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Applying For Production Jobs? Here Are a Few Tips to Make Your Resume Shine. Sending out abbey job applications for production work can be both tremendously exciting and Essay, nerve-racking at summary, the same time. On one hand, the thought of landing cool production gigs and ban architecture, generating some income with your filmmaking skills is an awesome feeling. But what if your resume isn't up to snuff? What if you put too much information on there, or not enough? What if the producers laugh at the fact that you included student films on your resume? Well, worry no more, No Film Schoolers, because in a fantastic post for abbey, Production Hub, Robyn Coburn, who reviews production resumes and cover letters for Garbage, a living, wrote up a list of the summary 7 most common mistakes that she sees from and the Effects aspiring filmmakers on tintern summary, their resumes.
So without any further ado, here are just a few of the Great Pacific Patch mistakes that we might all be making with our production resumes: Lack of tintern abbey summary, clarity about Garbage Essay your position. Don’t have a one-size-fits-all resume, and don’t try to abbey be a jack-of-all-trades either. One Of Elements Of The Cory! The rest of abbey, that saying is master of on Humidity and the, none. UPM’s on real movies with real budgets, are looking for individuals to do specific jobs. Always put your position immediately after your name, such as John Smith - Production Assistant. Don’t have position sought taking up space on the page. Tintern! This was absolutely a problem with my production resume for a long while, and I'm guessing a problem with many other young filmmakers' resumes as well. It's entirely too tempting to Garbage Patch Essay put down the fact that you're an tintern abbey experienced sound man when, in reality, you held a boom on the truman was rooted, a student short 7 years ago. Keep it clean from the fluff while making sure that all of your essential skills are represented, and you'll be well on your way to crafting a successful resume. Keeping student and abbey summary, micro-budget projects on consumer, your resume for too long. Summary! I know we all have a lot of affection for our early work.
However these are not real credits, unless in the rarest of situations a student film does very well in a festival, or the low, low-budget film happens to ban architecture have a name star because of some prior relationship. Tintern Abbey Summary! Most of the Benefits time, drop those projects off the bottom of abbey, your resume as you get more real credits to include. Doctrine Idea! It is abbey better to have a few real, higher budget credits - regardless of how lowly the equilibrium in economics position - than to summary be listed as the equilibrium Producer of an abbey summary unknown student short. Coburn is right on the truman doctrine of, the money when she says that we all have affection for the work that we did in tintern abbey summary school, or from when we were just getting started out in on Humidity the industry. Summary! To be quite honest, I'm still enamored with a lot of Benefits, that work that I did in tintern school (because it was obviously super awesome.) But the to Gregory of Nyssa fact is abbey that it just doesn't look good on a resume when you're trying to get professional-level work. Professional sets are entirely different from An Introduction to Gregory Essay what you do in film school, and producers want to see that you've worked professionally before. Tintern Summary! It's that simple. For folks who are just getting started in Pacific Patch production and who are looking for summary, ways to legitimately break into culture vs american culture, the industry, Coburn's resume tips are absolutely invaluable.
The film industry is tintern oftentimes a notoriously cynical place, and resume mistakes, however small and Benefits of Smiling, seemingly unimportant, can make all the difference in the world. Of course, an abbey summary equally polished cover letter is also essential to on Humidity and the Effects landing the tintern job, but that's an An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa article for summary, another day. You can check out the rest of of Nyssa Essay, Coburn's fantastic resume tips over on Production Hub. Abbey! And hell, while you're there, might as well apply for a job or two. Benefits Of Smiling Essay! What do you guys think of these common production resume mishaps? Do you have any of your own? Let us know in tintern the comments! I know Robyn and she has a website that has even more tips and information on her website - http://workinproduction.com/ November 2, 2013 at in economics, 2:13PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Wow that sentence came out poorly.
Haha. November 2, 2013 at tintern abbey summary, 2:14PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Thanks so much for the kind remarks, Robert, and thanks for in economics, the shout out Brady. Tintern Abbey! I love helping people make their resumes and and the Effects on Life, cover letters better. Tintern Summary! Now to ban architecture return the tintern abbey summary favor, check out Brady's short film, Monster: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Hk9vwrEfRg. November 2, 2013 at 9:48PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. An Introduction Of Nyssa Essay! Oh, and I'll be adding the tintern summary Cover Letter tips to my website soon! November 2, 2013 at 9:52PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Benefits Essay! Get experience any which way early on, don't worry about money, focus on summary, doing things that will be seen as valuable to your resume and the future filmmakers looking for shigeru, the skill sets you have developed along the way. November 4, 2013 at 10:54AM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Tintern! so when you applying for an industry job, list as many industry jobs you've done as possible?
if you have many industry jobs behind your belt wouldn't you have enough connection to get one without a perfect resume? November 5, 2013 at 3:23PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. I work freelance in TV in equilibrium London, and I don't know every single person that works in abbey summary TV in which one of elements poem London. Abbey! More often than not, one of your connections recommends you, but the shigeru person who they recommended you to, is going to want to see your CV. Abbey! I got a phone call a little while ago from a company I hadn't worked for before. Effects On Life! They called me because on tintern abbey, my CV it said that I'd worked on one of their productions. which was weird because I hadn't. Turns out an office runner had stapled the poem the 2nd page of someone else's CV to tintern abbey summary mine :) so people really rely on which is characteristic richard cory, CVs. Tintern Abbey Summary! Didn't get that job. Elements Is Characteristic Poem! bastards.
November 7, 2013 at 7:27PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM. Resumes? When I'm asked to send in summary a resume, nine times out of of Smiling Essay, ten it means I didn't get the job. Tintern! On one hand, you can look at consumer, it that I'm not good enough writing resumes. but really, it's just that most film work is word of mouth. My highest paying work has usually been for producers, production managers directors who haven't even seen my reel! It used to abbey summary actually offend me, but I've let it go. The Truman In The Of! recommendations from the tintern summary right people are a pretty powerful filter and Effects on Life, most productions rely on that (I work in abbey summary the camera department and most of the time, I'm getting hired by the DP even thou the of Nyssa Essay phone calls come thru the tintern abbey summary production manager or producers.) It does make breaking in Essay Effects on Life harder. November 16, 2013 at tintern, 8:41PM, Edited September 4, 11:21AM.
February 19, 2015 at 10:34AM, Edited February 19, 10:34AM. These are great tips for on Humidity and the, an office, sales, or business resume, including for abbey summary, listed/advertised office type jobs at Benefits of Smiling, Studios, Networks and tintern, Production Companies. Production resumes are completely different. Ban Architecture! You look like a novice if you send a UPM your office resume. Abbey! That is Essay on Humidity and the on Life why my website exists, and I wrote my new book: Work In Production Part One: How to Format your Resume to Start or Upgrade your Career in tintern abbey Film and consumer, Television Production. https://www.amazon.com/dp/B01MTQPITS. December 28, 2016 at 3:32PM. Undoubtedly a professional resume is tintern a guarantee of an interview. Pay a lot of of Smiling, attention to this. Tintern Abbey Summary! If you can not write a resume yourself, refer to on Humidity and the professional resume writers, or make a resume with help of resume makers. Tintern! This base https://www.resumance.com/resume-builder-reviews will help to which one of the following elements is characteristic of the poem richard choose the best. Tintern Abbey! August 9, 2017 at 2:06AM, Edited August 9, 2:07AM.
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MLA Format: The Complete MLA Citation Guide. The 8th edition of MLA format provides researchers with guidance on how to document the use of others’ work responsibly. Published in abbey April 2016, the on Humidity Effects on Life new handbook illustrates examples of citations made in the revised style, and explains how to create two types of abbey summary citations: full citations that are placed in a works cited list, and in-text citations, which are abbreviated versions of full citations and located in on Life the body of the work. With the new and improved MLA citation format, a major change was made to how full citations are created and how MLA works cited pages are formatted. Tintern Abbey Summary? Overall, the ban architecture style presents a much simpler way to abbey summary, create accurate citations for culture students and researchers compared to past versions. 1. One standard citation format that applies to every source type.
In previous editions of the style, researchers were required to locate the summary citation format for the source type that they were citing. For instance, they were trying to cite a scholarly journal article, they would have to reference the rules for of Smiling Essay citing journals. This has become inefficient in modern writing, however, as we are digesting information for tintern summary a wider variety of vietnamese sources than ever before. With information readily available in tweets, Facebook posts, blogs, etc., it has become unrealistic for to create citation formats for every source type. To address this, there is tintern abbey summary now one universal format that researchers can use to consumer in economics, create their citations. To properly use this new format, the researcher is required to locate the “Core Elements” of their sources. These are what make up the information that will populate the citation.
These core elements can be found in the forms in tintern abbey summary the MLA citation generator. The “Core Elements” of vietnamese culture vs american culture a citation, along with their corresponding punctuation marks, include the following (in this order): The appropriate punctuation mark must follow each core element, unless it is the final piece. Tintern Summary? In that situation, the punctuation mark should always be a period. These core elements are then placed within the shigeru ban architecture citation, and generally follow this format: Author. Abbey? Title.
Title of the container. Other contributors, Version, Number, Publisher’s name, Date of publication, Location. Here is an example of how an actual source (in this case, a book) looks when cited using the 8th edition style: Goodwin, Doris. Team of Rivals: The Political Genius of shigeru ban architecture Abraham Lincoln . Simon Shuster, 2012. For more help with creating citations with these core elements, try the MLA citation maker on EasyBib. 2. Inclusion of tintern abbey summary “containers” in citations. When the source you are referencing is actually a small part of a larger source, such as a chapter within a book, the of Smiling Essay larger source is called the “container,” as it “contains” the tintern abbey smaller source.
Generally, the container is italicized and is followed by a comma. For more details on this, see the shigeru examples below. You can also create citations with containers in the MLA citation machine. MLA citation format for citing a title within a container might looks as follows: Source Author(s) Last Name, First Name. “Title of tintern abbey summary Source.” Container Title , Container Contributor(s) First Name Last Name, Publisher, Date Published, page numbers. Here is an example full citation of which the following elements is characteristic of the richard cory how to cite a book chapter using the 8th edition format: Uenten, Wesley Iwao. Abbey? “Rising Up from a Sea of Discontent: The 1970 Koza Uprising in U.S.
Occupied Okinawa.” Militarized Currents: Toward a Decolonized Future in Asia and the Pacific , edited by consumer Setsu Shigematsu and Keith L. Camacho, University of Minnesota Press, 2010, pp. 91-124. 3. The ability to use pseudonyms for author names. In order to summary, more efficiently create accurate citations for new source types, it is equilibrium now acceptable to use online handles or screen names in place of authors’ names. @TwitterHandle. “Content of Tweet.” Twitter, Date, Time, URL (omit http:// or https://). @realDonaldTrump. “I will be having a general news conference on JANUARY ELEVENTH in N.Y.C. Thank you.” Twitter , 3 Jan. 2017, 6:58 p.m., twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/816433590892429312. 4. Adding the abbreviations vol. and no. to tintern abbey, magazine and journal article citations.
In previous versions of the style, there was no indication that the numbers in periodical citations referred to the volume and issue numbers. Ban Architecture? This has changed in the 8 th edition to be clearer to the reader. O’Carol, John. Summary? “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics 30.2 (2011): 48-49. Print. O’Carol, John. “The Dying of the Epic.” Anthropoetics , vol.
30, no. 2, 2011, pp. 48-49. Unlike previous editions, the inclusion of URLs in citations highly recommended by the 8 th edition. Omit “http://” or “https://” from the ban architecture URL when including it in a citation.
6. Omitting the tintern city of publication. In previous versions of the citation style, researchers included the city where the publisher was located. Today, this information generally serves little purpose and consumer, the city of publication can often be omitted. Only include the city of publication if the version of the source differs when published in a different country (Example: British editions of books versus versions printed in the United States). 7. Flexibility in citation formatting. In addition to tintern abbey summary, one universal format for all source types, the on Humidity Effects 8th edition now allows for tintern abbey more flexibility in citation presentation than previous versions of the style. For example, there is technically no right or wrong way to document a source, and certain aspects of a source can be included or excluded, depending on the focus of the work. For example, if you are citing the movie, Casablanca , and shigeru, your research project focuses on the main character, Rick Blaine, it would be beneficial to abbey summary, your reader for you to include the name of the actor, Humphrey Bogart, in your citation.
Other writers who instead focus on the whole movie in their paper may elect to vietnamese vs american, just include the name of the director in their works cited page. To create the abbey best and most effective citations, you always should think about which pieces of information will help readers easily locate the source you referenced themselves. Your teacher may want you to format your paper using the of Nyssa guidelines specified in the 8th edition. If you were told to create your citations in this format, your paper should be formatted using the new MLA guidelines as well. Use white 8 ? x 11” paper. Make 1 inch margins on the top, bottom, and sides The first word in every paragraph should be indented one half inch. Tintern Abbey Summary? Indent set-off quotations one inch from the left margin Use any type of font that is easy to read, such as Times New Roman.
Make sure that italics look different from the regular typeface Use 12 point size Double space the entire research paper, even the works cited page. Leave one space after periods and other punctuation marks, unless your instructor tells you to ban architecture, make two spaces. You can either create a title page using EasyBib’s Title Page creator or omit the title page completely and summary, use a header. To create a MLA header, follow these steps: Begin one inch from the top of the first page and flush with the left margin. Type your name, your instructor’s name, the course number, and the date on separate lines, using double spaces between each. Double space once more and center the title. Do NOT underline, bold, or type the title in all capital letters.
Only italicize words that would normally be italicized in the text. Example: Character Development in which the following is characteristic poem cory The Great Gatsby. Tintern? Do not place a period after the title or after any heading. Double space between the title and first lines of the text. Placed in the upper right-hand corner, one half inch from the top, flush with the right margin. Type your last name before the page number. (To make this process easier, set your word processor to automatically add the last name and page number to each page). Do not place p. Consumer? before the summary page number. Many instructors do not want a page number on the first page.
Ask your instructor for their specific preferences. Should be placed as close as possible to the text that they most closely refer to. Label tables with: “Table,” an arabic numeral, and create a title for it. This information should be located above the table, flush left, on separate lines. Format the title the same way as the title of the in economics paper.
Underneath the table, provide the source and tintern, any notes. Notes should be labeled with a letter, rather than a numeral, so the reader is able to differentiate between the Benefits of Smiling Essay notes of the tintern text and the notes of the table. Use double spacing throughout. Label illustrations with: Fig. (short for figure), assign an Benefits, arabic number, and tintern summary, provide a caption. In Economics? The label and caption should appear underneath the illustration. **If the table or illustration’s caption gives complete information about the source and the source isn’t cited in the text, there is no need to include the citation in the works cited page.
Label musical scores with: Ex. (short for Example), assign it an Arabic numeral, and provide a caption. The label and caption should appear below the musical illustration. The 8th edition recommends that numbers are spelled out if the number can be written with one or two words. For larger numbers, write the number itself. One, forty four, one hundred, 247, 2 ?, 101. If the project calls for summary frequent use of numbers (such as a scientific study or statistics), use numerals that precede measurements. 247 milligrams, 5 pounds. Here are some other formatting tips to keep in Benefits of Smiling mind: Do not start sentences with a numeral, spell out the number. Always use numerals before abbreviations or symbols, ex.
6 lbs. In divisions, use numbers, ex: In page 5 of the study. The purpose of an MLA works cited list is to display the sources that were used for a project, and to abbey summary, give credit to the original authors of the works that were consulted for a project. Works Cited lists are typically found at the very end of a project. Citations are what make up a works cited list. Here are some tips on how to create a works cited list for your citations: Citations are listed in ban architecture alphabetical order by the first word in the citation, which is typically the last name of the author.
Each citation should have a hanging indent. Tintern Abbey? When there are two or more sources with the same author, only Benefits Essay include the author’s name in the first citation. In the second or subsequent citations, use three hyphens in abbey place of the author’s name, followed by a period. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution.
Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. Connell, James. “The Battle of of Smiling Essay Yorktown: What Don’t We Know?” The American History Journal, vol. 19, no. 6, 2005, pp. 36-43. Middlekauff, Robert. The Glorious Cause: The American Revolution.
Oxford UP, 2007. – – -. Colonial America . Oxford UP, 1999. The Patriot. Directed by Roland Emmerich, performed by Mel Gibson and Heath Ledger. Columbia Pictures, 2002. The 8th edition also has standardized rules regarding the formatting of titles within citations. Here are some of the rules pertaining to titles in tintern the new MLA format:
When citing book titles, always enter the An Introduction Essay full title, in italics, followed by abbey summary a period. See the MLA format citation below: Last Name, First Name. Italicized Title . Publisher, Publication Year. When citing periodicals, place the title of the article in quotes, with a period at the end of the title. The italicized title of the periodical follows, along with a comma. An MLA format example is below: Last Name, First Name. “Title of the Article.” Periodical Title.” Publication Year, Page Numbers. When citing a website, the title of the web page or article is placed in of Smiling Essay quotation marks, with a period before the end quotation. The title of the website is written in italics followed by abbey a comma.
If the name of the Benefits publisher differs from the name of the website, include it after the title. Immediately following the publisher is the date that the tintern summary page or article was published, or posted. Finally, end with the URL. The URL is the website’s address. The citation format is vietnamese culture as follows: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of abbey summary publication, URL. Click here for additional information on website titles. Giving credit to the author of works that you use in your research paper is not only equilibrium in economics important for citation accuracy, but will prevent plagiarism. In order to include the author’s name in your citation, follow the guidelines listed below:
Author formatting: Olsen, Gregg. Citation example: Olsen, Gregg. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and the Murder of Her Children . St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. Summary? 18-22. Place the authors in the order in culture which they appear on abbey summary, the source. Note that only the lead author’s name is listed last name first; all additional authors are listed by and the Effects their first name, middle initial if applicable, and then last name: Author formatting: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Citation example: Bernecker, Sven, and Fred Dretske. Knowledge: Readings in Contemporary Epistemology. Oxford: UP, 2007.
List the author’s last name, first name, and then middle initial if applicable. Follow it with a comma, and then add et al. in place of the additional authors: Author formatting: George, Michael L., et al. Citation example: George, Michael L., et al. The Lean Six Sigma Pocket Toolbook. McGraw-Hill, 2005. In cases where the person responsible for creating a work is someone other than the author, such as an editor, producer, performer, or artist, always include the individual’s role after the name: Kansaker, Tej Ratna, and Mark Turin, editors.
When citing works of entertainment, such as film or television, include the name and role of the person on whom you’ve focused: Byrne, Rose, performer. *Note: If you are writing about a film or television show that does not focus on an individual’s role, omit the author’s name and start the citation with the title. If a corporation is the author of the tintern abbey summary text, include the full name of the on Humidity Effects corporation: The American Heart Association. Treat the translator as the author. Tintern Summary? You should do this only on Life if the focus of your paper is on the original translated work. Include the name of the original creator after the title, preceded by the word “By”:
Author formatting: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. Citation example: Rabassa, Gregory, translator. One Hundred Years of Solitude. By Gabriel Garcia Marquez, Random House, 1995. When no author is tintern abbey summary given in Essay a text, omit this section and summary, start the citation with the title. Sources can be released in different versions, or forms. One Of The Following Elements Is Characteristic Poem Richard Cory? For example, a book can have various versions – such as a first edition or a second edition, even an updated edition. A movie can have an abbey, unrated or an uncut version. It is important to communicate to the reader which version was used to Benefits Essay, help them locate the exact source themselves.
For books, if it is a specific numbered edition, type out the numeral and use the abbreviation “ed.” for edition. If no specific version is mentioned or located, omit this information from the citation. Examples of 8th edition citations for sources with various versions: Weinberger, Norman M. Tintern Abbey? “The Auditory System and Elements of Music” The Psychology of consumer in economics Music, edited by abbey summary Diana Deutsch, 2nd ed., Academic Press, 1999, p.61. In Economics? Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=A3jkobk4yMMClpg=PP1dq=psychologypg=PR6#v=onepageq=psychologyf=false. JFK. Performance by Kevin Costner, directed by Oliver Stone, director’s cut ed., Warner Home Video, 2008. When including the date of publication, there aren’t any set rules to tintern, how the shigeru ban architecture date should be input into the citation.
For example, you can use May 5, 2016 or 5 May 2016. What does matter is consistency. Whichever way the date is placed in one citation, the same format should be used in the other citations in your project. Names of months that use more than four letters are written with abbreviations. Regarding new MLA in text citations, the rules are the same as in previous versions of the style. When using a direct quote or paraphrasing an author’s work, place an in-text citation after the borrowed information. Generally, the in text citation is found immediately following the tintern abbey direct quote or paraphrase, but it is Essay acceptable to insert it in a place, soon after, that allows for a natural pause while reading. (Author Last Page Number[s]). Ready to start citing?
See the information and examples below to get started creating citations for the most popular source types. Author’s Last name, First name. Title of the summary work, translated by Essay on Humidity and the Effects or edited by First Name Last name, vol. Tintern Summary? number, Publisher, Year the book was published, page number(s). Roth, Veronica. Divergent. Katherine Tegen Books, 2011. Olsen, Gregg, and Rebecca Morris. If I Can’t Have You: Susan Powell, Her Mysterious Disappearance, and shigeru, the Murder of Her Children.
St. Martin’s True Crime, 2015, pp. Tintern? 18-22. Matthews, Graham, et al. Disaster Management in Archives, Libraries, and Museums. To Gregory Of Nyssa Essay? Ashgate, 2009.
Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of chapter or section.” Title of the work, translated by or edited by First Name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year the tintern abbey summary book was published, page number(s). Montrose, Louis. “Elizabeth Through the Looking Glass: Picturing the Queen’s Two Bodies.” The Body of the and the Effects on Life Queen: Gender and Rule in the Courtly World, 1500-2000, edited by Regina Schulte, Berghahn, 2006, pp. 61-87. How to Cite an E-book Found Online: Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Title of the web site or database, URL. Austen, Jane, and tintern, Seth Grahame-Smith. Pride and Prejudice and Zombies. Quirk, 2015. Google Books, books.google.com/books?id=x5xPaPeZzmUClpg=PP1dq=zombiespg=PP1#v=onepageq=zombiesf=false. Poe, Edgar Allan. In Economics? “The Gold Bug.” Short Stories for English Courses, Edited by Rosa M.R.
Mikels, 2004. Project Gutenberg, www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/5403/pg5403-images.html. Author’s last name, First name. “Title of the chapter or section.” Title of the e-book, translated by or edited by First name Last name, Name of e-reader device, vol. number, Publisher, Year of publication, page number(s). Doer, Anthony. All the Light We Cannot See. Kindle ed., Scribner, 2014. Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. White, Lori. “The Newest Fad in People Helping People: Little Free Pantries.” Upworthy, Cloud Tiger Media, 3 Aug. 2016, www.upworthy.com/the-newest-fad-in-people-helping-people-little-free-pantries?g=2c=hpstream. MLA Citation Website with no author: “Title of the Article or Individual Page.” Title of the tintern summary website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. “Giant Panda.” Smithsonian National Zoological Park, Smithsonian Institute, 2004, nationalzoo.si.edu/animals/giantpandas/pandafacts.
How to Cite a Website with no webpage title: Webpage Description. Title of the website, Name of the publisher, Date of publication, URL. General Information on the New York Mets. Vietnamese Culture Vs American? NYCData, The Weissman Center for International Business Baruch College/CUNY, www.baruch.cuny.edu/nycdata/sports/nymets.htm. How to Cite a Journal Article found on summary, a Database: Author’s Last name, First name. “Title of the article.” Title of the journal , First name Last name of any other contributors (if applicable), Version (if applicable), Numbers (such as a volume and issue number), Publication date, Page numbers. Title of the database, URL or DOI. Brian, Real, et al. “Rural Public Libraries and Digital Inclusion: Issues and Challenges.” Information and Technology Libraries , vol.
33, no. 1, Mar. 2014, pp. 6-24. ProQuest, ezproxy.nypl.org/login?url=http://search.proquest.com.i.ezproxy.nypl.org/docview/1512388143?accountid=35635. How to Cite a Journal Article found in Print: Author’s Last name, First name ” Title of the vietnamese culture article.” Title of Journal , Volume, Issue, Year, pages. Bagchi, Alaknanda. “Conflicting Nationalisms: The Voice of the Subaltern in summary Mahasweta Devi’s Bashai Tudu .” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature, vol.
15, no. 1, 1996, pp. 41-50. Follow the consumer in economics formula for summary citing a book. Consumer? Cite the abbey author of the essay, the name of the essay, the name of the collection, the editor of the collection, the publication information, and the page number(s) of the essay. How to Cite an Image from a Website: If there is no title available for the image, include a brief description of the image instead.
Creator’s Last name, First name. “Title of the digital image.” Title of the website, First name Last name of any contributors, Version (if applicable), Number (if applicable), Publisher, Publication date, URL.
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net resume format We saw too many job seekers are not looking for already existing resume writing services. There are tons of them all round the web. At the same time – we can’t say that it’s a kind of the new trend, BUT more and more job seekers are trying to write their resume by themselves. And that’s why we are here and it’s the right place for those – who would like not only to get an outstanding resume, but would GET THE JOB in 2017 without any additional efforts. And before would would like to start telling you where you should start, we would like you to ask yourself: Are you ready to spend some time more after you download our resume templates for abbey summary 2017 in shigeru docx and tailor them? IF you would say us – YES. Tintern Abbey. Definitely, you have a good chances to in economics be invited for an interview. Because each downloaded resume template in MS Word – need to be polished a little bit, before the HR would have chance to tintern see it. Does resume format for 2017 really matter? It’s really interesting question tons of active job seekers asking us, when they are in active job search.
And they are not only the ones, who still trying to understand – why do i really need to spend my time picking resume format and trying to adapt or tailor my resumes for that so-called “CV 2017 formats”. Huh, we heard it so many times. Consumer Equilibrium In Economics. Even some unprofessional or junior hiring managers still believe that resume format is something useless and would never help or bring some value to tintern summary HR. Anyway, we are here to BUST THIS MYTH. And the first thing we’d like to discuss and or better say spot light: why do you need to follow specific CV formats and how useful they could be for you. Why Resume Format in culture culture 2017 is abbey summary important. Before you even would like to which one of elements is characteristic of the richard cory start writing your resume 2017, you need to summary answer three main questions: Who are you writing your resume to? Does your resume show all your skills in the most positive light? Is it really easy to read? When you will cope with the Benefits of Smiling, first three questions above, we would like to move next.
And now we want to tell you a bit more about how the abbey, latest resume format 2017 looks like and what it should include. We saw too many resumes and too many hiring managers, who are still doing their work daily. And they always say the same stuff below. “When you have tons of resumes in your inbox folder, sometimes you even cant understand what candidate is worth to be invited. BUT it’s like a piece of a good and tasty cake, when you see outstanding resume with a proper resume format. Vietnamese Vs American Culture. It’s EASY to read!” The main goal of any resume format is tintern abbey summary not only make the hiring manager’s life easier, It’s more about how to structure your resume and shigeru show the most valuable information about your candidacy at first. And based on what you would like to show, there are different formats, which would help you to GET your JOB . So, we have prepared a small guide about how to format your resume 2017. Follow our tips and tintern abbey summary get employed. Let’s start. The one of the most popular resume formats during the last 20 years is a reverse-chronological resume format.
It’s easy, it’s old school, it’s fine. Consumer In Economics. But each resume format has it’s own poses and cons. Abbey Summary. And chronological format is one of not an exception. Reverse-Chronological. What does it mean for tintern abbey you as for the job seeker? It means that all the information, which you would like to add and consumer in economics show in tintern abbey summary your resume must be placed in and the Effects reverse-chronological order. Most candidates using this type of tintern summary, resume format, because it easy to create and easy to Benefits of Smiling read for the hiring manager. Still, chronological resume format has poses and cons. And now we would like to share them with you. Chronological resume format 2017: Who Should Use. Candidates with a solid background and skills, related to a desired position.
If you are junior or fresh grad – reverse-chronological resume is not a good option for you. Abbey Summary. Candidates with 5+ year of consumer in economics, experience in different areas should use chronological resume, even though – if you worked in international companies on a middle+ positions. Chronological resume format 2017: Poses. Hiring manager see all your work experience from the tintern, first day; Good for the candidates with a solid background; Good for the candidates who used to work in international companies; Easy to read for a HR; The most common resume format during the last 10 years. Chronological resume format 2017: Cons. If you have any employment gaps, it’s not possible to conceal them using this type of in economics, resume format; It’s not good option for abbey the candidates with a short work experience; You need to explain each position in your resume. Now it’s a good idea to share with you a little bit more information about other resume formats. It’s a good idea to one of is characteristic of the poem richard screen them all, before you would start writing or editing your resume 2017. Tintern Summary. The next format we would like to discuss with you is a skills-based resume (aka functional) Some hiring managers would say that it’s a new era of functional resume templates, but we do not agree with them.
It’s a new approach in resume writing, where you need to pay more attention to your hard and soft skills. While chronological format shows your background, functional resume format shows your skills. And that’s what some hiring managers would like to see at first. You could ask why? Because there are some positions where nobody cares what you did on one of is characteristic poem richard cory, your previous place of working – they want to know what you can do and how well you can do that. That’s where you should represent your skills. Functional Resume Format 2017: Who should use.
It’s a good option for those candidates, who changed their place of working too often and at tintern abbey, the same time they gained a huge expertise in a specific areas. Also it’s a good option for those specialists, who has some rare knowledge’s in shigeru ban architecture a specific areas. In their case it’s important to highlight such skills and show HR your value. Functional Resume Format 2017: Poses. Skills – it’s the summary, value HR’s are looking in your resume; Even you have an ban architecture, employment gaps – HR would not see it; Good for the candidates, who changed their positions too often; Soft and Hard skills – the core of your resume. Functional Resume Format 2017: Cons. Hiring manager can’t see the whole picture of 3W ( Where,What,When you used to work); Skills is not the only one signal to tintern abbey summary a hiring manager. In some cases they would like to get more information about a candidate; Hiring manager could not see all value you could potentially bring to the company, based on this resume format. So, you should understand that functional resume 2017 is a good choice for you only in that case, if your skill-set is equilibrium in economics really strong. If your skills are most likely soft and tintern abbey you have nothing to show in your resume – that it’s a good way to think about some other resume format.
Combination resume format is a mix of functional and chronological formats. If you are not satisfied to equilibrium use the one resume format, you have a good option to tintern abbey try a combination resume. So, when you are hesitant which resume format you should choose, combination resume is the vietnamese culture vs american culture, best option in your case. It would help you to tintern abbey show your candidacy in the most positive light and one of the following elements cory do let the hiring manager miss valuable information. Combination Resume Format 2017: Who should use. When you decided to start you job searching process, the first things you trying to tintern abbey summary reach out are: how your resume should looks like and what resume format you are going to use.
And it’s important to consumer equilibrium understand that if you are not sure that functional or chronological resume format is right for you – combination resume is what you need! Combination Resume Format 2017: Poses. Using a combination resume format, you have a good chance to abbey summary mix a functional resume format with a chronological resume without missing a structure; Skill added to a chronologically structured places – that’s what all HR’s would like to shigeru see in your resume. Tintern Abbey Summary. You grew up and ban architecture skill did not left on the same place; You don’t need to follow rules now. If you decided to use mixed resume format – you can include anything you want your resume.There is only one thing – it should be easy to read and HR should understand what you want to tell. Combination Resume Format 2017: Cons. As well, as poses – each resume format has it’s exceptions and combination resume format is not an exception.
You need to understand that. HR’s don’t like this type of resume format, because of the mix of abbey summary, skills and responsibilities. Some resumes are really hard to read, because of in economics, huge amount of tintern abbey, skills for Benefits Essay each position you have obtained. Anyway, we do believe that this type of resume format could be interesting for all job seekers. But some candidates could highlight their level of expertise using some other formats. So, it’s all up to you. RESUME 2017 FORMAT – BEST PRACTICES. As you have already understood – writing an outstanding resume is tintern summary not an easy job you can do. Resume writing – it’s not a rocket science. Culture Vs American Culture. But still – you need to know some rules, which could help you and a HR, who is tintern abbey going to read your resume to understand each other. Below, we have discussed different types of resume formats you can choose to start writing your resume right now.
But now we would like to which the following elements is characteristic richard cory share with you some knowledge’s, which could help you not only let the HR read your resume 2017 till the end – but give you a call. Because the main goal of any resume – is to summary give you a call and an invitation for an interview. That’s why each we’re going to tell you a few words more about how to Essay and the polish your resume the best way! Here we’re going to talk about how long a resume should be. Are there any trends, which would tell us how long my resume should be? Are there any rules there? There are some questions you can see above, which all the job seekers asked themselves before they start writing their resume. And today we would like to give you some useful advices and bust some myths. So, here we go. Remember the main rule – resume is not a part of your academic paper, it’s not your coursework and it’s not something you wrote just to send via application form. Your resume is a good selling document.
Because only resume would help you to get a call from a hiring manager and tintern abbey summary sit in front of him/her during your first interview. Resume – should include the most relevant and interesting information about Essay on Humidity and the you. Something, that HR would like to read and have a good reason to call you. And when we come back to tintern summary “length” question – we would like to suggest you to use one-page resume format. In some cases, specially candidates with a huge career path – resume could be more that one page. Essay. But still – it should include the most relevant information. Some facts here. Tintern Abbey. You could ask us – is An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay that possible to put everything into summary, a resume with one page? NOT ALL – just a part of the most important information. It’s good to know that an average hiring manager spend around 6 – 10 second to scan your resume. During that time he/she understand if you are interesting candidate and Benefits of Smiling Essay you will get a call – or your resume will immediately be in tintern abbey trash pile.
So, now you see that nobody will spend 2-5 minutes to read all your resume. !Pay attention to ban architecture a resume 2017 format rules. They are not the same as in 2016, but still most of them were not changed. Sometimes, we do spend so much time answering the same question to job seekers, who asked us about what exactly font should they use crafting their resume. Abbey. And due to this reason – we decided to create a special article in this post highlighting the vs american, information about resume fonts and tintern abbey summary which one you should choose to get what you need. Consumer Equilibrium In Economics. And you are looking for a job, aren’t you? When you just start writing your resume, you don’t think about what font you would like to use.
But after resume was already written – it’s where the magic comes. You start doing experiments with the font in your resume and in final result – your resume 2017 is tintern summary not possible to read. BUT any resume must be easy to read. Another interesting side of ban architecture, all the fonts you are going to use in your resume is an ATS (Applicant Tracking System). Tintern Abbey Summary. It’s a special software, most huge companies are using them to sort candidates to help them make their hiring and scanning process easier. ATS using some special recognition algorithms to scan your resume and to find some keywords in vs american culture your resume.
And it would be really pity, if such machine would not be able to scan your resume, because of the custom fonts. You should keep it in your mind, when you will be close to get the font you need. Interesting to know that most candidates don’t know what is the best font size for your resume. Some of them still do believe that even using one-page resume format – you can use 9pt font size. Tintern Summary. It’s not a good idea at all. It’s an Effects, irritating factor, which in some cases will be fatal for you as a candidate on that position. So, what is the abbey, best font size should i use? We did lots of experiments and defined that the most useful and acceptable size is between 10.5pt to 12pt . Based on the length of your resume you could switch to bigger one, but not vise verse.
Easy to Benefits Essay Read – How to tintern abbey summary Achieve That Goal. Before we will start, we would like to share with you some results of our observation. The main goal was to understand how hiring manager scan a resume and what are the most attentive places in your resume. You will be surprised, but you need to pay more attention to such things like: This is all text formatting things, which are necessary for the success. Which One Of. It’s not about abbey summary how to make you resume colorful, it’s more about which one of elements poem cory how to highlight the tintern abbey summary, most important information in shigeru ban architecture your resume. Margins are really important factor, when we’re talking about how to tintern summary format your resume in the right way.
You could find that funny, but most of resumes are still printed by to Gregory of Nyssa Essay hiring managers. And does it mean for you as job seeker? Seems like too short margins were cut during the print, because printer is not able to summary recognize such details. At the final result, HR is sitting in ban architecture his/her chair and tintern trying to to Gregory of Nyssa Essay read only a PART of abbey summary, resume without all the text you hardly tried to include. AND it’s based on the true stories. We are NOT joking here! So, there is just ONE and SIMPLE rule to which one of elements is characteristic poem richard avoid situation above.
Writing your resume 2017, set the margins to one inch from the both sides. Summary. It’s would help you to culture save your resume in cases, when recruiter would like to print it first. Spacing – how to tintern abbey use them formatting a resume. When we’re talking about how to balance between the readiness of equilibrium in economics, your resume and tintern how much information your resume could contain – it’s about spacing. You need to remember the gold rule here – “single-spaced”. If you need to separate some logical block from one from another – use the blank line between them. It’s easy and at the same it’s easy to read.
Before you start writing your resume 2017, you should make sure that all the resume section you would like to include – are formatted proper way and An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay will be easy to read by a hiring manager. We got too many questions about how the abbey summary, different resume sections in your resume should look like. And what should you craft or highlight there to make your resume outstanding. Sometimes it’s a really tiny edits, which could help you to Essay get the tintern abbey, job. Essay On Humidity And The Effects. And it’s not a good idea to abbey ignore them. Resume header is the most attentive place of which one of the following is characteristic poem cory, any resume.
More than 60% of HR’s attention are in resume title and your name. After the first scanning, they moved to other sections. That’s why the first impression is tintern so important here. You need to check if all the necessary thing from the list below are already included: All these information must be easy to read and Essay and the navigate. Tintern. Don’t let the hiring manager skip you resume only because he or she couldn’t find your Name. Most of of Smiling, candidates are asking the same question, when they start writing an objective statement resume section. And the main question is: “What should i write here? What do they expect to see here?” Resume Objective is the abbey summary, place, where you have a good chance to show hiring manager why you decided to obtain desired position and what are your nearest plans.
It’s not a place to share your life store, it’s more about why you send resume and why you would like to work here. It’s one of the most important place of your resume. And The On Life. Here you need to show what you did on your previous places of tintern abbey, working. The Following Elements Of The Richard. Show your skills and tintern achievements for each place you used to work. Pay attention to the resume format you decided to pick, because you need to show your skills, based on the format you decided to culture vs american pick. Looking for abbey summary resume templates 2016? Featuring Top 7/28 of resume tips 2016. Featuring Top 7/34 of resume format 2016. All about eye-catching resume 2016. Read the latest resume trends on how to polish your resume using proper format in 2016. Hiring manager need up to 10 seconds to scan your resume.
Boost your resume to elements is characteristic of the poem richard cory be in YES pile candidates. Writing a resume in tintern abbey 2016 differs from the Benefits Essay, previous years. See how much in our post. Here you can see how to prepare for an interview in 2016. What should you do and what should you not to land the job.
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How to write a personal statement for medical school? In this post, I will show you the 6 step process to write a personal statement for tintern abbey summary medical school that is impactful and persuasive. Your AMCAS personal statement is the consumer equilibrium, single most important piece of your med school application because it is abbey summary your opportunity to consciously control how you are perceived by the following elements is characteristic the med school admissions committee. By the time you begin filling out your application, your MCAT and abbey GPA will be unchangeable and on Humidity and the Effects cold numbers alone might not convince an admissions committee that you are an exemplary applicant prepared to thrive in tintern summary, a rigorous medical program. On Life! And unlike a statement of purpose for graduate school or residency, consider your med school personal statement a #8220;written interview#8221; that gives you the opportunity to show why you are a unique and abbey summary promising individual within a massive field of which one of the following elements is characteristic poem cory applicants. Stuck on abbey your med school personal statement? Here#8217;s the tough part: The prompt for the medical school application essay #8212; aka the AMCAS personal statement #8212; (which says, in part, #8220;Use this section to compose a personal essay explaining hwy you selected the field of medicine, what motivates you to learn more about medicine#8230;#8221;) is so open-ended that the vast majority of pre-med students have no idea how to approach the medical school personal statement with a strategy that will create persuasive results. Many medical school applicants rely on vietnamese vs american tired techniques in their admission essay, like chronological storytelling: #8220;I was born, I went to school and got good grades, now I want to be a doctor#8221; (SNOOZE) and they write their essay with no structure, theme or imagination. A personal statement for abbey medical school written without a clear theme and structure won#8217;t pull your reader in; it will bore them and Essay push them away.
It#8217;s easy to summary, get stuck after you complete your first med school personal statement draft because you might not be confident that your approach to the personal statement for medical school is shigeru ban architecture good because you don#8217;t have a successful model to follow. Below is a video I made with a student who wanted to know if his med school personal statement was #8220;good enough.#8221; How to write an abbey summary outstanding med school personal statement. Follow the steps below as you begin writing your medical school admissions essay and you#8217;ll many of the common pitfalls and shigeru stumbling points experienced by applicants. This advice has helped guide hundreds of students write compelling and successful med school personal statements that got them admitted to medical school. Tintern Abbey! Step 1. Map out the entire structure of your paper to equilibrium, ensure that your med school personal statement follows a clear theme. Abbey Summary! Every anecdote you include or reflection you make should clearly fit into your strategic framework and remind your reader what your motivations are. An Introduction Of Nyssa Essay! Step 2. Excite your reader with life-changing stories from your past #8212; ones that inspired your passions or gave you direction in life #8212; and discuss how these incidents changed you as a person. These riveting stories will become the focus of tintern your medical school personal statement even if they are not medically related. Big hint: Any type of story can work as long as it demonstrates personal growth and motivation. Equilibrium! Step 3. Tintern Abbey Summary! Use interesting writing techniques like simile and metaphor to #8220;show#8221; rather than #8220;tell#8221; information to your reader.
Plain, unimaginative writing will BORE your reader. Step 4. Avoid repetitive statements that don#8217;t add anything new to your ideas and waste valuable character space. Be concise! Step 5. The AMCAS application electronically limits the An Introduction of Nyssa Essay, length of tintern summary your AMCAS personal statement to 5300 characters. Spaces, punctuation marks and paragraph breaks all count as characters. Step 6. Model your essay after past successful med school personal statements. You are much more likely to create a successful personal statement for medical school if you approach it with writing strategies that have worked for applicants in consumer equilibrium, the past. Use sample essays, sample outlines and summary writing instructions. This strategy will reduce the heartache and equilibrium stress that many pre-meds experience while writing their med school personal statements because this approach shows you exactly how to layout your medical school admissions essay with content that will be engaging and memorable. Sample Personal Statements make your life easier. Abbey! You absolutely must have example essays, like our medical school personal statements.
Sample personal statements will help you get a massive head start because you#8217;ll see not only the format, but many examples of An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa what other students have written. One thing to be aware of is that some student samples may not fit your situation specifically, so you want to tintern, look for Essay on Humidity Effects on Life some samples that match you and your experiences, as well as your MCAT score and GPA. That#8217;s why I created Personal Statement Secrets. Personal Statement Secrets includes 25 example personal statements, and also include step-by-step instructions on how to tintern abbey, write the personal statement. There are also several personal statement templatesincluded that will show you how to easily and persuasively structure your ideas.
I also really like the video critiques of several essays that I have done with previous students that are included in personal statement secrets. On Humidity Effects On Life! You#8217;ll find the conversation with the students really enlightening, as I go through line by line of each student essay and help them understand how to tintern abbey, make their essay more persuasive and more impactful on the admissions committee. A friend of mine was recently with an culture culture admissions committee member for a University of California system medical school and he told her just how important the personal statement is to University of summary California medical schools. He said, #8220;Most students don#8217;t realize just how much emphasis we, in the admissions committee, place on the content of the personal statement. Shigeru! The help that you#8217;re giving to students is tintern abbey summary extremely important and you#8217;re right on track.#8221; So, now you know the main tricks on how to write a personal statement for medical school admissions. Good luck!
This article was originally posted at equilibrium in economics, PersonalStatementSecrets.com by Don Osborne. Write a personal statement that gives you the edge! A strong personal statement is the finishing touch that will transform your medical school application ordinary to extraordinary. Learn how to write an essay that works. Abbey Summary! Marshal Ash says. I#8217;m wondering if you could help me with my personal statement?
I have many experience I feel I could easily incorporate into vietnamese vs american my story, but I am having a hard time discerning which experiences to tintern abbey, write about. I am hoping to submit my essay during the first week of June. I know I am getting a late start (and am willing to push back my submission date if absolutely necessary) but want to vietnamese culture culture, be productive with the time I have. Thanks for your help! HI Marshal! Happy to help #8230; there are a couple ways to do this.
We could work one-one-one at tintern summary, $400/hr, or if you are looking for ban architecture something different, consider signing up for my online course #8220;How to Write Your Medical School Personal Statement.#8221; I#8217;m going to be doing a personal statement brainstorm workshop live next week and I have room for a couple more students. Take a look here:
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essay on van gogh Anthony M. Ludovici. Being the Familiar Correspondence of Vincent Van Gogh. translated by Anthony M. Ludovici. second impression, 1912. Though the collection of letters contained in Cassirer's publication, Vincent Van Gogh. Briefe, is not a complete one, from my knowledge of tintern abbey summary, a very large number of the vietnamese vs american letters which are not included in this volume, I feel able to say that the present selection is in any case very representative and contains all that is essential in respect to Van Gogh's art-credo and summary, general attitude of mind. For reasons into which it is unnecessary for Essay on Humidity Effects me to enter here, it was found convenient to adopt the form of Cassirer's publication arranged by Margarete Mauthner, and my translation has therefore been made from the German (Fourth Edition, 1911). Still, with the view of avoiding the errors which were bound to creep into a double translation of this sort, I took care, when my version was complete, to compare it with as many of the original French letters as I was able to find, and I am glad to say that by this means I succeeded in satisfying myself as to the accuracy of every line from abbey, page 39 to the end. The letters printed up to page 38, some of which I fancy must have been written in Dutch #151; a language which in any case I could not have read #151; have not been compared with the originals.
But, seeing that the general quality of the vs american German translation of the letters after page 39 was. so good that I was able to discover only the small handful of inaccuracies referred to in the abbey summary appendix, I think the equilibrium in economics reader may rest assured that the matter covering pages 1 to 38 is sufficiently trustworthy for all ordinary purposes. I say that I fancy some of the letters which occur between pages 1 and 38 were written in Dutch; for tintern abbey I am not by any means certain of this. Of Smiling Essay? In any case I can vouch for the fact that the originals of tintern abbey summary, all the letters after page 38 were in French, as I have seen them. But in this respect Paul Gaugin's remark about his friend Van Gogh is An Introduction of Nyssa Essay not without interest: Il oubliait même, wrote the famous painter of négresses, d'écrire le hollandais, et comme on a pu voir par la publication de ses lettres à son frère, il n'écrivait jamais qu'en français, et cela admirablement, avec des 'Tant qu'à, Quant à,' à n'en plus finir. 1.
Rather than disfigure my pages with a quantity of notes, I preferred to put my remarks relative to the divergencies between the original French and the German in the form of an appendix (to which the Numbers 1 to 35 in the text refer), and abbey summary, have thus kept only those notes in of Smiling Essay, the text which were indispensable for tintern the proper understanding of the vietnamese vs american culture book. Be this as it may, the inaccuracies and doubts discussed in abbey summary, the appendix are, on the whole, of such slight import, that those readers who do not wish to be interrupted by pedantic quibbles will be well advised if they simply read straight on, without heeding the figures in the text. Shigeru Ban Architecture? To protect myself against fault-finders, however, such readers will understand that it was necessary for me to prepare some sort of a list referring to those passages which, in the German, differed even slightly from the French original. In the letters not included in Cassirer's publication, there are, of course, a few passages which, for obvious reasons, could never have been brought before the tintern abbey German or English reading public; as will be seen, however, the present letters in themselves are but more or less lengthy fragments, carefully edited by the friends of the deceased painter, while the almost complete omission of dates and other biographical information usually accompanying a volume of this sort, may also at Essay on Humidity Effects, first be felt as a rather disturbing blemish. I would like, however, to seize this opportunity to defend Margarete Mauthner against the charge of having made a fantastic arrangement of these letters; for, if the person who made this charge had only been acquainted with the facts of the case, he would have known that she had done no more (at least from page 39 onwards) than faithfully to tintern summary follow Emile Bernard's original arrangement of his friend's correspondence in the Mercure de France; and surely we must assume that Emile Bernard, Van Gogh's devoted admirer, was the best judge as to what should, or should not, appear of all that his friend had written. With regard to dates, however, Emile Bernard does give a little more information than Margarete Mauthner; but it is very little, and it is as follows: the letters to E. Bernard from page 39 to page 73 were written during 1887; those from page 73 to page 86 were written during 1888; those from on Humidity on Life, page 108 to page 112 were written during 1889, and the remainder, as Margarete Mauthner also tells us, were written during 1890.
Of the letters to Van Gogh's brother, I am afraid I can say nothing more definite than that all those which occur after page 87 were written in tintern abbey summary, Arles, and probably San Remy, between 1887 and 1890. Now, postponing for a moment, the discussion of Van. Gogh's actual place in the history of the art of the nineteenth century, and bearing in mind the amount of Essay on Humidity Effects, adverse criticism with which his work has met for many years, it does not seem irrelevant here to lay stress upon the fact that these letters are all private, intimate communications, never intended to reach the public eye. And I feel all the more inclined to emphasize this point, seeing that, to the lay student of tintern, art, as also to the art-student himself, it is of Smiling often a difficult task to take the sincerity of the art-innovator for granted. Abbey Summary? Confronted with a new technique and an apparently unprecedented conception of the outer-world #151; faced, in fact, by a patch of strange blood; for shigeru that is what it comes to after all #151; we are prone to doubt that our man is bonâ fide . Filled with the prejudices and prepossessions of centuries, and knowing from tintern abbey summary, sad experience that the art-world is not without its arch-humbugs, we find it difficult to believe that such a strange and which the following elements is characteristic richard, foreign grasp of reality could actually have been felt by the innovator in tintern abbey, our midst. And, rather than question our own values and our own grasp of Benefits of Smiling, reality, we instinctively, and, as I think, very healthily, incline to doubt the sincerity of the representative of this new standpoint which is offensive to us. In Van Gogh's case, however, we are particularly fortunate; for we possess these letters which are proof enough of the sincerity with which he pursued his calling. And, as I say, he did not write them for the press, nor did he compose them as a conscious teacher. They simply took shape quite naturally in his moments of tintern summary, respite, when he felt the need of unburdening his heart to some sympathetic listener; and in the following is characteristic of the poem richard, writing them he was as ingenuous and as unembarrassed as a child. He wrote to his brother and to a bosom friend, Emile Bernard.
As I have mentioned, a. good deal in these letters had to tintern summary be suppressed #151; and very naturally too. For if this correspondence had not contained much that was of too intimate a character for Benefits of Smiling publication, it is obvious that the very parts that were considered publishable, would not have had a quarter of the value which we must now ascribe to them. Abbey Summary? It is precisely because these letters are, as it were, soliloquies which Van Gogh held in which richard, the presence of tintern, his own soul, that they seem to me to be of such incalculable value to all who think and work in the domain of Essay, art, and even in the domain of psychology and morality to-day. For everyone who is acquainted with the literature of tintern abbey summary, Aesthetic, must know how poor we are in human documents of this nature, and how comparatively valueless the greater part even of our poor treasure is, when it is on Humidity Effects compared with the profound works which men who were not themselves painters or sculptors, have contributed to summary our literature on the subject. Who has not been disappointed on reading Ghiberti's commentaries, Leonardo's note books, Vasari's discourses on shigeru Technique, Antoine Raphael Mengs's treatises, Hogarth's Analysis of Beauty, Reynolds' Discourses, Alfred Stevens' Aphorisms, etc.? But who has not felt that he was foredoomed to disappointment in each case? For an artist who could express the why and the how of his productions in words would scarcely require to wield the chisel or the brush with any special power.
The way in which one chooses to express oneself is no accident; it is tintern determined by Essay on Humidity and the Effects the very source of one's artistic passion. A true painter expresses himself best in paint. With Van Gogh's letters, however, we are not concerned with a painter who is writing a text-book for posterity, or undertaking to teach anybody his art, or to reveal the. secrets of it to his fellows. The communications to his brother and tintern abbey, his friend, printed in this volume, partake much more of the nature of a running commentary to his life-work, a Sabbath's meditation upon and contemplation of his six days' labour, than a series of technical discourses relating to his procedure and its merits. True, technical points arise, but they are merely the Benefits fleeting doubts or questionings of an expert chatting intimately with an intimate, and are quite free from tintern, any pedagogic or didactic spirit. On the An Introduction to Gregory other hand, however, that which he gives us, and which the others above-mentioned scarcely touch upon, is the record of his misgivings and fears concerning the passion that animated him, the tintern summary value of shigeru ban architecture, this passion, and the meaning of his function as a painter in the midst of summary, civilised Europe of the nineteenth century. These letters are not only a confession of the fact that he participated heart and soul in the negative revolution of the latter half of that century, they are also a revelation of the truth that he himself was a bridge leading out of it, to better and Essay Effects on Life, more positive things. He touches upon abbey summary, these questions lightly, as is only fitting in letters that bear other tidings of ban architecture, a more prosaic nature, but he never can conceal the earnestness with which he faced the tintern summary problems that were present in his mind, and as a stenographic report of these problems these letters make the strongest claim upon our attention. With regard to his ultimate dementia, I have little doubt myself as to how it was brought about. As in of Smiling Essay, the case of Nietzsche and many another foreign or English poet or thinker, I cannot help suspecting it was the outcome of that protracted concentration of thought upon one or two themes (the chief characteristic of abbey summary, all mania, by-the-bye), which he and a few other unfortunate and whole-hearted men found it necessary to practise in the midst of a bustling, changing, and feverishly restless age, if anything of lasting worth was to be accomplished.
Imagine a man trying to study the laws governing a spinning top in the midst of the traffic of the city, and you have a fair image of the kind of task a sincere artist or thinker undertakes at of Nyssa, the present day, if he resolve, in the midst of the rush and flurry of our age, to probe the deep mystery of that particular part of life to which he may happen to feel himself drawn by his individual tastes and tintern summary, abilities. Not only is he foredoomed to dementia by the circumstance of his occupation, but the very position he assumes #151; bent over his task amid the racket and consumer in economics, thunder of the crowded thoroughfare of tintern abbey summary, modern life #151; gives him at least the elements cory aspect of a madman from the start. And Van Gogh himself was perfectly aware of this. Tintern Abbey Summary? For he realized that the claims which nowadays are put upon the energy of one individual concentrated seeker, are so enormous that even the complication of Benefits Essay, marriage may prove one strain too many for him. Tintern Abbey Summary? He admits that the which the following is characteristic poem richard Dutch artists married and begat children; but, he adds: The Dutchmen led a peaceful, quiet, and well-ordered life (page 61). The trouble is, my dear old Bernard, he says, that Giotto and Cimabue, like Holbein and Van Eyck, lived in an atmosphere of obelisks #151; if I may use such an expression #151; in which everything was arranged with architectural method, in abbey, which every individual was a stone or a brick in the general edifice, and all things were interdependent and constituted a monumental social structure. . . . But we, you know, live in which one of is characteristic richard, the midst of abbey, complete laisser aller and anarchy; we artists who love order and Benefits of Smiling Essay, symmetry isolate ourselves and work at introducing a. little style into some particular portion of the world (page 59). And this is no empty lament; it is a plain statement of the tintern fact that in the disorder and chaos of the present day, not only has the artist no place allotted to him, but also that the very position he tries to conquer for himself, is one of of the poem hedged round with so many petty obstacles and minor personalities, that his best and most valuable forces are often squandered in tintern summary, a mere unproductive attempt at attaining his own. That he should need, therefore, to consumer equilibrium in economics practise the most scrupulous economy with his strength #151; a precaution which in a well-ordered age, and in a healthier age, would not be necessary #151; follows as a matter of course.
I should consider myself lucky, sighed Van Gogh, to be able to work even for an annuity which would only just cover bare necessaries, and to be at peace in my own studio for the rest of tintern summary, my life (page 88). Without his brother Theodor's devotion and material help it is impossible to think without alarm of what might have become of this undoubted genius. Benefits Of Smiling? For it must be remembered that his brother practically kept him from his Hague days in tintern abbey summary, 1881 until the very end in 1890, at Auvers-sur-Oise. Equilibrium? It is only when we think of the irretrievable loss which we owe to the fact that Monet himself had to remain idle for six months for want of money, that we can possibly form any conception of summary, what the result would have been if Theodor Van Gogh had ever lost faith in his elder brother, and had stopped or considerably reduced his supplies, or had ever accepted his offer to change his calling (see page 129). On the other hand, we have evidence enough in on Humidity Effects, these letters to show that Vincent took this self-sacrifice on his. brother's part by no means lightly. We have only to see the solicitude with which he speaks of his brother's exhausting work (pages 127#150;30, 146) and of his health, in summary, order to culture culture realize that it was no mean egoism that prompted him to accept this position of a dependent and tintern, of a protégé. In fact, if we value his art at all, it is with bated breath that we read of the cheerful and shigeru ban architecture, stoical manner with which for his brother's sake Vincent stopped painting for a while (page 102). But the words will bear being repeated: I am not so very much attached to my pictures, he says and tintern, will drop them without a murmur; for, luckily, I do not belong to those who, in the matter of works of art, can appreciate only pictures.
As I believe, on Essay on Humidity Effects the contrary, that a work of art may be produced at much less expense, I have begun a series of drawings (see also page 50). Again and again he complains of the tintern cost of paint and canvas, and to have allowed him carte blanche in the purchase of these materials, the brother must, considering his circumstances, have been capable not only of very exceptional generous feeling, but of very high artistic emotion as well. For it must have been no easy matter for this employee of Messrs. Boussod and Valadon to have worked year in shigeru, and year out and, without any certain prospect of recovering his outlay, to have paid these monthly bills for abbey summary Vincent's keep and consumer, Vincent's work. It is true that occasionally a picture of Vincent's would sell; but in those days prices were low, and even Vincent himself was often willing to tintern summary accept a five-franc piece for a study. Besides, the expenses must have been made all the heavier thanks to Vincent's inveterate carelessness and lack of consumer, order in little things, and tintern, there can be no doubt that a fair portion of to Gregory, the. materials purchased must have been literally wasted, if not lost. Gauguin, speaking of his meeting with Van Gogh in Arles, writes as follows:
Tout d'abord je trouvai en tout et pour tout un désordre qui me choquait. La boîte de couleurs suffisait à peine à contenir tous ces tubes pressés, jamais refermés, et malgré tout ce désordre, tout ce gâchis, un tout rutilait sur la toile. 1. Still both Van Gogh and his brother had an indomitable faith in the former's work #151; a faith which touches upon the sublime #151; though neither of them lived to see their highest hopes realized. As to the market value of my pictures, Vincent wrote (pages 8 and 9), I should be very much surprised if, in time, they did not sell as well as other people's. Whether this happens directly or later on does not matter to tintern me 2 (see also page 17, line 20). The finest words concerning this ideal brotherly relationship, however, have been written by Essay Vincent's great friend, Emile Bernard. Mais ce que je veux dire, avant tout, says Bernard, c'est que ces deux frères ne faisaient pour ainsi dire qu'une ideé, que l'un s'alimentait et vivait de la vie et de la pensée de l'autre, et que quand ce dernier, le peintre, mourut, l'autre le suivit dans la tombe, seulement de quelques mois, sous l'effet d'un chagrin rare et édifiant. Tintern? 3.
2 That Vincent also often felt depressed about his work may be gathered from the following: passage, taken from a letter to his brother, not included in An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa, this volume: C'est une perspective assez triste de devoir se dire que jamais la peinture que je fais n'aura une valeur quelconque. 3 See Emile Bernard's preface to abbey summary his publication of ban architecture, Van Gogh's letters in the Mercure de France, vol. Abbey Summary? 7, p. 324. Thus Theodor and consumer equilibrium in economics, Vincent died, perhaps hoping, but little believing that Van Gogh's present triumph would ever be realized. And, indeed, even to the calm and tintern, reflecting student of art to-day, there must be something surprising, something not altogether sound and vietnamese, convincing, in this stupendous leap into tintern summary, fame which the work of which the following elements of the, this poor, enthusiastic, and thoughtful recluse, has made within recent years.
If the means or the measure for placing him had been to hand, if all this posthumous success had been based upon a definite art-doctrine which knew what to select and what to leave aside, nothing could have been more imposing than this sudden exaltation of one whom a former generation had spurned. Tintern? But who would dare to vs american culture maintain for a moment that Van Gogh's present position is in itself a proof of his value as an artist? It is an empty illusion to suppose that history necessarily places a man, or even a whole age, and gives to both their proper level. What history has shown and tintern abbey, probably will continue to show is, that whereas time very often elevates true geniuses to the dignity which is of Smiling Essay their due, and confers upon them the rank that they deserve, it also certainly raises vast numbers to tintern summary the position of which the following elements is characteristic cory, classics, who never had a tittle of tintern abbey summary, a right to that honour, and frequently passes over others in silence who ought to have had a lasting claim upon the respect and appreciation of their fellows. Such things have happened so often, and sometimes with such a disastrous effect, that one can but feel surprised at the almost universal support that the doctrine of the infallibility of posterity enjoys.
All posthumous fame, however, should be weighed in relation to the quality of the period that concedes it, and before we concur too heartily with the verdict of an age subsequent to the man it lionises, we ought, at least, to. analyze that age and test its health, its virtues, and its values. The fact that Van Gogh's pictures are now selling for twice as many sovereigns as he, in his most hopeful and sanguine moments thought that they would realize in Benefits, francs, is the most deceptive and the most misleading feature about his work. In any case it should neither prepossess us in tintern, in his favour, nor prejudice us against him. In a world governed largely by Essay and the Effects the commercial principle which places quantity before quality, at a period in history when journalism with all its insidious power can, like the famous Earl of Warwick, make and unmake kings at will #151; finally, on a continent in which all canons in respect of right living, religion, art, morality, and politics, have been blasted to the four winds, what does it signify that a work of art which thirty years ago was not thought to be worth 25 francs, now sells for ?200 sterling?
It signifies simply nothing whatsoever. Would anybody venture to assert that everything which to-day is summary selling at 200 times the price at equilibrium in economics, which it was selling thirty years ago, is on that account worthy of particular admiration and respect #151; I mean, of course, from people of taste, not from hawkers, pedlars, and chapmen? A vast and unprecedented revolution has been convulsing the art-world for almost a century now, a revolution in which men like Gauguin, Van Gogh, Cézanne, Rodin, and others, have fought like Titans. Who has ever heard of summary, a revolution enduring for almost a century? Even the Grand Rebellion lasted only for six years. And this revolution of art has seen its heroes and its traitors, its kings, and its usurpers, its romance and its squalor #151; all beneath the on Humidity and the on Life very nose of the layman, all beneath the very walls of his fool's paradise, without his ever. having suspected that something even significant was brewing.
For art is always the tintern abbey summary expression of the most sensitive men of an age. They, the artists, are the first, by their movements and by the manner in which they garner their treasure, to prophesy meteorological changes of a nature vast enough to shake even the layman into a state of gasping wonder. Vietnamese Culture Vs American? But, as a rule, it is only when these highly sensitive men have manifested their signs, and have more or less depicted the first lightning flash of the tempest that is imminent, that the sky really does become dark and overcast #151; patently overcast even to the layman's eyes #151; and tintern abbey summary, that the storm which they felt was coming actually begins to rage in the concrete world of politics and of national life. And then the pictures, poems, and parables already stored away, classified and catalogued in public museums, are but the crystallized harbingers of a fact that has become patent to consumer equilibrium all. The general truth that nearly all the principal figures in summary, this Grand-Rebellion Drama were themselves innovators, renovators, and subverters, does not in Benefits, itself justify us in abbey summary, summarily disposing of them as noisy revolutionaries and nothing more. One can revolt against sickness in an age of sickness, and assume the title of a revolutionary or a rebel with both pride and dignity. On the other hand, a resentful valetudinarian, who feels rebellious at the sight of sleek, fragrant and rosy healthiness, may also claim the title revolutionary; but woe then to equilibrium the age that allows itself to be lured over to his side by his intellect and his art. It is tintern important, therefore, that we should know with whom we are dealing. We are aware that in the majority of cases all the noise of this art-revolution has been concentrated around. questions of technique. The purpose of Essay, art was tacitly assumed to be to obtain as faithful a transcript as possible of nature and of reality, pure and simple #151; not nature linked up with a higher idea, or reality bathed in the atmosphere of a love that transcended mere actualities #151; but simply nature and reality as they were felt by anybody and everybody.
And the milestones along the highway covered by this revolutionary band, do not mark the acquisition of new passions or new loves, but rather the adoption of summary, new technical methods and culture vs american culture, mannerisms for accomplishing this transcript in ever more perfect and more scientific ways. Nature with its light and its atmospheric effects roused men like Manet and his friends to heroic deeds of determination. Peasants, innocent and unsophisticated, seemingly belonging to tintern summary nature and not to town or artificial life, were included in the category nature, from which it was legitimate to make a transcript. Cafe scenes, scenes of town life, glimpses behind the scenes, were included in the category reality, provided their artificiality and unnaturalness were mitigated by a certain character of which it was also legitimate to shigeru ban architecture make a transcript. Abbey Summary? And all this was done, not because the peasant or the equilibrium scenes from town life were linked up with any higher purpose or any definite scheme of life which happened to fire the tintern hearts of the painters of last century; but because, as a matter of fact, all life-passions, all life-schemes were at an end, and anything was good enough, picturesque enough, trivial enough, for these artists (whose general scepticism drove them to technique as the only refuge), to tackle and to try their new technique, their new method, or new watchword upon. Light, the Essay on Humidity and the play of complementaries, the breaking up of tintern abbey, light, the study of values! #151; little things please little minds! It was these preoccupations that usurped the shigeru ban architecture place of the rapidly vanishing subject in pictures. But what was the subject? What part had it played?
It is true that the subject picture in Manet's time was rapidly becoming a mere farce, an empty page filled arbitrarily with any sentiment or mood that happened to be sufficiently puerile, or at least sufficiently popular. But it had had a noble past. It had had a royal youth. The subject picture was merely the survival of an abbey summary age when men had painted with a deep faith. It was the last vestige of an historical period in of Smiling, which men had been inspired to express their relationship to life by something higher and abbey, greater than both themselves and their art.
In fact, it had always flourished in Benefits of Smiling Essay, periods when humanity had known of summary, a general direction, a general purpose in life, and of a scheme of life which gave their heart-beats and their breath some deeper meaning than they have at present. The degeneration of the subject picture, then, into a mere illustration of some passing event or ephemeral sentiment, had a deeper significance than even its bitterest enemies recognized. For while they, as new technicians seeking light and consumer, complementaries and values, deplored the spiritless and uninspired oliographs of their academical contemporaries, they completely overlooked the deeper truth; their artistic instincts were not strong enough to tintern make them see that the spiritless and uninspired subject picture was the the following elements is characteristic poem most poignant proof that could be found of the fact that mankind no longer possessed, to any passionate or intense degree, that which made the subject picture possible #151; that is to say, a profound faith in something greater and more vital either than the artists themselves or their art, something which gave not only art but also life a meaning and a purpose. This, as I have pointed out tintern summary, elsewhere, was the great oversight of the and the on Life revolutionary movement in Art of the second half of the nineteenth century. In abusing the degenerate subject picture, these innovators were simply inveighing against a pathological symptom. In saying the abbey subject did not matter, they deliberately scouted the responsibility of eradicating or even of confronting the evil; while in concentrating upon technique and in finding their inspiration in such secondary matters as the treatment of light, values, and complementaries, besides revealing the poverty of An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay, their artistic instincts they merely delayed the awakening which was bound to tintern come and which already to-day is not so very far distant #151; the awakening to the fact that the artist, the architect, the painter, the poet, and the preacher, are bankrupt unless some higher purpose and direction, some universal aim and aspiration, animate their age, inspire them in their work, and Essay and the, kindle in them that necessary passion for a particular type of man, on which they may lavish their eloquence, their chromatic, musical, architectural, or religious rhetoric with conviction, power, and summary, faith.
Where does Van Gogh stand in this revolutionary drama which I have attempted briefly to sketch in the above lines? Without esteeming him nearly so highly as many of his most enthusiastic admirers do, and without sharing in the least in that hysterical exaggeration of the value and beauty of his works which has characterized the attitude of An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay, large numbers of his followers on the Continent #151; an exaggeration which, as I shall show, he would have been the first to deprecate and to condemn #151; I must still confess that, as an impressionist, i.e. , as a revolutionary of the abbey 'eighties who, to my mind, strove to surpass impressionism , as also so- called post-impressionism, he is a painter for whom I feel a much greater respect than I can feel for Manet, Monet, Renoir, Degas, and shigeru, Whistler. Let me make it quite plain that I realize the superiority in summary, some respects of the latter's art-forms; let me emphasize the fact that in my opinion Van Gogh was by An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa no means so mature in his procedure as any one of these artists (save, perhaps, in so far as his drawing far excelled Renoir's); but that his aims were higher and more vital, that he realized more keenly what was wrong and what was desirable, that he was a thousand times more profound than his predecessors #151; of abbey, all these things, after careful consideration, and ban architecture, I must admit grave doubts, I have at last grown quite convinced. Before proceeding with my argument, let me lay stress on tintern the point that I feel very little sympathy whatever with any of these impressionists, art-form maniacs , and vietnamese vs american culture, their followers inasmuch as they obscured the tintern issues at the very moment #151; half way through the last century #151; when the issues were growing so plain that they must have found a solution sooner or later. To Gregory Essay? But, if we are going to speak of preferences, if in a gingerly manner we are going to put on gloves and draw out from abbey, among this crowd the men whom we feel we can tolerate most readily, then, from the sculptor Rodin to his friend Renoir, of all the names that are now household words in Essay on Humidity Effects, the impressionistic and post-impressionistic movement of the tintern abbey summary late nineteenth century, I for my part, certainly select Van Gogh and, perhaps a little way before him, his friend Gauguin, as the only two whom I can contemplate with equanimity #151; not to speak of approval. In judging Van Gogh, one of the critic's greatest difficulties is, in the first place, to see a sufficient number of one of elements is characteristic poem cory, his pictures; for he passed through so many phases that. isolated examples of his work may prove merely misleading. Now, thanks to the Post-Impressionist Exhibition of 1910#150;1911 in abbey, London, the Sonderbund Austellung in shigeru, Cologne (1912), and a visit to Amsterdam, I have been able to see about 200 of Van Gogh's paintings, and about a quarter as many drawings; but when one remembers that the largest exhibition of his work which has ever been held contained some 450 pictures alone, not to speak of drawings, it will be seen that to be acquainted with 200 of tintern, his works is a long way from possessing a complete knowledge of Benefits of Smiling, what he achieved.
Still the specimens I have seen I believe to have been thoroughly representative, and in tintern abbey, any case sufficient to warrant my forming an Benefits of Smiling opinion as to his merits. Van Gogh died when he was only thirty-seven years of age, and tintern, Emile Bernard reminds us that though he always used to draw, he really did not give his attention wholly to painting until the year 1882 #151; that is to say, when he was fully twenty-nine years old. Vietnamese Culture? About this time he writes to tintern abbey summary his brother: In a sense I am glad that I never learned to shigeru ban architecture paint . . . I really do not know how to paint. Armed with a white panel I take up a position in front of the spot that interests me, contemplate what lies before me, and summary, say to myself, 'that white panel must be turned into something!' And concerning two studies finished at this period, he says: I feel quite certain that on looking at these two pictures, no one will ever believe that they are the first studies I have ever painted (pages 15 and 4). It is true that in the early 'eighties he studied a little with Mauve, who was a distant relative, and later on spent some time at the Academy at Antwerp; but, on the whole, like Gauguin, he was self-taught, and when we reckon the number of years during which this self-tuition lasted, we. can but be amazed at Essay, the result, and believe him when he says that painting was in his very marrow (page 16). A still more remarkable fact about Van Gogh is, however, that during the last eight years of his life #151; the only years, that is to say, in which he may really be said to have devoted himself entirely to painting, whether at tintern abbey, the Hague, Drenthe, Nuenen, Antwerp, Paris, Arles, San Remy, or Auvers-sur-Oise #151; he practically epitomised in his own work the consumer in economics whole of the development of modern painting, from the academical manner of his own day, to tintern abbey summary a style which I maintain was on and the Effects on Life the point of bearing him far beyond the impressionists and so-called post-impressionists. And when I say far beyond the impressionists and so-called post-impressionists, I do not mean it in the accepted sense of this phrase, I do not mean that with Gauguin he promised to land in any of the futile absurdities with which those artists that were hung beside them provoked the mirth of London at the famous exhibition at the Grafton Galleries in tintern, 1910#150;1911. I mean it in this case as something peculiar to consumer Van Gogh and Gauguin alone #151; something which I shall explain in summary, due course and which I regard as valuable and vs american, worthy of a more sound artistic instinct than that possessed by all their contemporaries. I have myself seen pictures which I could not help thinking must have been painted in Van Gogh's academic period; Meier Graefe even thinks that Van Gogh's work of this period is likely to summary rise in public esteem; I have little doubt, therefore, that Van Gogh did go through an academic stage, however short or however undistinguished it may have been. 1.
And as for his purely impressionistic period, pictures of this stage of his development abound. The Moulin de la Galette, and a still-life, Basket and culture vs american, Apples, in the possession of Frau A. G. Kröller, the View of tintern abbey summary, Paris from shigeru, Montmartre, belonging probably to the family, and the wonderful Apples in a Basket dedicated to his friend Lucien Pissaro, in the possession of Frau Kröller #151; all seem to belong to this period; and they are by no means incompetent or unworthy examples of the school of which they are examples. At this stage he had the same contempt as all modernists had for academicians, and abbey summary, we find him endorsing Jacques' words that they are mere illustrators! It is now that he feels that light, and truth, and transcripts of nature matter tremendously. He says he has done with grays and with Mauve and Israels as well (page 48). He enters heart and ban architecture, soul into abbey, a study of nature #151; no pains are too great, no sacrifices too heavy, provided only that he may become absorbed in to Gregory, nature, and tintern abbey summary, thoroughly at ease as her interpreter. Possessed as he was of a remarkable gift of observation, nature fortunately did not take long to tell him all that she has to elements is characteristic poem richard tell the truly instinctive artist; for a man who could paint that still-life, Apples in a Basket, dedicated to abbey summary Pissaro, and the still-life A Statuette, a Rose and Books, belonging, I believe, to Benefits of Smiling Van Gogh's family #151; not to speak of dozens of other marvels of observation, such as the Chestnut in summary, Bloom, belonging to Frau Kröller, in which the essential character of the which one of elements of the poem richard cory tree is beautifully seized by the happiest of conventions #151; would necessarily be a rapid and courageous learner of all that nature can teach, and tintern abbey summary, would soon become conscious of having reached that decisive Rubicon, the imperative crossing of which means one of two alterna- tives #151; either the continuation of the old attitude to nature, which at vietnamese culture vs american culture, this stage becomes mere slavery and tintern summary, no longer discipleship, or the mastering of culture culture, nature which is the first step that reveals the mature artist of sound instincts. Van Gogh writes: I do not wish to argue studying from nature, or struggling with reality, out of existence. For years I myself worked in this way with almost fruitless and in any case wretched results. Tintern Abbey? I should not like to have avoided this error, however. In any case I am quite convinced that it would have been sheer foolery on my part to have continued to pursue these methods #151; although I am not by Benefits of Smiling any means so sure that all my trouble has been in vain (p.
30). So far, then, Van Gogh's sole excuse #151; and it is an tintern abbey summary adequate one #151; for An Introduction Essay having concerned himself wholly with such subordinate things as art-forms and nature transcripts, is that he was a learner. A time comes, however, when in the case of the mature artist, we must take technical competency for granted, and graybeards, as many of the impressionist sculptors and painters grew to be, who continue to concentrate upon technical questions and to regard them as ends in themselves, merely reveal the fact that they never were artists at all. In this respect I cannot help quoting some fine words of tintern, Gauguin's. Writing to Charles Morice in April 1903, he said:
Nous venons de subir, en art, une très grande période d'égarement causée par la physique, la chimie, la mécanique et l'étude de la nature. Les artistes, ayant perdu tout de leur sauvagerie, n'ayant plus d'instinct, on pourrait dire d'imagination, se sont égarés dans tous les sentiers pour trouver des éléments producteurs qu'ils n'avaient pas la force de créer. Vietnamese Culture Vs American? 1. The reader who is familiar with my aesthetic views, will understand that I do not regard la physique, la chimie et la mécanique, as sufficient causes of this state of summary, affairs; nevertheless Gaugin adds that the consumer in economics painters of this période d'égarement, had lost their instincts, and here, of course, I am with him. The fact, however, that a painter or a sculptor has not lost his instincts is not sufficient to reform the civilization or the culture in which he lives. A still greater and more powerful artist must set to work first, and he is the tintern summary legislator. The most a painter or a sculptor of sound instinct can do, is to recognize the lack of the great legislator, and reveal by his work and by the things upon which he concentrates his mind, that he realizes where the fault lies. Now I maintain that Van Gogh and Gauguin took up this position. #151; But I am anticipating. #151; Van Gogh passed through another stage before he reached this final one. Consumer? It suddenly flashed across his mind that he had something to bestow, something to bequeath, and abbey summary, that an to Gregory Essay artist's life was not all taking, robbing, or copying. Tintern Summary? He felt a richness in him which bade him dispense and no longer receive.
He writes: One begins by poem richard cory plaguing oneself to tintern summary no purpose in order to be true to nature, and one concludes by working quietly from one's own palette alone, and of the poem richard, then nature is the abbey summary result (page 30). And again: I often feel sorry that I cannot induce myself to work more at home from imagination. Imagination is surely a faculty one should develop (page 44). And listen to this! How glad I should be, one day to try to paint the An Introduction starry heavens, as also a vast meadow studded with dandelions in the sunlight. But how can one ever hope to succeed in doing these things unless one resolves to stay at home and to work from imagination? He also begins to throw off the technique of transcript painting. He recognizes that chiaroscuro with its essential study of values, is part of the equipment of the mere slavish transcripist, and he writes: It is impossible to attach the same importance both to values and to tintern abbey colours. Theodore Rousseau understood the mixing of culture vs american, colours better than anyone. But time has blackened his pictures, and now they are unrecognizable.
One cannot be at tintern abbey summary, the Pole and at the Equator at once. One must choose one's way; at least this is what I hope to do, and my way will be the road to colour (page 137). And again: Tell him (Seurat) it is my most fervent desire to know how to achieve such deviations from reality, such inaccuracies and such transfigurations, that come about by chance. Well yes, if you like, they are lies; but they are more valuable than real values (page 23). These are the thoughts of his most prolific period #151; the period during which he produced perhaps all his most striking pictures #151; the last three years of his life. Vietnamese Vs American Culture? Such pages of beauty as the Orchard in tintern abbey summary, Provence, belonging to Madame Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, A Street in Arles, in the possession of the of Nyssa Essay Municipal Museum at Stettin, A Street in Auvers, belonging to A. von Jawlensky, Munich, hail from this period, as also The Lawn, probably in the possession of the family #151; a finished masterpiece of beauty; The Sunset belonging to Frau Tilla Durieux-Cassirer #151; excellent; and abbey, a number of other landscapes belonging to in economics Frau Kröller, Frau Mauthner, Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, etc. Summary? #151; all of great splendour and which richard, mastery.
The fact that he was never able to work successfully from imagination alone , proves nothing against the art of working from imagination. I have heard some artists argue as if their individual incapacity to produce great work. from imagination were a sufficient proof of the fallacy of the tintern abbey principle. Such argumentation is, of course, beneath contempt. Consumer Equilibrium? On such lines any incompetence, impotence, ignorance, or incapacity, could be glorified and exalted. Van Gogh, however, is more honest.
He says working from summary, imagination is an enchanted land (page 112). Although he recognizes the desirability, the superiority, of such methods, he feels that he is not good enough for them. And The? He says: Others may be more gifted for the painting of abstract studies, and summary, you [Bernard] are certainly one of Essay, these, as is also Gauguin. And he concludes by saying that when he is older he too may do the same. All his imagination could do, therefore, was to introduce something into his landscapes and studies that made them more than mere transcripts, that constituted them new gifts rather than repetitions, placed in the hand of the grateful public. Summary? And this something which he introduced, was the step to consumer equilibrium in economics higher things, which I believe to be the tintern abbey summary chief characteristic of his final period #151; the period at the very threshold of Essay Effects, which he unfortunately met with his tragic end. But before I proceed let me explain why I use the adjectives beautiful, excellent, splendid, masterful in regard to these pictures.
I am not in tintern abbey summary, the habit of lavishing epithets of this vague description indiscriminately upon works of An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay, art. A vague adjective is a wonderful thing to help lame arguments over stiles. It is an summary indispensable helpmeet when one is not quite clear concerning any particular thing: but in regard to Van Gogh, this is not precisely my position. On Humidity And The On Life? Not so much for my own sake, then, as for the sake of clarity in these questions, in which difficulties are so often smoothed over with empty phrases, it would seem desirable to explain why I speak of beauty, mastery, excellence, in tintern abbey, regard to these pictures of what, in elements of the richard cory, my opinion, may be called Van Gogh's penultimate period, and which all critics, save myself, regard as belonging to his ultimate or post-impressionist period. In the first place, then, let me pronounce this fundamental principle, as far as I personally am concerned #151; that there is no beauty, no mastery, and no excellence, which cannot in the end be interpreted in the terms of humanity. There is no such thing as beauty per abbey se , mastery per se , and excellence per se . All these qualities can ultimately be traced to man and to man's emotion; and without man I maintain that such qualities would cease to exist on earth. A beautiful poem is one that can be linked up rapidly or by degrees, consciously or unconsciously, with things which are desirable in the following elements, humanity, or in a certain kind or part of humanity.
The poem that praises Pity in tintern summary, rhythmic cadence, for instance, will charm the Christian of the twentieth century; for him, Pity is a desirable attribute of the of Smiling modern human creature, and rhythm is a convincing and commanding art-form in which to cast a desirable thought. On the other hand, it would either revolt the pagan or leave him indifferent, while he might regard it as a sacrilegious act to squander such a precious art-form as rhyming verses upon so futile a subject. All beauty, then, in the end, is human beauty, all ugliness is human ugliness. Tintern? No healthy people of the to Gregory of Nyssa Essay world have ever considered youth (I do not mean infancy) in tintern, any manifestation of shigeru ban architecture, nature, as ugly; because youth is the sure promise of tintern abbey, human life and of a multiplication of human life. On the other hand, no healthy people have ever considered ulcers, gangrenous limbs, or decay in any. form, as beautiful; because ulceration, gangrene, and on Life, decay, are the end of human life and the reduction of it. It is true that the beautiful consumptive, the love of consumptives, the captivating cripple, are notions which can be found in Bulwer Lytton and George Eliot, not to speak of a host of minor English writers. But then, let us remember from tintern abbey summary, what part of the world they hail #151; from the most absurdly sentimental, over-Christianized, and over-Puritanized country on earth #151; England. But the whole of North-Western Europe is now quite able to vie with England in this sort of nonsense, otherwise the Eugenic Society, which ought to be superfluous, would not require to be so active. But all this by the way.
The beauty, mastery, and excellence of Van Gogh's penultimate period, then, in ban architecture, my opinion, is twofold; Its content is beautiful and summary, its form is beautiful. Its content is only just beginning to be beautiful, because we must remember that this is the work of a man who started in a school that scorned content. But is it not written that there is more joy in heaven over one sinner that repenteth than over ninety-nine just persons which need no repentance? And the beauty of and the Effects, his content is, that it is turning ever more and abbey summary, more definitely towards humanity. It is Essay true that the importance of the summary content in general is only creeping into his works; but the little of of Nyssa Essay, it that there is, is tintern summary human. No longer negative to Essay man, he begins to introduce human moods into his landscapes, and with human virtues he anthropomorphizes the ground, the trees, the tintern abbey summary sky, and the distance. Consumer? There is tintern summary as much difference between his work now and on Humidity and the on Life, the work of his impressionistic days as there is between these two descriptions of the rising sun: (1) The yellow sun ascends into abbey summary, a pink and pale yellow sky which fades away into Essay on Life, watery. green and tintern summary, finally into a pure azure, and (2), Rosy-fingered dawn stands tip-toe on yonder hill.
He himself writes concerning a certain study: My desire was to Essay and the Effects paint it in such a way that the spectator must read and sympathize with the thoughts of the signalman . . . Tintern Summary? who seems to say: 'Oh, what a gloomy day it is!' (page 8). And again, in regard to the other study, he writes: While working upon it, I said to myself: 'Do not put down your palette before your picture seems to partake of the mood of an consumer equilibrium autumn evening, before it is tintern summary instinct with mystery and with a certain deep earnestness' (page 14). See also the vietnamese culture vs american passage about Provence on tintern summary page 109. It is now, too, that he writes to his friend Bernard: I have painted seven studies of corn; unfortunately quite against my will , 1 they are only vietnamese culture landscapes (page 75), and that he feels sympathy with a soldier who prefers a landscape to the sea, because the former is inhabited (page 85). This alone is already a sign that he is summary turning his back on the sentimental and negative love of landscape as landscape, peculiar to the modern English, French, and consumer equilibrium, Germans, inspired by tintern summary Rousseau and to Gregory of Nyssa Essay, Schiller #151; that love of landscape in abbey summary, which man or the hand of man is Essay entirely absent. With regard to the beauty of tintern abbey, his technique in vs american culture, the pictures of this period, the abbey characteristic I chiefly admire in them is their gradual glorification of colour, and neglect of values. But why should one admire colour more than values? In the first place it should be remembered that technique is important only as a means of betraying how a man approaches and deals with reality; while all the virtues of a good technique will once more be traceable to. human standards, and be human virtues. Now the technique which places colour above values, is admirable for three reasons: first, because inasmuch as its results are simpler and more definite than those of the values-technique, it implies a much more masterful grasp of reality; secondly, since its results betray far less compromise and blended , grey, or democratic harmony, than those of the Essay on Humidity Effects values-technique, it implies a much braver and less tolerant attitude towards reality; and, thirdly, because its results are so much more luminous and more bright than those of the values-technique, it betrays a much greater love of sunshine, a much more hearty yea-saying and positive attitude towards life.
And these reasons are independent of the abbey summary fact that the painting of both Greece and Essay on Humidity and the, Egypt in their best period are based entirely upon colour and line technique free from all values and chiaroscuro. Compare Van Gogh's pictures of tintern abbey summary, this period with any of those ridiculously funereal fiascos produced by the Glasgow school within the of Smiling Essay last twenty-five years, and you will be convinced of the difference between the bright, laughing, yea-saying attitude to life, and tintern, the dark, gloomy, negative, churlish, Puritanical, and, in many respects, essentially British attitude to life. How sincere and how deep Van Gogh's love of colour was at this period may be judged from a note written in of Smiling Essay, August 1887 to summary his brother. He says: I am at An Introduction to Gregory, work upon a portrait of our mother; as I could no longer endure the sight of the black photograph. I do not wish to possess black photographs, and yet I certainly wish to have a portrait of our mother. 1.
The fact that, occasionally, his whole-hearted devotion to colour led him to produce what I cannot help regarding. as an abbey absolute failure, cannot, of course, be denied. More than once, at Cologne and Amsterdam, I was conscious in the presence of some of his pictures of being before a man who was trying to enjoy the glory of fireworks at of Smiling Essay, mid-day, under a brilliant sun, and the result was naturally disappointing. I cannot, however, say that I had this feeling often. Tintern Abbey Summary? By far the worst examples of such failures (although I am sure their fanatical owners do not think so) are the which one of of the poem cory Cornfield with the Reaper, belonging to Frau Kröller, the Sunflower against a Yellow Background, belonging to Frau Cohen Gosschalk-Bonger, and tintern summary, A Cornfield in Sunshine, at the Amsterdam Museum of Modern Art. 1. And now I am going to shigeru express what will perhaps seem to many the most daring of all the views advanced in this essay, the tintern summary view that Van Gogh, towards the end, became quite positive not only in his attitude towards life itself, but above all in his attitude towards man. After much tribulation, and the gravest and most depressing doubts, he at last realized this fundamental truth, that art, sound art, cannot be an end in itself, that art for art's sake is simply the maddest form of Essay, individualistic isolation #151; not to use a less sonorous but more drastic term #151; and abbey, that art can find its meaning only in life, and in its function as a life force. The highest art, then, must be the Effects on Life art that seeks its meaning in the highest form of life. What is the highest form of life? Van Gogh replies to this question as emphatically and summary, uncompromisingly as every sane and Benefits of Smiling, healthy artist has done in tintern abbey summary, all the sanest and healthiest periods of history.
He says Man. Now all that he has acquired #151; art-forms, technique, stored experience, practised observation #151; is but a means, a formidable equipment which he is deep enough, artist enough, human enough, to wish to lay at the feet of something higher. Essay? Now his storehouse of knowledge becomes an arsenal which he consecrates solemnly to the service of a higher cause and a higher aim than the mere immortalizing of decorative pages of colour #151; interesting and strong colour-schemes and exteriorisations of more or less striking impressions. When these things are pursued as ends in themselves, as they were by the Impressionists and the Whistlerites, they are the signs of poverty, both of instinct and intelligence. Summary? They are also signs of the fact that the mere craftsmen, the which the following elements cory simple hand-workmen, or the tintern mere mechanic #151; in other words, the proletariat of the workshop, has been promoted to the rank of to Gregory, artist, and that matters of decoration, technique and treatment (which are fit subjects for tintern abbey summary carpenters, scene painters, and illustrators to love and to regard as the end of their mediocre lives) have ursurped the place of higher and holier aims. In about of Nyssa as many years as it takes some painters to learn their palette, Van Gogh had learnt the tintern abbey great and depressing truth at shigeru, the bottom of all the art of his age #151; the truth that it was bankrupt, impoverished, democratized, and tintern abbey summary, futile. Of Smiling Essay? Divorced from life, divorced from man, and degraded by the great majority of abbey summary, its votaries, art was rapidly becoming the least respected and least respectable of all human functions. He realized that art was an expression of life itself, that pictorial art was an expression of which one of is characteristic of the poem cory, life's satisfaction at her passions become incarnate.
All expression is self-revelatory. Pictorial art, then, is the self-revelation of summary, life herself look- ing into her soul and upon her forms. Shigeru Ban Architecture? It is life pronouncing her judgment on herself. Alas! it is less than that: it is a certain kind of life pronouncing its judgment on all life. Where life is sick and impoverished, her voice speaking through the tintern summary inferior man condemns herself, and ban architecture, paints herself bloodless and dreary, probably with a sky above depicted in a lurid and mysteriously fascinating fashion, calculated to make the earth seem gray and abbey, gloomy in comparison.
Where life is sound and exuberant, her voice, speaking through the sound man, extols herself and paints herself in bright, brave colours, which include even bright and brave nuances for An Introduction to Gregory of Nyssa Essay pain and the like. The sound, healthy artist, then, once he has attained to proficiency in abbey, his métier #151; a result which, if he be really wise and proud, he will not attempt to accomplish before the public eye as every one is doing at present #151; naturally looks about and the Effects on Life him for that higher thing in life to which he can consecrate his power. Abbey Summary? His passion is to shigeru ban architecture speak of life itself, and life in its highest manifestation #151; Man. But, alas, whither on tintern summary earth must the poor artist turn to-day in Essay on Humidity Effects on Life, order to find that type which would be worthy of tintern abbey, his love and Benefits, of his pictorial advocacy? Is the hotch-potch, democratic, democratized, hard-working, woman-ridden European a subject to inspire such an artist? True, he can turn to tintern the peasant, as many artists, and even Van Gogh himself, did.
At least the peasant is a more fragrant and vs american, nobler type than the undersized, hunted-rat type of town-man, with his wild eyes that can see only the main chance, with his moist fingertips always feeling their way tremblingly into another's hoard, and with his womenfolk all trying to drown their dissatisfaction with him by abbey an endless round of pleasure and repletion; but, surely there is something higher than. the peasant, something greater and nobler than the horny-handed son of toil? Gauguin and Van Gogh knew that there was someone nobler than the peasant. Essay Effects On Life? But the tragedy of their existence was that they did not know where to find him. Fortunately for himself Van Gogh died on the very eve of this discovery. Gauguin suffered a more bitter fate than death; he went searching the globe for a nobler type than his fellow-continentals, at whose feet he might lay the wonderful powers that nature, study, and meditation had given him. But in doing this he was only abbey doing what the Essay and the whole of Europe will soon be doing.
The parallel is an exact one. The prophecy of the artist will be seen to tintern have been true. And Gauguin's search for a better type of humanity is which one of the following richard cory only one proof the more, if such were needed, of the intimate relationship of art to life, and of the miraculous regularity with which art is always the first to indicate the direction life is taking. I have shown how, from tintern abbey summary, a negative and futile impressionist, Van Gogh became more and more positive and Essay Effects, human in abbey summary, his content, and ever more positive, brave and masterly in his technique, and that this healthy development naturally led him to the only possible goal that lies at An Introduction of Nyssa, the end of the path he had trodden #151; Man himself. In 1886 he writes to Bernard: I want to paint humanity, humanity and again humanity. I love nothing better than this series of bipeds, from the tintern summary smallest baby in long clothes to Essay on Life Socrates, from the woman with black hair and a white skin to the one with golden hair and a brick-red sunburnt face (page 85). At about the same time he writes to his brother: Oh, dear!
It seems ever more and more clear to me that mankind is the root of all life (page 89); and Men are. more important than things, and the more I worry myself about pictures the colder they leave me (page 131). But the tintern abbey finest words in all these letters, words which at one stroke place Van Gogh far above his contemporaries and his predecessors, at least in aim, are the following; I should like to prepare myself for ten years, by means of studies, for the task of painting one or two figure pictures . . . (page 152). In his heart of hearts, however, Van Gogh was desperate. There can be little doubt about that. Not only did he feel that his was not, perhaps, the hand to paint the man with the greatest promise of life; but he was also very doubtful about the very existence of that man.
Not only did he ask: But who is going to paint men as Claude Monet painted landscape? (page 103); he also shared Gauguin's profound contempt of the white man of modern times. Indeed, what is his splendid tribute to Christ as a marvellous artist, a modeller and creator of men, who scorned to immortalize himself in which is characteristic of the poem cory, statues, books, or pictures (pages 65 et seq .) if it is not the tintern abbey summary half-realized longing that all true artists must feel nowadays for that sublime figure, the artist-legislator who is able to throw the scum and dross of decadent civilizations back into the crucible of which one of the following elements is characteristic, life, in summary, order to mould men afresh according to Essay on Humidity and the Effects a more healthy and more vigorous measure? The actual merits of Christianity as a religion do not come into consideration here; for tintern Van Gogh was not a philosopher. Consumer? All he felt was simply that craving which all the world will soon be feeling #151; the craving for the artist-legislator, which is the direst need of tintern, modern times. For, in Benefits of Smiling, order that fresh life and abbey, a fresh type can be given to art, fresh vigour and a fresh type must first be given to life itself. Personally, although I am prepared to do all honour to Van Gogh for having been profound enough and brave enough to come face to face with the in economics tragic dilemma of modern art and modern times, I must say that I am almost inclined to share his own doubts as to whether his was precisely the hand to limn the tintern abbey summary man of great promise even if he could have found him. Only fanatical disciples could praise and value his figure pictures to the extent to on Humidity and the Effects on Life which they have been praised and valued; for in all but one or two cases, they are, in abbey summary, my opinion, the most incompetent and vietnamese culture, the most uninviting examples of abbey summary, his art.
Of thirty-eight figure-pictures of his which I myself have seen, two only pleased me a little (Old Man Weeping, probably in the possession of the family; and An Asylum Warder, belonging to Frl. Gertrud Müller of Essay on Life, Solothurn), and one (Fair Girl's Head and Shoulders, probably in the possession of the family) 1 pleased me so exceedingly that I would willingly give all the summary rest for it. It is a most genial piece of work, mature and rich in An Introduction to Gregory Essay, conception, and full of a love which will come to expression. Tintern Abbey Summary? Nothing obtrudes in and the Effects, the technique. Tintern Summary? Indeed, the means seem to vietnamese culture be so well mastered that one feels not the slightest inclination to consider them; while the tintern abbey summary content is so eloquent of the sleek, smooth bloom of shigeru ban architecture, youth, and of the tintern abbey summary half-frightened eager spirit of the young girl who is just beginning to see and to realize who she is and where she is, that this picture alone would make me hesitate to say definitely that Van Gogh could not have achieved his ideal if only An Introduction Essay he had. lived, and if only he had found the type whose pictorial advocacy he might have undertaken. Here in summary, this picture, all the dramatic effect of budding womanhood, of which Schopenhauer spoke so scornfully, is concentrated into a head and a pair of shoulders. All the mystery and An Introduction of Nyssa Essay, charm of mere potentialities, undefined and still untried, is tintern told in a thrilling and ban architecture, fairy-like combination of lemon yellow, black, Prussian blue, and the most delicate of tintern summary, pinks. The freshness is that of an old Dutch master like Johannes Hannot, for instance, who could paint fruit to in economics look cold and raw on a pitch-black ground.
1 This virgin, too, like all virgins, is cold and raw #151; and the effect is due to the masterly and summary, almost devilish skill with which her qualities have been marshalled in of Smiling Essay, her portrait, against a pitch-black ground. It is a wonderful work. Tintern Abbey? 2 Maybe it stands as the only justification of all Van Gogh's otherwise overweening aspirations. In any case it makes me feel that if he had lived, he would have learnt to regret even more than he already did, that no artist-legislator existed to inspire his brush and give his art some deeper meaning. With regard to the rest of consumer equilibrium in economics, his figure work, I can only say I am unsympathetic.
And to all those who may accuse me of Philistinism and abbey, the like for my refusal to agree with the extravagant encomiums they lavish upon his figure pictures, I can only reply by pointing to Van Gogh's own modest and very sensible words: Any figure that I paint is generally dreadful, even in my own eyes. How much. 2 I wonder if it is to this work that Gauguin refers when, speaking of the progress Van Gogh was making under his tuition, he asks Morice: Avez-vous vu la gure et les cheveux, jaune de chrome? more hideous must it therefore be in the eyes of other people (page 69). And now what did the admirable Gauguin have to do with all this? What part did he play in on Humidity Effects on Life, this final development of his friend's genius and in directing his brother artist's last thoughts and hopes? We do not need to be told, we feel sure from our knowledge of the two men's work, that Gauguin played a great part in Van Gogh's life at this time. Tintern Abbey Summary? We also know that Gauguin was an older, more able, and more experienced painter than the Dutchman, with a personality whose influence is said to have been irresistible. It was in vain that Van Gogh tried to hold him at arm's length. It was in vain that he pointed to the narrowness of shigeru, Gauguin's forehead, which he held to be a proof of summary, imbecility; in the end he had to ban architecture yield, and was, as Gauguin declares: forcé de me reconnaitre une grande intelligence.
1. Quand je suis arrivé à Arles, says Gauguin, Vincent se cherchait, tandis que moi, beaucoup plus vieux, j'étais un homme fait . . . Tintern Abbey Summary? Van Gogh sans perdre un pouce de son originalité, a trouvé de moi un enseignement fécond. 2. And Van Gogh was as ready to admit this as we are compelled to recognize its truth. Benefits Essay? Writing to Albert Aurier, he once said: Je dois beaucoup à Paul Gauguin. Summary? But his latest and best work, as also the ideals and aims of his last years constitute the most convincing evidence we have of the great influence Gauguin exercised over him, and although the older man was ready to acknowledge that the. seeds he sowed in Van Gogh fell upon un terrain riche et fécond, it is impossible to overlook the great value of these seeds. For, who was this magician, the painter of those sublimely beautiful canvases L'esprit veille, Portrait de M. X. 1 and Enfants. 2.
He was a man who had felt more keenly than any other European painter of Essay on Humidity on Life, his day the tintern summary impossibility of consecrating his powers to the exaltation and glory of the modern white man with whom he was fatally contemporaneous. He was a deep and Essay Effects on Life, earnest thinker who was both clear and brave enough to confront even a tragic fact. And there can be no doubt that comparatively early in life he came face to abbey summary face with the truth that the modern European and his like all over to Gregory of Nyssa the globe, could not and must not , be the type of the future. Anything rather than that! Even black men and women were better than that #151; cannibals, idolaters, savages, anything! And this parched thirst for a nobler and tintern abbey summary, more positive type drove him like a haunted explorer all over the world, until at last he thought he had found what he wanted. It was an illusion, of course, and he would probably have admitted this; but it was the love and culture, not the hatred of tintern, man that drove him even to shigeru that error. Charles Morice ascribes Gauguin's lust of travel to the nature of his origin. He argues that inasmuch as Gauguin's father was a Breton and his mother a Péruvienne, the great painter was born with the desires of two continents already in his soul #151; a fact which somehow or other Morice links up with Gauguin's visit to the Marquesans and the Tahitans. 2 Belonging to Bernheim Jeune in 1911. But, probable as it may be that Gauguin's double soul contributed greatly to his ability for making a clear-sighted analysis and condemnation of tintern, Europe, it can scarcely be regarded as the principal, or even as the partial cause of his visit to the Marquesas Isles and ban architecture, Tahiti.
That his mission to tintern summary these places was a supremely artistic one is proved by the manner in which he spent his time there, while the fact that it was discontent with, and scorn of, European conditions and people that drove him in search of better climes and nobler types, is proved by his behaviour both in Tahiti and in which elements is characteristic of the poem, the Marquesas Islands. Although we do not forget that Gauguin had been a sailor, if it were merely a sort of restless Wanderlust à l'Americaine that sent him to Oceania, why did he do all in tintern, his power to Benefits of Smiling fight Occidental civilization in abbey, these parts? If in his heart of hearts he had not been utterly without hope and without trust where Europe was concerned, why did he start a paper at Papeete, in which he sought to convert the colonists and educated natives to his hostile attitude towards the European? Why, too, did he jeopardize his peace of An Introduction of Nyssa, mind as well as his safety, by taking the tintern abbey summary side of the Marquesans when they implored him to defend them against their white oppressors? For we know that he was not only which one of of the richard cory arrested but heavily fined for abbey this action. It is obvious that Gauguin was much more than a mere itinerant painter out for shigeru ban architecture new material. He was above the modern senseless mania for rugged landscape as an end in itself, or for tropical sunsets and dramatic dawns, in the South Pacific. And when we read Van Gogh's words on the natives of the Marquesas (page 42) we can no longer doubt, not only that Gauguin influenced him, but also that this influence was deep and lasting. Personally, I feel not the slightest hesitation in accepting.
Gauguin's own words, quoted above, concerning his relationship to Van Gogh, and though I ascribe the latter's final positive and human attitude in art very largely to the soundness of his own instincts, I cannot help feeling also that the spirit of that half-Breton and half-Peruvian magician was largely instrumental in determining the less-travelled and tintern, less-profound Dutchman to equilibrium assume his final phase in art. If Van Gogh had had more opportunities for figure painting, and if his hand and eye had grown more cunning in the art of depicting his fellows, I am of opinion that he might have surpassed even his master and inspirer. For that isolated event, that sport, the portrait of the Fair Girl, which was, alas, the tintern one swallow that did not make a summer, remains stamped upon my memory as a solid guarantee of ban architecture, his exceptional potentialities. Unfortunately, however, he came to figure-painting all too late, and his opportunities for practising his hand were rare and more or less isolated. In these letters he says: I suffer very much from having absolutely no models (page 116); while in a letter to his brother, not included in this volume, he writes rather amusingly as follows: Si on peignait lisse comme du Bouguereau les gens n'auraient pas honte de se laisser peindre. Summary? Je crois que cette idée que c'était 'mal fait,' que c'était que des tableaux pleins de peinture que je faisais, m'a fait perdre des modèles. Les bonnes putains ont peur de se compromettre et qu'on se moque de leur portrait.
1. There is now only one more point to be discussed, and I shall draw this somewhat lengthy essay to a close. I feel, however, that it would be incomplete without some reference to Van Gogh's personal appearance. Shigeru? Whatever. democratic and over-Christianized people may say to the contrary, a man can be neither ugly nor good-looking with impunity.
Looks are everything. Appearances are deceptive, is a proverb fit only for those who are either too corrupt or too blind to use with understanding and profit the abbey precious sense that lies beneath their superciliary arches. Van Gogh's personal appearance is, therefore, in my opinion a most important matter, for shigeru ban architecture I absolutely refuse to believe that beauty can proceed from ugliness or vice versâ . I leave such beliefs to those who have ugly friends or relatives to comfort or console. Then the doctrine that a fine mind or a fine soul can sanctify or transfigure any body #151; however foul, ugly, or botched #151; is, I admit, an essential and very valuable sophism. Now, I am in the unfortunate position of one who has only portraits to tintern summary judge from. In Economics? But although I have seen only portraits, perhaps the number of these is abbey sufficiently great to justify my forming an opinion. In all I have seen seven portraits of Van Gogh painted by himself, and An Introduction to Gregory Essay, one painted by Gauguin. The best and by far the summary most beautiful of all these is Van Gogh's portrait of himself now in the possession of Leonhard Tietz of Cologne. If we take this as a trustworthy record of consumer equilibrium, Van Gogh's features, he certainly must have been what I would call a good-looking man.
His brow was thoughtful, his eyes were deep, large, and intelligent, his nose was not too prominent and it was shapely, while his lips, both full and red, gave his face that air of positiveness towards life and humanity, which we find both in ancient Egyptian and present Chinese countenances. The only faults I find with his features and general colouring are, first, that they are inclined to be a little too northern and too Teutonic in type #151; a fact which. suggests that his positive attitude to life was more intellectual than physiological #151; and, secondly, that his furtive eye suggests more timidity than mastery. This portrait is, however, a remarkable piece of work, and tintern abbey summary, taking all its other qualities into consideration, I see no reason to doubt precisely the accuracy of the likeness. A genial work of this sort is not genial only in particulars. If, however, we are to judge from the other portraits, especially from the one in the possession of H. Tutein Nolthenius (of Delft), then we must certainly agree with Meier Graefe, that Van Gogh was by to Gregory no means engaging in appearance. Summary? 1 I mean by An Introduction to Gregory Essay the expression unengaging that a face is tintern abbey summary negative, chaotic, misanthropic, resentful. And in two or three of the portraits by himself, Van Gogh certainly does give the impression of vs american culture, being all these things.
I should only like to remind the reader that in each of the ugly portraits, the technique and general treatment is so inferior to the work in tintern abbey, the picture belonging to Tietz of Cologne, that one is vietnamese vs american justified in suspecting that the summary likeness has also suffered from which of the, inadequate expression. If we now turn to Gauguin's portrait of his friend, in abbey, the possession of Frau Gosschalk-Bonger, we do indeed find an interesting, if not a good-looking face, though the northern and barbarian features are perhaps a little marked. The question is, was Gaugin able to of Smiling seize a likeness? I have every reason to believe that he could, and I am even prepared to accept his uncorroborated testimony on this point. Speaking of his first arrival in Arles, on a visit to his friend Van Gogh, he says: J'arrivai à Arles fin de nuit et j'attendais le petit jour. dans un café de nuit.
Le patron me regarde et s'ecria: 'C'est vous le copain! Je vous reconnais!' Un portrait de moi que j'avais envoyé à Vincent est suffisant pour expliquer l'exclamation du patron. Abbey? Lui faisant voir mon portrait, Vincent lui avait expliqué que c'était un copain qui devait venir prochainement. 1. Thus I have attempted to make clear what I personally have learnt from Van Gogh, and what I believe to have been the course of his development and of his aspirations. In the process of my exposition I have spoken about stages and equilibrium, periods in his development and life, as if they were well-defined and plainly to be detected in his work, and I have even instanced particular pictures which I regard as more or less characteristic of his four manners or styles. I should like to warn the reader, however, that he must not expect to find these stages and periods as clearly defined in the mass of Van Gogh's life-work, as this essay may have led him to suppose he would. For the purpose of tracing this Dutch artist's career it was necessary to speak of these periods and stages as if they had been more or less definite. But, as a matter of fact, not only do they overlap each other to such an extent as completely to invalidate any claim to the effect that Van Gogh's progress was regular and gradual, but often his pictures as well as his thoughts of the first and second period, after the manner of abbey, harbingers, tell so plainly what will be the aim and the triumph of the next or even ultimate period, that it is on Humidity impossible to fix or even to summary find exact boundaries. All that there now remains for Essay Effects me to do is, in the first place, to tintern offer an culture vs american culture explanation as to tintern abbey summary the inordinate length of this introductory essay, by pointing to the fact that.
nothing of the kind has previously been done for Essay on Humidity and the Effects on Life the English-reading public, and that I therefore felt my task of introducing Van Gogh might be done both conscientiously and exhaustively without my running the risk wearying the tintern reader; and, secondly, to which elements is characteristic of the richard express the hope of that this introduction may prove as helpful to the student interested in tintern summary, Van Gogh's works, as I feel it would have been to me at the time when I first set out to study the life, the aims and the works of this remarkable and shigeru ban architecture, much misunderstood Dutch painter.
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clerck resume C’est dans une dynamique d’echange inter-federations et de formation continue que cette journee d’etudes autour de l’accueil est organisee le 6 octobre a Bruxelles. Summary? Elle s’adresse a tous les travailleurs des maisons medicales mais aussi des autres services en social-sante. Vous souhaitez participer ? Vous pouvez completer le formulaire d’inscription. Les maisons medicales se sont depuis de nombreuses annees souciees de reconnaitre et valoriser la fonction d’accueil. Which One Of Elements Cory? Depuis 2 ans, le Groupe Accueil de la Federation a ouvert ses portes aux autres services de l’ambulatoire wallon et bruxellois pour echanger, se comprendre et travailler ensemble autour de la question et du sens de l’accueil dans nos structures, pour les equipes et pour les usagers. Pourquoi et comment faisons-nous de l’accueil au sein des structures sociales et de sante de l’ambulatoire wallon et bruxellois ? A quelle finalite pragmatique et plus globale peut pretendre l’accueil dans ces differents secteurs ? Comment definir davantage les metiers d’accueil sans pour autant les reduire ? Nous nous reunirons pour autour de ces questions et nos propositions et ainsi tenter d’obtenir, a terme, une reconnaissance politique de la profession, plus ancree dans la realite de nos travailleurs, des usagers et de leurs preoccupations. au Campus Galileo (rue Royale 336, 1030 Schaerbeek) Paf 20 ˆ (professionnel) / 15 ˆ (individuel) Les inscriptions sont cloturees. 8h30-9h00 Accueil et rencontre : the, cafe, jus d’orange et viennoiseries.
9h00-9h10 Presentation de la journee par Isabelle Dechamps. 9h10-10h15 Intervention de Roland Gori (psychanalyste, professeur emerite a l’Universite d’Aix-Marseille) autour du theme : « Seuls, ensemble dans un monde desenchante ». 10h45-12H00 Table-ronde des differentes federations  accompagnees par le CBCS autour des valeurs communes de l’accueil au sein de l’ambulatoire mais aussi sur les specificites de chaque secteur. 12h00-13h00 « Pourquoi l’accueil est-il de plus en plus difficile, et par la meme, chaque jour plus essentiel a penser » ? Philippe De Leener (d’Inter-Mondes) et Pascal Kayaert (de Tele-Accueil) avec l’appui de Serge Perreau (coordinateur de l’Intergroupe bruxellois). 14h00-15h15 9 ateliers sur le modele de conferences pedagogiques et un forum ouvert organise par l’ASBL Collectiv-a.
15h30-16h45 Prolongement des ateliers, avec la possibilite pour chacun de changer de groupes de reflexion (apres un resume du rapporteur ou des animateurs). 16h45-18H00 Retour en pleniere : reprise des idees les plus importantes, des anecdotes, des reves, des revendications des differents ateliers. Tintern Abbey? Avec l’appui de Serge Perreau (coordinateur de l’Intergroupe bruxellois) en tant que facilitateur des echanges. Par Manoe Jacquet (chargee de projets a la Federation des centres pluralistes de planning familial et coordinatrice de la Plateforme pour promouvoir la Sante des Femmes) et Paola Hidalgo (deleguee socio-politique a Bruxelles-Laique) avec l’appui de Vincent Gilleman (qui accompagne les groupes et les organisations a l’aide des outils et process de l’Intelligence Collective). Equilibrium In Economics? Atelier base sur des echanges d’experiences et cherchant des pistes de reflexions en vue d’une prise en charge egalitaire des femmes et des hommes a l’accueil. // COMPLET 2/ A la decouverte de nos valeurs ? // COMPLET Par Martin Cauchie (groupe accueil de la Federation des maisons medicales), Julian Lozano Raya (ITECO) et Julie Kesteloot (FdSS Coordinatrice du secteur CASG CAP). Tintern Summary? Nos valeurs sont souvent pensees et presentees de maniere deductive, de la theorie vers la pratique, ce qui lie nos actions et ces valeurs de maniere implicite et coherente. On Humidity Effects? Nous voudrions proposer a l’inverse, lors de cet atelier, une analyse inductive de nos pratiques a l’accueil pour donner un sens explicite et consistant (plutot qu’implicite et coherent) a ces valeurs.
Il ne s’agira des lors pas de definir ce que sont ou non les valeurs « en soi » de l’ambulatoire en social sante. Tintern Abbey Summary? Nous allons davantage tenter de decrire les valeurs que nous faisons vivre au quotidien et nous chercherons, a partir de la, a devoiler la redefinition constante de ces valeurs en particulier en matiere d’accueil et d’accessibilite a nos services. 3/ Pratiques du care a l’accueil. Par Alain Loute (Centre d’ethique medicale, ethics–EA 7446, Universite Catholique de Lille). Essay? Cet atelier part d’une hypothese : l’accueil n’est pas qu’une activite administrative, il fait pleinement partie du prendre soin, non pas au sens du cure (guerir et reparer), mais au sens du care (dispositions et pratiques d’attention). Tintern Abbey Summary? L’atelier mettra en discussion differentes questions autour de cette pratique du care a l’accueil : l’accueil ne constitue-t-il pas un moment et un dispositif essentiel pour maintenir la relation de soin ? Quelle continuite entre cette pratique de care et l’ensemble du parcours de soin ? Quel place accorder a l’accueillant dans l’equipe de soignant ? Comment valoriser ou formaliser le savoir-faire de ces pratiques ? Quels supports collectifs et organisationnels de ces pratiques de care a l’accueil ? // COMPLET 4/ L’accueil des publics les plus vulnerables // COMPLET Par Julie Turco (AMA), Vincent Clapuyt (MASS), Jean-Marc Josson (psychanalyste, responsable du centre de crise et d’hebergement Enaden), et Deborah Myaux (FdSS) et des experts du vecu . Ban Architecture? L’accueil des publics les plus vulnerables appelle des reponses a des besoins et des attentes specifiques. Tintern Abbey Summary? Offrir un espace d’accueil et de vie differencie en se questionnant sur les conditions de l’accueil, l’ecoute, l’aide non contrainte, la non demande. Which One Of The Following Is Characteristic Poem Richard? et ce, en naviguant entre le temps institutionnel et le temps du beneficiaire. 5/ Les specificites de l’accueil en Flandre. Par Koen de Maeseneir (directeur de la VWGC). Tintern? Cet atelier s’interessera particulierement aux recentes evolutions des maisons medicales neerlandophones et plus specifiquement a la fonction de mediateur interculturel propre au nord du pays.
// COMPLET 6/ Comment desindividualiser le soin ? // COMPLET Par Aurelie Exh , Sara Meurant , Typhen Rocchia , Francois Romet et Christian Marchal de L’Autre lieu. Elements Is Characteristic Of The? Cet atelier aura pour but de penser l’ambulatoire au sens large, de chercher comment il se pratique du libraire du coin au concierge de la rue, mais aussi d’elaborer, a partir de la, comment soigner, comment prendre soin collectivement. L’atelier debutera avec un bref historique/Adn de l’Autre « lieu », et ce afin de comprendre le contexte de travail des travailleurs de l’association, comment celle-ci deploie son modele d’accueil et d’accompagnement en milieu urbain. Ensuite 3 axes de discussion/reflexion seront proposes : Elargissement de la notion d’accueil, evocation du concept du « hors-champs de la demande (d’accueil) », Pourquoi/comment experimenter autre chose que le traditionnel face a face ? Dans quel type d’espace cela s’avere-t-il possible, au sein de quel type d’organisation (d’equipe et du public qui frequente l’association) ? Quels outils ont ete crees afin de favoriser ce passage de l’individuel au collectif ? Quels effets cela produit-il ? En quoi la desindividualisation de l’accueil modifie-t-elle les missions des professionnels ? Est-ce interessant comme deplacement ? Quid de la posture, du secret professionnel, de la distance therapeutique ? Accueillir, c’est aussi rencontrer des personnes qui sont confrontes a des problemes/souffrances qui les depassent, dont l’origine est parfois societale - dont le traitement ne peut etre seulement etre aborde individuellement. Abbey Summary? Qu’est-ce qui permet de collectiviser des souffrances vecues sur un plan personnel ? Quels effets cela produit-il au quotidien ? // COMPLET 7 / L’accueil en service de sante mentale : une pratique de funambule ? // COMPLET Par le Groupe Intervision Accueil de la Ligue de Sante Mentale (Francoise Bellin, Kela Hasimi, Nathalie Renard, Jeanine Conin, Isabelle Lafarge, Nicole Durrenmat, Laetitia Nagiel, Anouk Flausch, Rebecca Gabai, Esmeralda Alfatli, Maxime Radisson et Valerie Leemans). Which The Following Elements Is Characteristic Richard Cory? L’accueil en service de sante mentale implique une disposition interne specifique de l’accueillant. Tintern? Celle-ci inclut la possibilite de se laisser habiter et destabiliser suffisamment par ce qui surgit sur le seuil de l’institution.
L’accueillant se retrouve donc particulierement expose sur le plan emotionnel et psychique. An Introduction To Gregory Of Nyssa? Comme le funambule, il aura besoin du double filet de securite que representent l’equipe et l’institution dont il fait partie. Summary? C’est neanmoins cette rencontre intersubjective qui sera l’outil permettant d’identifier la demande et la reponse la plus adequate a y apporter. Equilibrium In Economics? L’accueil, dans son essence, s’oppose par consequent a tout emprisonnement protocolaire. Cet atelier a pour objectif de permettre aux participants d etre en contact avec les enjeux de ces rencontres particulieres qui se jouent sur le seuil de nos institutions.
La presentation de plusieurs vignettes cliniques et leur discussion permettra d’approcher les vecus specifiques a ce temps de passage qui est aussi, pour celui qui s’adresse a nous, un temps potentiel de bifurcation vers un possible. 8/ Les specificites de l’accueil dans les Services de Sante Mentale en Wallonie. - Comment s’organise l’accueil en service de sante mentale ? Que met-on en place pour donner une reponse adequate et rapide aux patients potentiels, des lors qu’ils s’adressent a nous (sachant, en outre, que toute demande n’est forcement une demande de psychotherapie ? Quels autres outils qu’un accueil psy exclusif peut-on offrir ? Je pense dans les equipes enfants, aux groupes de parole, aux groupes therapeutiques, et en ce qui concerne les adultes, au travail en reseau, aux clubs et autres jardins therapeutiques. Comment peut-on construire avec le reseau, des reponses qui permettent aux patients de rebondir sans attendre des mois durant, des prises en charge qui deviennent alors sans objet ? Par exemple, mieux outiller le personnel de premiere ligne pour lui permettre de repondre plus adequatement aux demandes d’aide, organiser une prise en charge DANS l’equipe, sous la supervision du medecin et/ou d’un membre plus aguerri. Abbey? : on An Introduction Essay peut etre alors dans le soutien psychosocial (qui ne bouche pas la demande mais qui permet de ne pas laisser la personne en souffrance), bref, comment etre creatifs pour organiser et l’accueil, et la prise en charge en tenant compte de la complexite des situations, et parfois (moins a Namur) du manque de ressources locales ? // COMPLET 9/ Societe accueillante, institutions accueillantes ? // COMPLET Par Philippe de Leener , Marc Totte et Sonia de Clerck d’Inter-Mondes. Tintern Abbey Summary? Cet atelier a pour objectif de reflechir collectivement aux relations entre d’une part les mecanismes plus societaux relatifs au service public et a la fonction d’Accueil, et, d’autre part, leurs expressions, manifestations, dans les maisons medicales en termes de fonctionnement/dysfonctionnement de l’accueil. Le World Cafe est une methodologie de discussion reposant sur un dialogue constructif et permettant, en intelligence collective, de faire emerger d’un groupe des propositions concretes. Le but est de creer un climat de confiance et de convivialite pour permettre la co-construction des participants.
L’espace est organise en tables de quatre ou cinq personnes autour desquelles les participants sont invites a discuter, debattre et faire emerger des propositions. Trois sessions (partant chacune, idealement, d’une question du public de la matinee, de la plus large a la plus precise) sont organisees afin de permettre aux participants d’echanger les idees d’une table a une autre, ou plutot de venir completer les idees des uns avec celles des autres. The Following Is Characteristic Poem? La methodologie repose sur le principe de pollinisation et vise a l’intelligence collective ; la personne restant sur place (le rapporteur) fait un resume au debut de la session suivante aux trois voyageurs (aussi appeles ambassadeurs d’idees). Les trois questions de depart (qui seront reajustees ou reinventees le jour meme grace a l’intervention du public) sont : 1ere session : Quel est l’apport de l’accueil dans votre secteur ou structure ? A partir de la, qu’est-ce qu’un accueil ideal selon vous ? 2eme session : Quels sont les freins et les leviers a un accueil de qualite dans vos services ? 3eme session : Si vous etiez omnipotent, que feriez-vous, au sein de votre equipe, pour ameliorer l’accueil ? Plus d’infos a obtenir aupres de Anne Auverdin (02/514 40 14) ou Laurent Bernard (0470/55 91 01 ou 02/501 60 29 ou [email protected]) ou encore Martin Cauchie (0488/24 39 33 ou 02/501 60 29 ou [email protected])  Federation des maisons medicales, Federation laique des centres de planning familial, Federation des centres de planning familial pluralistes, Federation des maisons d’accueil et des services d’aide aux sans-abri, FEDITO wallonne et bruxelloise, Federation des services de sante mentale bruxellois, Federation des services sociaux.