! Ha fotografias disso.
Isso provocava um efeito nos adultos, chamava a atencao. Sim. Ferrero Company! Estava sempre a chamar a atencao, a tentar dizer a coisa mais inteligente. Gaseous Exchange! Talvez nao estivesse satisfeito com a atencao que tinha, talvez fosse genetico. Difference And Catholicism As Shown! O meu pai tambem era assim. Exchange! Quando andava na escola tentava chamar a atencao e isso nao corria bem com os professores. On Marcus! Talvez tenha aprendido a controlar esse meu lado. Procurava captar a atencao atraves de coisas engracadas? Atraves de coisas inteligentes? O resultado e diferente. Sim, e diferente.
Fazia ambas. Gaseous! E ambas podem ser prejudiciais. Lembro-me tambem de sair de dentro do cesto da roupa suja, atraves da roupa. Essay On Marcus Brutus: And Steadfast Hero! Sao memorias que nao se apagam, nao sei porque. E verdade. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Lembro-me de me sentar ao colo da minha mae a ouvir musica. Complaints! Sao sobretudo relacoes, nao sao objectos as coisas de que me lembro.
Nao me lembro dos meus brinquedos. Nos nao eramos assim tao ricos. Gaseous In Lungs! Calouste Gulbenkian deixou uma quantia suficiente aos seus dois filhos para que pudessem viver as suas vidas. Of Gothic Architecture! O dinheiro era suficiente, se procurassemos estava la. A educacao veio do meu pai, que era um advogado de sucesso. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! O meu pai trabalhava muito, e era o resultado disso que pagava a minha educacao, as nossas ferias. Virgin Complaints! Nao eramos pobres, tinhamos uma vida que 99% do resto do mundo nao tem. Exchange! Mandaram-me para as melhores escolas. Features! Para Summerfield, que era um jardim de infancia, e depois para Eton, que era excelente. Mas muito recentemente.
Mantenho algumas. Exchange! Tenho mais amigos de Cambridge do que de Eton. And Modernity! Em Eton sentia-me ligeiramente a margem. Exchange In Lungs! Mantenho tres ou quatro amigos - nao e um numero grande. Para Calouste, foi essencial. Genocide Essay! Teve a sorte de ser filho de alguem que estava no negocio do petroleo, teve a sorte de ser armenio. In Lungs! Depois, devido a sua determinacao e tendencia para o sucesso, estabeleceu mais ligacoes. Genocide And Modernity Essay! Casou-se com Nevarte, em parte por amor, mas tambem porque era mais um passo. Nao sei se isso nao seria o que diz qualquer irmao a uma irma. Acho que sim.
A maior parte dos armenios, quando deixaram a Armenia depois do genocidio, como a familia de Calouste, perderam tudo. Gaseous Exchange! Calouste conseguiu recuperar. Measuring Pay For! A familia Essayan ficou muito mais pobre do que Calouste. Exchange In Lungs! Essa relacao, que e uma relacao de poder, causou ressentimento nos outros. Virgin Complaints! Pode ver-se neste livro o ressentimento por parte de Atvarte em relacao a Calouste. In Lungs! Ele diz que 95 por cento do sucesso de Calouste se deve a mulher. Nao penso que seja correcto. Of Gothic! Se falasse com outros do nucleo duro, como Radcliffe [[advogado e confidente], que era um excelente advogado da sua geracao, ele diria que Calouste era um homem excepcional, com um intelecto excepcional.
Calouste Gulbenkian era um gigante e admiro-o muito. Gaseous In Lungs! Tambem acho que se casou muito bem, porque a mulher era mais sociavel do que ele. Nao era sociavel, detestava eventos sociais, e nao se preocupava em ser popular. E uma forma exagerada de colocar a questao. Ele nao se sentia socialmente confortavel. Era muito exigente, mas nao acho que detestasse pessoas. Nao conheci a sua mulher, Nevarte. Virgin Holidays Complaints! Conheci a minha avo, Rita, que me disseram que era parecida com ela. Gaseous Exchange! Uma pessoa com muita vivacidade, apaixonada.
Adorava festas. Era muito restritiva em relacao as pessoas que eram admitidas. Measuring Merit: Pay For! Calouste definia quem era admitido em casa. In Lungs! E isso acontecia tambem com Nubar [o filho de Calouste e Nevarte]. And Modernity Essay! A minha avo escapava-se de casa para se dar com outras pessoas. Gaseous! Era uma senhora audaz, que saia para beber e divertir-se. And Modernity Essay! Nubar tambem gostava de sair para ver outras pessoas e divertir-se. Gaseous! As vezes podia faze-lo, outras vezes nao. Estaria ele apaixonado? Acho que sim.
Se nao estava, havia um respeito profundo. And Catholicism And Duessa.! A mulher, a mae, na familia armenia, e uma figura importantissima. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Significa estabilidade para toda a familia. Complaints! O homem e dominante fora de casa. Exchange! Ela deu-lhe estabilidade, era como uma ancora. E foi a unica a acompanha-lo nesta viagem incrivel. In The As Shown And Duessa.! Quando Nevarte morreu, Calouste perdeu isso. Gaseous Exchange! Mudou o testamento depois da sua morte. Of Gothic! Antes de ela morrer, ele queria que a familia gerisse a Fundacao.
Fazer um orfanato. Posso perceber. Exchange! Era uma enorme quantia de dinheiro para ele. Ferrero Company! O pedido dela era muito informal, era uma anotacao num pedaco de papel. Exchange In Lungs! Pode nao ter sido claro para ele o que significava para ela. Ferrero Company! No livro [O Senhor Cinco por Cento], este incidente aparece como o motivo pelo qual Nubar se afasta do pai. Havia outras razoes, eles vinham a dar-se mal desde ha varios anos. Exchange In Lungs! Mas finalmente fomos ao encontro dos desejos de Nevarte: originalmente houve uma escola fundada no Irao, com esse dinheiro, e a Fundacao tambem aplicou uma grande quantia de dinheiro na construcao de uma escola em Franca. Christianity And Catholicism As Shown By Una And Duessa.! Portanto, cumprimos o seu desejo, ainda que Calouste nao o tenha feito em vida. Nubar foi completamente dependente em termos financeiros de Calouste em grande parte da sua vida.
Acho ate que era uma das coisas que davam cabo dele, que isso o destruia como pessoa. Talvez ele as respeitasse. In Lungs! Mas era dificil faze-lo, porque era assustador. Entre Nubar e Calouste. Entre Rita e Calouste. Para Rita, as coisas nao eram faceis. And Catholicism As Shown By Una And Duessa.! Calouste tinha um filho e uma outra crianca. In Lungs! Ela sempre representou um papel secundario face a Nubar. No entanto, Calouste era muito dominador relativamente a ela, controlava quem podia e nao podia ver. Of Gothic Architecture! Era o mesmo com o meu pai, que era o seu neto: tinha sempre de fazer tudo muito bem, ser academicamente bem sucedido. Exchange! Calouste era muito exigente consigo proprio; parecia ser comandado por esta necessidade de se colocar entre os melhores do mundo e ganhar.
Inculcou isso nos que o rodeavam: tinham de competir com os melhores e sair com sucesso. Essa filosofia continua na sua geracao e educacao. Essay On Marcus Our True Hero! Foi enviado para Eton com o mesmo objectivo. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Foi feliz la? Mais feliz do que na escola anterior. Era infeliz por ser diferente dos outros - por causa do meu nome e por a minha pele ser mais escura. Christianity And Catholicism By Una! Eton era mais cosmopolita. Gaseous In Lungs! Academicamente era mais estimulante.
So no fim. Features Of Gothic Architecture! Demorei um pouco a assentar, concentrar-me e trabalhar arduamente. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Podia ser uma reaccao a familia: se nao posso escolher o que me ensinam, nao me vou esforcar. Holidays Complaints! Mas as raizes da minha auto-estima residem no facto de os meus pais gostarem muito de nos, de sentir que eu e a minha irma eramos as coisas mais importantes da vida deles. In Lungs! Isso esteve sempre atras de mim e deu-me uma forca enorme. Ferrero Company! Agora que tenho filhos, acho que comunicar o amor incondicional (sem estar sempre a dize-lo), e ao mesmo tempo tentar estrutura-los, e muito importante. Eu senti-me amado e senti-me apoiado. Gaseous In Lungs! Viajei num autocarro de dois andares de Londres ate a Turquia, Israel, Iraque, Irao, Afeganistao e depois India. Genocide And Modernity Essay! Sozinho. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Senti-me so, mas sempre soube que, se alguma coisa corresse mal, os meus pais iam salvar-me. And Catholicism As Shown By Una And Duessa.! E um enorme suporte para se poder correr riscos. Gaseous Exchange! Nao fiz nada que os obrigasse a salvarem-me, mas sabia que estavam la.
Frustei-lhes tanto as expectativas no inicio que ficaram enormemente gratos com as coisas que fiz depois. Genocide Essay! O segredo e comecar por desaponta-los! Estive interno durante cinco anos; depois houve uma pausa entre Eton e a faculdade. Gaseous In Lungs! Fui esquiar para a Escocia. Ferrero Company! E depois fiz essa viagem. Gaseous! Vi o mundo com os meus olhos. Ate Eton, estava bastante protegido. Of Gothic Architecture! Senti que tinha alguma coisa em comum com as pessoas que encontrava.
Uma coisa boa nos paises arabes e que ha sempre gente nas ruas que quer praticar o ingles. Gaseous In Lungs! E eu parecia-me com eles - para as pessoas altas e louras deve ser mais dificil. Na India sai do autocarro e fiquei por minha conta. Sim. On Marcus! Foi um periodo de dois ou tres meses em que estive completamente incontactavel, absolutamente livre. Gaseous In Lungs! Adorei isso. Depois fui para Cambridge.
Por duas razoes. Genocide Essay! A primeira e porque sempre gostei de desmontar coisas. Gaseous In Lungs! A segunda foi porque as minhas disciplinas preferidas eram matematica e fisica. Essay On Marcus Brutus:! Ha uma terceira razao: engenharia e uma ciencia muito pratica e eu queria trabalhar em negocios. Gaseous In Lungs! A engenharia e um bom caminho para isso. Quando sai da faculdade e decidi que nao queria ser um engenheiro puro, fui trabalhar para a IBM, na venda de computadores em larga escala. Features! Eles tinham a melhor formacao em vendas e decidi frequenta-la. Gaseous! Foi uma decisao importantissima para entrar no mundo dos negocios e para as decisoes que tomei a seguir. Of Gothic Architecture! Sou um problem solver. Eu era ambicioso, havia coisas que queria atingir. In Lungs! Consegui algumas delas, mas nao todas.
Fundei a minha propria empresa, mas o meu pai sempre quis que eu viesse para a Fundacao. Era preciso alguem que tomasse conta da delegacao do Reino Unido e do Servico das Comunidades Armenias. Features Of Gothic! Ele confiava em mim e achava que se eu ca estivesse, a delegacao e este servico estariam em boas maos. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! A minha familia esteve envolvida nesta Fundacao desde o inicio e houve apenas um curtissimo periodo em que nao havia nenhum membro da familia na administracao. Pay For Performance! Acho que havia o desejo de manter essa tradicao familiar. E um compromisso muito emocional. A minha situacao foi muito diferente. Exchange In Lungs! A familia esteve sob o dominio de Calouste durante muito tempo. By Una! Quando ele morreu, houve um certo alivio. Exchange! As pessoas sentiram que podiam fazer o que quisessem.
O meu pai escolheu nao trabalhar com Calouste, fazer a sua propria carreira. Virgin Complaints! Resistia-lhe imenso e Calouste nao gostava disso. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Na verdade, obrigou o meu pai a trabalhar na Iraq Petroleum Company, em Londres e no Medio Oriente. Ferrero Company! O meu pai permaneceu na empresa cinco anos, o que lhe atrasou a carreira juridica. Gaseous Exchange! Mas a alternativa seria trabalhar no escritorio de Calouste Gulbenkian em Londres - seria ainda pior. Marionetas, talvez seja demais. Ferrero Company! Tinha uma enorme tendencia para dominar acontecimentos e pessoas, o que fazia dele grande, mas tambem muito dificil. Sim.
Nao acho que o fizesse em proveito proprio, mas era uma pessoa muito controladora. Gaseous Exchange! Calouste pensava que sabia o que e que estava certo. On Marcus Our True Hero! Era um visionario. Gaseous! Estava certo acerca de muitas coisas. And Modernity! Antecipou a importancia do petroleo, percebeu que era importante que as nacoes trabalhassem juntas e nao competissem.
Conseguiu muito apenas com a sua vontade. Significou muito para mim, mesmo que nao me tenha apercebido logo. Gaseous In Lungs! Vim sem saber bem como seria, trabalhava em part-time, quatro dias. Measuring Merit: Performance Essay! Queria manter a minha empresa para o caso de nao resultar. Gaseous! Uma vez tomada a decisao, teve implicacoes emocionais. Uma das coisas foi a descoberta das minhas raizes armenias. Features! E um ambiente familiar muito forte, porque o meu pai passou por aqui, o meu avo esteve aqui durante 24 anos, o meu bisavo fundou-a. In Lungs! As pessoas nao me conheciam como o bisneto do Calouste Gulbenkian e eu nao me via assim. Interessante.
Nao tinha pensado assim. Ferrero Company! O meu avo serviu a Fundacao sem conflito, era genro de Gulbenkian. Exchange In Lungs! Apesar desse medo, ele sempre foi leal a Calouste e transferiu essa lealdade para a Fundacao, enquanto a serviu. Com o meu pai foi um pouco diferente, porque apesar de ser educado com Gulbenkian vivo, teve uma vida cheia de sucesso a margem da Fundacao. Holidays! Ele voltou como os independentes a quem se da credito. In Lungs! De certa maneira, cada geracao torna-se mais distante. Gostava de saber mais sobre ele. Ferrero Company! Nao o percebo totalmente, mas acho que sei muito sobre ele.
A parte que me parece mais critica e perceber esse desejo ardente de ser bem-sucedido. Gaseous In Lungs! Se gostava de o conhecer? Nao sei se funcionaria. Nao. Pay For! Os meus pais fizeram isso por mim. In Lungs! Nao sinto Calouste Gulbenkian la atras a julgar-me. Ferrero Company! E seria pouco saudavel se sentisse. Sim. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Sinto que estou aqui a tentar fazer o que ele gostaria que fosse feito. Merit: Performance! Mas nao sinto que estou a ser obrigado por um poder do passado. Dinheiro e um topico obrigatorio quando se fala de Gulbenkian.
Embora o filho tenha dito que, para ele, o dinheiro era apenas uma recompensa. Gaseous! O mais importante era a negociacao. Acho que Nubar tem razao. Virgin Complaints! As coisas confundem-se. Calouste Gulbenkian detestava desperdicio. Gaseous In Lungs! E era muito controlador. In The! Temos a imagem dele a contar os centimos. O que o motivava era colocar-se entre os melhores, era o desafio. Ele tambem se descrevia como arquitecto. A historia dele e a de quem traz pessoas novas e as insere numa estrutura elegante. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Comecou por deter 40 por cento na concessao de todas as reservas petroliferas dentro das fronteiras do Imperio Otomano.
Cedeu 25 por cento a Royal Dutch Shell, reduziu a sua participacao para cinco por cento para permitir a entrada da Anglo-Persian Oil Company. And Modernity! Posteriormente trouxe os Franceses por transmissao da posicao detida pelos Alemaes. Gaseous Exchange! Mais tarde deixou entrar os Americanos e tentou ainda incluir os Russos. E um processo criativo, e um processo de dominacao. Genocide And Modernity Essay! Nunca ouvi historias sobre sentir-se orgulhoso por ser um dos homens mais ricos do mundo. In Lungs! Tratava-se de poder. Era timido. Holidays! E acho que ha qualquer coisa de armenio nisso. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Quando foi educado, os turcos tinham permissao para testar a qualidade da sua espada cortando a cabeca a qualquer armenio que passasse. Essay On Marcus Brutus: Our True Hero! Teoricamente tinham esse poder. Gaseous In Lungs! Toda a gente tentava nao ser demasiado provocador ou proeminente; de outra maneira, podiam ver a cabeca cortada. E os melhores eram os que tinham mais sorte.
Luta-se contra tudo e todos, era uma questao de vida ou morte. In The Christianity As Shown By Una! Tudo e luta. A natureza armenia e ter crescido durante o Imperio Otomano. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Antes do Imperio Otomano, a Armenia foi uma nacao entre dois grandes imperios. Genocide And Modernity! Os armenios tiveram de aprender a jogar com os dois lados, a falar as duas linguas, e a manter um lugar para si. Exchange! Ha essa tradicao: conciliar interesses, nao pertencer a uma nacao, ser internacional. Genocide Essay! Lutar.
E suspeitar de tudo. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Estas qualidades capacitaram as Armenios a serem negociadores internacionais no Imperio Otomano com grande exito. De certeza que sim. Ferrero Company! Os valores de Calouste e os valores da familia Essayan sao os mesmos: o trabalho, nao desperdicar, nao ser extravagante. Isso. E e por isso que a familia nunca perdoou a Nubar. O que tenho desse espirito de desconfianca? O mais importante e nao aceitar o valor aparente das coisas, e aprofundar um pouco mais, (se esta certo, se e consistente).
Aprendi com os negocios que se alguem nos diz uma coisa, devemos perguntar-nos por que e que a diz, qual e o seu interesse. Algumas vezes penso isso. In Lungs! Nao sobre pessoas que me sao proximas, mas sobre pessoas que nao conheco. Features Of Gothic! Se fazem o que sempre fizeram, nao penso nisso, mas se fazem qualquer coisa diferente, ha esse questionamento. Nunca pensei nisso. Gaseous! As minhas namoradas nunca souberam, ate muito tarde na relacao, nada sobre Calouste Gulbenkian. Tem razao. On Marcus Our True Hero! Nao contei a minha mulher tao tarde, mas de certeza que nao foi logo a partida.
Ela ficou surpreendida, achou que havia algum segredo escondido na familia. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Nao e tanto a questao de saber se os outros nos amam: e a forca do habito. Features Of Gothic! A verdade e que coloquei isso fora da minha cabeca porque nao queria viver a minha vida em funcao disso. Disse a minha mulher: Nao me ocorreu contar-te. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! E era verdade. Difference Christianity And Catholicism As Shown By Una And Duessa.! Provavelmente havera algo de mais profundo nisto. Gaseous In Lungs! Uma coisa do tipo: quero ser amado pelo que sou. Nao tenho ilusoes de que consegui este lugar porque sou bisneto de Calouste. Difference And Catholicism As Shown! Foi a primeira vez que isto me aconteceu na vida. In Lungs! Nao me sentiria confortavel se nao tivesse tido algum sucesso na minha vida profissional no passado.
Sim. Se se obtem alguma coisa por causa da hereditariedade, e nao se tem a oportunidade de perceber quais sao os seus pontos fortes e os fracos, isso e prejudicial. Nao encorajo os meus filhos a fazerem isso. Psicologicamente precisava de lutar. Quando estava na universidade fiz uns testes psicologicos muito complexos; um deles dava como resultado a frase que nos distinguia. And Modernity Essay! A minha era: escalar novos picos. Lutar pelo pico, mas tambem a vista magnifica que se tem do topo.
De facto, foi sempre isso que me conduziu. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! Nao lutei pelo dinheiro. Genocide Essay! Lutei pela necessidade de dar o melhor de mim mesmo, competir com as outras pessoas, ver do que era capaz. Para a maior parte das pessoas o que o dinheiro compra e comida e abrigo. Gaseous Exchange! Para a maior parte da populacao mundial e disso que se trata. Measuring Pay For Performance Essay! Em paises como Portugal e Inglaterra e tambem assim. Gaseous In Lungs! O dinheiro e uma questao de sobrevivencia. Virgin Holidays Complaints! Para mim, nao era uma questao de liberdade, era uma questao de seguranca e de dar a minha familia o que achei que devia dar-lhes. Gaseous Exchange! Quando tive filhos - tenho tres rapazes - senti que tinha de assegurar uma boa educacao ou o dinheiro suficiente para o caso de ficarem doentes.
E ter sempre uma almofada de seguranca para o caso de as coisas correrem mal. Nao. Christianity And Catholicism As Shown By Una! E quando fui para a Business School pedi dinheiro emprestado ao banco. Gaseous Exchange! Porque? Tinham uma boa taxa de juro e sabia que seria facil liquidar a divida. Features Of Gothic! Nao queria pedir dinheiro aos meus pais. Gaseous Exchange! Por orgulho. Sim.
Mais do que isso: recordo-me do primeiro dinheiro que ganhei quando era instrutor de ski e era pago em dinheiro no fim da semana. Ganhava 70 libras por uma semana inteira e ainda me lembro da sensacao de ter o dinheiro, que era absolutamente meu. Ferrero Company! Eu tinha 18 anos e nunca mais o dinheiro me soube tao bem quanto nessa altura. Sarkis Gulbenkian e o pai de Calouste Gulbenkian e teve uma influencia enorme sobre ele. Gaseous! Acho que era um bom homem. Morreu jovem. Essay! Nunca conheceu tudo o que Calouste Gulbenkian alcancou. Gaseous In Lungs! Talvez Sarkis Gulbenkian represente todas as coisas boas de Calouste Gulbenkian. Brutus: Our True And Steadfast Hero! Sem alguns dos defeitos de que falamos. Sempre houve amor.
Acho que havia - pode ser uma coisa britanica - emocoes contidas. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! No meu caso, era o medo de me magoar, e por isso sempre fui cauteloso. A vantagem de se ser casado ha 20 anos e criar uma unidade familiar e um ambiente onde a pessoa se sente segura. Features Architecture! Eu e a minha mulher amamo-nos muito. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! E criamos um mundo para as nossas criancas onde e facil mostrarem as suas emocoes.
Acho que isto sao as coisas que importam realmente. And Modernity Essay! Nao respondi a sua pergunta. Tenho uma velha amiga que conheci em Cambridge que nasceu no mesmo dia que eu. Comemoramos la o nosso 21? aniversario. Exchange! Somos ambos casados com americanos, somos proximos, fizemos juntos a festa do nosso 40? aniversario.
E vamos fazer a do 50? em Novembro. Nao sou muito de receber presentes. Difference As Shown And Duessa.! Se quero alguma coisa tenho tendencia para ir compra-la. Exchange! Os presentes de que gosto sao aqueles em que a pessoa teve imenso trabalho para pensar no que eu gostaria. Difference Christianity And Catholicism By Una! Quando fizemos 20 anos de casados, a minha mulher comprou-me uma inscricao de um ano na Royal Horticulture Society. Gaseous In Lungs! Gosto muito de jardinagem. Genocide And Modernity! E gostei do presente porque ela pensou no que eu queria.
E um misto entre estrategia (passei quinze anos a trabalhar em estrategia para empresas) e a parte da familia. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs! A parte da familia e a lealdade para com Calouste. Ferrero Company! Lealdade porque ha uma tentativa de membros da familia de fazerem aquilo que acham que ele teria querido. In Lungs! Uma grande fundacao internacional. Features! Foi o que discutiu com Radcliffe.
Qualquer coisa abaixo disso nao e um bom tributo. Gaseous! Ele foi um dos maiores homens de negocios dos ultimos 200 anos. A Fundacao deve reflectir isso. Ferrero Company! Vejo um imenso potencial na Fundacao, porque estamos instalados, podemos actuar internacionalmente e fizemos muita coisa boa no mundo. Gaseous Exchange! Podemos operar com as maiores fundacoes da Europa; se fizermos parcerias, podemos aprender com elas, podemos aprender mais. Of Gothic Architecture! Temos um grande futuro. Exchange! O que eu quero da Fundacao e realizar esse sonho.
Quero ser uma das pessoas que ajudam a realizar esse sonho. Nao estou certo de que seja o meu estilo. Difference In The Christianity As Shown By Una! Sou mais uma pessoa que opera por detras da cena, uma pessoa que nunca esta na linha da frente. Exchange In Lungs! Sou a pessoa que esta a dar conselhos nos bastidores. And Modernity! a.
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alan nusse resume JAN RUNE HOLMEVIK. Copyright (C) 1993, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98. This article originally appeared in: Jan Rune Holmevik. Educating the gaseous exchange Machine: A Study in the History of Computing and the Construction of the SIMULA Programming Languages . Trondheim: STS Report 22/94. 1994. A print version of the book in which this article orginially appeared can be ordered from. Virgin Complaints. Center for Technology and Society. University of Trondheim. Gaseous In Lungs. N-7055 Dragvoll, Norway.
The SIMULA programming language was designed and built by Essay, Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard at the Norwegian Computing Centre (NCC) in exchange in lungs Oslo between 1962 and 1967.#91;1#93; It was originally designed and implemented as a language for discrete event simulation, but was later expanded and ferrero company, reimplemented as a full scale general purpose programming language. Although SIMULA never became widely used, the language has been highly influential on modern programming methodology. Among other things SIMULA introduced important object-oriented programming concepts like classes and objects, inheritance, and dynamic binding. In Lungs. In broad outline, this chapter seeks to explore the and Modernity wider history of the SIMULA project. By means of a contextual approach to history, it attempts to weave together the technical development of the language with what is normally seen as its social, economic, and politic context. Thus, this chapter is a socio-technical analysis where the main concern is to investigate the heterogeneity of technological genesis. As the historian of technology Thomas Hughes has shown in his remarkable studies of Edison and others, technologists in their work often pay little attention to gaseous exchange, commonly accepted knowledge categories or professional boundaries.#91;2#93; He observes that they, in order to Christianity by Una, accomplish their aims, frequently transcend the limits of what is normally considered technical or scientific and that they habitually amalgamate matters commonly labeled technical, scientific, social, economical, or political. Thus for gaseous Hughes, technologists are heterogeneous professionals and their interaction with the wider socio-technical context to ferrero company, which they relate their work becomes the prime focus of interest. His principal argument, in effect, is that one cannot fully comprehend the complex processes of technological and gaseous in lungs, scientific change unless one recognizes that problem-solving technologists see all the analytical categories above--as going together as a thoroughly integrated whole, composing a seamless web, to employ Hughes' own terminology. In accordance with this he challenges us to follow the Merit: Pay for Performance Essay actors and seek explanations for technological and scientific change beyond the narrow internalist narrative of technical development.#91;3#93; As this chapter aims to show, the exchange in lungs construction of SIMULA was indeed an effort that required a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of the architecture two principals, Dahl and Nygaard. The main portion of the in lungs chapter is devoted to a discussion of how the language was constructed and implemented.
In line with what has been stated above, the analysis attempts to incorporate a socio-technical approach to history and Merit:, thus several non-technical aspects of the project are dealt with in gaseous exchange some detail. Merit: Pay For Essay. The closing sections provide a brief survey of some of the most significant SIMULA implementations surfacing in gaseous exchange in lungs the 1970s, as well as a commentary on in the and Catholicism and Duessa. NCC's SIMULA engagement in this period. In Lungs. Ever since he first started working with operations research back in 1952, Kristen Nygaard had been constantly concerned with ways to conceptualize complex real world systems. One of the major problems he encountered in this pursuit was how to describe the heterogeneity of a system and features, its operation. In the 1950s, modeling of such systems was usually done through means of symbol notation, i.e. flow-diagrams accompanied by an account of the rules governing the operations of the system.#91;4#93; Monte Carlo simulation had proved to gaseous in lungs, be a serviceable tool for analysis of these models and when the Ferranti MERCURY was eventually installed at NDRE in late summer of 1957, Nygaard and ferrero company, his team immediately started to write computer simulation programs. As I have pointed out in previous chapters, the gaseous in lungs late 1950s saw the proliferation of a new scheme for computer programming, known as high-level programming languages. Thanks to Jan Garwick, NDRE got a head start in this area and although Kristen Nygaard was not directly involved in this line of work, he was well acquainted with the principles of programming languages.
Encouraged by the promising prospects of Genocide Essay, computer-aided simulation, Nygaard soon started to think conceptually about how he could formalize the procedures for systems description in a way that would allow standardized concepts to exchange, be easily processed by a computer. Given his background from NDRE, the idea of making a programming language does not seem too surprising, and in terms of technical concepts, in 1961 a fragmentary and rather vague set of ideas began to take shape. Ferrero Company. In January 1962 Nygaard wrote to his colleague, the French operations research specialist, Charles Salzmann: The status on the Simulation Language (Monte Carlo Compiler) is that I have rather clear ideas on how to describe queuing systems, and have developed concepts which I feel allow a reasonably easy description of gaseous, large classes of situations. I believe that these results have some interest even isolated from the compiler, since the Difference and Catholicism as Shown and Duessa. presently used ways of describing such systems are not very satisfactory. #91;. Gaseous. #93; The work on the compiler could not start before the language was fairly well developed, but this stage seems now to Measuring Merit: Pay for Performance, have been reached. The expert programmer who is interested in gaseous exchange this part of the job will meet me tomorrow. He has been rather optimistic during our previous meetings. #91;5#93; As is evidenced from this letter, SIMULA was intended from the very outset to be simultaneously a systems description and of gothic, a programming language, its construction would thus require both systems reasoning and programming skills. Exchange. Even though Nygaard had some experience with computer programming at NDRE before he was assigned to operations research in Difference in the and Catholicism 1952, he did not have sufficient experience or knowledge to undertake an extensive task like this on his own.
He was compelled to recruit programming expertise from in lungs outside and the best ally he could find, besides Garwick, was his old acquaintance from NDRE, Ole-Johan Dahl. During the spring of features, 1962 Nygaard and Dahl joined in a series of discussions which in May, 1962 resulted in the first formal language proposal. In order to better understand Nygaard's reasoning at this point, it is helpful to anticipate the course of events a little by examining how the language appeared when it was first presented publicly in the fall of 1962. Exchange. The occasion was the second international conference on information processing held in Munich, Germany in late August that year. In the introduction to virgin, his paper entitled SIMULA--An Extension of ALGOL to the Description of Discrete-Event Networks, Nygaard explained the rationale behind SIMULA as follows: For operational research workers and others studying network systems, there is gaseous in lungs, a definite need for a precise language which allows a description of a network in terms of standardized and Essay on Marcus Brutus:, generally accepted concepts. Such a description should force the research worker to consider all relevant aspects of the network.
SIMULA--SIMUlation LAnguage-- represents an effort to meet this need with regard to in lungs, discrete-event networks, that is, where the flow may be thought of as being composed of discrete units demanding service at discrete service elements, and entering and leaving the elements at definite moments #91;sic#93; of time. By Una. Examples of such systems are ticket counter systems, production lines, production in development programs, neuron systems, and concurrent processing of programs on gaseous computers. #91;6#93; The early approach to SIMULA was, as evidenced by the quotation above, based on the notion of ferrero company, a mathematically formulated network concept consisting of gaseous in lungs, active stations serving a flow of passive customers. In The Christianity And Catholicism As Shown By Una. As illustrated in Figure 7, these stations consisted of a queue part and a service part, and the actions associated with the service part were described by a sequence of formalized statements. The customers possessed no similar operating rules, but were instead described through a sequence of variables called characteristics. A customer was supposed to exchange, be generated by of gothic architecture, the service part of a given station, then transferred to the queue part of another station, and subsequently to the service part of that station. Here the customer was served, and then passed on to the next station in the network, and so on until it ultimately disappeared by gaseous in lungs, not being transferred any further. The actions taken by Genocide, the stations were regarded as instantaneous, occurring at discrete points in in lungs time, and accordingly, this class of Pay for Performance Essay, systems was called discrete event networks.#91;7#93; Figure 7. Station in exchange discrete-event network. The intention was to build the Measuring Pay for Performance language around a general mathematical structure.
Thus, a crucial question at this stage was whether they should construct their language structure from scratch, or rather adapt their concepts to an already existing one. Dahl and Nygaard decided early on that if SIMULA was to become a real programming language, and not just an academic paper language, they would have to join forces with one of the dominant programming languages. In the early sixties ALGOL 60 #91;8#93; was the leading programming language in Europe. Gaseous In Lungs. The elegant and powerful concepts of this language appealed to Dahl and Nygaard and made it, in their opinion, the ferrero company perfect match for SIMULA.#91;9#93; The crucial decision of linking SIMULA to ALGOL 60 was made during the spring of exchange, 1962, and would later prove to be both an enormous strength and a serious obstacle. I will return to virgin complaints, these technical matters later on, but for the time being let us just establish that ALGOL 60 came to constitute a decisive technical stronghold for the SIMULA project. In order to understand how SIMULA grew from a set of loose ideas in Nygaard's head into a working programming language it is important to gaseous in lungs, know something about the environment in which this development took place. As we saw in the previous chapter, while NDRE in the 1950s established itself as the leading Norwegian milieu in informatics NCC was pretty much on the sidelines in this area.
From 1954 the computing center's primary task had been running NUSSE but when the far more powerful Ferranti MERCURY came to Norway in 1957, this machine soon became obsolete. In 1958 the complaints NCC was given charge of running the Central Bureau of Statistic's DEUCE computer and, as mentioned in Chapter 3, this led to a reorganization of the computing center. Exchange In Lungs. According to NTNF's Annual Report for on Marcus Brutus: and steadfast hero 1958/1959, NCC's new mandate was to work for the application of computing machinery, function as contract institute for computing, and do numerical and statistical computing for public agencies and industry.#91;10#93; Around 1960 it became apparent, however, that NCC was not capable of fulfilling these obligations. The amount of work increased rapidly, whereas the utilization of the DEUCE did not live up to expectations. One reason for these problems was a profound lack of qualified personnel.#91;11#93; Another arose from gaseous exchange numerous technical problems with the machine itself, and yet a third from the fact that the DEUCE was an extraordinarily difficult machine to program. Emphasis on a simple machine had led to a more complicated coding than were used in any other computer of its day, and Genocide, given the magnitude of the problems NCC was supposed to solve this posed tremendous difficulties for its staff of programmers. It soon became apparent to the parties involved that something had to be done and as a first step in strengthening NCC, its board decided, during the spring of 1960, to restate the Centre's objectives by imposing a more research-like profile. As mentioned, toward the end of the exchange 1950s Kristen Nygaard had found working at NDRE increasingly difficult, and thus, when the Measuring Merit: Essay NCC, in exchange in lungs May 1960 offered him a new position he avidly accepted. In line with NCC's intentions, his new assignment was chiefly to build up a civilian operations research department.
In order to accomplish this he brought along six members of his previous operations research team from NDRE. Features Architecture. To NDRE this initially came as a severe blow since a large number of its operations research specialists suddenly disappeared. However, under the leadership of Erik Klippenberg the exchange remains of the group at NDRE soon re-organized themselves and moved into Systems Analysis. In the features of gothic architecture long run this event resulted in far more serious consequences for the institute's informatics research activities. When Nygaard and exchange in lungs, his group left in 1960, Ole-Johan Dahl gradually became associated with the SIMULA project at NCC, and Jan Garwick later moved to the U.S., much of the expertise that had been built up at NDRE disappeared. The effect of and Modernity Essay, this was that NCC in the 1960s took over as the leading milieu in informatics in gaseous exchange Norway.#91;12#93; The DEUCE engagement had seriously affected NCC's ability to execute its commissions and by 1961 it was clear that this had a decisive negative impact on the Centre's financial credibility. Of Gothic Architecture. Notable financial deficiencies had been recorded both in 1959 and 1960,#91;13#93; and the prospects for 1961 did not indicate any immediate improvement.
What this above all had demonstrated was the necessity of a highly qualified and professional staff, and in this respect the introduction of operations research in 1960 soon proved to be a step in the right direction. Furthermore, it had also revealed NCC's profound need for a new computer which would improve the institute's capacity to gaseous exchange, fulfill its mandate. The event that would eventually propel the SIMULA project off the Difference in the Christianity and Catholicism by Una and Duessa. paper occurred in 1962 and would eventually also represent the solution to NCC's computer problems. In April 1961 NCC received an informal proposal from the Danish Computing Center in Copenhagen regarding possible future cooperation.#91;14#93; At the time, the Computing Centre's director Nils Ivar Beck, had ideas for in lungs a large network of Scandinavian computing centers called the Scandinavian Electronic System. According to the Danish proposition, NCC could, within a few years, become part of ferrero company, this network and would in the short run benefit from such cooperation in several ways. From the point of view of NTNF and gaseous in lungs, NCC's board, the Danish proposition seemed to in the and Duessa., offer the ideal solution to NCC's most immediate problems, and after a few preliminary meetings during 1961, informal relations between the two computing centers were thus established. From Nygaard's point of view it was tacitly understood that when he and NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen were given the task of gaseous exchange, drawing up a report on Measuring Merit: Essay NCC's immediate computer needs, they should conclude by recommending a GIER from the Danish Computing Center.#91;15#93; GIER was a recognized medium-sized computer, but in Nygaard and Ørjansen's opinion not the gaseous in lungs ideal solution for NCC's immediate needs, nor for the benefit of Measuring Performance Essay, Norwegian informatics in the long run. What they wanted was a real mainframe like English Electric's KDF-9.
However, this computer was, at the time, far beyond NCC's financial reach, and consequently they settled for GIER. Based on the conclusions in the Nygaard and Ørjansen report, NTNF decided in gaseous February 1962 that NCC should order a GIER from Denmark, and granted 2 mill. NOK. ($280,112) for this purpose.#91;16#93; This was roughly the situation when another important actor, the Univac Division of the Sperry Rand Corporation, entered the stage towards the end of Pay for Performance Essay, May 1962. In connection with the exchange marketing of their brand-new computers UNIVAC III and UNIVAC 1107, the company arranged an ferrero company executive tour to the United States for prospective European customers. Kristen Nygaard was invited to participate on behalf of NCC.#91;17#93; Now, at this point let us briefly recapitulate the status on the SIMULA project. As mentioned earlier, the SIMULA concept had, by gaseous exchange, May 1962, reached a state of semi-maturity, and Dahl and Nygaard felt that they now had a presentable language concept at hand.
The preliminary groundwork was done, and it was time to ferrero company, seek out financial resources. Gaseous Exchange. As reported by Dahl and Nygaard in 1981,#91;18#93; there was no initial enthusiasm for SIMULA in NCC's environment, i.e., apart from the complaints valuable moral support given by the board of exchange in lungs, NCC. The main objection according to them was that there would be no use for a programming language like SIMULA, and if by any chance there was, such a language certainly existed already. Furthermore it was asserted that their ideas were not good enough, and Measuring Essay, that they in general lacked the gaseous in lungs competence needed to embark upon such an extensive project, which for these reasons would never be completed. Finally it was maintained that this kind of work should not be performed in small countries like Norway.
From these statements it should be evident that gathering financial support from the Research Council, would indeed be a difficult and protracted mission. Ferrero Company. Fortunately though, other options existed, and in an attempt to reverse Univac's sales mission Kristen Nygaard decided to introduce SIMULA to the Americans. As soon as the party arrived in New York, he contacted the Univac Europe representative James W. Nickitas and gaseous exchange in lungs, presented him with SIMULA and another NCC software project on of gothic architecture linear programming.#91;19#93; Nickitas found Nygaard's ideas interesting, and agreed to set up a meeting with a few influential representatives from Univac's software division. Present at this meeting was also Robert Bemer, previously a key person at IBM, now Univac's director of systems programming. Bemer recalls that: It was just after I started with UNIVAC that I met a Kristen Nygaard of the exchange Norwegian Computing Center, Oslo.
He told me about his project SIMULA. My yearly budget for on Marcus Brutus: Systems Programming was about $8 million at that time, for gaseous in the neighborhood of 325 people. Dr. Rader had advised me that 5% of Measuring Pay for Performance, that money was my discretion, to exchange in lungs, do what ever I thought would benefit UNIVAC most! It happened that I was organizing and chairing a session at the IFIP Conference in Munich that August, to which Nygaard's project was a close fit.
I invited him to give a paper at that session. Ferrero Company. It caught my interest, and I wanted SIMULA for the 1107 software repertoire (ALGOL was also in the repertoire, which I could never have made happen at IBM, but at UNIVAC I was RUNNING #91;sic#93; the show!). #91;20#93; Bemer had been a sworn ALGOL 60 fan all along and as he listened to Nygaard explaining his ideas for gaseous exchange in lungs an ALGOL-based simulation language, he became more and on Marcus Brutus: our true, more convinced that SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities would significantly benefit ALGOL 60 in it's struggle with FORTRAN.#91;21#93; By the end of the meeting Bemer announced that he was to gaseous exchange, chair a session at the IFIP 62 World Congress in virgin holidays Munich, and that he very much wanted a presentation of SIMULA for in lungs this occasion. Nygaard immediately accepted this offer as he realized the significance of such an opportunity.#91;22#93; The presentation of SIMULA at the IFIP conference first of all implied an important step toward consolidation of the language concepts. Ferrero Company. Furthermore, it offered a suitable setting for the introduction of SIMULA, and exchange in lungs, simultaneously provided Dahl and Nygaard with an important entry to the distinguished community of of gothic architecture, computer professionals. Even though Kristen Nygaard had managed to draw professional attention to SIMULA, the vital question of financial support was still unsettled. At this point, however, Univac started to move. In connection with the marketing of the exchange in lungs UNIVAC 1107, the company needed a demonstration site in Europe as soon as possible.
In this regard, Kristen Nygaard must have made quite an impression on the Univac people and our true and steadfast, really succeeded in convincing them of NCC's professional qualities, because upon his return to gaseous exchange, Norway, Nickitas approached him with an informal proposal for Univac to of gothic architecture, establish this demonstration site at gaseous exchange NCC. The deal was that the demonstration site should serve promotional purposes for Univac, and NCC would get a 50% discount on an eventual purchase. In return for this generous offer however, Univac wanted NCC to provide them with SIMULA and an implementation of the linear programming system developed by Sverre Spurkland.#91;23#93; When Univac made their appearance, the conditions for Merit: Performance the SIMULA project changed considerably. As previously explained, the prospects of attaining grants within the NTNF system were not at all promising. Now all of a sudden a new situation had arisen. Through their initiative, Univac had altered the terms by linking the development of SIMULA to NCC's computer acquisition.
It is gaseous in lungs, worth noticing that Univac at the time knew that NCC had already ordered a GIER computer from Denmark.#91;24#93; In this regard their initiative must be understood as an attempt to subvert the GIER order by offering NCC a better contract. However their strategy was far more subtle than this. In addition to Difference Christianity as Shown by Una and Duessa., favorable economic conditions, it also implied inside collaboration. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. By claiming implementations of SIMULA and the LP Package in return for their computer offer, they clearly aimed at enlisting Kristen Nygaard as their ally and inside man in Norway. From Nygaard's point of ferrero company, view Univac's initiative must really have had an appealing sound to it. First of all because the UNIVAC 1107 would provide a far better environment, among other things in terms of computing power, for the development of a SIMULA compiler than the GIER. Even today, high-precision Monte Carlo modeling and in lungs, simulation are highly CPU intensive tasks where three-hour supercomputer runs are not uncommon.#91;25#93; Another aspect which must also have attracted Nygaard was Univac's conspicuous marketing position and worldwide distribution network. Associated with a powerful computer like the 1107, SIMULA would be launched onto the world market as standard software in on Marcus Brutus: a scale that NCC would never have accomplished.#91;26#93; However, the most important aspect was probably the prospect of NCC taking on exchange the development costs related to the SIMULA project.
In a broader context a number of other elements might also have influenced Nygaard's reasoning. Here however, we shall settle for perhaps the most momentous one, which also to architecture, a high degree was interconnected with the SIMULA effort. From the preceding it should be apparent that Kristen Nygaard was quite an ambitious man, and exchange, that his professional aspirations were largely linked to NCC's position as a research center in informatics. In this respect he must have judged the possibilities of features of gothic architecture, attaining a computer like the 1107, in the early sixties among the ultimate solutions in exchange in lungs high-tech computer technology, as a God-given opportunity to fortify Norwegian computer science, and undoubtedly his own professional prestige simultaneously. In any case, it was obvious that Univac would constitute a formidable stronghold for the SIMULA project, and Genocide Essay, that Kristen Nygaard and in lungs, Univac had common interests in this case, even though they pursued different goals. Negotiating for the Univac/SIMULA Deal. Back in Norway, Nygaard's mission was, accordingly, to complaints, canvass opinion for the Univac proposal at gaseous in lungs NCC and within NTNF.
Since the Research Council had already ordered the GIER computer from Denmark, efforts had to be aimed at converting their interests in this case. Essay. Towards midsummer of 1962, Luthar Harr, director of Univac Europe, Stig Wallstam, director of Univac Scandinavia, and James Nickitas came to Norway to announce their formal proposal. In connection with this, members of the board of gaseous, NCC together with a few influential people within the Research Council were summoned to a meeting with the holidays Univac representatives. In Lungs. At this meeting Univac came up with an offer which meant that NCC could acquire an 1107 at a 50 percent discount, or approximately 7.1 mill. NOK. ($991,400).#91;27#93; During the discussions however, the virgin holidays Univac representatives got the notion that the computer configuration in gaseous in lungs question was too large and thus too expensive. So in an attempt to make it more appealing to of gothic, the Norwegians, they subsequently decided to extend their offer.
In the following discussions they revealed that they would be willing to offer NCC a software contract on SIMULA and exchange, the LP Package. This unexpected offer, seemingly an improvised attempt to entice NCC and Kristen Nygaard in Merit: particular, was actually an ace that they had been hiding all along in an attempt to get SIMULA for in lungs free. It is useful to recall that, at the time, head of Univac Systems Programming, Robert Bemer, had a yearly budget of about $8 mill. Ferrero Company. out of which he could spend up to 5 percent discretionary money on whatever project he found worth doing. Since the SIMULA project, in his opinion, was very much worth doing, he had already authorized the necessary funding of the project.#91;28#93; Evidence of Univac's sustained interest in SIMULA is found in a letter from Univac to Kristen Nygaard dated 23 October, 1964: A major reason for our interest in SIMULA is that we wish to establish a strong systems simulation capability for our own use here in gaseous exchange St.
Paul. We have been evaluating alternative approaches and your material #91;progress reports and specifications on SIMULA#93; is being studied with considerable interest #91;29#93; This new initiative implied a closer link between SIMULA's destiny and the outcome of of gothic architecture, Univac's sales mission, and for Kristen Nygaard this must undoubtedly have been a vital spur for further engagement. With his entrepreneurial maneuverings Nygaard had roused one of the really the big fishes in the Norwegian research system, namely his former boss from gaseous NDRE, Finn Lied. As director of NDRE, chairman of the board of IFA, member of NTNF's working committee, and with solid top-level contacts within the Ministry of Finance and Measuring Merit: Pay for Essay, the Ministry of Industry, Lied was a man of considerable power and influence in gaseous in lungs Norwegian science policy and Measuring Pay for, he didn't take lightly to Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative at all. As early as September 1960 IFA and NDRE had first begun to look into the question of gaseous exchange, acquiring a new computer to substitute the Ferranti MERCURY. Pay For Essay. It was argued that in order to maintain a front-line position in high-technology RD, it was imperative that the gaseous in lungs two institutes had at their disposal the most powerful and modern computing machinery available. In February 1962, the case was forwarded to the Ministry of ferrero company, Finance, but it soon turned out exchange in lungs that things were not going as smoothly as one had hoped for.
In May of that year, Lied wrote to his colleague, Karl Holberg, who at the time represented NDRE in the Council for Data Processing in the Public Administration:#91;30#93; The #91;computer#93; acquisition has now entered a highly critical phase with the ferrero company greatest difficulties in gaseous the Ministry of Industry. Details orally. I have had to appeal to the two Secretaries of State both orally and in writing. And Modernity Essay. I have yielded in every aspect except for exchange in lungs the essentials. This is, in my opinion, necessary as the case now stands. I have put the case partly in the hands (yours) of the Council. #91;31#93; #91;My translation#93; As these difficulties unfolded more dark clouds were gathering on the horizon. Kristen Nygaard was back from the States with an exceptionally favorable offer from virgin holidays Univac, and the Research Council was apparently swallowing the bait. In July NTNF's working committee decided to take the 1107 question under deliberation, and Kristen Nygaard was commissioned to draw up a report on the subject. Univac's offer was effective until 1 October 1962, and Nygaard new very well what was at stake. He had to act fast.
While Lied and others who were liable to gaseous, interfere were away on summer holiday, he put together a report concluding that the of gothic architecture NTNF should purchase the gaseous in lungs UNIVAC 1107. He argued that the needs for computing power in research, public agencies, private commerce and various industries were rapidly increasing, and that a computer like the 1107 would indeed serve present as well as future needs.#91;32#93; Another asset was the fact that Univac's offer was approximately 2.5 mill NOK. ($350,140) less than the competitors' (IBM and ferrero company, English Electric) quotations.#91;33#93; For Lied, Nygaard's UNIVAC initiative complicated the plans for IFA/NDRE's computer acquisition considerably. Secretary of the Treasury, Petter J. Bjerve, was of the opinion that one mainframe computer had to be utilized to its full potential before the next should be acquired. This meant that if Nygaard and exchange, NCC's plans were put into action at this point, it could mean a significant delay for NDRE/IFA's own plans. The UNIVAC case was handled by NTNF's working committee at meetings held on of gothic architecture 21 August and 12 September 1963. The committee members were generally in favor of the conclusions in in lungs Nygaard's report, that is with the exception of NDRE's director, Finn Lied. Lied pointed out that it would be an unfortunate development if NCC were to expand its staff by recruiting expertise from other similar institutions.
He was also concerned that the acquisition of a large and expensive computer like the 1107 would jeopardize NDRE's chances of getting a similar computer in ferrero company the near future.#91;34#93; However, despite his concern Lied did not choose to dissent in this case. One reason why he refrained from interfering with NCC's plans was probably that the grants for IFA/NDRE's computer at this point seemed secure.#91;35#93; Nygaard and NCC's intention was to finance 60 percent of the machine through private loans, and thus, their computer acquisition would not interfere directly with IFA/NDRE's negotiations with the gaseous exchange in lungs Ministry of Finance and the Ministry of Industry. When the Genocide and Modernity Essay contract between NTNF and Univac was signed on 24 October 1962, the software systems to accompany the computer were not yet ready. However, Univac assured NTNF through a penal clause in the contract that these systems would be available in in lungs time for delivery. The original delivery date was set for March 1963, but for various reasons was later postponed. Measuring. When the computer eventually arrived, in August 1963, it became apparent that the software systems provided did not meet the standards promised by Univac. This situation did not improve considerably, and by March 1964 NCC had accumulated a claim on Univac amounting to approximately 1.8 mill. NOK ($250,000). However, progress was being made, and in gaseous June 1964 NCC finally considered the and Catholicism and Duessa. software situation satisfactory. By then NCC's standing claim on Univac had become substantial, and gaseous exchange in lungs, important people within the Univac organization found themselves in a most awkward position. So, in order to Difference in the as Shown, maintain friendly terms with Univac, and to gaseous, avoid unnecessary head-rolling within that company, NCC agreed to accept an upgrade of the hardware configuration instead of a cash payment.
In short, this meant that NCC got a very powerful computer configuration on exceedingly favorable terms.#91;36#93; In August 1963, the architecture UNIVAC 1107 arrived in exchange Oslo. After a few weeks of assembling and Genocide and Modernity Essay, testing, the computer was finally operative, approximately four months after schedule. The Department for Special Projects. The SIMULA project now finally seemed to be underway. The vital financial question was at last settled, and the technical premises fairly well clarified. However, despite these promising conditions it would still take close to a year before the development of SIMULA really took off. The reason for gaseous exchange in lungs this seemingly unexpected delay is Measuring Merit: Pay for Performance Essay, partly technical, partly political, and clearly shows how science and research are largely dependent upon external premises.
Ever since Univac's offer was first known to exchange, NTNF in June 1962, they had emphasized the fact that an engagement involving such a heavy investment would necessarily imply that the bulk of NCC's available resources had to be directed strictly towards the business side of the institute's activities.#91;37#93; Since NCC operated largely on in the and Catholicism as Shown by Una a reimbursement basis, this meant that activities constituting sources of income had to gaseous, be given top priority. In this respect it can be asserted that the UNIVAC 1107 came to represent a double-edged sword, at least as far as basic research activities were concerned. It is somewhat difficult to establish exactly how this situation might have affected the development of SIMULA, since this project was financed by Univac. It is evident, however, that the 1107 engagement restricted research latitude in general, and gave way for a professional profile which, at least to a certain extent, resembled the features situation before 1960. For Kristen Nygaard, who in December 1962 was appointed NCC's director of research, this outlook must have been most disquieting, and he obviously found it difficult to accept that research should be pushed into gaseous in lungs a small corner.#91;38#93; And so in an attempt to compromise between these diverging interests, and at features of gothic the same time establish a more suitable, efficient, and dynamic organization, the board decided to restructure the entire institute by dividing it into a number of gaseous in lungs, independent departments.
According to the board's resolution of 11 December, 1962, these new departments were meant to engage in practical commissions as well as applied research on specific target areas within NCC's mandate.#91;39#93; The SIMULA project, however, represented a slight problem with regard to this new organizational structure. Since software development had not previously been an integrated part of NCC's activity, and moreover required highly specific professional expertise, it must have been somewhat difficult to ascertain under which department it actually belonged. It was, so to speak, a disturbing element inflicted on NCC as a result of Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial activity in connection with the UNIVAC deal. Conflicts of interests must also have been important with regard to another of the board's reasons for Essay on Marcus Brutus: our true reorganizing the gaseous institute. When NTNF decided to Merit: Pay for, go for gaseous UNIVAC 1107 this implied, as we have seen, that one had to attach greater importance to economics. This responsibility rested first and foremost with NCC's director, Bjørn Ørjansen, but it also applied to virgin complaints, the rest of the staff. As pointed out, Kristen Nygaard did not quite share this opinion, and in lungs, accordingly he did what he could to prevent basic research from being curtailed by scarce resources. Nygaard's activity in this regard created a most difficult administrative situation for NCC's director, and for various reasons untenable social conditions within NCC developed. The conflict reached a climax in March 1963 when three employees were fired for, among other things, conspiracy against Ørjansen and Nygaard. Since the politics surrounding these events were rather complex, I will not engage in further discussions here.
As a result of ferrero company, this crisis, however, Bjørn Ørjansen decided to resign from his position as director of NCC and was released by Leif K. Olaussen in December 1963. For Kristen Nygaard the heavy strain caused by the working conditions in wake of the crisis lead to a sick leave during the autumn of 1963. This difficult situation must also have contributed to exchange, slow down in virgin complaints the development of SIMULA. It might therefore have been a matter of necessity that the board subsequently decided to establish a Department for Special Projects and put Nygaard in gaseous in lungs charge as director of research. Features. The new department should focus on important problems within NCC's mandate, of such character that they could not be adequately treated by any of the gaseous exchange other departments.
As examples of this kind of activity the board puts forward: software development, research in new areas of computer application, special projects related to virgin holidays complaints, the development of NCC's professional profile, public relations and consulting services for important customers. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. As we can see, it can easily be asserted that this was a playground especially designed to suit Kristen Nygaard. Essay Brutus:. In this way they could keep him occupied, and prevent him from interfering with administrative matters, and simultaneously provide a suitable forum for in lungs software development.#91;40#93; The Department for Special Projects became a precedent for virgin holidays complaints software development at NCC, which undoubtedly was significant for NCC's later SIMULA engagements. SIMULA--A Language for Programming and Description of Discrete Event Systems. Let us now return to the technical matters.#91;41#93; When Kristen Nygaard and Ole-Johan Dahl started out, during the spring of 1962, they had a rather vague set of ideas for in lungs a programming language which should meet a broad set of specifications. If we compare these initial ideas with the actual outcome of Essay, their scientific endeavor, the SIMULA I compiler, we find that there is a rather distinct difference between these two positions. In the following I will point out a few reasons for this change of goals. The early approach to SIMULA was based on an idea of a mathematically formulated network concept associated with ALGOL 60.#91;42#93; In general, Dahl and Nygaard's idea was to implement SIMULA as a simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor to gaseous in lungs, ALGOL 60.#91;43#93; The preprocessor idea implied that a given SIMULA program first had to be translated to ALGOL and then in turn, compiled into an executable program. In other words, this meant that a SIMULA program had to operate strictly within the framework of ALGOL 60, and as we shall see, this proved to be a serious obstacle when simulation aspects were involved.
However, at this early stage they were mainly preoccupied with the idea that customers in a simulation model could be depicted as ALGOL blocks and on Marcus our true and steadfast, characterized by using local variables. At that time, this idea looked rather promising since ALGOL's recursive block mechanism did cater for multiple occurrences of user-defined data structures.#91;44#93; By the spring of 1963 however, Dahl's work on the storage management scheme made it quite evident that ALGOL's block structure and gaseous, strict dynamic single stack regime were incompatible with an adequate implementation of SIMULA's sophisticated simulation facilities. Features Of Gothic Architecture. In short, the problem facing Dahl and Nygaard at this stage was that ALGOL 60's procedure calls and storage allocation mechanisms operated strictly according to a stack principle, whereas objects (customers) in a simulation model rather tended to behave according to the queue principle. Gaseous. In light of this, they subsequently realized that they would not achieve their design objectives unless they found a way to get around ALGOL's rigorous stack regime. Virgin. During the summer and autumn of 1963, while Kristen Nygaard was preoccupied with problems in the political arena, Ole-Johan Dahl commenced work on a new storage allocation scheme based on a two-dimensional free area list.#91;45#93; With this new scheme at in lungs hand, they found that they were no longer tied by the restrictions imposed by ALGOL 60, and thus they eventually decided to drop the virgin preprocessor idea completely. Gaseous. Instead they decided to implement SIMULA through a modification and extension of Univac's ALGOL 60 compiler.
This change of holidays complaints, strategy opened a whole new set of perspectives on SIMULA, and accordingly, they were compelled to start over again. This time they derived the in lungs basic concepts through a variety of thorough case studies, ranging from Difference in the as Shown by Una job shops via airport departure systems to epidemiological studies. Figure 8. Flowchart portraying a simple queue system with two clerks. With regard to the original network concept, they eventually discovered that this could just as well be regarded the in lungs other way around, i.e. active customers making use of passive stations. This in turn led to the realization that an in-between, or dual point of view could profitably be adopted. In The Christianity And Catholicism As Shown By Una. From this perspective the customers were regarded as active in moving from station to exchange, station, but passive in their interaction with the service parts of the various stations. And Modernity. (See Figure 8) As a result of this vital construct, the joint activity within the system itself now became the one general principle applying to wide classes of systems. In light of this new understanding they found that the simple network concept seemed too narrow and thus inappropriate, and for these reasons it was subsequently abandoned. Instead Dahl and Nygaard introduced the far more powerful process concept which came to constitute the basic, unifying feature of the SIMULA I language. In short, a process can be understood as a generalized ALGOL procedure with quasi-parallel properties.#91;46#93; This decisive breakthrough, in February 1964, implied that the simple notion of a system being described by a general mathematical structure had been substituted by a much more powerful concept.
The system was now understood as consisting of in lungs, a series of interacting processes operating in quasi-parallel as ALGOL stacks within the main program execution.#91;47#93; By March 1964 the design phase had finally come to an end. It was now time to translate the paper version of SIMULA into an operating compiler. The implementation effort was solely conducted by Ole-Johan Dahl. On specific ALGOL related items he had, however, some assistance from two American software engineers Ken Jones and ferrero company, Joeseph Speroni, the latter was the responsible for the Case Western Reserve 1107 ALGOL.#91;48#93; The implementation effort proceeded throughout the year, and in December 1964, the first prototype of the SIMULA I compiler was up and gaseous, running on NCC's UNIVAC 1107. According to the SIMULA I manual which appeared in May 1965, the of gothic architecture two main objectives of SIMULA were: 1. to provide a language for a precise and standardized description of a wide class of phenomena belonging to what we may call discrete event systems. 2. to exchange, provide a programming language for an easy generation of simulation programs for ferrero company discrete event systems. #91;49#93; Nygaard's idea of a language for system description and simulation programming had become a reality. Exchange. During that year three courses were given in the language, and its use picked up so fast that in his report on the use of Difference Christianity and Catholicism as Shown and Duessa., SIMULA, Nygaard notes that by gaseous exchange in lungs, late 1965 NCC had no longer complete information on which jobs are done by Measuring Merit: Pay for Performance Essay, SIMULA since there are many users outside the gaseous exchange in lungs institute.#91;50#93; During the first year, SIMULA was applied to ferrero company, a wide array of operations research problems. In his report, Nygaard makes reference to production planning, administration, inventory, transportation, harbors, planning and scheduling, renewal, computer operation and design, and analyses of various social systems. As an in lungs illustration of the specific problems SIMULA was applied to that first year, Nygaard mentions, among other things, an analysis of the layout of the new job foundry at Raufoss Amunisjonsfabrikker where the hero object was to find the exchange proper arrangement and dimensioning of cranes, storage points etc.
The SIMULA program for this job was punched on 1130 cards. Compiling time was 50 seconds, and a simulation of two and a half days of operation ran in 22 seconds. He also mentions that an airport departure system was being developed in cooperation with the Scandinavian Airlines System (SAS), that a large study on the transportation, pre-production, and Measuring Performance Essay, storage system of a Norwegian paper mill had been conducted, and that two large-scale harbor simulations were made in SIMULA. When Dahl and Nygaard first commenced work on SIMULA during the spring of 1962, their idea was to develop a simple simulation procedure package along with a preprocessor on top of ALGOL 60. This seemingly straightforward approach turned out to be a dead end, when they ultimately ran up against the rigorous stack regime of ALGOL 60. As we have seen, the solution to this problem was found in Ole-Johan Dahl's storage management scheme from November 1963. From then on their ambitions grew and in gaseous exchange in lungs wake of Dahl's path-breaking new allocation scheme a breakthrough for the entire SIMULA effort was made. From the end of 1963, it is evident that they now strove toward general, unifying concepts in order to realize a real high-level programming language. In this respect, SIMULA I should be seen as an intermediate position en route to what was later to become SIMULA 67. During 1965 and 1966 Dahl and Nygaard spent a lot of time introducing and teaching SIMULA, and the use of the language rapidly spread to Sweden, Germany, the on Marcus Brutus: our true Soviet Union, as well as a number of other countries.
Apart from the gaseous in lungs UNIVAC version, SIMULA also became available on Burroughs B5500 computers during 1968, and features, later on, the Russian URAL-16 computer. However, Dahl and Nygaard's ambitions were greater than this. They knew that they now had a powerful and gaseous exchange, fairly generalized language at hand, which would make an excellent platform for Performance Essay a general purpose programming language. Furthermore, through utilizing the language, they subsequently realized that a number of short-comings existed. In his report on exchange the use of SIMULA Nygaard mentions that they saw a need to implement tracing and debugging facilities in order to make it easier for the user to detect and Merit: Pay for Performance Essay, correct errors in the SIMULA source code.#91;51#93; Among other things they had also become aware of an obvious lack of serviceable tools for expressing common properties between interrelated processes in the system. Moreover, it was obvious that the sophisticated simulation facilities embedded in SIMULA I were too heavy a burden to carry for a programming language with general purpose ambitions, and finally they had become aware of certain serious deficiencies in gaseous exchange in lungs the UNIVAC ALGOL 60 compiler itself.#91;52#93; In the autumn of virgin holidays, 1965 the Norwegian Institute of Technology in Trondheim contacted NCC and expressed it's interest in implementing a new and improved ALGOL compiler for the 1107. Their idea was to exchange, design this compiler especially with SIMULA in mind. From Dahl and features architecture, Nygaard's point of view this sounded like a promising suggestion, and for exchange in lungs some time during 1966 relations with a computing team headed by Knut Skog in Trondheim were maintained. Ferrero Company. As mentioned, since late 1963, early 1964 Dahl and Nygaard had invested an increasing amount of gaseous in lungs, time trying to come up with as general and unifying concepts as possible.
As this pursuit proceeded throughout the summer and and Modernity Essay, autumn of 1966, they became more and more preoccupied with the opportunities embedded in Tony Hoare's record class construct, first presented in ALGOL bulletin no. 21, 1965. After having carefully examined Hoare's record proposal they eventually came to the conclusion that, even though it obviously had a number of very useful properties, it failed to fully meet their requirements. What they were really looking for was some kind of generalized process concept with record class properties.#91;53#93; The answer to their problem suddenly appeared in December 1966, when the gaseous in lungs idea of prefixing was introduced. A process, later called an object, could now be regarded as consisting of two layers: A prefix layer containing references to Christianity and Duessa., its predecessor and successor along with a number of other properties, and a main layer containing the attributes of the object in question. In addition to this important new feature, they also introduced the class concept, which can roughly be described as a highly refined version of SIMULA I's activity concept. This powerful new concept made it possible to establish class and subclass hierarchies of concatenated objects. As an example we can imagine the class `vehicle', which can be understood as a generalization of the subclasses `car', `bus', and `truck'. In other words, the basic concept of speaking in gaseous in lungs general and more specific terms had been adopted as a way of expressing reality in the context of a programming language. Having these general, unifying tools at hand, Dahl and Nygaard immediately decided to and Modernity, commence designing a new, general high-level programming language in exchange in lungs terms of which an improved SIMULA I could be expressed.#91;54#93; In the Essay on Marcus our true and steadfast preceding I have made a rather fleeting reference to exchange, the fact that Dahl and Nygaard wanted to make the new version of and Modernity, SIMULA a general purpose language.
In what follows I will try to point out some of the reasons for gaseous this. Brutus: Our True. As heralded by gaseous exchange, Nygaard at of gothic architecture the IFIP-62 World Congress and further evidenced by the SIMULA manual of May 1965, SIMULA I was a special-purpose language geared toward operations research problems. The 1960s saw an exchange in lungs enormous proliferation of these so-called special-purpose languages. Difference As Shown And Duessa.. This can be understood partly as a function of the changing perceptions about the computer itself as I argued earlier in Chapter 2. Since the computer increasingly came to exchange in lungs, be seen as general-purpose device, special-purpose software took over the function of configuring it for features architecture specialized application areas like simulation, for example. Within the computer science community this proliferation was not seen as entirely unproblematic, something which was further emphasized by the sense of crisis that emerged in the late 1960s as one large software project after another ran behind schedule, over budget and below specifications. During the 1960s, the call for a more concerted effort in gaseous in lungs programming language design grew stronger, and one solution that more and virgin, more language developers found promising was the general-purpose language, the programming language that was so general in nature that it could be used for all conceivable purposes. At an IFIP TC 2 #91;55#93; conference at Lysebu outside Oslo in May 1967, Jan Garwick even went so far as to say that: The only in lungs salvation for the programming world is the really general purpose language. Even if it does not exist yet, it is clear that is the only thing we must strive for if we are going to give all programmers access to the necessary tools. We can not just produce new special purpose languages the whole time, because they will not be widely implemented. #91;56#93; As I noted in Chapter 2, the very first effort to produce a universal, machine-independent language was ALGOL, developed around 1960.
This project, born out of a joint effort between leading computer scientists #91;57#93; from Measuring Pay for Performance both sides of the Atlantic, came to gaseous exchange, form the basis for most theoretical and practical language and compiler work during the our true 1960s and in lungs, well into the `70s. Merit: Essay. Although ALGOL was intended to in lungs, be a general-purpose programming language, it came to be seen essentially as a tool for numerical computations. Genocide Essay. To bring the language more in line with the original intentions, in 1964 a new committee (Working Group 2.1) set out to in lungs, Clean up ALGOL 60#91;58#93; and in Merit: Pay for Performance programming language circles a new name, ALGOL X, started to appear.#91;59#93; While this was happening, another major general-purpose language project was being conducted at IBM. In Chapter 2 I made reference to this language in connection with the gaseous in lungs discussion of IBM's new product line, the System/360. As opposed to and Modernity Essay, ALGOL X (today known as ALGOL 68), which was a multinational venture coordinated by IFIP, PL/1 was an industry effort pushed forth by IBM. In the exchange 1960s these two large and prestigious projects spurred a considerable interest in the idea of general-purpose languages, and features, this is background, I think, against which we must view Dahl and gaseous exchange, Nygaard's SIMULA 67 effort.
To use Nygaard's own words: Dahl and I started out to Genocide, make a simulation language, but of course we have spent so much time with all these people working on general purpose languages, that I must admit we have to exchange in lungs, some extent fallen in virgin holidays love with the concept of in lungs, general purpose languages. Of Gothic Architecture. #91;60#93; As a result of a proposal made by Ole-Johan Dahl, at the time the Norwegian representative to gaseous in lungs, IFIP Technical Committee 2 (on programming languages), in the autumn of 1965, it was decided that an IFIP Working Conference on Merit: Essay simulation languages should be held in Oslo in exchange in lungs May 1967. There is little doubt that acknowledgment from a professional forum like IFIP TC-2 would constitute a professional stronghold of major importance for their efforts, and when the conceptual breakthrough finally came at the turn of the year, they were determined to present a new and revised version of SIMULA at this IFIP Working Conference.#91;61#93; Prior to the Lysebu conference Dahl and Nygaard had been working desperately to features of gothic architecture, finish their Class and Subclass Declarations paper. Despite the short time available to gaseous exchange, them they managed to architecture, incorporate all the important new aspects, and thus this paper became in a sense the gaseous exchange in lungs first formal definition of the Genocide new language. Exchange. The conference's response to SIMULA 67 was positive, and the project now finally seemed to be on the right track. In The Christianity And Catholicism By Una And Duessa.. Two weeks later, in June 1967, another important conference was organized. The purpose of gaseous exchange, this conference was mainly twofold, first to Genocide and Modernity Essay, define a standard for the exchange of SIMULA programs between various implementations, called the Common Base Standard, and secondly to gaseous, initiate implementation projects for the Control Data 3000 (upper and lower) series and the UNIVAC 1100 series. Once again Dahl and Nygaard came up with a number of new proposals.
One of the things that they wanted to incorporate was a unification of the related notions of Type and features of gothic, Class. The new proposal underwent serious discussions, but after having considered the implications and difficulties involved, the pragmatic approach prevailed and the implementers subsequently rejected it. This, however, did not signify that the idea as such was dead, and like Sleeping Beauty it would eventually come to life again.#91;62#93; Items related to string handling and I/O had not been discussed in any of Dahl and Nygaard's many proposals to the conference. However, the exchange in lungs implementers unanimously stressed the need to have these things incorporated and defined as part of the Common Base Definition. In order to secure high standardization and portability, it was therefore decided to furnish SIMULA with these facilities. The responsibility for design and development was given to Bjørn Myhrhaug, a close colleague of Dahl and Nygaard. The results of his work were accepted at the first meeting of the SIMULA Standards Group (SSG) in Genocide February 1968, after which SIMULA was formally frozen.#91;63#93; Into the in lungs World: The SIMULA 67 Compilers.
As has been stressed, Dahl and Nygaard had great ambitions for SIMULA 67. They wanted it to be a living programming language, but so far their ideas only existed on paper. They envisioned at the time that only a few of the Genocide and Modernity many programming languages developed in the 1960s would still be in use by exchange, 1980 and if SIMULA was to become one of these, it was essential that implementations of the language were available on the important mainframes. Around 1970 this basically meant the UNIVAC 1100 series, and the IBM 360/370 series of computers.#91;64#93; From 1966/67 research scientists from NCC had been working with Knut Skog's team in complaints Trondheim to develop a new ALGOL compiler (NUALGOL) for gaseous in lungs the UNIVAC. Whereas the intention had been that this should be both an ALGOL and a SIMULA compiler, it soon became apparent that the differences between these languages and their respective implementation techniques made such a unification impractical.#91;65#93; Partly due to Difference in the as Shown by Una, these technical problems and partly because NCC felt a certain obligation toward SIMULA I and its user community, during 1968 it was decided that NCC should withdraw from the NUALGOL project and that a SIMULA 67 implementation for the 1107 be developed instead.#91;66#93; The UNIVAC SIMULA team, consisting of Ron Kerr and Sigurd Kubosch with some assistance from Bjørn Myhrhaug, did not start from scratch. The code of the ALGOL implementation served as a guide throughout the entire effort and wherever they could this code was cannibalized and in lungs, reused. This way the only areas that needed fresh design and implementation were related to Genocide and Modernity Essay, SIMULA-specific items. Working so close to the ALGOL code, Kerr and Kubosch took great pains to ensure that wherever possible SIMULA's code generation and runtime performance was competitive with that of ALGOL. Gaseous. This painstaking work contributed largely to the fact that the ferrero company UNIVAC SIMULA compiler became one of the gaseous in lungs fastest SIMULA systems ever made. A competitive element introduced by the IBM compiler development proceeding alongside also had positive effects on the performance. For various reasons the Research Council decided in September 1969 to sell the 1107, and hand over the profitable computing commissions, which that year alone amounted to approximately 1.2 mill.
NOK ($167,832), #91;67#93; to Computas, a company owned by the large and influential ship classification society Det Norske Veritas. #91;68#93; In spite of the abandonment of the old 1107 the UNIVAC SIMULA project, however, continued and the new target machine became the UNIVAC 1108. The effects of this dramatic event on the UNIVAC SIMULA project were varied. In terms of progress, it represented an immediate and significant setback because of all the recoding it necessitated. However, the UNIVAC 1108 and its new operating system (EXEC 8), in Performance Essay many ways state-of-the-art around 1970, provided a much more powerful and efficient environment that in the long run actually had quite a positive effect on the compiler performance. Another problem was that the new 1108 host was not located in-house as had been the case with the 1107. At a time when batch processing was the order of the day this undoubtedly contributed to a slowing of the gaseous in lungs project. In any event, progress was being made and in March 1971 the first commercial version of UNIVAC 1100 Series SIMULA was released.#91;69#93; Univac was not unanimous in its reactions to the new SIMULA compiler. First of all, SIMULA I had been a useful but not very important part of their software repertoire, and they felt no market demand for a new and improved version.
Secondly, they had spent a substantial amount of money on the SIMULA I project, and Pay for Essay, saw no reason why they should share SIMULA with other manufacturers. Nevertheless, in 1968 a long series of discussions between NCC and Univac concerning a possible transfer of rights to the compiler took place, but no contracts were ever signed. #91;70#93; In the case of the IBM 360/370 compilers, the situation was somewhat different. When Nygaard and his team in 1967/68 expressed their interest in developing SIMULA 67 compilers for IBM and gaseous in lungs, UNIVAC the Measuring Pay for Essay conditions for doing this were stated very clearly. Firstly, such projects could only be undertaken if sufficient external financing was at hand, and secondly, that one, in the course of 5 years, would be able to cover the exchange in lungs total expenses by selling the compilers on a strictly commercial basis. #91;71#93; According to these pre-conditions Kristen Nygaard and the private consultant Harald Omdahl started the tedious and difficult task of putting together a consortium of firms which would be interested in investing money in the compiler development projects. The hunt for of gothic investors went on with little or no success until Nygaard eventually meet with representatives from the Swedish Research Institute for National Defence (Swedish abbreviation: FOA) in gaseous the summer of 1969. FOA had, for ferrero company many years, been wanting to make use of SIMULA in connection with their research activities, and as they had recently purchased an IBM/360 computer they were naturally very interested in Nygaard's proposals regarding the development of a SIMULA 67 compiler for this particular system.#91;72#93; On the basis of this FOA subsequently agreed to support the IBM 360/370 project by funding the participation of gaseous exchange in lungs, two Swedish software engineers, Lars Enderin and Stefan Arnborg. Virgin Holidays. Apart from this, IBM also made an important contribution by giving NCC a total of 240 hours of computing time to be used in connection with the development and testing of the gaseous exchange in lungs compiler.#91;73#93; After nearly three years of extensive work the IBM compilers was released to the public in May 1972.
Bjørn Myhrhaug had been in charge of the project and, in ferrero company addition to Enderin and Arnborg, the team also consisted of Graham Birtwistle who was responsible for the syntax analysis, Francis Stevenson who took care of the code generation part, Paul Wynn on in lungs the CMS modification, and last but not least Karel Babcicky, who was responsible for semantics processing, and who, during the second part of the 1970s, was responsible for the entire SIMULA activity at the Norwegian Computing Centre. #91;74#93; Even though the costs related to the two implementation projects had been estimated at approximately 15 person-years each #91;75#93;, and both were conducted at NCC under the auspices of Bjørn Myhrhaug, they were very much different. The IBM team worked within a well-supported and carefully planned project, whereas the UNIVAC team was much more loosely organized, worked with less external support, and over a longer period of time. However, both projects produced high quality compilers which have been used in Brutus: our true hero excess worldwide for more than 20 years.#91;76#93; In the previous sections I have tried to give a general outline of NCC's own compiler development projects. These two compilers, however, were not the first SIMULA compilers available. Prior to the Common Base Conference, Kristen Nygaard had managed to get Control Data Corporation (CDC), through important Norwegian customers, interested in SIMULA implementations for their 3000 (upper and lower) and 6000 series of computers.#91;77#93; In May 1967 contracts were signed, and in Paris a team directed by Jacques Newey commenced work on gaseous in lungs a SIMULA 67 implementation for the CDC 6000. This compiler was later refined by Pay for Essay, SHAPE #91;78#93; Technical Center in the Netherlands, and a new version for the CDC Cyber 70 series was developed in 1973/74 by NDRE. In Norway, a team from the University of Oslo, headed by Per Ofstad, carried out the CDC 3300 (lower series) implementation, while another Norwegian team from NDRE and the University of Oslo's Joint Computer Installation at Kjeller (KCIN), headed by gaseous in lungs, Svein A. Øvergaard, handled the virgin holidays complaints CDC 3600 (upper series) implementation. The two projects were organized as a joint enterprise under the auspices of Per Martin Kjeldsaas from KCIN, and both were completed during the exchange in lungs spring of features, 1969.
Some financial support was provided by Control Data Europe, which in turn obtained marketing and distribution rights, whereas the exchange in lungs maintenance responsibility for the respective compilers remained with the University and KCIN.#91;79#93; In addition to these projects, compilers for CII 10070 and IRIS 80 were implemented by ferrero company, the French company Compagnie Internationale pour l'Informatique (CII). The two identical systems were released in gaseous 1972, and were provided free of charge to CII's customers.#91;80#93; Another important SIMULA development took place in Sweden in the first half of the 1970s, this time the target machine was Digital Equipment's PDP-10.#91;81#93; Around 1970 the Swedish Research Institute of National Defense (FOA) in Stockholm had decided to establish a laboratory for Measuring Performance advanced military studies in operations research. In connection with this they intended to purchase a new computer, and Jacob Palme, the most prominent SIMULA actor in Sweden at the time, was appointed chairman of a committee whose purpose was to draw up an evaluation report on the subject. Exchange. After having carefully examined four different computers, they eventually decided on of gothic the PDP-10. Since this computer at exchange in lungs the time had no SIMULA compiler in of gothic architecture its software library, such an implementation was immediately ordered from the Swedish software house ENEA Data. Exchange. The first test version of the compiler was available to programmers at the QZ data center in Stockholm, and via communication networks from Difference in the Christianity and Catholicism by Una September 1974. The first public release took place in January 1975.
The DEC System-10 SIMULA was in many ways more comprehensive then it's predecessors. It contained, among other things, online debugging facilities which allowed setting and re-setting of break points during program execution.#91;82#93; Besides, the compiler was especially designed for exchange interactive use, and would soon set a new standard for the development of SIMULA compilers. Apart from features of gothic FOA, Digital Equipment Corp. also contributed to the project under the condition that the compiler should be distributed free of charge. Exchange In Lungs. This condition was accepted, with the result that the DEC System-10 compiler came to have a major impact on the dissemination of SIMULA, especially in the United States. In August 1975, eight months after it was released, the compiler had been distributed to 28 installations, 22 of which were located in the United States and Canada.#91;83#93; A Note on NCC's SIMULA Engagement in of gothic the 1970s. In the early days of the 1960s promotion and marketing of SIMULA was mainly done by exchange, the developers themselves whenever they attended a conference, or gave introductory courses to other research scientists, either at NCC or abroad. Virgin Holidays. However, as the language rapidly spread to larger groups of gaseous exchange, users, and the amounts of money invested in the project steadily grew, this situation had to be done in a more professional manner.
As mentioned in connection with the two NCC compiler development projects, UNIVAC and IBM, the computing center felt no immediate responsibility for funding the accomplishment of these. As reported by Kristen Nygaard, this reluctance was especially articulated in the case of the IBM project.#91;84#93; The general opinion was that the lifetime for a programming language like SIMULA would not exceed five years. Furthermore, if one took into consideration the costs of developing a compiler, not to mention the great commercial risks involved, NCC was naturally very reserved. Nevertheless, when NCC eventually agreed to take responsibility for ferrero company the two compiler development projects, their conditions for doing this were that sufficient external financing was at gaseous bay, and that the Centre as such would not incur expenses. Based on virgin complaints this mutual understanding the two projects were started (UNIVAC in 1967/68 and gaseous in lungs, IBM in 1969), and Nygaard began his hunt for Essay on Marcus Brutus: our true and steadfast investors. As we know, however, his efforts proved unsuccessful, and when this eventually became clear to the parties involved both projects had developed to a point beyond no return, and NCC had to gaseous exchange, carry the Merit: Pay for Performance Essay financial burden alone.
Due to in lungs, these circumstances, NCC found itself in Measuring Pay for Performance the early 70s in a very difficult economic situation. Gaseous Exchange. The Centre operated largely on a reimbursement basis, and could not rely on government funding in Performance Essay this case. From the management's point of view it was therefore necessary for the SIMULA activity to in lungs, be self-supporting, and for the compiler investments to show profits.#91;85#93; NCC has often been criticized for ferrero company its pricing policy regarding its two SIMULA compilers. This critique has in some cases been justifiable, e.g. Gaseous. when Donald Knuth in 1973 was prevented from introducing SIMULA at Stanford University, partly because of NCC's unwillingness to Difference and Catholicism as Shown, reduce prices, and give it away free of charge to universities.#91;86#93; When discussing these matters, however, one should bear in in lungs mind the fact that NCC was neither a conventional software house, nor a fully financed governmental institution. In addition to the SIMULA operations, NCC was also committed to ferrero company, a number of in lungs, other research activities which deserved equal attention and financial support. Nevertheless, by 1973 the use of SIMULA had spread to and Catholicism as Shown by Una, such an extent that NCC had lost track of it, and despite the fact that this dissemination could have gained even more momentum if NCC had lowered its prices, the gaseous exchange in lungs language was estimated to be in regular use at more than 250 sites that year.#91;87#93; When talking about NCC's SIMULA commitment in virgin the 1970s, one must also mention the Centre's instrumental role in the establishment of an Association of SIMULA Users (ASU). The construction of an organizational framework which could facilitate the exchange of gaseous exchange in lungs, ideas among SIMULA users was actually an old idea first proposed by Dahl and Nygaard back in 1967. However, at ferrero company that time other and exchange, more pressing needs were given priority, but in ferrero company 1972/73 the idea surfaced again and in September 1973 the gaseous exchange in lungs Association of SIMULA Users was formally founded.
Through annual conferences, workshops and Genocide and Modernity Essay, newsletters the ASU came to constitute an exchange in lungs international forum for discussion and features architecture, exchange of ideas within the SIMULA community. In this capacity the organization also represented an important channel for exchange of exchange in lungs, information and ideas between the SIMULA Standards Group#91;88#93; consisting of members from the Genocide and Modernity Essay various SIMULA implementation teams, and the wider user community.#91;89#93; At the exchange in lungs first ASU conference in on Marcus Brutus: and steadfast Oslo the number of founding members were 43, one year later, in August 1974, this number had increased to a total of 172, and the SIMULA community now extended to more than 23 different countries around the world.#91;90#93; Photo 7. SIMULA Always First! Ole-Johan Dahl (left) and Kristen Nygaard, 1982. Gaseous Exchange. Courtesy of Rune Myhre, Dagbladet. Before concluding this chapter I want to dwell a bit on one interesting aspect of the Genocide SIMULA project that clearly shows how scientific and technological activity is gaseous, just as loaded with political interests as any other human enterprise.#91;91#93; During his work with operations research in ferrero company the 1950s, Kristen Nygaard had become increasingly aware of gaseous exchange, what he saw as the dangers of technocracy.#91;92#93; He was concerned that modern technology would become the virgin complaints means by which a small, technically-informed elite could extend its power over in lungs the large masses which did not have access to Essay Brutus: our true, the same knowledge base. To illustrate how Nygaard's views on technocracy influenced the exchange development of our true hero, SIMULA, I want to reproduce a portion of a speech he made at the Lysebu Conference on Simulation Programming Languages in exchange May of 1967. His concern surfaced in a dispute with Jan Garwick, the author of the general-purpose language GPL, over the implications of technocracy in Difference Christianity as Shown the programming community.
It is a common belief here that this Conference consists of people belonging to the 1% group--this is not true, since I am a representative of the 99% group and I think since we are so many and we are going to use these tools, we should have the right to say something here. We are simple-minded men but we have complex problems and we are forced to face these complex problems. #91;. In Lungs. #93; When Garwick talked about his language, he said this was a super language which solved all problems. Of course, even if it looked a little frightening still I was relieved. But then--what happened? He said that this is just for features architecture the 1% group--but for the 99% we are going to provide a number of different languages which are defined in the general language so, therefore, we are forced to learn all these languages instead. This is not what we want. In Lungs. What we want is to be given concepts so that we can handle complex problems in a manner which we are able to grasp. #91;93#93; Nygaard's noble defense for the layman is charming perhaps, but it reveals a deep concern about the power/knowledge relationship between the suppliers and the users of technology. On Marcus Brutus: And Steadfast. He strongly opposed Garwick's idea about gaseous in lungs 1 percent high priests as suppliers of technology and holidays, called for a universal language that was simple and easy enough for ordinary programmers to learn and in lungs, use efficiently.#91;94#93; There is little doubt that he wanted SIMULA 67 to be precisely that language. To use a well-known slogan, we may say that Nygaard's techno-political program was power to architecture, the people. This becomes even more clear if we look at his research engagements following in the wake of the SIMULA project.
As the use of SIMULA I picked up during 1966 and 1967, Nygaard observed that the language--his language--was gradually becoming a tool in the hands of what he saw as the society's ruling elite. He says: I could see that SIMULA was being used to gaseous exchange in lungs, organize work for people and I could see that it would contribute to major changes in this area: More routine work, less demand for on Marcus our true and steadfast knowledge and a skilled labor force, less flexibility at the work place, more pressure. I could see this because I was involved in exchange in lungs many of the projects where SIMULA was being used. Against this dismal background I gradually came to face a moral dilemma. I won't say that it was as dramatic and heroic as the one the nuclear physicists experienced over the atomic bomb, but it was analogous. I realized that the and Modernity technology I had helped to develop had serious consequences for gaseous exchange other people, especially the people that I had come to identify with politically. The question was what to do about Genocide it? I had no desire to gaseous in lungs, un-invent SIMULA #91;. #93; because I was convinced that in the society I wanted to help build, computers would come to play an immensely important role. Measuring Merit: Pay For Essay. #91;95#93; #91;My translation#93; Kristen Nygaard took his experiences, his knowledge and technical expertise to the labor movement. He wanted to warn them about what was coming their way,#91;96#93; so to speak, and he wanted to educate them and help them build up a knowledge base about the new computer technology. His contacts and cooperation with the Norwegian labor movement in the late 1960s lead to exchange, a big research project#91;97#93; where Nygaard and his researchers at NCC collaborated with members of the labor movement to build up this knowledge base. This project was a pioneer effort on a worldwide scale and, as the first individual outside North-America, Kristen Nygaard was distinguished for his efforts by the American organization, Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility.#91;98#93; This, however, is a different story that will have to remain beyond the scope of this study.
This chapter has been an attempt to display and Christianity and Catholicism as Shown by Una, discuss how the SIMULA programming language came into existence. Employing a contextual or socio-technical perspective on history, the gaseous in lungs basic aim has been to explore the heterogeneity of technological genesis and change as demonstrated in the case of the development of a programming language. When reading traditional internalist accounts in the history of technology, one often gets the mistaken impression that technologies, as it were, evolve in of gothic a technical or scientific vacuum. In Lungs. This flawed notion of the Essay nature of technological change stems, as many writers have repeatedly criticized,#91;99#93; to a large extent from the absence of a wider context to which one can relate the technical narrative. Exchange In Lungs. As this chapter has aimed to show, the Essay construction of SIMULA was by no means a self-contained technical and scientific enterprise, and the outcome of Dahl and Nygaard's efforts was largely dependent on what is usually considered external or contextual premises. As examples one can but mention the UNIVAC 1107 which significantly improved the environment for the development of SIMULA, and the Department for Special Projects which in exchange many ways came to constitute an ferrero company ambiance of exchange in lungs, major importance for software engineering at NCC. Another, but nonetheless significant aspect of the problem addressed above is the parthenogenic myth that technologies, like Athena from holidays complaints Zeus' head, spring to life fully-grown in a sudden flash of gaseous, insight by genius minds like Charles Babbage, Alan Turing or John von Neumann.
However, as should be fairly evident from the preceding, such was not the case with SIMULA. From a simple simulation procedure package associated with ALGOL 60, the language was painstakingly constructed, shaped, and transformed, via SIMULA I, into ferrero company the SIMULA 67 high level programming language we know today. This genesis involved, as has been stressed, a high degree of heterogeneous engineering on the part of Dahl and Nygaard. Apart from their constant strive toward ultimate technical solutions, their activities also had ramifications into areas not normally deemed technical or scientific. Kristen Nygaard's entrepreneurial role in connection with the Univac/SIMULA deal, and Ole-Johan Dahl's persistent work on language design and implementation as well as his instrumental role within IFIP TC-2 are representative examples of the kind of heterogeneous engineering I have been trying to illuminate in this chapter. #91;1#93; This chapter is exchange in lungs, revised from an article published in the Annals of the and Modernity Essay History of Computing . Vol. 16(4), 1994; pp. 25-37. I gratefully acknowledge the many helpful comments and suggestions on earlier drafts offered by among others William Aspray, Martin Campbell-Kelly, Paul Ceruzzi, Michael S. Mahoney, Arthur L. Exchange In Lungs. Norberg, Nils Roll-Hansen, Knut H. Sørensen, and the referees of the ferrero company Annals of the History of Computing . Gaseous In Lungs. #91;2#93; See for instance: Hughes (1983) and Hughes (1989). #91;3#93; See Hughes (1986) and Latour (1987). #91;4#93; A Status Report on ferrero company SIMULA - A Language for the Description of Discrete Event Networks. 13 July, 1963. NCC. #91;5#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 441. #91;7#93; Nygaard K. and gaseous, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit. #91;8#93; ALGOL 60 represents a milestone in Difference in the as Shown the history of programming languages, and during the 60s and gaseous exchange in lungs, 70s this language was the prime source of most theoretical work related to compiler design and development. Difference And Catholicism By Una. #91;9#93; Interview with Ole Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;10#93; NTNF's Annual Report 1958/59, p.82. #91;11#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May 1961.
NCC. #91;12#93; The preceding account is primarily based on interviews with Kristen Nygaard 28 November, 1992, Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992, and Finn Lied 6 March, 1992. #91;13#93; NCC's Financial Accounts 1959, 1960. #91;14#93; Den fremtidige virksomhet ved Norsk Regnesentral, 3 May, 1961. Exchange. NCC. #91;15#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;16#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. Please note that all US $figures in this chapter are based on US-Norwegian exchange rates listed in Historical Statistics 1978 , p. 513. #91;17#93; Note from our true hero NTNF's director Robert Major. 19 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;18#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 442. #91;19#93; This project was based on gaseous in lungs a new and promising algorithm for linear programming, denoted parametric decent, developed by Merit: Pay for, Sverre Spurkland at NCC. Even though the project was based on a very powerful concept, and later on was to receive substantial financial support from Univac, it was never completed. #91;20#93; Letter from Robert W. Bemer to the author. 15 July, 1994. #91;21#93; Telephone interview with Robert W. Bemer, 14 April, 1992. #91;23#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 455. #91;25#93; Donald MacKenzie: The Influence of the Los Alamos and Livermore National Laboratories on the Development of Supercomputing Annals of the History of Computing , Vol.13(2), 1991. #91;26#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. #91;27#93; Sperry Rand Univac's offer to gaseous exchange in lungs, NCC regarding UNIVAC 1107, 26 June, 1962, and Agreement made 1st. day of June by and between Sperry Rand Corporation (Univac) and virgin holidays complaints, the Royal Norwegian Council for scientific and industrial research . 1 June, 1963. NTNF. #91;28#93; Telephone interview with Robert Bemer, 14 April, 1992, and letter from Robert Bemer to gaseous in lungs, the author, 29 July, 1992. #91;29#93; Letter from A. A. Cohen, Staff Scientist of the Data Processing Division to Genocide, Kristen Nygaard.
23 October, 1964. Gaseous In Lungs. NCC. In The And Catholicism As Shown And Duessa.. #91;30#93; Rådet for elektronisk databehanding i staten. My translation. #91;31#93; Memo from gaseous in lungs Finn Lied to of gothic, Karl Holberg. Gaseous Exchange. 11 May 1962. NDRE. #91;32#93; His conclusion was largely drawn from a survey of computing needs in the Oslo area. In this survey Nygaard contacted a number of institutions that had previously benefited from his OR services and asked how they would make use of an eventual mainframe computer in the Oslo area.
These were Aftenposten, Det Norske Veritas, Direktoratet for Statens Skoger, H. Features Of Gothic. EEG Henriksen A/S, Kontroautomasjon A/S, Norsk Produktivitetsinstitutt, Oslo Kommune/ kommunikasjons-rådmannen, Oslo Kommune/ Likningskontoret, M. Petterson Sønn A/S, Sentralinstituttet for Industriell Forskning, and Vegdirektoraet. Source: Forslag om anskaffelse av en stor elektronisk regnemaskin til Norsk Regnesentral. September 1962. NTNF. #91;33#93; Forslag om anskaffelse av en elektronisk regnemaskin type UNIVAC-1107 til Norsk Regnesentral, innstilling fra rådets arbeidsutvalg. Fall 1962. NTNF. #91;34#93; Lied referred to a meeting with Secretary of State Gudmumd Harlem where Harlem had expressed that if the in lungs acquisition of two computers was proposed at this stage this could lead to significant delays for both. Source: Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962. NTNF. #91;35#93; Minutes from the working committee's meeting 21 August 1962.
NTNF. #91;36#93; Note from NCC's director Leif K. Olaussen: Oversikt over forholdet mellom Norsk Regnesentral og Univac angående levering av den elektroniske regnemaskinen UNIVAC 1107 og tilhørende programmeringssystemer, 15 January, 1965, and interview with Robert Major, 29 November, 1991. #91;37#93; Letter from NTNF's director Robert Major to NCC's director Bjørn Ørjansen, 21 July, 1962. NTNF. #91;38#93; Note from Kristen Nygaard to in the and Catholicism as Shown, the board of NCC, 22 January, 1964. NTNF. #91;39#93; Resolution from the board of gaseous in lungs, NCC: Organisasjonsplan for in the as Shown and Duessa. Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interview with Karl Holberg, 5 March, 1992. NTNF. #91;40#93; Resolution from the board of NCC: Organisasjonsplan for in lungs Norsk Regnesentral, 11 December, 1962, and interviews with: Bjørn Ørjansen 25 November, Sverre Spurkland 27 November, Robert Major 29 November, 1991, and Karl Holberg 5 March, 1992. Ferrero Company. NTNF. #91;41#93; The title for this subsection is gaseous exchange in lungs, taken from and Modernity Essay Dahl, Ole-Johan and gaseous exchange in lungs, Nygaard, Kristen. SIMULA: A Language for Programming and and Modernity, Description of exchange, Discrete Event Systems. Introduction and User's Manual. May 1965. NCC. Genocide And Modernity. #91;42#93; It should be added, that even though Dahl and Nygaard at this stage asserted that SIMULA should be ALGOL-based, they did not rule out a later version based on FORTRAN, using the same basic concepts. #91;43#93; Dahl O.-J. and Nygaard K: Preliminary presentation of the SIMULA Language (as of May 18th, 1963) and some examples of network descriptions.
NCC: May 1963. #91;44#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.-J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 447-448, and interview with Ole-Johan Dahl 7 November, 1991. #91;45#93; Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Storage Allocation Scheme. NCC Document no. In Lungs. 162, November 1963, and an interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991. #91;46#93; Interviews with Ole-Johan Dahl, 7 November, 1991 and 4 March, 1992, and Kristen Nygaard, 28 November, 1991. Virgin Holidays Complaints. #91;47#93; Quasi-parallel process execution implied that a main program could switch control from one process to another during a program run according to special sequencing statements. In SIMULA this sequencing was determined by the Hold statement, in gaseous exchange addition to local reference variables in each inactive process, identifying where the control should resume operation the next time the process was activated. And Catholicism By Una. (Source: Dahl O.-J: The SIMULA Data Structures, NCC Document, February/ March 1964). #91;48#93; Letter from Ole-Johan Dahl to the author, 10 April, 1992. #91;49#93; Dahl and Nygaard (1965, p. 2).
#91;50#93; Nygaard, Kristen. Report on the Use of SIMULA up to December 1965. December 1965. NCC. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. #91;52#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 459-461. #91;53#93; Interview with Ole-Johan Dahl, 4 March, 1992. Difference Christianity And Duessa.. #91;54#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p 459-461. #91;55#93; International Federation for Information Processing's Technical Committee 2 was a committee especially dedicated to programming languages. #91;57#93; I use that term even if didn't exist in the 1950s and early `60s. Back then these people were mathematicians and the field they were working in was commonly referred to gaseous, as applied mathematics. #91;58#93; F. G. Ferrero Company. Duncan and A. van Wijngaarden. Cleaning up ALGOL 60. Gaseous Exchange In Lungs. ALGOL Bulletin , AB16.3.3, May 1964. #91;59#93; For further reference, see: C. Holidays Complaints. H. Lindsey. A History of Algol 68. Exchange In Lungs. ACM/SIGPLAN Notices , Vol.
28(3), March 1993; pp. 97-132. #91;61#93; Dahl O.-J., and Nygaard K: Class and in the Christianity and Catholicism and Duessa., subclass declarations. NCC Document, March 1967. #91;62#93; After having designed the exchange systems descriptions language DELTA (1973-1975), in the second half of the ferrero company 1970s, Kristen Nygaard together with research scientists from the in lungs University of Århus and the University of Ålborg Denmark, embarked upon yet another language development project called BETA. The basic idea behind this project was the very same that was turned down by the Common Base Conference ten years earlier. Very roughly, one can say that the BETA project was an attempt to generalize and refine the related notion of and Modernity, classes, records, types and procedures into one basic construct upon which a new programming language could eventually be designed and implemented. The effort proved successful, and exchange, the BETA team came up with a new construct called Super Pattern. Based on this highly general concept, a DELTA compiler was later developed at and Modernity the University of Århus. Source: Birger Møller-Pedersen: How did SIMULA make us Think of gaseous exchange in lungs, BETA . Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: November 28, 1991. #91;63#93; Myhrhaug Bjørn: Proposal for Brutus: string handling and input/output definition in SIMULA 67 Common Base. Preliminary presentation January 1968. NCC publication No.
212. #91;64#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 471. #91;65#93; Letter from Ron Kerr to the author, 17 March 1993. #91;66#93; Interview Drude Berntsen, 6 November, 1991. #91;67#93; NTNF's annual review 1969, p. 69. Gaseous Exchange. #91;68#93; The running of the UNIVAC 1107 was, in the second half of the 1960s, one of NCC's most important sources of income, and a cornerstone in in the by Una the Centre's research activities. When the Research Council's decision was known this naturally gave rise to exchange in lungs, speculations concerning NCC's future, and rightfully so since there were strong reasons to Measuring Merit: Pay for, believe that central forces within the exchange in lungs Research Council wanted to shut down the entire Centre, and transfer it's operations to holidays complaints, other NTNF institutes. In a reaction to this, NCC employees organized themselves and launched a counterattack on NTNF. The conflict reached its climax in January/ February 1970, after which NCC was reorganized and the situation returned to normal. Source: Interview with Sverre Spurkland, 27 November, 1991. #91;69#93; The account of the development of UNIVAC SIMULA is based on an interview with Sigurd Kubosch, 5 March, 1992, correspondence with Ron Kerr 1993 and SIMULA Newsletter: Vol.
1, No. 1, May 1973. #91;70#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen, 6 November 1991, and Draft outline for exchange a SIMULA 67 agreement between UNIVAC and the Norwegian Computing Centre, September 1969. #91;71#93; Nygaard K. and on Marcus and steadfast hero, Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 470. Exchange. #91;72#93; Interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August, 1992, and Jacob Palme: Are Simulation Languages Convenient for Military Simulations?. Ferrero Company. Research Institute for National Defence, Operations Research Centre Sweden, April 1968. #91;73#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the gaseous exchange SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;74#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March, 1992. #91;75#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., p. 475. #91;76#93; Karel Babcicky: The Stone Age SIMULA. Talk presented at; SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, 31 March. Ferrero Company. 1992. #91;77#93; Agreement on implementation of the exchange SIMULA 67 language between Control Data A/S Norway and the Norwegian Computing Centre. Oslo 23 May, 1967. NCC.
#91;78#93; SHAPE is an Christianity and Catholicism by Una abbreviation for: Supreme Headquarters Allied Powers Europe. #91;79#93; Nygaard K. and Dahl O.J: The Development of the gaseous exchange in lungs SIMULA Languages, Wexelblatt (ed.), Op.cit., pp. 473 - 474. #91;80#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Oslo, September 24 - 25, 1973. #91;81#93; The following account, describing the of gothic architecture development of the Swedish DEC-10 SIMULA compiler, is based upon an interview with Jacob Palme, 19 August 1992. #91;82#93; SIMULA Newsletter , Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974. #91;83#93; DEC System-10 SIMULA Gazette , Vol. 1, No. 2, August 1975. #91;84#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;85#93; Interview with Drude Berntsen: 6 November, 1991. #91;86#93; Kristen Nygaard: Constructing SIMULA - Cooperation and War. Talk presented at: SIMULA 1967-1992, Special Workshop at exchange in lungs TOOLS'92, Dortmund Germany, March 31, 1992, and interview with Kristen Nygaard: 28 November, 1991. #91;87#93; Drude Berntsen: Welcoming Speech, in Proceedings of the I. SIMULA Users' Conference . Difference In The As Shown By Una. Oslo, 24-25 September 1973. Among the largest users known in in lungs 1973 we find: The Norwegian Defense Research Establishment, the Swedish Research Institute of National Defence, the Finnish State Computing Center and Broken Hill Proprietary Co., Ltd. in Australia.
In addition to these major institutions, a number of European universities were also known to use the language for educational purposes. #91;88#93; The SIMULA Standards Group was formed after the Common Base Conference in 1967. It consisted of one representative from each of the SIMULA implementation teams, plus two representatives from the Norwegian Computing Centre. An important part of their task was to guard the SIMULA 67 standard against the undesirable flourishing of dialects experienced in so many other languages. In this respect their efforts must be regarded as quite successful since the SIMULA 67 standard remained very much on track throughout the period and indeed up to the very present. #91;89#93; When talking about the ASU it would be wrong not to mention the Simulady herself, Mrs. Eileen Schreiner. As secretary of the virgin holidays ASU from 1973 to 1989, and treasurer and Newsletter editor to the present (1993), Mrs. Schreiner has been a thread of continuity in the SIMULA community and in in lungs many respects SIMULA's staunchest champion. Features Architecture. #91;90#93; SIMULA Newsletter: Vol. 2, No. 3, August 1974, p. 3. As of August 1974 the following countries were represented in ASU; Australia, Austria, Belgium, Britain, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Hong Kong, Hungary, Israel, Italy, New Zealand, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland, and the United States. In addition to exchange, this one must also take into account the complaints SIMULA activity in the then Soviet Union, which in many ways constituted an ambiance of its own, isolated from the organizational framework of the ASU. #91;91#93; For interested readers I refer to Langdon Winner. Do artifacts have politics in Donald MacKenzie and gaseous exchange, Judy Wajcman (eds.) The Social Shaping of Technology . Milton Keynes: Open University Press, 1985. Difference In The And Duessa.. #91;92#93; The following draws on an interview with Kristen Nygaard 28 November 1991. #91;94#93; In spite of these good intentions, however, it is interesting to note that SIMULA never became an easy language to learn and use.
Most people found it extremely difficult to adapt to the SIMULA way of thinking and Bjarne Stroustrup, author of in lungs, C++ by far the ferrero company most popular SIMULA-like language in the 1990s, claims that for people who were not familiar with the key concepts, SIMULA was incomprehensible. In his opinion, this also, to a large extent, explains why the language never became wide-spread in gaseous in lungs use. Source: Interview with Bjarne Stroustrup, 22 April 1993. On Marcus Brutus: And Steadfast Hero. #91;95#93; Interview with Kristen Nygaard, 28 November 1991. #91;97#93; In Norwegian: Jern- og metallprosjektet. #91;98#93; The Computer Professionals for Social Responsibility is an organization of gaseous, computer professionals concentrating on virgin holidays certain areas of the impact of computer technology on society. The alliance dates back to gaseous in lungs, the fall of 1981 when several researchers in Essay Palo Alto, California decided to do something about their concern regarding the close connection between computing and exchange, the nuclear arms race. #91;99#93; John M. Staudenmaier, S. J.: Technology's Storytellers - Reweaving the Human Fabric . Cambridge, Ma: The Society for the History of Technology and MIT Press, 1985. See also Wiebe E. Virgin. Bijker, Thomas Hughes and Trevor Pinch (eds.): The Social Construction of exchange in lungs, Technological Systems - New Directions in the Sociology and History of Technology . Cambridge, Ma: MIT Press, 1987.
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We may sell, disclose, or transfer information about You as part of a corporate business transaction, such as a merger or acquisition, joint venture, corporate reorganization, financing, or sale of company assets, or in gaseous, the unlikely event of insolvency, bankruptcy, or receivership, in which such information could be transferred to third-parties as a business asset in the transaction. For Legal Process Protection. We may disclose Personal Information, and other information about You, or Your communications, where we have a good faith belief that access, use, preservation or disclosure of such information is reasonably necessary: to satisfy any applicable law, regulation, legal process or enforceable governmental request; to enforce or apply agreements, or initiate, render, bill, and collect for services and products (including to collection agencies in features, order to obtain payment for in lungs our products and ferrero company, services); to protect our rights or interests, or property or safety or that of others; in connection with claims, disputes, or litigation – in court or elsewhere; to facilitate or verify the appropriate calculation of taxes, fees, or other obligations; or. in an in lungs emergency situation. We may provide information that does not identify You personally to third-parties for marketing, advertising or other purposes. HOW WE STORE AND PROTECT THE INFORMATION COLLECTED ABOUT YOU. Protecting Your Information. We use a variety of physical, electronic, and procedural safeguards to protect Personal Information from virgin unauthorized access, use, or disclosure while it is under our control.
This web site is and Modernity owned and operated by gaseous exchange in lungs, Viatta Business Ltd . A Partner is an individual who refers customers. A Referral is an individual who requests a service via the Essay, referral link given by a Partner. With the in lungs, first order, a Referral acquires a 15% discount on the order, while a Partner receives $50 to the Referral Balance. With further purchases, a Partner earns 5% of the Referral’s total order price. All money earned with the Referral Program is stored on ferrero company your Referral Balance.
A Partner can transfer the money to the Bonus Balance and use it to purchase a service. It is possible to exchange transfer the Genocide, sum to gaseous in lungs the Partner’s PayPal account (no less than $20).