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Licensed registered nurse holding ACLS and BLS certifications and over genre 600 hours clinical experience. Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care Units. Excels in multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and skinwalkers novel Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff. Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and perseverance.
The education section should list high schools and colleges, including nursing school. These are best organized chronologically with most recently graduated school at the top of the list. Please include name of school, degree earned, and year of Essay, graduation. Adding geographic location and areas of study is also acceptable. For any other nursing programs, such as Certified Nursing Assistant (CNA) or Licensed Practical Nurse (LPN), please add to this section as well, and be sure to highlight these accomplishments as they may prove to make the graduate stand out above others. Bolding, italics, or underlining may be a good method of doing so. Brown University, Bachelor's of Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2015 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. The new graduate without healthcare experience may list clinical experiences and any work experience during or prior to graduation.
Employers who hire new graduates understand this section will be smaller than that of an experienced nurse. The new graduate with healthcare experience may use this section as an opportunity to list these and any details about the position which may help relate them to the desired job. Any experience listed should contain the company name, geographic location, job title, area of skinwalkers novel, experience within the company, dates, and a description. The description should be short and concise, however if the graduate needs to fill space on the page, creating multiple lines of experience descriptors may be wise. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and conventions working relationships with patients, families, and staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and novel alcohol and Essay on Literary Techniques Used Poem, Mirror drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and skinwalkers novel effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and sci-fi genre prepare for worse-case scenarios.
In this section, the graduate should list the state in which he or she is newly licensed as a registered nurse as well as CPR certifications earned during the nursing program, or otherwise. Novel! While listing the expirations dates is acceptable it is not required, so if space is limited it's fine to leave those out. All nursing programs require Basic Life Support (BLS) certification to Air Technology, participate in clinical hours and provide the skinwalkers, class during school. Some programs may offer or require Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) certification towards the end of the nursing program when clinicals may be in critical care areas, such as the intensive care unit, labor and delivery, or operating rooms. If hired into on Benefits of Being Bilingual a critical care position, the ACLS certification is novel a job requirement and Black Swan, many employers will provide the class during the internship. However, to skinwalkers novel, appear as a more desirable candidate, the graduate may become certified in ACLS prior to being hired.
Other certifications are also available to an RN without experience, see Certifications in Nursing for more on this. Licensure and what is in Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. This section is intended for electronic medical records (EMR) programs used during clinical hours, other computer software experience, and any medical equipment with which the skinwalkers novel, graduate has had exposure. Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and genre Outlook, and skinwalkers novel Alaris IV pumps.
Some optional sections include Honors and Awards, Achievements, Languages, Professional Memberships, and Volunteer Experiences, if applicable. Example of Air Technology, Nursing Graduate Resume. Now that we've discussed each piece of the nursing graduate resume, let's put it all together in this example resume using a simple format, 555 Main Street Seattle, WA 98052 • (555) 555-5555 • [emailprotected] Eager New Graduate Registered Nurse. Dedicated BSN graduate with honors from novel, Brown University, GPA 3.5. Licensed registered nurse with ACLS and BLS certifications and over the Movie Essays 600 hours clinical experience. Most cherished clinical experience in fast paced teaching hospitals on skinwalkers novel the Medical-Surgical and Intensive Care units. Excels in multitasking and communication and technically proficient in electronic medical records including Epic and Cerner. Proven ability to quickly establish rapport with patients, families and staff.
Consistently demonstrates attention to detail, compassion, and what is in perseverance. Brown University, Bachelor's of skinwalkers novel, Science in Nursing (BSN), 2016 Charleston Community College, Associate's Degree in Nursing (ADN), 2015 Pruitt Nursing Aide School, Nurses Aide Diploma (CNA), 2014 Phoenix High School, High School Diploma, 2012. University Hospital Seattle, WA March to August 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Medical Intensive Care Unit Care of Air Technology, septic, alcohol and drug withdrawal, cardiac, and CVA patient populations during clinical rotation Participated in Mock Code Blue and received ACLS/BLS certification Created good rapport and working relationships with patients, families, and novel staff. Cook Medical Center Seattle, WA January to March 2015. Registered Nursing Student-Neuro Intensive Care Unit Care of Black Essays, CVA, aneurysm, traumatic brain injury, and alcohol and drug withdrawal patient populations during clinical rotation Developed appropriate and effective rhythms for workday Able to critically think through and prepare for worse-case scenarios. Licensure and skinwalkers novel Certifications. Washington State Nursing Licensure, expires October 2017 Advanced Cardiac Life Support (ACLS) Certification, expires October 2017 Basic Life Support (BLS) Certification, expires October 2017. Epic and Cerner experience, proficient in Microsoft Word and Outlook, and Alaris IV pumps.
While this is just an example the on Literary Used in Sylvia Poem,, basic sections should be included on the resume but some may be added or changed to fit the stylistic approach the new graduate wishes to present. Cover letters, if the graduate chooses to submit one, are meant to skinwalkers novel, be a one page summary of the graduate's intentions in seeking the position. What! Each cover letter should be customized to the individual facility and not use generic terms. For example, instead of writing, seeking a job in healthcare, the novel, graduate should write, seeking a job at sci-fi a fast-paced teaching hospital, or even, seeking a job at Brown University Hospital. A well-written Objective statement may take the place of a cover letter for many facilities. Once the resume is skinwalkers perfected and has been proofread, either by a professional resume assistant or a grammatically-gifted friend, it is ready for Black Essays submission. The best method to find an RN job is to skinwalkers, search online for a suitable position. The days of Air Technology Essay, pounding the pavement by going door-to-door from novel, one human resources office to another, are over. Inherently Evil! Now the graduate can streamline the process by simply applying online. The only exception to this rule may be small non-hospital facilities. It's best for the graduate to find local facilities which he or she would love to work in and go down the list from there.
Most graduates have an idea of what area of nursing they prefer from attending clinicals. For example, if you loved your clinical rotation in the busy intensive care unit at novel the large teaching hospital, apply there first then go down the Essay Used in Sylvia Poem,, desirables list until you've found a job. When searching hospital websites keywords to skinwalkers, search for a new graduate registered nurse position include: Nurse Intern New Nurse Graduate Registered Nurse Intern Registered Nurse Graduate Critical Care Intern Medical-Surgical Intern Graduate Nurse RN Intern. Remember that when using hospital search engines less is more. Simply searching, intern may list non-nursing positions along with nursing positions but having this broad scope to inherently evil, read through is better than a scope which is too narrow and missing a potential position. Starting with a narrow search term, such as Medical-Surgical Intern, then moving to broader terms, such as, intern, may produce good results. Large hospital chains, meaning one large company with many hospitals, will often allow for a user profile to be created and skinwalkers a resume and job application on Essay on Literary Techniques Used in Sylvia file. This profile can be used for multiple positions.
The most sought after new nurse graduate positions in hospitals include: medical-surgical orthopaedics oncology mom/baby emergency room intensive care unit operating room labor and delivery. The best ways to find non-hospital jobs is to search online, however, small facilities may not have up-to-date websites. Begin by skinwalkers novel, searching for facilities in the area and system checking out their websites. Apply online, if able, but if nothing is posted, call the facility to find out if any openings are available or drop by with a resume. With hospitals this usually won't work because the skinwalkers novel, busy human resources departments rarely return phone calls of this sort and sci-fi genre conventions seldom accept resumes for positions which are not posted online. For the new graduate not seeking employment in a hospital highly desired positions include: skilled nursing facilities home health outpatient surgical centers physician's office aesthetics offices, such as laser hair removal or botox injections adult family homes. Like hospital positions for skinwalkers new graduate nurses non-hospital jobs will also require and provide training programs. Most nursing graduates have some experience in skilled nursing facilities and home health from what, clinical rotations. So if the novel, new graduate is genre hired into these positions he or she will likely not need as much training as something totally new and different.
Facilities should always be sure the novel, graduate is Essay of Being Bilingual properly trained and safe before he or she is able to work alone. And if, after orientation and training is over, the skinwalkers novel, graduate does not feel ready, do not be shy about saying so. While it's normal to what system, feel nervous about starting as a new nurse the graduate should understand whom to go to with questions and skinwalkers have a basic understanding of how to work as a safe nurse in the chosen specialty. LinkedIn and Facebook are some popular sites to find nursing recruiters or job postings. Be sure to delete any questionable pictures or comments from Essay on Benefits Bilingual, your social media accounts. Skinwalkers Novel! Facilities have been known to browse candidates before asking them to interview. Bring a Resume and Show up in Person. This can work for big facilities with Human Resources departments but also for small facilities where the inherently evil, hiring manager may be available to skinwalkers, meet. If the facility isn't hiring, don't be discouraged, simply leave a resume and fill out an application. Conventions! A position may open up the skinwalkers, following day!
Keep in touch with fellow nursing students. Black Essays! All nursing graduates are going to looking for a new job and keeping in touch with them will let you know which facilities are hiring.
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act essay score 6 This action will open a new window. Do you want to skinwalkers proceed? Welcome to our new website! Let us know what you think! Feedback. Taking the ACT with writing will provide you and the schools to which you have ACT report scores with additional scores. You will receive a total of five scores for Used Mirror, this test: a single subject-level writing score reported on a range of 2-12, and four domain scores, also 2-12, that are based on an analytic scoring rubric. The subject-level score will be the skinwalkers, rounded average of the four domain scores. The four domain scores are: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions . An image of your essay will be available to your high school and the colleges to which you have ACT report your scores from that test date. Taking the Essay on Benefits of Being Bilingual, writing test does not affect your subject area scores or your Composite score.
However, without a writing test score, no English Language Arts (ELA) score will be reported. Skinwalkers Novel? Your essay will be evaluated based on the evidence that it provides of your ability to: clearly state your own perspective on the issue and analyze the Air Technology, relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective develop and support your ideas with reasoning and skinwalkers, examples organize your ideas clearly and logically communicate your ideas effectively in standard written English. Two trained readers will score your essay on a scale of 1-6 in each of the four writing domains. Each domain score represents the sum of the two readers' scores. If the readers' ratings disagree by more than one point, a third reader will evaluate the is in the limbic system, essay and novel, resolve the discrepancy. You might be a little unsure of what to expect from a writing prompt and what kinds of responses score the highest. We took the genre conventions, guesswork out of it and created one sample prompt and six possible responses, ranging from weak to skinwalkers strong, that give you an idea of how to achieve your best score. Of Being Bilingual? Remember that your scores for the four individual domains - ideas and analysis, development and support, organization, and language use and conventions - will be communicated on a scale of 212. These domain scores are derived by adding together the skinwalkers novel, individual scores, on a 16 scale, from sci-fi, each of two readers. Scoring your writing test.
This analytic scoring rubric presents the standards by which your essay will be evaluated. The following rubric overview will help you to better understand the dimensions of writing that this assessment evaluates. This task asks you to generate an essay that establishes your own perspective on a given issue and analyzes the relationship between your perspective and at least one other perspective. In evaluating your response, trained readers will use an analytic rubric that breaks the central elements of written argument into four domains: Ideas and Analysis, Development and Support, Organization, and Language Use and Conventions. As you review these domains, think about the role each plays in a written argument that accomplishes its purpose. Ideas and Analysis Scores in this domain reflect the ability to generate productive ideas and engage critically with multiple perspectives on the given issue. Competent writers understand the skinwalkers, issue they are invited to address, the purpose for writing, and the audience. They generate ideas that are relevant to the situation. Development and Support Scores in this domain reflect the ability to discuss ideas, offer rationale, and sci-fi genre conventions, bolster an argument. Competent writers explain and explore their ideas, discuss implications, and illustrate through examples. Novel? They help the reader understand their thinking about the issue.
Organization Scores in this domain reflect the ability to organize ideas with clarity and purpose. Organizational choices are integral to effective writing. Genre? Competent writers arrange their essay in a way that clearly shows the relationship between ideas, and they guide the reader through their discussion. Language Use and Conventions Scores in this domain reflect the ability to skinwalkers use written language to inherently evil convey arguments with clarity. Competent writers make use of the conventions of grammar, syntax, word usage, and mechanics. They are also aware of their audience and adjust the style and skinwalkers, tone of their writing to communicate effectively. Learn more about how the writing test is scored. Compare ACT writing scores from 2015-2016 and Air Technology, 2016-2017. Scoring Rubric Prior to skinwalkers September 2015: Overview. These are the descriptions of scoring criteria that the trained readers will follow to determine the the limbic system, score (16) for your essay.
Papers at each level exhibit all or most of the characteristics described at skinwalkers, each score point. Essays within this score range demonstrate effective skill in Black responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the skinwalkers, task. The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer a critical context for discussion. Air Technology? The essay addresses complexity by examining different perspectives on the issue, or by evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by fully responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is ample, specific, and logical. Most ideas are fully elaborated. Novel? A clear focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear: the organization may be somewhat predictable or it may grow from the writer's purpose. Ideas are logically sequenced.
Most transitions reflect the Swan, the Movie Essays, writer's logic and are usually integrated into the essay. The introduction and conclusion are effective, clear, and well developed. The essay shows a good command of language. Sentences are varied and novel, word choice is varied and what is in, precise. There are few, if any, errors to distract the reader. Essays within this score range demonstrate competent skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a clear understanding of the task. The essay takes a position on the issue and skinwalkers, may offer a broad context for discussion.
The essay shows recognition of complexity by inherently evil partially evaluating the implications and/or complications of the issue, or by responding to counterarguments to the writer's position. Development of ideas is specific and logical. Most ideas are elaborated, with clear movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Focus on the specific issue in the prompt is maintained. The organization of the essay is clear, although it may be predictable. Ideas are logically sequenced, although simple and obvious transitions may be used. The introduction and novel, conclusion are clear and generally well developed. Language is competent. Sentences are somewhat varied and Essay, word choice is sometimes varied and precise.
There may be a few errors, but they are rarely distracting. Essays within this score range demonstrate adequate skill in responding to the task. The essay shows an understanding of the skinwalkers novel, task. Used Plath's Mirror? The essay takes a position on the issue and may offer some context for discussion. Skinwalkers? The essay may show some recognition of complexity by providing some response to counterarguments to on Literary Techniques Used Plath's the writer's position. Development of ideas is adequate, with some movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and skinwalkers novel, details. Focus on inherently evil the specific issue in the prompt is maintained throughout most of the essay.
The organization of the essay is apparent but predictable. Some evidence of logical sequencing of ideas is apparent, although most transitions are simple and obvious. The introduction and conclusion are clear and somewhat developed. Language is adequate, with some sentence variety and appropriate word choice. There may be some distracting errors, but they do not impede understanding. Essays within this score range demonstrate some developing skill in responding to the task. The essay shows some understanding of the skinwalkers novel, task.
The essay takes a position on the issue but does not offer a context for discussion. The essay may acknowledge a counterargument to the writer's position, but its development is brief or unclear. Essay? Development of ideas is limited and may be repetitious, with little, if any, movement between general statements and specific reasons, examples, and details. Novel? Focus on the general topic is maintained, but focus on of Being the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. The organization of the essay is simple.
Ideas are logically grouped within parts of the skinwalkers novel, essay, but there is little or no evidence of logical sequencing of ideas. Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious. An introduction and conclusion are clearly discernible but underdeveloped. Essay? Language shows a basic control. Sentences show a little variety and word choice is appropriate. Errors may be distracting and may occasionally impede understanding. Novel? Essays within this score range demonstrate inconsistent or weak skill in responding to the task. The essay shows a weak understanding of the task. The essay may not take a position on the issue, or the genre, essay may take a position but fail to convey reasons to support that position, or the essay may take a position but fail to maintain a stance.
There is little or no recognition of a counterargument to the writer's position. The essay is thinly developed. Skinwalkers Novel? If examples are given, they are general and may not be clearly relevant. The essay may include extensive repetition of the writer's ideas or of ideas in inherently evil the prompt. Skinwalkers? Focus on the general topic is Air Technology, maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is some indication of an organizational structure, and some logical grouping of ideas within parts of the essay is apparent. Transitions, if used, are simple and obvious, and they may be inappropriate or misleading. An introduction and conclusion are discernible but minimal. Sentence structure and word choice are usually simple.
Errors may be frequently distracting and may sometimes impede understanding. Essays within this score range show little or no skill in responding to the task. The essay shows little or no understanding of the task. If the essay takes a position, it fails to novel convey reasons to support that position. The Movie Essays? The essay is skinwalkers, minimally developed. Inherently Evil? The essay may include excessive repetition of the writer's ideas or of ideas in the prompt. Focus on the general topic is usually maintained, but focus on the specific issue in the prompt may not be maintained. There is little or no evidence of an organizational structure or of the logical grouping of ideas. Transitions are rarely used. If present, an introduction and conclusion are minimal.
Sentence structure and word choice are simple. Errors may be frequently distracting and may significantly impede understanding. Skinwalkers? Blank, Off-Topic, Illegible, Not in English, or Void. Calculating Your Combined English/Writing Score Prior to Essay September 2015. Complete these steps to calculate your Combined English/Writing score: Find your scale score for the English Test down the far-left column.
Find your Writing subscore across the top row of the table. Novel? Follow the English Test score row across and the Writing subscore column down until the row and column meet. The Combined English/Writing score is is in system, found where the row and novel, column meet. For example, if an English Test score is 19 and a Writing subscore is 8, the Combined English/Writing scale score is 20. Enhancements to the ACT Writing Test. In September 2015, ACT introduced a number of enhancements to the ACT writing test. Key differences between the former and current designs are outlined below. Many elements of the writing prompts remain the same. For example, the test is still an exercise in argumentative writing, and it continues to measure core competencies that are linked to college and career success. Modifications to the writing prompt will build on the former design in a few important ways: (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and Essay on Literary Techniques in Sylvia Poem,, after) Scoring and reporting for the ACT writing test have also been updated.
Instead of one holistic score, students now receive four domain scores, each reflecting a key dimension of writing competency. They also receive a subject-level Writing Score. (Through the June 2015 Test Event) (September 2015 Test Events and skinwalkers novel, after) *Students who took the writing test between September 2015 and June 2016 received a subject-level Writing score reported on Air Technology Essay a 1-36 scale.
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Pension system in novel the Netherlands. The Netherlands has a pension system that can be considered unique around the world. The Dutch pension system consists of three so called pillars. What Is In System? The first pillar includes the state pension (Algemene Ouderdoms Wet, AOW), which consists of novel, a flat benefit and is granted to every Dutch citizen aged 65 years or older. The second pillar consists of mandatory collective pension schemes which are arranged within pension funds or insurance companies. A certain occupation, industry or company is often linked to a particular pension fund, meaning that with practicing a certain occupation, your pension fund is sci-fi genre conventions, already predetermined. The last and third pillar consists of skinwalkers novel, voluntary private pension savings (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Although the pillar structure of Dutch pension system itself does not differ much from the pillar structure of other western countries, the Bilingual size and relative importance of each of the skinwalkers pillars is is in, rather different.
As can be seen in novel table 1, the size of the second pillar is relatively large in the Netherlands compared to other European countries (Bovenberg, 2014). As a consequence, pension funds are important institutions in Essay the Dutch pension system. Table 1 size of the different pillars of skinwalkers novel, pension systems in European countries. The Netherlands Germany France Italy Spain Swiss UK US. 1st pillar 50 85 79 74 92 42 65 45.
2nd pillar 40 5 6 1 4 32 25 13. 3rd pillar 10 10 15 25 4 26 10 42. This unique position of second pillar pensions in the Netherlands demands realignment of the financing structure of the first and second pillar through the franchise. The AOW in the first pillar is financed by social premiums every employed Dutch citizen pays to the government. The pension benefits received from the Essay pension funds in the second pillar are financed by skinwalkers paying pension premiums into on Benefits of Being the pension fund. Originally, the franchise is meant as an instrument to achieve the integration between both pillars. In order to novel, establish this integration, part of the labor income is exempted from paying pension premiums over into sci-fi genre a pension fund; the franchise (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009).
Since the relative importance of the second pillar is unique for the Netherlands, the franchise is a typically Dutch phenomenon. Theoretically the novel franchise equals the part of the labor income over which AOW benefits are granted (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). To this respect, no Dutch citizen should pay ‘double’ for their pension income. Strictly speaking, the one to one relationship between the franchise and the AOW should result in a franchise that is uniform across pension funds. In practice the Air Technology level of the franchise differs between pension funds (Eberhardt et.al., 2014), although it has a uniform character within the funds itself (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Before 2006, the Dutch pension system was characterized by a final salary system. Novel? In this system the relationship between the inherently evil franchise and the AOW was maintained.
However, with the transition to the average salary system in 2006, the relationship between the franchise and the AOW diluted . The uniform franchise used by the large Dutch industrywide pension funds is an element of a uniform accrual system further consisting of a uniform pension premium and a uniform accrual rate. These aspects of the financing structure within a pension fund are uniform in the sense that their level is the same for every participant of the novel fund regardless of his or her individual characteristics (CPB, 2013). This implies that every participant of a pension fund pays the same pension premium in terms of genre conventions, percentage for which the same amount of labor income is exempted by the franchise, to accrue the skinwalkers novel same accrual rate per year. Especially the Black the Movie franchise and accrual rate are highly interdependent. To this respect they are inseparable: a higher accrual rate implies a higher franchise and vice versa (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). An aspect of the uniformity characterizing Dutch pension funds which has given rise to a great deal of debate is the fact that participants in pension funds are often not uniform at all. The uniform accrual system finds its origins in the notion of solidarity between the different participants of a pension fund.
Furthermore solidarity enables the sharing of risks such as longevity risk and capital market risk. However when a pension fund has participants that differ widely in certain characteristics such as life expectancy, career path taken, or career length, the uniform accrual system causes structural redistribution between them (CPB, 2013). Skinwalkers Novel? A system is then said to be actuarially unfair. A measure of Air Technology Essay, this redistribution is the net gain. Skinwalkers? The net gain shows the ratio of the discounted sum of pension benefits during retirement over Essay on Literary Techniques Used Plath's Poem,, the discounted sum of paid premiums over the working life (CPB, 2013).
In an actuarially fair situation the net gain should always equal one for every individual at every point in time, regardless of their characteristics. However, generally speaking the uniform accrual system is not actuarially fair, meaning that certain participants either overpaid or underpaid for their pension rights (CPB, 2013). Apart from the skinwalkers novel redistribution between participants of a fund, the pension outcome differs considerably between participants of a fund too. The pension outcome can be thought of as the replacement rate. The replacement rate shows the ratio of the pension benefit of a certain individual over the main source of their income during working life at a certain moment in time. Thereby the replacement rate is a measure of the effectiveness of consumption smoothing (Barr and Diamond, 2008). The pension benefit includes pension income from both the first and the second pillar. Just as the net gain, the replacement rate is Swan, Essays, influenced by the uniformness of the system and individual characteristics of the participant too. Although the skinwalkers uniform pension premium and uniform accrual rate have received much attention in Bilingual the literature, the uniform franchise remains relatively underexposed. To my knowledge, up until this date no quantitative literature exists on the sole topic of the franchise.
The reason for this may lie in the fact that the maximum levels of the franchise are largely determined by law (Kakes and Broeders, 2006). Another explanation might be that the skinwalkers novel franchise is less important in Air Technology other countries due to the relatively smaller size of the second pillar. This in contrast to skinwalkers, pension premium, which influences the affordability of labor and thereby influences the labor market. Air Technology? Next to novel, that the pension premium is something that is sci-fi genre conventions, relatively seizable and concrete for the average citizen. Skinwalkers? The uniform accrual rate on its turn receives much attention in the light of the redistribution discussion. Next to that the accrual rate has a certain fiscal angle since it reflects the amount of pension rights to be accrued in a fiscal beneficial way. It is however unjust that the franchise receives little attention. Black The Movie Essays? Since, as being part of the uniform accrual system, it certainly might affect both the skinwalkers redistribution between participants within a pension fund, as the pension outcome for these participants.
Therefore the research question of this thesis is the following: ‘How are the redistribution between – and Essay on Literary Techniques, pension outcome of individual participants of skinwalkers novel, a pension fund influenced by their individual characteristics in terms of starting salary, career path and length of career, and to inherently evil, what extend does the level of the uniform franchise and skinwalkers novel, accrual rate change the redistribution and pension outcome?’ The research question has been formulated such that it addresses both the role of the franchise and accrual rate in system the often discussed redistribution between participants of skinwalkers novel, a pension fund, as well as their eventual pension outcome. Since longevity risk is not one of the characteristics taken into account, only redistribution within the inherently evil accrual phase is considered . As already stated before, the franchise and the accrual rate are inseparable. Therefore it is not possible to examine the influence the franchise has as a sole concept in skinwalkers an adequate way. Air Technology? The net gain is novel, used as the outcome variable for the redistribution, while the replacement rate will be used as the outcome variable for the pension outcome. The replacement rate and net gain are not necessarily linked.
For example, the net gain can have the same value for every participant in a fund, while the replacement rates for these participants can differ widely. To this respect the net gain is a flow variable, while the inherently evil replacement is a stock variable. Both the skinwalkers net gain and the replacement rate are simulated by typical agent models which have been written for inherently evil, the purpose of this thesis. Another unique aspect of this thesis is that it makes use of data instead of presumed values in the simulations. More specifically, data on the five largest pension funds in the Netherlands, in skinwalkers terms of assets under management (van der Westen, 2014) are used.
This thesis first examines the net gains and replacement rates of individuals for their individual characteristics separately (cetirus paribus). Swan, The Movie Essays? Afterwards the different levels of the characteristics are combined into scenarios. Skinwalkers Novel? Hereby all possible combinations of the individual characteristics are captured. The scenarios are determined in the following manner: # scenarios = # starting salaries*# career paths*# lengths of career. For reasons of variation in outcomes and keeping in mind the scope of this thesis, these scenarios are simulated for what the limbic, the replacement rates. This procedure is repeated three times for three different combinations of accrual rates and franchises. Skinwalkers? Pension funds can choose the Swan, Essays level of the franchise, and consequently the level of the accrual rate themselves. However, not all combinations are allowed. The law prescribes three fixed combinations which are legally binding and are shown in table 2 for the year 2015 (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014).
Table 2 Lawful Combinations of Franchise and Accrual rate, 2015. Combination Accrual Rate Maximum Franchise Level. Combination 1 Maximum of skinwalkers, 1,875% ‘ 12.642,- Combination 2 Maximum of 1,788% (but not lower than 1,701%) ‘ 11.395,- Combination 3 Maximum of1,701% ‘ 10.095,- These fixed combinations represent maximum levels of the franchise and accrual rate combination.
Pension funds can choose to have a lower accrual rate or franchise than these fixed combinations, but cannot choose a higher level (Sprenkels Verschuren, 2014). Therefore these three combinations are used in this research. The series of conventions, simulations for the three different combinations, result in a spread of net gains (for the three different characteristics separately only) and replacement rates (for the three different characteristics and all of them combined in the scenarios). Next, the magnitude of above described effects the individual characteristics and the combination of the franchise and accrual rate have on the replacement rates is estimated using a log linear model. In this way the marginal effects can be quantified. The magnitude is only examined for the replacement rate as an outcome variable since the scenarios are not simulated for the net gain. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows.
Section 2 describes the structure of the Dutch pension system, the franchise and the uniform accrual system in detail. Furthermore, previous literature on relevant topics is novel, discussed. Inherently Evil? Section 3 discusses the novel methodology, including the typical agent simulation models and the data that are used. The results and implications are discussed in section 4. Black Essays? Subsequently, section 5 examines possible policy implication. Section 6 describes and discusses the general conclusions. Skinwalkers? Finally, section 7 discusses and gives recommendations for further research. Structure of the Dutch Pension System. The Dutch three pillar pension system is Black Essays, a system that is skinwalkers novel, rather complex to understand. Especially considering the relative importance of the second pillar pension schemes and thus the pension funds. Pension schemes can be financed in roughly two ways; on Air Technology Essay a pay as you go (PAYG) basis, or via funding.
The AOW public pension has a pay as you go (PAYG) character which implies that the AOW is paid entirely out of skinwalkers novel, current revenue sources. On Literary Used In Sylvia Mirror? The AOW thereby has a contractarian nature, meaning that no savings have to be accumulated in anticipation of future pension claims but instead the government can tax the working population to pay for the pension benefits of the retirees. Consequently, a PAYG system relaxes the skinwalkers novel constraint that the benefits received by any generation must be matched by its own contributions (Barr and Diamond, 2008). A PAYG financed pension scheme usually has two main objectives. First it redistributes income from the younger generations towards the older generations which are retired. Second it redistributes and shares risks across generations (Barr and Diamond, 2008).
The level of the AOW benefit depends on the household’s composition. And the number of years which an individual has been insured. Every individual that lives or works in the Netherlands is automatically insured and what is in system, thereby accrues two percent AOW benefit per novel year. After fifty years of either living or working in the Netherlands, a person is fully insured and is thereby granted the full amount of AOW which he or she is eligible for. Essay On Literary Used In Sylvia? This amount depends on novel the household composition. A person that cohabits with another individual receives a flat benefit of fifty percent of the net minimum wage. Black? A person that lives alone receives seventy percent of the net minimum wage (Sociale Verzekeringsbank, n.d.).
Furthermore the age at which citizens become eligible for the AOW benefit will be increased gradually to skinwalkers, age 67. On Literary Techniques Used In Sylvia Plath's Poem, Mirror? When this age is reached, the skinwalkers retirement age may further increase if life expectancy increases (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). To the contrary, the occupational pension schemes in the second pillar are funded. This means that contributions are invested in financial (or physical) assets of which the return is credited to the plan’s participants. Funded schemes can be either individual or collective. When a person retires he or she receives either an Essay, annuity or draws down the accumulation in some other way, for example via a lump sum. The annuity or lump sum is based on either the individual contributions to the fund, or the skinwalkers novel accrued pension rights depending on whether the fund has individual accounts or a collective nature (Barr and Diamond, 2008). In the Netherlands the vast majority of the pension funds have basic pension schemes which are collective and pension benefits can only be received in the form of an annuity. Funded schemes on its turn, can be classified into Techniques two main categories; defined benefit (DB) and defined contribution (DC) schemes. In DB schemes pension benefits are based, among other things, on skinwalkers novel the worker’s wage, length of employment history and the so called accrual rate.
The accrual rate determines how much pension rights a person accumulates per year over his or her labor income minus the Air Technology Essay franchise. The accrual rate can either be a percentage of a person’s start- average- or final salary (Barr and Diamond, 2008). Skinwalkers Novel? The replacement rate constitutes the number of Air Technology Essay, years in which a person accrued pension rights times the skinwalkers accrual rate. Moreover, the replacement rate expresses pension benefit as a fraction of one of these three salary levels. In 2006, a transition took place from the final salary scheme to the average salary scheme in sci-fi the Netherlands. Therefore the average salary scheme is the most common. In 2008, 87 percent of the skinwalkers active members of the Movie Essays, pension funds had an skinwalkers novel, average salary scheme (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). As of the Air Technology first of January 2015, the fiscal regulation surrounding the accrual of pension rights has been adjusted with the adaptation of the ‘Witteveenkader’. The maximum boundary which guarantees fiscal beneficial pension saving is set at a labor income of 100.000 euros. This means that above this boundary individuals have to arrange the skinwalkers accrual of pension savings themselves. This accrual will be out of net income, instead of gross income which is the Essay on Benefits of Being case below the boundary.
Another measure which has been taken is the decrease of the skinwalkers fiscal maximum of the accrual rate. This maximum is lowered from 2,15% for average salary schemes in Air Technology Essay 2014, to 1,875% for average salary schemes in 2015 (Staatsblad van het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden, 2014). In defined contribution schemes the pension benefit depends on the contributions paid into the fund. In DC schemes the pension benefit is not pre-determined but the pension premium is, for novel, a certain period of time as opposed to DB schemes where the pension benefit is mostly pre-determined. Defined contribution schemes can be either individual (IDC) or collective (CDC). In CDC schemes participants accrue pension rights based on the average salary system against a pre-determined pension premium (Mercer, 2015). The eventual pension benefit is Essay Poem,, not predetermined since it depends on the factual funding ratio of the pension fund at novel, the time of retirement (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes every pension fund participant saves for on Benefits Bilingual, its own pension benefit.
The eventual pension benefit is the sum of the paid pension premiums and novel, the realized return on them (Chen et.al., 2014). In IDC schemes, risks cannot be shared between participants as opposed to CDC schemes. In CDC schemes risks can be shared between participants in an intra- as well as intergenerational manner. Intragenerational since pension benefits are paid out in the form of an annuity which enables the sharing of, for example, longevity risk (Barr and Diamond, 2008) and intergenerational since shocks in the funding ratio can be spread out over what is in the limbic, a number of years and skinwalkers novel, thereby shared between various generations (Chen et.al., 2014). Genre Conventions? IDC schemes are not very common in the Netherlands (Federation of the Dutch Pension Funds, 2010). Most pension funds that do have a DC scheme implement a CDC scheme. Skinwalkers? Recently, DC schemes start to gain in popularity in the Netherlands and are more often used in the discussion surrounding the future of the Dutch pension system (van Dorssen and Nauta, 2014). This is mainly the case since DB schemes more or less guarantee a certain pension benefit irrespective of the financial market return (Der Wal, 2014), while DC schemes do not provide such certainty.
This implies that contributing participants in a pension fund with a DB scheme bear the Essay risks surrounding the skinwalkers pension benefits of the pension fund retirees, while those risks are shared between contributing participants and pension fund retirees in DC schemes. The franchise exempts a certain amount of the labor income of pension fund participants over which pension premium needs to be paid. The franchise relates to the accrual rate. Consequently, the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate a pension fund uses determines their pension premium. Black Swan, Essays? Therefore the franchise, accrual rate and pension premium find themselves in a triangular relationship. The franchise and novel, accrual rate combination a pension fund chooses is what system, bound by legal requirements . Reasons for this may lie in skinwalkers novel the fact that by sci-fi conventions legally binding the choice of the combination, the premium stays within a certain bound and cannot take an outrageous level. Besides, by legally binding the skinwalkers choice of the combination the risk for pension fund participants is limited. Genre? For example a low franchise in combination with a high accrual rate would result in either a relatively high premium, or a pension fund taking more risk in their investment strategy in skinwalkers order to be able to finance the Black Swan, the Movie accrued pension rights. Therefore such a combination is not allowed.
The accrual rate determines the final replacement rate a pension fund participant reaches. The objective of a pension fund with regard to the envisioned replacement rate is a matter of pension fund policy. Novel? Consequently, pension funds have different pension schemes which result in different time paths in which the replacement rate can be reached. A shorter time span in on Benefits of Being Bilingual which the replacement can be reached consequently corresponds to a higher accrual rate and novel, higher franchise. The replacement rate is applicable to both pension income coming from the first ‘ and the second pillar which, theoretically, should result in a uniform franchise of 10/7th times the AOW benefit (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). Historically speaking the franchise is meant as an instrument to integrate the first and the second pillar of the Dutch pension system. With the introduction of Black, average salary schemes this relation got diluted, resulting in franchises which are lower than this theoretical level. Some pension funds even wield a franchise of exactly ‘0 (Eberhardt et.al., 2014). As of 2015 the relationship diluted even further, since the levels of the franchise which are connected to the fiscally allowed maximum accrual rates are lower than they would be if they were at skinwalkers novel, a level of 10/7th times the Essay of Being AOW. Therefore even the law does not take notice of this presumed relationship anymore. The fact that the relationship between the franchise and the AOW got diluted, indicates the possibility that the franchise is used for other purposes by pension funds.
Nowadays, one of this main purposes is to keep the pension scheme affordable for the pension fund (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). The level of the franchise is usually adapted to the characteristics of the skinwalkers participants of a pension fund. A pension fund with participants which have a relatively low labor income benefit from a relatively lower franchise in combination with a lower accrual rate. For this income group the disadvantage of Swan, the Movie Essays, a lower accrual rate is outweighed by the lower level of the skinwalkers novel franchise. Swan, Essays? At higher franchise levels they run the risk of earning a labor income that is novel, lower than the franchise and thereby not accruing pension rights. To the contrary, pension funds with participants earning relatively higher labor incomes, benefit from choosing a relatively higher franchise level in combination with a higher accrual rate. For these income groups the what the limbic franchise constitutes a relatively low share of their labor income. Consequently the skinwalkers disadvantage of a higher franchise level is outweighed by the higher accrual rate.
The franchise is uniform in inherently evil the sense that it is applicable to all participants in a certain pension fund. It is this uniform character that may affect the skinwalkers replacement rate objective the Air Technology pension fund has set in an adverse way. This is the case for novel, two reasons. First, participants of pension funds are not uniform in inherently evil terms of novel, their labor income. Usually pension funds have participants who fall both in the higher and what, lower income categories. Skinwalkers Novel? Pension funds therefore choose a franchise and accrual rate combination which is beneficial for the average participant, so ass to minimize welfare losses in terms of the replacement rate for sci-fi, their participants. Skinwalkers? However, zero welfare loss is sci-fi genre conventions, not possible since above policy always results in skinwalkers losses for participants who are not average. The most optimal solution would be to completely differentiate the level of the franchise and inherently evil, accrual rate per pension fund participant, so as to achieve tailor-made solutions. This would result in zero welfare loss since every participant is subject to a franchise and accrual rate combination adapted to his or her characteristics.
This is however impossible since the skinwalkers novel franchise should have a uniform level within the pension fund. Therefore the Air Technology Essay franchise and accrual rate combination pension funds choose is novel, always a suboptimal one. Second, the inherently evil AOW benefit that is used in calculating the franchise can differ from the skinwalkers novel AOW benefit that people actually receive. On Literary Techniques Used In Sylvia Poem, Mirror? Most pension funds calculate a franchise on the basis of a AOW benefit which is 70 percent of the skinwalkers net minimum wage; the AOW benefit for singles (A. Paulis, personal communication, May 22, 2015). However, married or cohabiting couples receive an AOW benefit of 50 percent of the net minimum wage each, resulting in a combined AOW benefit of 100% of the net minimum wage (Frericks et.al., 2006). Moreover, employees who deviate from the ‘average’ participant in Black Swan, the Movie Essays others ways than their labor income or level of the AOW benefit, can experience problems in reaching the desired replacement rate. Skinwalkers Novel? This could concern, for example, employees who have disrupted careers due to unemployment since participants usually do not accrue pension rights while being unemployed . Considering all this, it can be stated that the franchise could have implications for the final outcome of the pension plan; the pension income in terms of the is in system replacement rate and the redistribution in terms of the net gain (Schols ‘ van Oppen, 2009). The Uniform Accrual System. Besides the franchise being at a uniform level, the skinwalkers accrual rate and Swan, the Movie Essays, the pension premium are uniform too.
The uniform accrual system causes certain losses and redistribution. First, part of the pension rights in pension funds is financed on a PAYG basis as younger workers subsidize the older ones (Bovenberg et.al., 2014). The return on a PAYG scheme consists of population growth combined with real wage growth, while the return on a funded scheme consists of the capital market return. Therefore the cost effective contribution into a uniform accrual system is higher due to the lower return on the PAYG component of the system (CPB, 2013). Next to that the system is often viewed as unfair since it causes redistribution between different cohorts in the population. First, time inconsistency causes the uniform accrued pension rights to be worth less to the younger cohorts than to people approaching the retirement age since the investment horizon of young people is longer.
Second, structural differences in life expectancy are not taken into account which is beneficial for cohorts with a longer life expectancy as opposed to cohorts with a lower life expectancy (Lever et.al., 2014). Moreover, the novel modern labor market imposes problems on the uniform accrual system due to issues such as shorter life cycles of businesses and Swan,, sectors, increased labor mobility and changing employment relationships (SER, 2015). This more flexible character of the labor market causes people to deviate from the average career path most pension funds envision in determining the level of the accrual rate, franchise and pension premium. These issues result in the accrual rate and pension premium to be actuarially unfair at novel, every moment in time. There is just one moment in time in which both of them are fair; when they exactly equal the value of the accrued pension rights. Only when a person stays within the same pension fund during his or her entire career , the eventual outcome will be actuarially fair for this particular person. However in current dynamic labor markets this is far from usual anymore. Figure 1 describes the uniform accrual system and Essay, its redistribution (CPB, 2013). Skinwalkers Novel? The difference between the red and the blue line reflects the Essay PAYG component loss. Skinwalkers Novel? The difference between the purple and the blue line reflects the loss due to time inconsistency. Finally, the difference between the inherently evil purple and the green line reflects the loss due to differences in life expectancy.
Figure 1 Decomposition of the Redistribution. In light of above described losses and skinwalkers novel, redistributions, the Dutch parliament recently decided that the uniform accrual system will be abolished in phases. This process will be concluded in 2020 (Rijksoverheid, 2015). Is In The Limbic? The accrual system that will replace the uniform accrual system is designed at the very moment. Several proposals for this redesign have been made already.
Bonenkamp, Cox and Lever (2014) in a Netspar Design Paper proposed to maintain the uniform pension premium in combination with degressive accrual of pension rights. In this way the pension premiums paid by younger cohorts result in more pension rights which makes the system actuarially fair at every moment in time. Another proposal is to maintain the uniform accrual of pension rights, while making the pension premium progressive. However this proposal could cause wage profiles to novel, become even steeper since part of this increase in the pension premium will be paid by the employer resulting in relatively higher wages for older employees. This could cause harm for the older cohorts of the working population. Especially considering the current situation of the Dutch labor market in which wages for older employees are already relatively high (CPB, 2014).
Every pension scheme and every transition from one pension scheme to another, is in principal a ‘zero sum game’ in Essay terms of market value. Novel? An improvement for a certain generation or cohort will hurt another generation or cohort. Moving from a uniform accrual system to an actuarial fair system results in a higher return on pension savings for Techniques in Sylvia Plath's Poem, Mirror, all current and future generations (CPB, 2013). However, both proposals go alongside with a substantial transition burden of approximately a hundred billion euros. These hundred billion euros are the result of the generations who already paid a certain tax into the system by paying a too high premium for the pension rights which they accrued, but will not receive the subsidy which the system provides at a later age.
This burden is skinwalkers novel, also referred to as implicit debt. The burden will be the highest for the participants who are exactly at the cutting point as presented in what is in the limbic figure 1. Skinwalkers? This results in a politically sensitive discussion as to Air Technology Essay, which generation should bear the burden of this transition. Novel? Without compensation for the generations that will be hurt by this transition, the whole burden will be placed upon Air Technology them. However, the skinwalkers burden can be spread over multiple generations by an increase in the pension premium. This will hurt younger cohorts. Another solution would be to finance the transition burden via the on Literary Poem, Mirror pension fund capital by shortening indexation (CPB, 2013). This thesis can be considered a first attempt to skinwalkers novel, fill the gap in the quantitative literature concerning the franchise, by examining the influence the combination of the franchise and the accrual rate has on Essay Techniques Used in Sylvia Mirror both the net gain and the replacement rate. In this way, both redistribution and pension outcome are taken into account. Furthermore the effect of individual characteristics like occupation, career path and career length on both the net gain and the replacement are examined, as a complement to below described literature. After an intensive inquiry, to skinwalkers, my knowledge no quantitative literature exists on the topic of the influence of the franchise on the eventual pension outcome and redistribution within a pension fund. Concerning the uniform accrual system as a whole and the redistribution it causes, the Air Technology Essay situation is different.
Most of the research surrounding this topic focusses on the inter- and intragenerational transfers. In a CPB discussion paper Bonenkamp (2009) quantifies lifetime redistribution in Dutch occupational pension schemes associated with uniform pricing. Skinwalkers? The uniform contribution to the pension fund is split up in a saving part and a transfer share representing the redistribution. The transfer share is split up in an inter- and intragenerational part. Intergenerational transfers occur because of is in, a gain for the elderly working generations at the time the second pillar pension schemes were introduced.
These generations benefit from the premium which is lower than their actuarially fair value of the uniform accrued pension rights. However, these generations never had to pay a premium that was higher than the novel actuarially fair value of these pension rights when being young. This introductory gain cannot be passed on to all generations without any costs. Inherently Evil? This results in an intergenerational transfer. Intragenerational transfers occur because of redistribution between different cohorts within the same generation, due to, among other things, differences in life expectancy and education. The results show that the saving share is higher for female than for skinwalkers novel, male pension savers implying that there is an intragenerational transfer of 9 percent from men to women. Furthermore, the saving share is lower for lower educated people than for higher educated people, again pointing at an intragenerational transfer from the lower educated to the higher educated.
The intergenerational transfer is relatively small at a 2 percent level (Bonenkamp, 2009). In this thesis only intragenerational transfers are taken into account. With respect to the redistribution caused by differences in career path, the CPB document ‘Voor- en nadelen van de doorsneesystematiek’ (2013) is relevant. This paper measures, among other things, the sci-fi conventions redistribution in the second pillar resulting from flat, average and skinwalkers, steep career paths in terms of income profile. It concludes that people with a flat income profile benefit far less from the sci-fi uniform accrual system than people with a steep income profile do. This effect mainly arises due to the fact that people with a flat income profile mainly accrue pension benefits at the beginning of their career when the actuarial value of the pension rights is low. In later stages of their career, when the actuarial value of the pension rights is higher, they build up less pension benefits. For people with a steep income profile the opposite is true (CPB, 2013). Simulation Model Characteristics. Both the skinwalkers net gain and the replacement rate are modelled using a typical agent simulation model. An important difference between the two outcome variables is the fact that the Essay on Benefits Bilingual net gain solely models a pension fund.
It models pension premiums paid to the pension fund and pension benefits received from the pension fund. Novel? To the contrary, the replacement rate includes both the pension benefits coming from the pension fund and the AOW benefit. Since both the net gain and the replacement rate represent different concepts, they are both simulated using different models which have been written for Swan,, the purpose of this thesis. However, although the model equations are different they are based on the same type of models in novel the taxonomy of simulation models, namely typical agent models. The taxonomy of on Literary Techniques Used in Sylvia Plath's Poem,, simulation models regarding pensions is presented in table 3 (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Table 3 Taxonomy of Simulation Models for Pensions. Microsimulation Models Standard Models. 1.1 Static microsimulation models Standard cohort models. 1.2 Dynamic microsimulation models 2.2 Typical agent models. Microsimulation models are the most comprehensive type of models in terms of equations used and sectors of the economy that are taken into account. Skinwalkers Novel? Moreover, they need a large amount of data as input.
Therefore making use of a microsimulation model is out of the scope of this research and is in the limbic system, the choice is made to use a model falling into the standard model category. Microsimulation models simulate changes in a sample of a large number (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). The sample can be either cross sectional or a panel. The simplest type of microsimulation models are static microsimulation models. These models compare two states of the skinwalkers novel world, for example two different institutional settings. In these type of models time is not included as a factor. To the contrary, dynamic microsimulation models do include time. Thereby these models are capable of explicitly modelling life paths of Black Essays, individuals.
They take into account both behavioral responses and the policy environment (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Cohort models usually start from current cross-sectional information on certain characteristics of various social groups which are most frequently cohorts. This current set of information is then simulated into the future. Skinwalkers Novel? In this simulation assumptions on the state of the labor market and demographics are made. The simulation path attempts to reweigh the group averages of the cohort resulting from the current information set influenced by these assumptions. The major advantage of cohort models is that aggregate conclusions can be obtained (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models draw typical histories of fictitious individuals. These typical agents usually differ in main features and life-path characteristics such as career path taken, career length and occupation. Based on is in system the typical histories the level of the pension benefit is simulated and expressed in a certain way, for example by using the replacement rate as an outcome variable (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). Typical agent models are capable of skinwalkers novel, including the country-specific institutional setting.
Moreover, the accrual of sci-fi genre, pension rights is properly tracked since the whole history of a fictitious individual is novel, simulated. Typical agent models are well suited to asses, among other things, incentives to work longer or to compare the generosity of the pension scheme for different types of individuals. They are, however, incapable of producing aggregate outcomes (Gi??i??l et.al., 2009). On Literary Techniques Plath's? This makes it difficult to draw conclusions about, for example, the skinwalkers novel average net gain or replacement rate of a pension fund, or the weighted distribution of these variables. However, this will not cause considerable problems, since the is in the limbic focus of this research is on outcomes on novel an individual level, namely on the level of pension fund participants.
Therefore, I have chosen to write two simulation models which fall into this category. First and foremost since these models are most appropriate for simulating the replacement rate which is one of the main variables of interest within this thesis. Is In System? Moreover, the disadvantages of this model type do not form a considerable threat to the research. Furthermore, the models are deterministic and non-stochastic which means that they concentrate on outcomes which are simulated without taking notice of external shocks. Skinwalkers Novel? Examples of external shocks could be decreasing interest rates or a sudden decrease in inherently evil fertility. In the design of these models, external shocks would most probably influence the values of skinwalkers, certain parameters. The simplification of not taking into account external shocks is justified, since the primary interest of this thesis is in expected (ex-ante) redistribution and on Benefits of Being, expected (ex-ante) pension outcomes. However, this simplification also causes the model to be stylized.
In certain situations this could cause a certain outcome which would be different when the model would be stochastic. For example, it could be concluded that no redistribution between partcipants of a pension fund takes place while this would be the case if certain variables would be allowed to vary. An example of this is novel, described in appendix (‘). The model that is used to simulate the net gain took the model of Joop Hartog (2013) as a starting point. This model can be found in appendix II.
In this thesis the net gain is simulated using equation the Swan, Essays following model/equations : List of skinwalkers novel, variables: W = length of working life in years. P = duration of of Being Bilingual, retirement period in skinwalkers novel years. i??i?? = replacement rate (length of working life times the accrual rate) r = discount rate (real rate of return on standard life cycle investment scheme) y = starting salary as a fraction of the minimum wage. n = individual real growth of the wage. f = franchise as a fraction of the minimum wage. i??i?? = pension premium (as a fraction of the salary minus the franchise) i??i?? = accrual rate. Equation (1) computes the net gain (NG) by inherently evil dividing the discounted sum of pension benefits from the pension fund over skinwalkers novel, the discounted sum of paid pension premiums to the pension fund.
Both sums are discounted back to period 0, which means to inherently evil, the period before an skinwalkers novel, individual starts working. This is done so as to equal the time value of these sums and simulate a time-consistent net gain. Essay? The discount rate (r) takes the novel value of the real rate of return on the standard life cycle investment scheme. The nominator represents the sum of discounted pension benefits. The sum is computed by multiplying the Used in Sylvia Mirror replacement rate (i??i??) with the average salary, since the accrual system in novel the Netherlands is characterized by an average salary system. The replacement rate is determined exogenously by multiplying the length of the working life with the accrual rate.
This is the sci-fi genre case since participants generally only accrue pension rights while being employed. The equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the accrual rate is constant and time-independent. The average salary, the novel term between brackets, is computed by dividing the sum of all salaries earned during working life, over the length of the working life. The denominator represents the sum of discounted pension premiums. The pension premium (i??i??) is multiplied with every year’s salary, which increases every year with the inflation (g) and Black the Movie, the individual growth of the wage (n). Again, the equation reflects a uniform accrual system since the pension premium is time-independent and constant too. Since the model is skinwalkers, deterministic, the what is in the limbic system values of the franchise, starting salary, accrual rate and pension premium as a fraction of the minimum wage are kept constant for the whole simulation period. This is the case since all these variables are sensitive to skinwalkers, external shocks or developments to a greater or lesser extent. Predicting these shocks and developments is Air Technology, hard and besides, outside the scope of this thesis. Furthermore, the minimum wage increases with the inflation. Since all above mentioned parameters are computed as fractions of the minimum wage, they are automatically fully indexed with the value of the inflation.
The net gain is skinwalkers novel, only computed for the pension fund. Therefore the first pillar pension benefit is not taken into the Movie account. The franchise is used in equation (1) to reflect this. In the nominator the average salary which is used in determining the novel pension benefit is diminished by the franchise. In the Techniques Used in Sylvia Plath's Poem, Mirror denominator the labor income is diminished with the novel franchise, which results in a so called pensionable salary bron woordenboekje over which pension premium has to genre conventions, be paid. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question?
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