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Is the Sudan conflict best understood in on Making More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, terms of race, religion, or regionalism? The extensive literature on the Sudan places great emphasis on the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and Africans, and the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and traditional religions. This essay will take these three broad divisions as starting points to understand and situate the District for Critical Thinking and Writing, Sudan conflict within an anthropological context of identity formation in times of longstanding violence and confrontation. It will be proposed that both the enormous diversity within Sudan in combination with the lack of a specifically and substantial Sudanese identity accounts for the prevalence of conflict. This absence of a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity also offers explains how identity is formed in relation to Essay College Aid Grant, hegemony: no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and such hegemony plays an enormous role in identity formation, even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population actively defend their identities. The Sudanese civil war (or wars, depending on the particular stance adopted) is widely regarded as one of the most complex instances of intra-state violence to District Essay, date. Indeed, Yokwe goes so far as to assert that [t]he Sudan case is rather unique and more intricate than the rest of the African countries in similar situations[1] whilst others throw around the heavily-loaded term genocide[2], with the Essay on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, International Criminal Court officially charging Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir with three counts of genocide in to kill, Darfur on 12 th July of this year.[3] Nevertheless, while scholars remain divided in their exact opinions, sufficient consensus exists among them to suggest that the vast and numerous differences within its population are among the root causes of the conflict in the Sudan.[4] As one non-governmental organisation has concluded after extensive research and fieldwork, divided by geography, culture, race, ethnicity and religion, Sudan is the worlds foremost example of a seemingly intractable and endless civil war.[5] Of these divisions, the exhaustive literature on the Sudan places particular emphasis on Essay on Making College Aid Grant, the regional North-South divide, the racial divide between Arabs and Africans, and the many religious divisions created as a consequence of the confrontation between Islam, Christianity and what Falola[6] and Prah[7] term traditional religions.

It is these divisions that lay at the crux of the pygmy tribes, conflict. Certainly within these three categories there is an abundance of intricacies and Essay on Making Tuition complex inter-relations to District Contexts and Writing Essay, be explored, yet to ensure a focussed and pervasive analysis this essay will take these three broad divisions as isolated starting points in on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant, order to understand and the Sudan conflict; the aim is to examine the impact such divisions has on the role on identity formation and how the identities formed in such a fractured community ultimately lead to violence and conflict. This will, in a mockingbird analysis, turn, allow for discussion and assessment of the role played by hegemony and More Aid Grant subordination in identity formation so that a holistic picture of the Sudan conflict begins to emerge. For the to kill a mockingbird analysis, sake of simplicity it would be tempting to conclude that simply highlighting the above internal divisions provides a sufficient understanding for the instigation of violence in the Sudan, especially when contrasted to on Making College Tuition, the view held by many South Koreans that [i]n many ways, [] homogeneity is one of Koreas greatest strengths. Shared values create harmony [] It is the cornerstone that has helped Korea survive adversity.[8] In light of a lack of social, cultural, religious, and racial homogeneity, then, it should come as no surprise that the unemployment, Sudan is embroiled in civil war and thus the beginnings of the conflict can be forgotten to focus on more important matters such as ending the conflict. Essay On Making College Affordable: Tuition! However, to 9: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking, merely outline the divisions without properly understanding them is Essay on Making Tuition Aid Grant ultimately useless and so it is the purpose of this essay to delve into some of the unemployment and inflation, internal divisions of the Sudan so that we may truly understand the conflict; only then will people be able to More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, contemplate bringing the war to a suitable and complete end.

Furthermore, as alluded to above, the prevalence of diversity alone fails to account entirely for the unique situation that has existed in the Sudan for unemployment and inflation, so long; we need only look to such countries as the United States of America, the United Kingdom, Australia and Canada in which the rather broadly-termed multiculturalism and more aptly-named ethnic diversity contribute to a degree of societal stability not seen in Essay More, the Sudan, or Germany where regional diversity is deeply ingrained as is the line between the Northern Protestant and Southern Catholic traditions[9]. Here some commentators might contend that in legalized in amsterdam, order to attain cohesion and stability a highly diverse country such as the Sudan requires a degree of economic development on Essay on Making College More Tuition, a par with Western nations, or even sufficient living space for the different societal groups to form their own satellite communities within geographically large states (since over half the population of Sudan lives in District for Critical Essay, just 15 percent of the land due to water shortages[10]). Such an argument, however, overlooks the existence of small, non-Western states such as the Philippines and Mauritius in Essay More Affordable: Aid Grant, which multiculturalism is celebrated and institutionalised. There is clearly to more to the Sudan conflict than a diverse, economically-deprived population forced into relatively close living conditions. What, then, has led scholars such as Gadir Ali to conclude that [t]he civil war in the Sudan was inevitable[11] and Prah to ask [w]hy has the Sudan conflict so far eluded substantial peace?[12] Here it will be proposed that it is both the District 9: Cultural and Writing Essay, enormous diversity within the Sudan in combination with the Essay on Making Tuition, lack of define tourism, a specifically and More Affordable: substantial Sudanese identity which accounts for the intense prevalence of conflict; the absence of a single strand of state identity which runs through every individual and drugs collective in the Sudan means that these different individuals and Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant groups are able to view themselves as remote little islands of sociality[13] in a vast ocean brimming with alien cultures and unemployment others. Of course, this metaphor is extremely exaggerated to clarify the point and in the Sudan several groups, particularly in the South, actually share a number of commonalities and Essay on Making More Tuition relationships of varying closeness. However, the fact remains that the many differences and legalized in amsterdam idiosyncrasies existing between the on Making College Affordable:, Sudans diverse population have been exacerbated to the point of intra-state conflict because there is no single conception of District Thinking, state identity to Essay on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant, establish even the slightest semblance of unity and likeness among Sudans population; the unemployment and inflation, different religious, racial and regional groups within the Sudan fear and on Making College Aid Grant fight one another because there is no plane of existence on which everyone recognises everyone else as a member of the same state and an equal. It might even be contested that the Sudan is hardly a state at all and is, in pygmy tribes, fact, a series of muddled groups thrown together in an attempt to mould the Afro-Arab region into Essay College More Affordable: Tuition the Western, state-centric conception of Essay on Modeling Political Participation, statehood. Not only does this absence of a widely accepted and omnipresent state identity explain the unyielding nature of civil war in on Making More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, the Sudan, but it also offers an define tourism account of how both individual and group identities are formed in relation to hegemony. Nagengast asserts that: The ideal state is Essay on Making More Aid Grant one in which the to kill a mockingbird quote analysis, illusion of on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant, a single nation-state is created and maintained and in which resistance is managed so that profound social upheaval, separatist activity, revolution, and coups detat are unthinkable for most people most of the time.[14]

Following this conception of the state, then, it becomes apparent that the unemployment, Sudan is Essay College Affordable: Aid Grant far from realisation of becoming the ideal state given the predominance of anti-state movements and legalized drugs militias within its borders and the distinct nonexistence of a unitary illusion of the Sudanese people. Indeed, often when discussing Sudanese affairs and on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant the conflict waged there, an overwhelming number of commentators write about Essay on Modeling Political Participation the Sudan, the region, rather than Sudan the on Making Affordable: Tuition, state. Although one should be wary of his personal motives in saying so since he is advocating the secession of southern Sudan from the North, one prominent South Sudanese politician has gone so far as to suggest that: There is legalized in amsterdam nothing in common between the various sections of the community; no body of shared beliefs, no identity of interests, no local signs of on Making More Affordable: Tuition, unity and above all, the Sudan has failed to pygmy tribes, compose a single community.[15] Rolandsen rather more objectively claims that there is little binding the country together but the shared history of on Making Tuition, colonial rule.[16] However, even though one might argue that the Sudan does not function as a state and does not enjoy the allegiance of the vast majority of people resident within its territorial borders, that is not to say that the analysis, continuing presence of College More Aid Grant, some semblance of a central authority (what one might call the Sudanese state) has not played a role in forming the identities of its would-be people; as Gerd Baumann notes, neither the attempts to define tourism, establish a Sudanese state nor the identities of the individuals and groups who live in the Sudan are formed in a vacuum with a complete lack of awareness of, or relations with, the other there must always be room for alterity for some sort of relation to the Other in order to on Making Affordable: Tuition, keep the specificity of a groups own identity alive.[17] In other words, the central Sudanese authority justifies its identity and Participation existence in on Making Affordable: Tuition, reference to the people within its borders, just as the many different groups within the Sudanese border shape and define their identities in reference to the central authority. Therefore, it is axiomatic that the District and Writing Essay, central Sudanese authority, no matter how unpopular or unrepresentative, should influence identity formation. On Making Affordable: Tuition! Taking initiative from the ideas expressed in the works of both Filip De Boeck and Sherry Ortner, particular emphasis will be played to two complementary trends: firstly, how, no matter what arguments are put forward to the contrary, the drugs in amsterdam, Sudanese state, or lack thereof, constitutes a hegemonic regime and, secondly, how such hegemony plays an enormous role in identity formation even in times of conflict and civil war when parts of the population are actively and hostilely resisting any such imposition upon their identities by the offending hegemony. The dominant feature of our nation is an Islamic one and on Making More its overpowering expression is Arab, and this nation will have entity identified and Essay on Modeling Political its prestige and pride preserved under an Islamic revival.[18] In view of College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, such vehement declarations by drugs members of the Sudans political elite, it is Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant hardly difficult to understand why journalists have noted that [i]ts hard to discuss Sudans civil war without accounting for quote analysis, the role that Islam played in the conflict.[19] It seems that the Muslims are determined to rule the region an entirely Islamic one. Indeed, it is difficult to locate an academic work on the Sudanese conflict which does not lend credence to the argument that a religious schism is, partially or wholly, responsible for the intra-state violence.[20] However, along what lines that schism is drawn is often contested; some point to a clash of Essay College, civilizations between Islam in the North and Christianity in define tourism, the South, whereas others broaden their analysis to include traditional or indigenous religions (sometimes incorrectly grouped together as pagan or animist[21]) situated in southern Sudan as well. Nevertheless, wherever the line is drawn, the division among the Essay on Making College Affordable:, different religions present within the to kill a mockingbird quote, Sudan is an apparently irreconcilable one and one which demonstrates the intense threat posed to the Sudans minority identities.

In fact, both the on Making More Affordable: Tuition, past and and inflation present situations in the Sudan serve as terrible examples of the extremes to which religious segregation and on Making Affordable: tension can escalate within a state. Geschiere writes that religion plays a front-stage role in the quest for belonging[22] and it can be concluded that this is because religion allows an individual to locate themselves within a collection of Essay on Modeling Participation, beliefs, rituals, customs, dialogues and even hierarchy and this placing of ones self within an established order begins to mould and shape ones identity. Moreover, locating ones self within a religion enables individuals to identify themselves with likeminded others and this association with those with whom an individual shares beliefs, in on Making College Affordable: Tuition, turn roots ones identity in a partially-homogenous group and helps affirm an individuals sense of the self. It is a mutually-reinforcing process out of which strong, collective identities emerge. In the Sudan in to kill quote, particular, religion has proved particularly significant in identity formation, as Abd Al-Rahim notes: Until at least the beginning of this century, the Sudanese identified themselves as members of different tribes and Essay College Affordable: Tuition sub-tribes, adherents to various Tariqas or religious fraternities, belong to unemployment and inflation, this or that religion of the country, and (especially the Northern Sudanese, when thinking of wider affiliation) as Muslin and/or Arab people. But they never thought of College More, themselves as Sudanese, unless they happened to belong to what were regarded as the less sophisticated, non-Islamized and non-Arabized section of the pygmy tribes, population.[23] Therefore, as noted in the introduction, with the absence of a profound and overarching Sudanese identity crystallising the on Making Tuition, identities of the Sudans population around religion, a clearer picture begins to emerge of how threats to the religious status quo , and the existence of a significant number of others who are just as attached to their different religious beliefs as an individual is to pygmy tribes, their own, can lead to friction, division, and even outright opposition; as history has taught us, knowledge of other sections of the on Making More Aid Grant, population who worship in a manner very different from yourself and knowledge of those who claim the analysis, existence of an almighty entity or entities different to the one with whom you identify can breed caution, suspicion, fear and Essay Affordable: intolerance.

This is especially true of the Sudan where the drugs, two predominant religions, Islam and Christianity, have been involved in zealous crusades to convert non-believers and infidels in the past; within both religions there exists, to a debatable extent, what Lynch calls the exclusivist position which argues in favor [ sic ] of the superiority of ones own system of belief as well as the right to College More Affordable: Tuition, propagate it as widely as possible[24]. The effects of having two exclusivist religions vying for and inflation, influence and Essay on Making College Tuition supremacy in an area have been closely examined by Falola, who concludes that: In countries where Islam and Christianity compete, as in the case of the Sudan and Nigeria, the pygmy tribes, problems of stability and identity have been compounded by rivalries for religious ascendancy, resulting in the desire for religious control or even the turning of the state into on Making College More a theocracy and imposing a religious ideology [] In cases where indigenous religions are closely bound up with communal lives, the opposition by Islam and Christianity has also meant an attack on local custom and define tourism culture.[25] What Falola makes clear, then, is that as Muslims and Christians battle for the reins of power in the Sudan, they tyrannise and attack one another and the intensity of this constant battle makes Muslims and Christians more determined to not back down and so more attached to their respective religious identities. Here it is extremely important to highlight that the religious competition in the Sudan is far from evenly mathced; not only are indigenous religions caught in the clash between Islam and Christianity, but they are notably less aggressive in their in seeking to convert others.[26] Furthermore, it is estimated that around 70 per cent of the population is Muslim, with most living in the northern two-thirds of the Sudan, with Christians and those who practice traditional religions accounting for the remaining 30 per Essay Tuition Aid Grant cent.[27] With Islam possessing the aforementioned exclusivist characteristics, as well as constituting an enormous majority in the Sudan, it is Essay on Modeling Political little wonder that non-Muslims feel under threat. They are right to do so. Dr. Hassan Turabi [], leader of the present National Islamic Front (NIF), argued that the south had no culture and so this vacuum would necessarily be filled by Arab culture under an More Affordable: Aid Grant Islamic revival[28] and it was this coercive, so-called Islamic revival that led to the introduction of a great quantity of quasi-colonial, repressive policies being imposed in the South under General Abbuds programme of Islamification between 1958 and 1964.[29] These policies included: flooding schools with Arab history, story and religious books; forcing teachers and pupils to wear the jaballia whilst in school; compelling government workers to become Muslim; building mosques in southern, predominantly non-Muslim towns and villages; making Friday the new day of rest, thus forcing the Christian minority to Essay on Modeling Political, attend work on Sundays, their own day of worship. In addition to on Making College More, this, the define tourism, imposition of Sharia Law across the South created a clear hierarchy, with Muslims at the top, followed by Christians, with the remaining infidels at the very bottom. This unique situation has shaped identity in a number of on Making More Aid Grant, ways, ways which help to understand the Essay, Sudan conflict in both complementary and conflicting ways: complementary in College Tuition Aid Grant, that all religious identities have been strengthened in one way or another and contradictory because this was not the desired outcome.

Firstly, adopting a primordialist stance, focusing on what primordialists call the Essay Political, inherent and natural tendency of humans to identify themselves with a group whose members share obvious similarities[30], Hasenclever and Rittberger point to a possibility of College, two ultimate outcomes for drugs, identity formation in Essay on Making Aid Grant, multireligious societies such as Sudan: In the end, either these societies will fall apart or one community will gain dominance and suppress the others.[31] For the Sudan this means either returning to the pre-colonial, peaceful co-existence described by Abd Al-Rahim above (brought about by define tourism what would undoubtedly be a colossal collapse of the Islamic government after a lengthy and cataclysmic war between the Muslims in the North and the non-Muslims on the South) or the Essay College Tuition Aid Grant, Islamic government would gain unquestionable control over the region and establish an absolute theocracy. However, no matter how convincing these possible outcomes appear in on Modeling Political Participation, theory, in practice the identity crisis brought about by religious divisions within the Essay Affordable: Aid Grant, Sudan has had contradictory effects. Define Tourism! For instance, Lam Akol, a former high-ranking official in the Sudan Peoples Liberation Army (SPLA) which opposes the Sudanese government and fights for an independent South Sudan, has pointed out that: The rationale for revolution, as presented in the [July 1983 SPLA/Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement] Manifesto, focused on the specific grievances of the South, but the language of underdevelopment, nationality and religion were deliberately broadened in an attempt to appeal to other regions and sectors of Sudanese society who would have been hostile to a Southern independence movement, but who had their own grievance against Nimairi and the central government.[32] It appears, therefore, that religious identity was something of an afterthought or a scapegoat when amassing members of the Sudans population to rise up against the state; at the forefront of the minds of those leading the revolution were the specific grievances of the South and it was these which had proved potent enough to draw together a group of on Making College Tuition Aid Grant, individuals who felt that their interests and way of life as Southerners, and not specifically Christians or practisers of indigenous religions, were sufficiently threatened. Consequently, then, it seems that religious identity is legalized drugs something of a secondary concern in the Sudan conflict whilst the broader regional identity has been propelled to the fore of the on Making College More Aid Grant, civil war. Unemployment And Inflation! People are more compelled to fight for regional autonomy rather than religious freedom. That is not to say that the on Making College Aid Grant, dominance of Essay Participation, Islam in Essay on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant, the Sudan has not played a considerable part in shifting the religious identities of the Sudanese population since it has, in fact, had a dual effect.

First of all, whilst the Sudanese governments attempts at imposing Islam on those in the largely non-Muslim South have not been the 9: Cultural and Writing Essay, driving factor behind the formation of the major resistance factions in the region, they have led to those practising indigenous religions to coalesce around the larger and more internationally supported Christianity. Lam Akol again notes that: the current drive to Tuition, Islamize the South has produced more Christian converts in the last decade than the define tourism, entire colonial missionary enterprise did during the first half of the Essay College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, twentieth century.[33] We can infer from this that the members of the smaller indigenous tribes of the southern Sudan have felt their position increasingly endangered by unemployment and inflation the central governments process of on Making, Islamification and so, either sensing safety in numbers or simply following what has become an increasing trend, these indigenous religions have slowly flocked to Christianity. To what extent this conversion from Essay Political, indigenous religions to Christianity reflects a true and lasting alteration of religious identity in Essay on Making College More, the Sudan is impossible to District Contexts for Critical Thinking and Writing, assess; it may well be that these practisers of Essay on Making College More Aid Grant, indigenous religions have publicly embraced Christianity to benefit from the protection it brings as a well-funded, well-publicised world religion and 9: Cultural Contexts so attracting both financing and attention to Essay on Making College More Affordable:, their cause as resistors against an oppressive government regime, whilst privately they continue to worship in the traditional way. District 9: Cultural For Critical! After all, as J.C. Scott writes in his work Domination, Acting, and Fantasy: the greater the disparity in power between dominant and subordinate and the more arbitrarily it is exercised, the more the public transcript of subordinates will take on a stereotyped, ritualistic cast.[34] In other words, the more forcefully and insistently the Sudanese government presses for those in the South to convert to Islam, the more we can expect those southerners to react in Essay on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, a somewhat stereotypical way: not, in this case, by pretending to be Muslim as we might expect since this is apparently acquiescing to drugs, governmental pressure too much, but by donning a Christian mask to make it known to the government that they resist the process of Islamification as a strong and united group. The term mask is Essay on Making More Aid Grant used here of course because in the comfort and privacy of their own homes these converts may continue to practise their previous religion, an idea Akol appears to define tourism, support when he concedes that despite the high number of College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Christian converts in the South, the indigenous religions of the southern Sudan continue to inform ideas about ethical behaviour, the quote analysis, moral community and political action.[35] In the North of the Sudan where Islam is much more prevalent, the governments policy of Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, religious oppression in the South has had the opposite effect and has seen a rise of religious zealotry as certain sections of the population turn to Islamic fanaticism: To deal with shortcomings in morale and appease disgruntled parents in the north who are weary of and inflation, having their sons come home wounded or dead, Khartoum has raised a parallel army: the Popular Defense Force (PDF).

This militia is Essay More Tuition composed of young Muslim volunteers persuaded that they are fighting a jihad against southern infidels. The mujahideen in the PDF see war as a spiritual duty and death as a means of martyrdom and instant admission to heaven.[36] For those individuals who subscribe to Essay on Modeling Participation, the exclusivist view of Islam and religion in general, the Essay on Making College Tuition, continuing existence of rival religions in the South can simply not be tolerated and so for these individuals the to kill a mockingbird quote analysis, governments attempts at Islamification is a vehicle for translating these sentiments and feelings into on Making More Affordable: action. Their religious identity has been honed, sharpened and brought to a mockingbird, the fore of the Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition, conflict between North and District 9: Cultural Contexts Thinking South and so, from a Northern perspective, it is possible to claim that the Sudan civil war is best understood in terms of religion and religious conquest; unlike the SPLA which has merely used religious allegiance to entice additional southerners to join the Essay College Tuition Aid Grant, regional North-South battle, for define tourism, a significant number in the North the conflict has become all about protecting and projecting their religious identity with the More Affordable:, regional element becoming less significant. In light of all of these different ways in which the Sudan conflict has shaped religious identity and vice versa, one constant remains: that religious identity in the Sudan, for a mockingbird quote, members of all religions, is a constant struggle against hegemony. This is true even in the case of College More Affordable:, those belonging to Islam because, for some Muslims, it is a relentless battle to assert oneself as the dominant religion. Mutua, on the other hand, is and inflation insistent that [r]ace not religion is the fundamental fault line in College Tuition, Sudan[37] and there is ample evidence to support her view. Unemployment! Indeed, the on Making College More Affordable: Tuition, primordialist interpretation of the Sudan conflict is not exclusive to analysing the role played by religious affiliation, but can also be applied to explain how racial identity is drawn into the civil war. Lind, for example, invokes ancient and immutable hostilities in the Sudan, claiming that conflict arises from people fighting for to kill quote, their primary loyalty to tribe and race, as they have done since historys dawn.[38] The attraction of such an interpretation is that ones racial identity is Essay College More Tuition often obvious to unemployment, the outside world as physical appearance differs substantially from one race to the next; Badal explains in his article on separatism that in the case of the Sudan the racial divide lies between the peoples of the southern Sudan [who] are African and negroid and the peoples of the northern Sudan who are not Arabs proper, but peoples of both Arab and African descent assimilated into Islamic and Arabic culture.[39] Yokwe has traced this racial divide throughout the Sudans history and summarised it thusly: Ever since the historical contact between North and on Making More Tuition South, slavery and slave trade have been practised on racial lines, always the Arab North raiding the African South and not vice versa. Such a practice has heightened the racial tension.

Racism in the Sudan is and inflation also manifested in social interaction particularly in the institutions of marriage and work. In the Sudan the College More Aid Grant, Arabs marry the Southern girls regardless of race and religion. But the Arabs will not allow their daughters to be married to the Southerners regardless of unemployment and inflation, race and religion. On Making More Tuition! In fact, in the 1960s there were cases where Arab parents slaughtered their daughters and dumped them in the river because they were found pregnant by Southern young men.[40] What we see here is in amsterdam vastly similar to the religious schism between Islam and Essay on Making College More Affordable: Christianity one group seeking to conquer or exploit the to kill a mockingbird, other. Except in Affordable:, this case, rather than Muslims battling for supremacy over Christians, Arabs are struggling to exert their dominance over Africans. Just as Christians (and practisers of indigenous religions) feel their religious identity is under threat, then, so do Africans in the Sudan feel that their racial identity is threatened. This ultimately means that racial identity in the Sudan has been shaped in much the same way as religious identity has: in the North the Arabs have strengthened their Arabic identity through a sense of superiority over the Africans in the South, and in the South the Africans have developed their strong bonds of racial identity through sheer determination not to be conquered and for Critical not to be exploited by the Arabs. Once again we see that identity formation in the Sudan civil war is Essay More Affordable: Tuition two sides of the same coin, or even a double-edged sword; strong racial identity has led to cause for conflict and pygmy tribes conflict has led to a strengthening of racial identity.

In the context of the Sudan civil war, since one side contends that they are somehow so fundamentally different to the other that they should not be ruled under the same central authority, it seems appropriate to analyse the ethnic dimension as well as the race, especially because ethnicity is another way in which the Sudan is highly divided. In fact, the highest number of divisions exists along lines of Essay More Affordable: Aid Grant, ethnicity in the Sudan, as one trio of dedicated scholars have discovered: Excluding foreigners, an ethnic polarization index of quote analysis, 0.625 is calculated for on Making Tuition, the country. If a polarization index in excess of 0.5 is considered high, then clearly the Sudan is an ethnically polarized country.[41] There is quote such a high degree of ethnic polarization in the Sudan because of the existence of a great number of Affordable:, ethnic tribes. In his work, Lam Akol explains the importance of District 9: Cultural and Writing, tribal affiliations and their continued relevance throughout the course of Essay on Making College More Affordable:, Sudans history: The word tribe has been discarded in much anthropology, except where it translates a local word, and is resented in much of Africa as a pejorative term. Legalized! Its retention [here] is justified because of its specific political meaning in the ethnography of the Sudan, and because most Sudanese, both Southern and Northern, recognise the existence of Essay More Affordable: Aid Grant, tribes and willingly assert their membership of them. The Arabic word for tribe, gablia , is commonly used throughout the Sudan.[42] The many different tribes and the many different forms of in amsterdam, relations and interactions between them will not be explored in great depth here, firstly because the focus of this essay is specifically the role played by tribal identity in the Sudan conflict, and secondly because there are many anthropologists who have done a far better job in observing and understanding the Sudans tribes than I could ever hope to achieve. What is important to note here, however, is that: Tribal societies lack the kinds of centralized authority characteristic of Essay Affordable: Tuition, states. Their regulative institutions, their mechanisms of define tourism, social control, are therefore inherently weak and operate only over a limited range of social relationships. Peace and security can be assured at College More Affordable: Tuition all only within relatively small social groups, typically groups of kin.

The relationships between these little islands of sociality are fragile and always potentially hostile.[43] The smallness and closeness of tribes naturally means that interactions between their members are frequent and intense, with each and every tribal member fully aware of the group dynamics at play. This high level of social interaction among their members means that tribes play an enormous role in forming and consolidating an individuals identity in the Sudan. An individuals tribe is an intimate network of Essay, support, protection, provision and labour and Essay More Tuition Aid Grant it is through the various roles available within a tribe that an individual can shape their identity; a woman might be a mother, a wife, a sister, the cook, the cleaner, the gardener and drugs in amsterdam a whole host of other roles whereas a man could be a hunter, a warrior, a father, a husband, and a leader. The exact distribution of these roles will of course differ from tribe to tribe and varying degrees of overlap may exist, but the fact remains that peoples roles within their tribe will greatly affect their experience of day-to-day life and their identity will form around that central pillar of being. Aside from the College More Affordable: Tuition, international relations within tribes, the external relations between tribes play a large role in to kill a mockingbird, shaping the identities of Sudans population and there are almost as many forms of inter-tribe relations as there are tribes; some tribes, the Pari for instance, have been notably isolationist throughout their history[44], whilst others enjoy peaceful relations with a number of Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition, other tribes and rely on these for their livelihoods and trade. Still others, such as the Nuer and the Dinka, relate to Thinking and Writing, one another through raiding, kidnap and states of war, but it is important to note that the feuding [does] not dominate relations.[45] Negotiated access for Baggara cattle to Dinka and Nuer watering spots was more common than raids before the Essay College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, war.[46] Through tribal identity, then, the Sudans population is interconnected and shares a fundamental level of understanding which is certainly not attained through religious of national identity. It would be easy to mistake this as a reason why the people of the Sudan might be reluctant to enter into a civil war when they have enjoyed a relatively peaceful and well-established dynamic based upon the acceptance of the above relations through tribal interactions, but this overlooks the define tourism, enmity, explored below, that exists between the Arab tribes of the North and the African tribes of the South; although the status quo has been historically stable between tribes within the Northern regions and between those in the South, examples of amicable and nonviolent relations between northern and southern tribes are few and far between.

If anything, tribal affiliation has been a relatively inconspicuous factor in Essay on Making Tuition, initiating the Sudanese conflict, except for exacerbating existing North-South tensions, and instead is more helpful in understanding why the conflict has endured for so long because, as one commentator suggests, [t]he protracted civil war has altered the nature of traditional conflicts in Southern Sudan [] Conflicts have become more complex and Essay Political Participation new conflicts have emerged[47]. Essay On Making College Affordable: Aid Grant! So, for instance, the Essay on Modeling, traditionally reclusive Pari who were once wary of the Dinka-dominated SPLA/M saw large numbers of their men join the SPLAs ranks when the militia stopped in their villages[48] whilst Nuer-Dinka relations became so explosive between 1991 and 1994 that it caused a split within the Southern separatist movement, with the on Making More, Dinka remaining in the SPLA/M and the Nuer forming their own South Sudan Independence Movement/Army (SSIM/A)[49] the spit was so cataclysmic, in fact, that the SSIM/A fought with the northern government against their southern brethren, something which would have been unthinkable if not for the waging of legalized drugs in amsterdam, civil war in the region. In addition to Essay More, this, tribal relations have become increasingly more violent as a result of the Sudanese civil war, with one Sudanese local saying that previously we only heard about cattle raids but not killing of define tourism, women and children like has happened of late.[50] Filip De Boeck asks: How does (ethnic) self-representation operate as a psychological and cultural strategy for coping with the chaotic and despotic socio-politics and economics in a peripheral frontier situation?[51] The answer in the case of the Sudan can, it seems, be located within Geschieres The Perils of Belonging in which he notes that identities can shift from inclusive to exclusive tendencies[52]; within the context of civil war, the ethnic and on Making Aid Grant particularly the tribal identities of the Sudans populations have intensified to the extent that they have become increasingly intolerant of outsiders and others. Actual violence and animosity has replaced almost ritualistic practices of raiding cattle pillaging wives between competing tribes and traditionally isolationist tribes have been drawn into legalized drugs in amsterdam conflict through increasing interaction with outsiders and independence movements. However, at the root of Essay College Tuition Aid Grant, this intensification of identity is the exacerbation of the regional conflict in the Sudan the pygmy tribes, ethnic hostility and fluctuations in tribal relations are manifestations of a much more fundamental identity conflict in the region. Whilst not explicitly stating so, Buzan and Weavers concise and simple summary of the Sudan conflict effectively demonstrates that both the racial and religious tensions are framed almost perfectly by a regional confrontation; the Sudan civil war, they note, pitches a mostly Arab, Islamic north against a mostly black, non-Islamic south[53]. Whilst their short analysis of the conflict is somewhat over-simplistic, it does succeed in getting to the heart of the matter and it will be argued here that they are right in suggesting that a regionalist account offers the best, most holistic means of understanding the Sudanese civil war because not only does it incorporate the issues of religion and race already discussed above, but it also brings new elements for analysis. As commentators have noted, the on Making More Affordable:, history of Essay Participation, Sudan is full of tales of invasions, enslavement and exploitation of the South by the North[54] and issues of Northern and Southern nationality and national identity occupy a central position in the conflict[55] and so it is this historical and More Affordable: all-pervasive aspects of the regionalist factor which accounts for its enormous significance in understanding the Sudanese conflict. The historical basis of the 9: Cultural Contexts Essay, severe regional tensions in College Affordable: Tuition, the Sudan is an unfortunate postcolonial legacy left over from the momentous occasion when power was finally stripped from the Sudans colonial masters and granted to the newly autonomous region. Already before this process had even begun, there existed an intense suspicion of government and central authority throughout all of Africa, as Falola has discussed in-depth in her book on African culture: The dominant political value revolved around exploitation: the primary motive of the colonial power was to cheat and pygmy tribes exploit Africans; and the primary duty of Africans was to resist.

Government was perceived as the enemy of the people, a view that remains current today.[56] In this context of suspicion, oppression and subordination, then, it was negotiated that the colonial structures erected and Essay on Making Aid Grant maintained by Britain would be transferred intact to the northern Sudanese nationalists,[57] therefore the perception of government as the enemy of the people was eliminated in the North since they inherited the hegemonic legacy whereas those living in the South remained subjugated and powerless. Moreover, since the colonial regime had sought to preserve the innate qualities of pygmy tribes, native cultures, it had sharpened and Essay Tuition essentialised interethnic racial divisions[58] which had only unemployment, served to exacerbate regional tensions and further segregate the North from the South and so by Essay College More the time the North held the reins of power the 9: Cultural Contexts Thinking and Writing, South felt completely and utterly under threat. As a result, it is little surprise that: Southern leaders have since argued that de-colonisation was flawed in the sense that Southerners had no influence on Essay on Making More Aid Grant, the process in general, nor on the future of the Southern Sudan. The fundamental question of whether the South belonged in the Sudanese state at all was not addressed.[59] The issue of southern independence has been a contentious one up until the present day and the fact that a referendum was held on January 9 th 2011 to determine whether or not the Sudan will indeed split into two separate entities only lends credence to the extremely significant role regional identity has played in the conflict the referendum is surely testament to the sheer force of will of those in the South to assert their regional identity. Of course, that regional identity is a culmination of religious, racial, and other affiliations, but, as will become clear, the regional identity in the Sudan has become the most cultivated and for Critical Thinking and Writing Essay the most fiercely protected.

The determination of the Sudans southern population in defending their regional identity has been shaped, in part, by the oppressive actions of the Essay on Making College Aid Grant, government in the North who, intent on maintaining the separation of North and South, developed the Southern Policy which mandated regional and racial segregation, whereby the South was to be developed along African, rather than Arab lines[60] and Political was to College More Affordable: Tuition, be intentionally underdeveloped when compared to the North. This policy of subjugation only served to unite the Contexts for Critical and Writing, southerners further as they formed mutual bonds through their experiences of oppression and adversity; Gerd Baumann calls this phenomenon alterity and has observed that [w]hen one party argues that it encompasses the other, the other party will often respond by postulating a grammar of segmentation.[61] This goes a long way in explaining why the Sudan Peoples Liberation Movement and Army became such a powerful organisation as it pushed for Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Southern independence and District 9: Cultural Contexts for Critical and Writing Essay attracted people from even the remotest parts of the South. John Garang de Mabior, leader of the SPLA/M, claims that the appeal of the organisation was so strong because the on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant, oppression had become so terrible that the marginal cost of pygmy tribes, rebellion in the South became very small, zero or negative; that is, in the South it pays to rebel.[62] For all its strengths, however, formation of regional identity in on Making Affordable: Tuition, the Sudan has been severely hindered over the years, with pockets of disagreement and in-fighting proving extremely counterproductive to the southern separatists cause in particular. It has already been noted that the drugs, SPLM/A suffered internal divisions which led to a splinter group, the SSIM/A, allying with the Khartoum government and [a]ttempts were made by [the SPLA/M] to join forces with Anyanya 2 groups, but these often ended with their fighting each other.[63] Badal even goes so far as to suggest that in the South it can be assumed that there exists a condition more suitable for conflict than for a claim for a separate existence.[64] Even in the comparatively homogenous North there exists an ethnic struggle for power in Khartoum.[65] Furthermore, whilst it can be seen to encompass them both rather perfectly, regional identity in the Sudan can also be seen to be in competition with religious and racial identity: the observation that kinship is Essay College More made of flesh and blood contains the verdict that the physical facts of define tourism, biological relatedness count as shared identity, which then entails the on Making College Tuition Aid Grant, presumption that certain kinds of rights and duties will be assumed between kin as a matter of course.[66] The duties and obligations an individual may feel to his kin who, more often than not are integrated in that individuals tribe, are further compounded by the observations made by Evans-Pritchard and District Contexts for Critical Thinking Essay Rivers who noticed how systems of religion and Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition social organization reflected and to kill quote supported those kinship systems of beliefs and practices.[67] Religion and race, therefore, can be seen as mutually reinforcing an individuals identity, and thus become of more importance to that individual, in ways in which regional identity cannot. Nevertheless, as the Essay More Affordable:, saying goes, actions speak far louder than words and the outcome of the referendum that was held on 9 th January 2011, which is expected to Essay on Modeling Political Participation, come in a matter of on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant, weeks, is expected to legalized in amsterdam, prove that the number of people in the South who voted for unity with the North is an extremely tiny minority[68] even Sudanese President Omar al-Bashir has hinted that he suspects he will eventually have to concede that he can no longer rule the people of southern Sudan.[69] [D]omination, aggression, and violence are intrinsic parts of social life. This is often expressed in Essay Aid Grant, terms of race, class, and gender but can also be based on religious beliefs, political affiliation, national origin, age, and physical or mental disabilities.[70] There are few examples of domination, aggression, and violence in recent history to the extent that has been, and continues to be experienced in the Sudan.

For this very reason, the Sudan serves as a perfect case study for assessing the role played by such domination, aggression, and violence on identity formation and it has already been proposed that such oppression has had a profound effect on shaping religious, racial and regional identity in particular. Here it is possible to link this conception of identity formation through domination, aggression, and violence to the notion of hegemony, which, as one scholar has argued, has played an especially strong part in to kill a mockingbird quote analysis, helping us to understand how power works to form the Essay on Making College More Affordable:, social person, shaping the define tourism, way in which people variously experience the on Making More, world they live in.[71] In linking hegemony, power, and identity formation within the context of the Sudan conflict, some conclusions begin to emerge. First and foremost, it becomes explicitly clear that at the heart of hegemony is the ability to actively affect the identities of those over whom it has influence, and the reverse side of to kill a mockingbird quote analysis, this is that the individuals living under the hegemon are receptive, either knowingly or entirely ignorantly, of its influence. College! In other words, the hegemon seeks to unemployment, change its subjects and its subjects are continually being changed. It is a two-way process: there is the top-down aspect in Essay College, which the a mockingbird analysis, hegemonic regime exerts its influence on the population and there is the grassroots aspect by which the population absorb the hegemonic influence into their existing identities and roles and make it their own. Which brings us to the second point, which is College More Tuition that because identity formation through hegemonic influence is a two-way process it is all the more unpredictable because there are so many possible outcomes: the influence of the hegemon can be overwhelming and pygmy tribes cause the Essay More Aid Grant, desired outcome, as has been the in amsterdam, case with mujahideen in the North of the Sudan; the influence could be entirely rejected and instead have the opposite Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, effect, which can be seen in drugs in amsterdam, the way the Essay College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Norths policy of Islamification has created a large number of Christian converts in the South; or hegemony and and inflation the resistance to it could reach a relatively comfortable degree of equilibrium. According to on Making Aid Grant, Malwal, the prevailing trend in the Sudan is that the legalized drugs in amsterdam, more the attempt by the northern governments to promote the dominant religion and language in a vain and costly effort to establish a nation state of cultural and religious homogeneity in the place of one of diversity has only aggravated the grievances of the on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant, southern Sudanese[72] and only served to increase their determination to oppose the North. Ortner suggests that [r]esistors are doing more than simply opposing domination, more than simply producing a virtually mechanical re -action [] They have their own politics.[73] However, he fails to appreciate that this is precisely why hegemony has such an enormously transformative and pervasive effect on identity formation because hegemonic influence has the Essay on Modeling Political Participation, power to change these internalised politics of both resistors and supporters alike.

In his work culture, Hall expands upon this and explains that: Ruling ideas may dominate other conceptions of the social world by College More Affordable: Aid Grant setting the limit to what will appear as rational, reasonable, credible, indeed sayable or thinkable, within the given vocabularies of motive and action available to us.[74] An example of legalized, hegemonic influence shaping everyday motive and on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant action in the Sudan can be seen in the renowned works of Essay Political Participation, Sharon Hutchinson who spent several periods of her life living with the Nuer tribe of the South; instead of conversations revolving around cows and oxen, heifers and steers, rams and sheep, he-goats and Essay on Making More Tuition Aid Grant she-goats, calves and lambs and kids as they had during her first visit to the Nuer cattle camps in 1978-1979, less than two decades later Hutchinson found that the Nuers conversations were now preoccupied by national political issues, cabinet shake-ups, regional troop movements, and the Jonglei Canal scheme.[75] In other words, the sheer occurrence and pervasiveness of interaction with the hegemonic regime in the interim years had completely altered the interests, the hopes, and the fears of the Nuer; simply the knowledge of the Khartoum governments oppressive policies and the Sudanese conflict was enough to adjust to everyday dynamic. This point clearly serves to address De Boecks question when he asks: Are social co-operation and control limited to small pockets of society in the absence of generalised, overarching civic and political culture, or are there still wider dynamics at play?[76] There is no doubt that there is a distinct absence of an overarching civic and political culture in the Sudan. Indeed, Eisei Kurimoto notes how, in the case of the Pari from drugs in amsterdam, southern Sudan, this sense of isolation and on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant removal from the state is reinforced in define tourism, their everyday speech and on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant language: Gaala is a Pari word which connotes all foreigners of lighter skin, both Arab and Europeans, as well as residents of towns. Government is on Modeling Participation also called gaala [] The implication in the use of this term is that for the Pari successive rulers of the Sudan are just foreigners and their governments are also alien. To the Pari people all outsiders are enemies to a certain degree.[77] In calling it gaala, the Pari assert that the feel no allegiance to the government in Khartoum and College Affordable: have no sense that there is an overarching authority determining their motives and actions; of course the government exists to the Pari in the most rudimentary sense, but it is for Critical Thinking a simple and distant existence without any immediate implications for the tribe. The Pari think of the alien Sudanese government much as they might when discussing a foreign country or a distant star. Essay More Tuition Aid Grant! This is pygmy tribes not a recent trend and on Making More Tuition Aid Grant those living in the South of the Sudan have a long tradition of disregard for whatever government might come along, with Rolandsen noting that [i]n the period up to Political, 1918 without any close administration, it probably did not make much difference to most Southerners whether it was the Turks, the Mahdists or the British who claimed sovereignty in their territory.[78]

However, as alluded to above hegemony is about more than asserting sovereignty over an area of land: it is about the mastering of history[79] and, as Antonio Gramsci proposed in his prominent works on social and cultural hegemony, it is about how a social class or group exerts cultural leadership or dominance over other classes in maintaining the socio-political status quo whilst influencing these subordinate classes to accept and adopt the values of the hegemon.[80] It is this unrivalled power to Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, change those in the lower echelons of define tourism, society which explains why [t]he African elite, irrespective of their location and sources of idea, regard culture as the number one tool in creating a difference between African and non-African, consolidating national and ethnic identities.[81] Therefore, to on Making College Affordable: Tuition, answer the a mockingbird quote analysis, question posed by on Making More Tuition De Boeck earlier, there are certainly wider dynamics of control at play even in legalized, the absence of an overarching, formalised and legitimate central authority; the influence exerted by Essay More Tuition the hegemon in a population or society penetrates and infiltrates the culture and daily lives of those beneath in numerous and varied ways so that those being influenced may not be immediately aware of the existence of these external forces at work. Thus, in define tourism, the case of the Sudan, whilst sectors of the population may be almost oblivious to, or completely disregard, the Sudanese government, the government in question has unquestionably shaped and altered their identities, beliefs and dialogues through the continuing presence of conflict and strife. Either directly or indirectly, the on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, religious, racial and pygmy tribes regional identities of on Making More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, those living in the Sudan have been broken down and rebuilt by the hegemonic regime in place. As one final point it is important to emphasise that the transformative power of hegemony should not be overestimated; as an elusive and District 9: Cultural Thinking and Writing Essay sometimes intangible concept, it is Essay on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant easy to sometimes see hegemonic influence and pygmy tribes a subsequent change in society where neither exists. Indeed, Brown raises the point that [r]esistance is a perfect vehicle for the expression of Essay on Making More Aid Grant, moral fervor precisely because it is so vague, so easily left to the eye of the beholder[82] and it is Essay sometimes tempting for scholars and students to view an event or the belief of a group and make links between oppression and Essay College Aid Grant resistance when, in on Modeling Political, actuality, the event of belief was created through other means. There is a prime example of such an event in the account of Kurimotos stay with the Pari: A Pari explained his people believed the Essay College More, coming of the SPLA would result in a situation of no government, as had been the case during the first civil war, and they destroyed all the things belonging to the government. One could say it was an expression of their wish to remain autonomous without government. However, the fact that 200 bags of sorghum stored by the co-operative association were seized and distributed by the mojomiji [the middle-aged tribal rulers] of the six villages might mean the looting was controlled by the mojomiji and may not have been an uncontrolled mob action. Here Kurimoto questions the motives of the rulers of the Pari tribe in bringing about the destruction of the government buildings. Legalized Drugs! Certainly they could have been expressing their desire to College More Affordable: Aid Grant, be free of the unwanted Sudanese government in the North, but equally the mojomiji could have been using the Essay Political, threat of civil war to assert their dominance and maintain their own form of hegemony and stability in Essay, light of a more pressing external threat; on to kill a mockingbird quote, arriving in the Pari villages, the SPLA had proved popular enough to on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, draw away many men to the battlefields and it is just as plausible that the and inflation, mojomiji wanted to Essay College, keep their influence over these men themselves rather than see them led astray by the southern separatist movement.[83]

Enzensberger, speaking as a patronising, imperial stepfather might talk about an unwanted, unreasonable child, makes his stance known when he exclaims that in Africa [v]iolence has freed itself from ideology and the contemporary civil wars which occur within its borders are a form of political retrovirus [] about nothing at all.[84] Even if one should entirely reject the arguments offered throughout the course of this essay, it is fervently hoped that, if it has achieved nothing else, this essay has convincingly rejected notions such as Enzensbergers from discourse concerning the conflict in Sudan; the Sudanese civil war and associated violence is define tourism firmly rooted in a battle for ones identity and place in both group dynamics and College Affordable: Aid Grant wider society. As Hanlon rightly states, identity is an internal root of war[85] and so to suggest that self-realisation, the expression of ones self and situating that self in pygmy tribes, relation to the ever-fluctuating hegemonic regime is nothing is sheer ignorance and, quite frankly, an untenable position. Because a significant number of notable sectors of its population live under an Essay College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant incompatible, alien central authority, the conflict in the Sudan is ultimately a confrontation between groups in search of District 9: Cultural Contexts Thinking and Writing, a common overarching identity under which they can unite. Abd Al-Rahim, M., Arabism, Africanism, and Self-Identification in Essay on Making College More Tuition, the Sudan in in amsterdam, Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.29-46. Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003). Badal, R.K., The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. 301: 463-474. Banton, M., Ethnic Conflict, Sociology (August 2000), Vol. Essay College Tuition! 34, No.

3: 481-498. Baumann, G., Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach in Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006) pp. 18-52. Brown, M.F., On Resisting Resistance, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. 98, No. 4: 729-749. Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003). Cramer, C., Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006). DAndrade, R.G., Cultural Meaning Systems in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. Define Tourism! (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92.

De Boeck, F., Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire in Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Essay Affordable: Tuition, Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), pp.75-106. Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2003). Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., The Sudans Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long? in Collier, P. and Political Participation Sambanis, N. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 1 Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), pp.193-220. Geschiere, P., The Perils of Essay on Making College More Tuition, Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and pygmy tribes Europe (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2009). Hall, S., The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Among the Theorists in C. Nelson and L. Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: Univ. III. Press, 1988), pp.35-57.

Hanlon, J., Ethnicity and Identity in Yanacopulos, H. and Hanlon, J. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.95-112. Harrison, S., The Mask of Essay on Making College Affordable:, War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in legalized in amsterdam, Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4. Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to on Making, the Impact of Faith on District, Political Conflict in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.107-147. Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987). Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (London: University of California Press, 1996). Idris, A., The Racialised and Islamicised Sudanese State and Essay College More the Question of Southern Sudan in pygmy tribes, Jalata, A. (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44. International Crisis Group, God, Oil and Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3. Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Essay on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant, Sudans Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004) Johnson, D.H., Darfur: Peace, Genocide and legalized drugs Crimes against Humanity in Kaarsholm, P. Essay On Making More Affordable: Tuition! (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and Development in pygmy tribes, Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), pp.92-104. Karns, M.P. and Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of Global Governance , 2 nd edn. On Making More Tuition! (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010).

Kurimoto, E., Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan in Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in and inflation, the Horn of Essay College Affordable: Aid Grant, Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111. Lynch, C. Legalized In Amsterdam! Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on Multiculturalism in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in Essay on Making College Tuition Aid Grant, International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.55-78. Mamdani, M., Making Sense of Political Violence in Post-Colonial Africa, Socialist Register (2003): 132-151. Martin, R., Sudans Perfect War, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. 81, No. 2: 111. Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britains Ambassador to the US at a mockingbird quote the Time of 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005).

Mutua, M., Racism at the Root of Sudans Darfur Crisis, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10. Nagengast, C., Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol. 23:109-136, p.109. Ortner, S.B., Resistance and the Problem of College More, Ethnographical Refusal, Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193.

Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Accessible via the internet at [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf]. Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005). Russell, P. and McCall, S., Can Secession Be Justified? in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.93-122. Salih, K.O., British Policy and the Accentuation of Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the define tourism, Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of Sudan, 1920-1940, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436. Scott, J.C., Domination, Acting, and Fantasy in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. (eds.), The Paths to College Affordable: Aid Grant, Domination, Resistance, and to kill a mockingbird quote analysis Terror (Berkley: University of College More Tuition Aid Grant, California Press, 1992), pp.55-84. Smith, G., Hegemony in Nugent, D. Unemployment! And Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), pp.216-230. Straus, S., Darfur and Essay Affordable: the Genocide Debate, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol.

84, No.1: 123-133. Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. Define Tourism! (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002). Wai, D.M., Introduction in College Tuition, Wai, D.M. Pygmy Tribes! (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973), pp.1-6. Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Peace Support, 2007). Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., Applied Anthropology and Health and Medicine in Kedia, S. and van Willigen, J. (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), pp.119-149. Yokwe, E.M., Arabicisation and Language Policy in the Sudan, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol. 14, No. 2: 149-170. Yokwe, E.M., Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. Essay On Making Affordable: Aid Grant! 11, No.

3: 80-103. Multiculturalism in Korea, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010. Agency for Independent Media, In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Children are Targeted, 13 th February 2010, accessed on define tourism, 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/]. Foreign Policy, The Worlds Newest Global Capital?, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital]. Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil, and Essay on Making More Aid Grant Human Rights, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via [http://www.hrw.org/en/node/12243/section/1]. International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed 3 rd January, 2011 via [http://www.icc-cpi.int/menus/icc/press%20and%20media/press%20releases/pr557]. The Economist, Independence Beckons, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399]. [1] Yokwe, E.M., Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies, Africa Media Review (1997), Vol. 11, No. 3: 80-103, p.82.

[2] See for example Karns, M.P. and Mingst, K.A., International Organizations: The Politics and Processes of unemployment and inflation, Global Governance , 2 nd edn. (London: Lynne Rienner, 2010), p.212 and Straus, S., Darfur and the Genocide Debate, Foreign Affairs (Jan-Feb 2005), Vol. 84, No.1: 123-133. [3]International Criminal Court press release (12/07/2010), accessed on 3 rd January 2011 via. [4] Examples of such a consensus exist in Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniversire, 2003), Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudans Civil Wars (Oxford: James Currey, 2004), Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan During the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration (London: Frank Cass Co., 1973). [5] International Crisis Group, God, Oil and Country: Changing the Logic of War in Sudan (Brussels: IGC Press, 2002), p.3.

[6] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures (Rochester: University of Rochester Press, 2003). [7] Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , paper prepared for the United Nations Research Institute for Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition, Social Development (UNRISD) Conference on Racism and Public Policy , September 2001, Durban, South Africa. Can be accessed via the internet at [http://www.pogar.org/publications/other/unrisd/prah-01e.pdf]. [8] Multiculturalism in and inflation, Korea, JooAng Daily , August 26 th , 2010. [9] Meyer, C., DC Confidential: The Controversial Memoirs of Britains Ambassador to the US at the Time of 9/11 and the Run-up to the Iraq War (London: Phoenix, 2005), p.28. [10] Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights, November 24 2003, accessed 17 th December, 2010 via.

[11] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., The Sudans Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long? in Collier, P. and Sambanis, N. (eds.), Understanding Civil War: Evidence and Analysis, Vol. 1 Africa (Washington, DC: The World Bank, 2005), p.219. [12] Prah, K.K., Race, Discrimination, Slavery, Nationalism and Citizenship in the Afro-Arab Borderlands , p.5. [13] Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993), p.4. [14] Nagengast, C., Violence, Terror, and the Crisis of the State, Annual Review of Anthropology (1994) Vol.

23:109-136, p.109. [15] Aggrey Jaden, President of the Essay on Making College Tuition Aid Grant, Sudan African National Union, in a speech given at the inauguration of the Union in Kampala in 1964, quoted in Russell, P. and McCall, S., Can Secession Be Justified? in Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.107. [16] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.22. [17] As evaluated by Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and Europe (Chicago: University of pygmy tribes, Chicago Press, 2009), p.166. [18] Excerpt of a speech given by Sayed Saddig El-Mahdi, leader of the Umma Party, at the Eleventh Annual Conference of the Philosophical Societies of Sudan (1965), cited in Yokwe, E.M., Arabicisation and Essay on Making More Language Policy in the Sudan, Studies in the Linguistic Sciences , Vol.

14, No. And Inflation! 2: 149-170, p.155. [19] Martin, R., Sudans Perfect War, Foreign Affairs ( Mar/Apr 2002), Vol. Essay Aid Grant! 81, No. 2: 111. [20] Although for an interesting article which attempts to remove the Sudanese conflict from unemployment, its religious context see Mutua, M., Racism at the Root of Sudans Darfur Crisis, The Christian Science Monitor , 14 July 2004: 10. [21] Lam Akol writes that Animism is an archaic term with little descriptive value used to avoid the pejorative terms associated with paganism. He goes on to state that as animism is now generally understood [] there are properly no animists in the southern Sudan. For more see Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: the Essay on Making Aid Grant, Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.xv-xvi.

[22] Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Exclusion in Africa and drugs in amsterdam Europe , p.1. [23] Abd Al-Rahim, M., Arabism, Africanism, and Self-Identification in the Sudan in Wai, D.M. (ed.) The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , pp.33-34. [24] Lynch, C. Dogma, Praxis, and Religious Perspectives on Essay on Making College Affordable:, Multiculturalism in pygmy tribes, Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), p.62. [25] Falola, Y., The Power of College More, African Cultures , pp.57-58. [27] Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights, pp.43-44. [28] Yokwe, E.M., Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies, p.94. [29] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the 1990s (Sweden: Almqvist Wiksell Tryckeri AB, 2005), pp.24-5. [30] Banton, M., Ethnic Conflict, Sociology (August 2000), Vol.

34, No. 3: 481-498, at p.482. [31] Hasenclever, A. and Rittberger, V., Does Religion Make a Difference? Theoretical Approaches to the Impact of Faith on Political Conflict in Petito, F. and Hatzopoulos, P. (eds.), Religion in International Relations: The Return from Exile (Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2003), pp.110. [32] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration (Lincoln: iUniverse, 2003), p.63. [34] Scott, J.C., Domination, Acting, and pygmy tribes Fantasy in Nordstrom, C. and Martin, J. (eds.), The Paths to Domination, Resistance, and Terror (Berkley: University of California Press, 1992), p.56.

[35] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv-xvi. [36] Martin, R., Sudans Perfect War. [37] Mutua, M., Racism at the Root of Sudans Darfur Crisis, p.10. [38] Quoted in Johnson, D.H., Darfur: Peace, Genocide and Crimes against Humanity in Kaarsholm, P. (ed.), Violence, Political Culture and Development in Africa (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.92. [39] Badal, R.K., The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan, African Affairs (October 1976), Vol. 75, No. 301: 463-474, p.464.

[40] Yokwe, E.M., Conflict Resolution in on Making Tuition Aid Grant, the Sudan: A Case Study of pygmy tribes, Intolerance in Contemporary African Societies, pp.85-6. [41] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and More Tuition El-Batahani, A., The Sudans Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long? p.216. [42] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.xv. [43] Harrison, S., The Mask of War: Violence, Ritual and the Self in Melanesia , p.4. [44] Kurimoto, E., Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan in Fukui, K. and Markakis, J. (eds.), Ethnicity Conflict in the Horn of District 9: Cultural Contexts Thinking and Writing Essay, Africa (London: James Currey, 1994), pp.95-111.

[45] Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights. [46] Human Rights Watch, Sudan, Oil, and Human Rights. [47] Wassara, S.S., Traditional Mechanisms of Conflict Resolution in Southern Sudan (Berlin: Berghof Foundation for Essay College Tuition, Peace Support, 2007), p.5. [48] Kurimoto, E., Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern, p.100. [49] Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of a mockingbird analysis, Sudans Civil Wars . [50] Hon Maker Chol Adol, the member of the South Sudanese Legislative Assembly from Makauch Payam, quoted in Agency for Independent Media, In Southern Sudan Conflicts, Women and Essay on Making College Affordable: Tuition Children are Targeted, 13 th February 2010, accessed on 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.aimonline.org/]. [51] De Boeck, F., Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Global Perspectives from Zaire in pygmy tribes, Werbner, R. and Ranger, T. (eds.), Postcolonial Identities in Africa (London: Zed Books Ltd, 1996), p.75. [52] Geschiere, P., The Perils of Belonging : Autochthony, Citizenship, and Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant Exclusion in Africa and Europe , p.32. [53] Buzan, B. and Weaver, O., Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003), p.241. [54] Wai, D.M., Introduction in Essay on Modeling, Wai, D.M. (ed.), The Southern Sudan: The Problem of National Integration , p.1. [55] Akol, L., SPLM/SPLA: The Nasir Declaration , p.339. [56] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures , p.102.

[57] Johnson, D.H., The Root Causes of Sudans Civil Wars , p.22. [58] Salih, K.O., British Policy and on Making More Affordable: Tuition the Accentuation of Inter-Ethnic Divisions: the Case of the Nuba Mountains Region of Sudan, 1920-1940, African Affairs (July 1990), No.89: 417-436. [59] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the and inflation, 1990s , p.24. [60] Idris, A., The Racialised and Islamicised Sudanese State and the Question of Southern Sudan in Jalata, A. On Making! (ed.), State Crises, Globalisation and National Movements in North-East Africa (London: Routledge, 2004), pp.30-44. [61] Baumann, G., Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach in Baumann, G. and Gingrich, A. (eds.) Grammars of Identity/Alterity: A Structural Approach (Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2006), p. Unemployment And Inflation! 31. [62] In a statement made to the Sudanese people on the Founding of the Sudans People Liberation Army (SPLA) and the Sudans People Liberation Movement (SPLM), quoted in Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and El-Batahani, A., The Sudans Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?, p.193. [63] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in the Southern Sudan during the Essay on Making Aid Grant, 1990s , p.27.

[64] Badal, R.K., The Rise and Fall of Separatism in Southern Sudan, p.465. [65] Yokwe, E.M., Conflict Resolution in the Sudan: A Case Study of Intolerance in for Critical and Writing Essay, Contemporary African Societies, p.82. [66] DAndrade, R.G., Cultural Meaning Systems in Schweder, R.A. and LeVine, R.A. (eds.), Culture Theory: Essays on Mind, Self, and Emotion (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984), p.92. [67] Whiteford, L.M. and Bennett, L.A., Applied Anthropology and on Making Affordable: Tuition Health and Medicine in Kedia, S. and van Willigen, J. In Amsterdam! (eds.), Applied Anthropology: Domains of Application (Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers, 2005), p.122. [68] Foreign Policy, The Worlds Newest Global Capital?, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2011/01/06/the_worlds_newest_capital]. [69] The Economist, Independence Beckons, 6 th January 2011, accessed 14 th January 2011 via [http://www.economist.com/node/17851399]. [70] Van Willigen, J., Applied Anthropology: An Introduction , 3 rd edn. (Westport, CT: Bergin Garvey, 2002), p.92. [71] Smith, G., Hegemony in College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Nugent, D. and Vincent, J. (eds.), A Companion to the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.216. [72] Gadir Ali, A.A., Elbadawi, I.A. and quote analysis El-Batahani, A., The Sudans Civil War: Why has it Prevailed for So Long?, p.211.

[73] Ortner, S.B., Resistance and the Problem of Ethnographical Refusal, Comparative Studies in Society and History , Vol. 37, No.1: 173-193, pp.176-177. [74] Hall, S., The Toad in the Garden: Thatcherism Among the Theorists in C. Nelson and L. College! Grossberg (eds.) Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture (Urbana: Univ. III. Press, 1988), p.44. [75] Hutchinson, S.E., Nuer Dilemmas: Coping with Money, War, and the State (London: University of unemployment and inflation, California Press, 1996), pp.32-33. [76] De Boeck, F., Postcolonialism, Power and Identity: Local and Essay More Tuition Global Perspectives from Zaire, p.76.

[77] Kurimoto, E., Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in 9: Cultural Contexts for Critical and Writing Essay, South-Eastern Sudan, pp.95-111. [78] Rolandsen, O.H., Guerrilla Government: Political Changes in College More Aid Grant, the Southern Sudan during the 1990s , p.23. [79] Smith, G., Hegemony in Nugent, D. and Vincent, J. Pygmy Tribes! (eds.), A Companion to Essay College More Affordable: Aid Grant, the Anthropology of Politics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2004), p.217. [80] Holsti, K.J., The Dividing Discipline: Hegemony and Diversity in International Theory (Boston: Alan and Unwin, 1987). [81] Falola, T., The Power of African Cultures , p.3. [82] Brown, M.F., On Resisting Resistance, American Anthropologist , (December 1996) Vol. 98, No. District Contexts Essay! 4: 729-749, p730. [83] Kurimoto, E., Civil War Regional Conflicts: The Pari Their Neighbours in South-Eastern Sudan, p.100. [84] Quoted in Cramer, C., Violence in Developing Countries: War, Memory, Progress (Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press, 2006), p.77.

[85] Hanlon, J., Ethnicity and Essay on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant Identity in Yanacopulos, H. and a mockingbird Hanlon, J. (eds.), Civil War, Civil Peace (Oxford: James Currey, 2006), p.110. Written at : Katholieke Universiteit Leuven. Written for Essay College More Tuition Aid Grant, : Professor Filip De Boeck. All content on the website is published under the following Creative Commons License. Before you download your free e-book, please consider donating to support open access publishing.

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The different types of Essay Aid Grant, fraud that were committed by Enron Essay Sample. Enron committed all types of fraud, from mail fraud and shareholder fraud to security, wire fraud and money laundering. While analyzing these frauds it will be seen who committed the fraud, why did they commit it, how did they commit it, the penalty and punishment given to those who were apart of it, the key players, the penalty and punishment given to those who are innocent bystanders, the penalty given to Enron as a whole, how these types of frauds can be prevented in the future and how Enron could of prevented these frauds from occurring, and 9: Cultural Contexts for Critical Thinking, how to bring back the trust that was lost due to Essay College More Affordable:, fraud in the markets. When it comes to wire fraud, there are a couple of main players from Enron. The key players from Enron who committed wire fraud are Timothy Belden, Andrew Fastow, Jeffrey Richter,Michael Kopper, Jeffrey Skilling, and most of all Enron traders in general. By knowing that wire fraud is and inflation anyone who uses interstate wire communication facilities in carrying out a scheme to defraud.(Lectric Law Library), and that shareholder fraud is when the employees of a corporation deliberately deceive the companys shareholders by misrepresenting information (Shareholder fraud info center) and security fraud is when on party deliberately misinforms another party during the More Tuition Aid Grant, trading of stocks, bonds, an other securities. Define Tourism! (Securities fraud info center), it is able to Essay on Making College More Tuition, be shown how Timothy Belden, Andrew Fastow, Jeffrey Richter, Michael Kopper, and Jeffrey Skilling committed these types of fraud in some of the Political Participation, following ways. Timothy Belden, the head of Enrons energy-trading operation, committed wire fraud by College Affordable: playing his part in pygmy tribes, the manipulation of Californias energy market that would cause the drive up of power prices. A way the Affordable: Aid Grant, he contributed to define tourism, this fraud was by buying Californias power at Essay on Making More Aid Grant, cheap, capped prices.

They would then route them outside of California and then sell it back into California at a very highly inflated price. These types of unemployment, deals that were committed by Timothy Belden were called Ricochet deals because as stated above they would ricochet Californias energy and every time it would come back it would be more expensive. That is how Belden would gain profit for Enron. By committing this fraud Belden was able to gain Enrons profit that were worth a small amount of millions in one year to Essay on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant, multiplying it to hundreds of legalized drugs in amsterdam, millions in Essay on Making Tuition Aid Grant, with two years. The only way the pygmy tribes, ricochet deal broke up is when the College More Tuition Aid Grant, Federal Energy Regulatory Commission implemented regional price caps.

Now when it comes to Andrew Fastow, Enrons former chief financial officer, Michael Kopper, and define tourism, Enron Executive, and Jeffrey Skilling, they were convicted or are charged with wire fraud, and money laundering, by making partnerships that were never recorded in the books correctly, by doing this the on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant, wire fraud he committed was used to hide about one million dollars in Essay Participation, debt from shareholders and federal regulators, this is were the shareholder fraud comes in and was committed. Michael Kopper and Essay Tuition Aid Grant, Andrew Fastow committed this fraud by working together. There were many partnerships committed by these people like the to kill a mockingbird quote analysis, RADR but the Essay College Aid Grant, following paragraphs will only 9: Cultural Thinking and Writing Essay, explain how two of the many partnerships, that were used to commit fraud, were sought out. Here are two example partnerships, which show how Fastow, Kopper, and Skilling worked together to commit this fraud. One of the first partnerships that they made was called LJM. More Aid Grant! LJM was a project that was started to fix a so called problem Enron had of not being able to sell, or put in paper an a mockingbird Internet start-up company that would make Enron look good. Because of College Affordable:, not being able to do so Enron started a risky partnership with a company in the islands called LJM. Enron funded LJM with its own stock in order to fake the books. The second partnership was called Chewco. The main story with Chewco was that Fastow wanted to pygmy tribes, run Chewco but he couldnt because of a conflict of interest.

So what Fastow did was put Kopper in More Affordable: Aid Grant, control of Chewco. Here is where the fraud comes in, in order to cover up the legalized, connection between Chewco and on Making College Tuition, Enron, the investments done by Kopper to Chewco was done under a partners name. When Enron decided to buy Chewco, Fastow made Kopper drive up the price of it in order make profits for himself and Kopper, and define tourism, any other money Kopper received from the selling of Chewco to Enron he shared with Fastow, this is how they committed their money laundering and wire fraud. The next key player who committed fraud was Jeffrey Richter, the former head of Enrons Short-term California energy trading desk. He also committed wire fraud. Richter committed wire fraud specifically in one way. He was the one in charge of supervising the Essay on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, department of Enron that was responsible for the trading of Californias short-term power market before the company filed for bankruptcy. There are two schemes that were committed by Enron traders. The two schemes that were committed by Enron were called Load Shift and and inflation, Get shorty. In Load Shift Enron traders filed a false power-delivery schedules aimed at boosting prices by creating the appearance of congestion on Essay College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Californias high-voltage transmission lines. Enron would profit from the schedules by offering to a mockingbird, drop or revise deliveries.

By doing this Enron was entitled for on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, compensation from the state when the grid operators thought congestion threatened to overwhelm the transmission system. When it comes to Get Shorty , Get Shorty was a scheme that Enron traders would make and sell backup power to California, they would then receive payment and then canceled the schedules and covered their commitments by buying power at a lower price in a near by unemployment and inflation market. A very big question that needs to be answered when analyzing fraud is why are frauds committed? Why did Timothy Belden commit wire fraud? Beldens excuse for committing wire fraud is I did it because I was trying to Tuition Aid Grant, maximize profit for Enron. (NYSSPCA). He said he was following Enrons instructions. In the upcoming paragraphs, after the completion of why fraud is committed, it will be stated, how to prevent this fraud from occurring because of the sayingI was following the companies orders.

Fastow, Kopper, and Skilling commited these wire frauds and partnerships for three main reasons. The first one was in order to cover up debt that Enron truly had accumulated, which was done with the LJM partnership. This was done to try to save Enrons appearance. The second reason why they committed the fraud was to hide a conflict of Essay Political, interest, and to gain money for themselves, not even to gain profit for Enron, which was done by the Chewco partnership. This reason just stated is mainly called greed. But the main reason why Fastow committed these frauds was in order to Essay College More Affordable:, manipulate Enrons balance sheet, and unemployment, come up with fake earnings, to make Enron look good. When it comes to College More Tuition Aid Grant, Enrons traders, Enron traders would of committed these frauds, and schemes like Get Shorty and Load Shift in unemployment and inflation, order to Essay on Making College Aid Grant, profit the company. They say it was just for that, but every one knows that if the company profits shareholders and Enron traders themselves would profit too. Fraud is committed most of the Essay on Modeling Political, times not only because of how a company is managed, or in order to increase or a save a company, but it is also committed because of plain old greed that people carry with them. Remember with fraud comes penalties eventually.

For all of the key players of Enron, which were talked about above, each of them paid a penalty and on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant, was punished. Here are a few penalties and punishment that are brought on District, by fraud. First of all, they all face years in prison, fines, and the paying millions in restitutions, and that is only because they all had decided to help out in the investigation. If not there punishment could have been worse. These are the penalties brought to the people who commit fraud.

Fraud does not only affect the people who commit it but it also affects innocent hardworking people. Because of the people who committed the Enron fraud many innocent working people lost everything, from their jobs, since Enron went bankrupt, their retirement plan (401k), and the loss of thousands of dollars for those people who honestly had invested their money in Enron. Fraud affects many people not just the ones involved. Fraud even affects traders who are not traders or shareholders of Enron, because fraud even affects the markets. Because when fraud is committed markets all over the place are affected because of the lost of trust. Lets not forget that the whole unraveling process, in which the actual fraud starts to be investigated in can be to much for some people that they commit suicide like Clifford Baxter, the vice chairman of Essay Tuition Aid Grant, Enron Corp. The prevention of define tourism, fraud is a very big issue and companies and organizations need to take it very seriously. There are big things and little things that can be done, from Sarbanes-Oxley Act to plainly the way management puts its priority to its employees, to try to prevent fraud from occurring in a company. Essay College More! When it come to Sarbanes-Oxely Act, which is an act that enables employees at all levels inside a corporations to raise concerns about fraud, knowing that they have legal remedies if they suffer retaliation because of the concerns they have raised.(The Motley Fool) This act not only define tourism, helps the prevention of fraud but it also helps in the trying to restore the trust in the markets.

The Sarbanes-Oxley act was done so that, if any employee knows of any fraud that is trying to take place or any fraud that is taking place, they can know and put their mind at Essay on Making College More Affordable:, ease when reporting it. They can be put at ease because they will know that they will not, and cannot get fired, or have any retaliation towards them, because that will be illegal. This act was made for the protection of the employees and in order to encourage whistle-blowing. Whistle-blowing is an employee who publicly reports illegal activities going on drugs in amsterdam, inside his or her company.(Investors World) This act was made because it has been seen that most people do not report fraud because they are scared of getting fired. Another way of preventing future Enrons is to fix how corporations get managed. Essay On Making College More Tuition Aid Grant! Business fraud is caused by and inflation how corporations are managed. The reason this is said is because fraud occurs mainly because of incentives given to executives. Meaning for Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition, examples that executives get given incentives along the lines of, if a certain amount of profit is pygmy tribes reached a bonus in some way will be issued or some stocks will be able to be bought. Because of these incentives executives get the urge to misreport performance in hopes of saving their companies, and Essay on Making College More Tuition, the ability to make the company or organization look good with false ratings in a mockingbird quote analysis, the books. A company can look on the fraud classification system to find ways to help their companies give appropriate incentives. The fraud classification system helps protect shareholders from fraud and lets the board of directors restructure firms so that executives have the right performance incentives.

Some incentives given in companies are the following two types of rewards that can be offered; the More Tuition Aid Grant, first one is rewards that benefit shareholders, and the second reward are those that benefit select groups involved within the company. A third thing that companies need to be aware of legalized drugs, are what situations are prone to having a higher risk of fraud. Here are some of those situations. Essay College Affordable: Aid Grant! For one, the greater the focus on insider benefits to higher-level management, the higher the risk of fraud. Another one is the greater the influences of senior management relative to external directors, the higher the risk of fraud. The third is the greater the commitment to stock options and benefits that encourage a balance between the influence of management and the board of directors, the lower the risk of fraud.

In order to drugs in amsterdam, fix these high risk frauds a method that can be used is to have auditors review company structures and books, because these auditors are encouraged to consult with, whatever company they are doing business with, and on Making More, tell them what they see as upcoming or future problems. Outside auditors are able to unemployment, see problems coming because of the Essay on Making More Tuition, incentives structures that are in District for Critical Thinking and Writing, place in that company. If we can accomplish these few things we will be able to get closer to being able to Affordable: Tuition, get abolish fraud. When fraud is committed and it is District 9: Cultural Thinking Essay caught and brought to the surface the investigation brings about more issues. Like in Enrons example there fraud brought about the investigation of Andrew Andersons Accounting firm, because they contributed to helping Enron in the accounting books, by on Making College destroying some of Enron paper work which is illegal to pygmy tribes, do. It is best to try to prevent fraud and catch fraud before it occurs.

This is why the above methods should be used, because by being able to Essay on Making College More Affordable:, persuade whistleblowers to blow the Essay on Modeling, whistle on a company that can very well be attempting to commit or are committing fraud when the whistle gets blown. If a whistle blower were to blow, it can very well help stop fraud in Tuition, another company, which in the long run if they were caught early enough, can save money for the innocent people that get involved without even knowing that they are involved in the fraud of the company. If whistle-blowing occurs before the fraud actually occurs and causes damage to the company the unemployment and inflation, better, because that gives a better chance that people do not lose there jobs, or retirement plans etcThis is why it is good to Essay Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, have the Sarbones-Oxley Act, because it will encourage whistle-blowing. In Enrons case the Contexts for Critical and Writing, whistleblower was Sharon Watkins. She was the one who raised the issue of the fraud being committed in Aid Grant, Enron. Back in 2001 she raised a caution flag about Enron. But for Enrons case it was good that the define tourism, whistle was blown but it was still bad because it was blown to late which is why Enron still went into bankruptcy, and innocent people still ended up losing their jobs and their retirement plans. So If all the above prevention methods are taken, the Essay Affordable: Tuition, better the chances are of no fraud occurring, and the better the chances are of catching the District 9: Cultural Contexts Thinking and Writing, fraud earlier without having to on Making More Tuition, much damage to fix.

Not only the above but by catching it early and putting into play all the preventions the markets will begin to to kill a mockingbird analysis, gain its trust back, because they know that the likelihood of fraud occurring is getting smaller. Enron committed many frauds that contributed to its collapse from minimal mail fraud to heavy-duty wire fraud, shareholder fraud, and security fraud. With Enron having had committed these fraud it ruined many peoples lives. It is very important to notice that while fraud can get you ahead for a while it will eventually catch up with you. And it will not only, hit the economy hard but it will affect yourself the company and the lives of innocent individuals. From an analytical view point, which is the view taken here, Enron committed many frauds, many people were involved, and the guilty parties involved where punished or are in College More Affordable: Aid Grant, the process of being punished. Analytically it was able to be seen what the Contexts for Critical and Writing Essay, different reasons why fraud is on Making College More Aid Grant committed and what to do to prevent fraud in the future, which in the long run would help innocent people, and it will help the markets with the issue of trust. The two main reasons how to prevent fraud is with the government interference, like with Sarbanes-Oxley Act, and just plainly having companies give good incentives in order to try to avoid the feeling or the define tourism, urge to commit fraud. Enron Whistle-Blower Learned To Speak Her Mind. The Olympian. 27 Jan. Fusaro, Peter.

What went wrong at Enron: Everyones guide to the largest. bankruptcy in U.S. history. Hoboken: N. J. Essay On Making Tuition Aid Grant! 2002. Harms, David, and Ewdward Rosen. The impact of Enron: regulatory, ethical, and practice issues for define tourism, cousel to issuers, underwriters and Essay on Making College, financial intermediaries.

New York: N.Y. Drugs In Amsterdam! 2002. Org. On Making College More Tuition! News Staff. Pygmy Tribes! Key Enron Trader Pleads Guilty to Fraud Charge from. NYSSPCA.ORF. 17 Oct. 2002. On Making More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant! http://www.nysscpa.org/home/2002/1002/2week/article32.htm. Securities Fraud, Developed by Lawershop Inc., Securities fraud info center. Shareholder Fraud, Developed by Lawershop Inc., Shareholder fraud info. Weiss, Milberg. The Enron Lawsuit The Enron Fraud, Milberg Weiss Bershad. Hynes Lerach LLP. http://www.enronfraud.com/

Westman, Daniel P. Legalized Drugs In Amsterdam! Restoring Trust in the Markets. 26 Sept. 2002. The Motley Fool. Whistleblower Investor world the biggest, best investing glossary on Essay on Making More Affordable:, the web, Wire Fraud Lectric Law Library. Is this the perfect essay for you?

Save time and order The different types of fraud that were committed by Enron. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for The different types of fraud that were committed by Enron. Which segment of on Modeling, its operations got Enron into difficulties? The segment of on Making Affordable: Tuition, its operations that got Enron into trouble was Kopper and Dodson creating a series of limited partnerships and ?Reaction Paper on Enron Case. Reaction Paper on Enron Case September 9, 2013 Summary: Enrons origins date back to 1985 when it began life as an interstate pipeline company through the merger of Houston Natural

Business Ethics Enron. When Jeff Skilling took the major energy company Enron over, he contributed to the hiring and development of an entire corporation with a crooked staff whom were corrupt all the What were the individual factors that contributed to Political, the failure of Enron? Briefly explain two key factors. In the repercussion of Enrons bankruptcy filing, numerous Enron executives were charged with

Write a executive summary on More Tuition Aid Grant, Enron leadership and Essay on Modeling Political Participation, its failure. Though many different explanations are offered for the collapse of College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, Enron, the nations seventh largest corporation, yet its leadership was an obvious factor that contributed to Enrons demise. It will Fraud Triangle paper. The TV series Real Housewives of New Jersey super star Teresa Giudice and husband Joe have been accused of more than 39 counts of Fraud. The Fraud accounts range from

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A Lucrative Niche for Writers: How to Become a Ghostwriter. Thomas Jefferson might as well have been describing how to break into Essay on Making More Aid Grant ghostwriting when he wrote, Im a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more I have of legalized drugs in amsterdam it. In the Essay on Making Tuition Aid Grant summer of and inflation 2014, I quit my job to pursue full-time self-employment as an More Affordable: Tuition, author and a mockingbird analysis editor. Knowing that a majority of Essay on Making College More my income would likely not come from my books, I focused on seeking editing work. In less than a year, I shifted my focus to ghostwriting, a professional avenue I thought would be forever closed to me because I simply didnt have the connections. I knew no celebrities, political figures or rich business types, but I did have three key assets: experience, patience and legalized drugs in amsterdam luck. This isnt just my story either.

In taking an informal poll of online connections who also ghostwrite books, common threads of experience, patience and on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant luck wove through every story of how they first got paid to help other people tell their stories. Before I cover the unemployment and inflation practical aspects of how to More Aid Grant become a ghostwriter, lets consider why you should add Ghostwriter to your writing services: Youll get paid upfront . No more waiting on to kill a mockingbird, royalties like you would for College More Tuition Aid Grant writing your own books! Its lucrative. With the right clients, you can earn substantially more than other writing services you provide. Essay Participation? No need for marketing . Because your name isnt on the book, you dont have to do any marketing, which means you can proceed to the next project ASAP. Authors who dont enjoy marketing often see this as even more beneficial than how much they earn from ghostwriting projects. On Making College More Aid Grant? (Unfortunately, you will still have to legalized drugs in amsterdam market yourself to get clients, but thats content for another post.) You can keep emotional distance . Because the book is not your own child, youll be able to see its strengths and Essay on Making More Affordable: weaknesses clearly, bringing a helpful perspective to the client. The subject matter is fascinating . When you choose the define tourism right clients, you learn as you write: about other peoples lives, their professions and industries you otherwise might not come across. It will make you a better writer . Ghostwriting consistently challenges your writing skills. More Tuition Aid Grant? If youve ever had trouble meeting your daily word count goals, try ghostwriting a book for a client who has already paid you! With those considerations in mind, its little wonder that writers want to 9: Cultural Contexts for Critical and Writing Essay know how to break into ghostwriting, but the process isnt easy or fast.

Becoming a ghostwriter is equal parts patience, determination, experience, confidence, marketing, and, well, luck. Its that last part that most aspiring ghostwriters dont want to hear, but its true #8212; and well get to why luck is a necessary ingredient in a moment. Heres how to get started in this lucrative profession: Journal. Blog. Guest post. Write for publications like The Write Life. College Affordable: Aid Grant? Send letters to the editor.

Make insightful comments on websites. To Kill A Mockingbird? Self-publish a book (properly edited, of course). College More Affordable: Tuition? Create a family email newsletter. Unemployment? In whatever ways you can, write, write, and write some more. And dont forget to read. If you don#8217;t have time to Essay on Making College More Tuition read, you don#8217;t have the time (or the tools) to pygmy tribes write, Stephen King wrote. Simple as that. Read high-brow, low-brow, classics, and todays popular books.

Alternate between fiction and nonfiction nonfiction authors must know how to tell a compelling story. Read books about the craft of writing and storytelling, like Kings On Writing and McKees Story . Put in your 10,000 hours of reading and writing. Earn the right to write for others. Ten thousand hours is 1.14 years, but that means youd have to be doing that one single thing every hour of every day. Lets say that five days a week you read for an hour per Essay Affordable:, day and write for two hours per pygmy tribes, day, a generous assumption for most writers with full-time responsibilities outside of writing.

At that rate, it will take you 12.8 years to become an expert writer. My story witnesses to this Gladwellian opinion. I began to take my writing seriously as a freshman in college at Essay Affordable: the age of 18. Every one of my post-college jobs was related to reading or writing, but I also suffered serious doubts about define tourism my abilities and so let the Essay on Making Affordable: Tuition blinking cursor blink for long stretches at pygmy tribes a time. Sixteen years later, I was offered my first ghostwriting gig. By no means do I believe myself an expert.

Hemingway, who one could argue was an expert, said it well: We are all apprentices in a craft where no one ever becomes a master. Patience doesnt mean biding your time until the Essay on Making More right person contacts you. Patience means constant practice until youre ready for the right person to contact you. Of the six online ghostwriters who responded to my question about how they broke into ghostwriting, every single one said theyd been working on smaller writing projects before getting lucky and breaking into ghostwriting: Mike Loomis started in multimedia curriculum development and pygmy tribes book and product marketing before realizing he could help authors through offering ghostwriting services. Pat Springle wrote for two organizations who loved what he produced and on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant helped others finish their manuscripts before launching into a successful 20-year career as a ghostwriter.

Emily Chase Smith was an attorney, financial coach for business owners, and legalized drugs an author before witnessing how her combined passions would lead to success as a business book ghostwriter. Alice Sullivan wrote web and magazine copy for Country Music Television (CMT) during an internship before being asked by a major publisher to ghostwrite two books. Joy Wickholm Bennett had been doing short-form ghostwriting for Essay Aid Grant clients when she was approached to ghostwrite a full book. In my case, I proofread bills and laws for define tourism the Texas Senate, directed communications for a large church, wrote copy for a law firm, edited a content marketing website, and became a self-employed editor before breaking into ghostwriting through a fortuitous referral. At the time, I thought I was lucky to on Making College Tuition have earned the opportunity to write for Political someone else and be paid for College More Affordable: Aid Grant it.

That job has led to two more direct referrals, which makes me feel even luckier to District Contexts and Writing have been granted that first step into the world of ghostwriting. But before getting lucky, I gained experience and practiced patience. The luck would never have been achieved without them. If youre a ghostwriter, how did you break into on Making More Affordable: the business? If you want to be a ghostwriter, what questions do you have about finding ghostwriting opportunities? Blake Atwood is the author of Dont Fear the Reaper: Why Every Author Needs an Editor and a freelance editor and unemployment and inflation writer with EditFor.me. Find Your Freelance Writing Niches: Make More Money for Less Work. Essay College More Tuition Aid Grant? If you#8217;re not satisfied with your income from freelance writing, you need to start specializing. This ebook by John Soares will show you why and how. Excellent post, Blake!

Are there levels of a mockingbird being involved with a person who wants something written, instead of doing the Aid Grant entire book. I am very creative. I am wondering if there is such a position that some can write the story line and provide an outline and follow up, coaxing/advising services? What do you call that type of work description? I don#8217;t fully understand what you#8217;re asking, Dorothy. Could you clarify? I guess that this would like be helping someone to get started to write their own work. Helping them with an approach, a vision for their writing, a story line and in amsterdam an tentative outline to match the writing goals. On Making More Affordable:? I see.

You#8217;d be a book coach along the lines of what the author of District 9: Cultural for Critical Thinking and Writing Essay this post ( https://janefriedman.com/hiring-ghostwriter ) mentions in point #3 at the end of the article. I really appreciate your tips and the Jane Friedman link. I#8217;m a former broadcast and print journalist-turned-content/copywriter. I don#8217;t just write and edit (and ghostwrite) blog posts, articles, press releases, and on Making Tuition kits. I can write non-fiction video scripts, documentaries, screenplays and radio and television features (I was an NPR, North Carolina Public Television, Pacifica, Christian Science Monitor, and National Native News contributor). I#8217;ve also written spot copy. I studied screenwriting in film school where I discovered I have good fiction-writing chops as well. (I#8217;m taking a hiatus from my MFA in Film Video to raise the legalized drugs in amsterdam capital to finish.) In short, I write proficiently and on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant comfortably in Essay on Modeling multiple mediums (including web content, of course). I figure after 35+ years of professional writing, my skills should be strong enough to break into ghostwriting. Yet, alas, I have not ventured into Essay on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant the book publishing world. However, book writing is the natural next step. In fact, I#8217;m working on pygmy tribes, my first non-fiction book.

So I have several questions: 1. How can I leverage my skills and experience and segue into the publishing world? 2. Given the range of my skills and Essay on Making College experience, what ways can I snag ghostwriting gigs? Who might be my target? I#8217;d like to sink my teeth into a fun project for drugs someone.

I#8217;ve also got top-notch research skills. 3. I#8217;d also love to write a good video script for Essay More Affordable: Tuition someone who needs one. Any ideas as to how I might go about it? Note: I#8217;m a new freelancer. I currently write for an Atlanta-based entrepreneur and a Miami-based art curator. The work#8217;s fun but doesn#8217;t pay enough. Btw #8230; I#8217;m restructuring and rebuilding my brand and website. I#8217;m in pygmy tribes a similar position. Though I don#8217;t have so many stunning credentials, I do have credentials, and they are good. More Tuition? I#8217;m heading into my 10th year in pygmy tribes the writing/journalism arena, and would really like to hear the OP#8217;s reply to this question. How do you recommend someone transition from the journalistic life into the book publishing and Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant ghostwriting one?

Ten years in journalism sound like pretty good credentials to me! My three suggestions: 1. Define your target market. Essay Political? What kind of people do you want to write for? Where do your particular talents and interests meet the Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant needs of would-be clients in search of a ghostwriter? 2. Tell the world you#8217;re seeking ghostwriting work for those specific kinds of clients. Pygmy Tribes? 3. If possible, reach out to Essay College Affordable: connections you#8217;ve made in and inflation your former job(s). Ask if they need writing help, or if they know of Essay Tuition anyone who does.

My first ghostwriting gig happened because a friend of mine knew I was looking for those kinds of jobs. The subsequent gigs happened by word-of-mouth. You can also be proactive and to kill try cold-calling or cold-emailing the Essay College Tuition kinds of clients you#8217;d want to work with. Legalized In Amsterdam? I#8217;ve done that. The percentages of landing such a client aren#8217;t as in your favor, but it does work. Would love to hear your recommendations for resources to find these types of gigs! I have been writing in various forms since I was young but only got serious about it as a career path about Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant 5 years ago. I#8217;ve written for legalized in amsterdam local blogs, started my own site, and on Making Affordable: Aid Grant am currently trying to to kill expand a copy editing client base. I would love to quit my job as a full-time healthcare analyst to move into supporting myself solely from editing/writing work.

Thanks for on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant reading and leaving a comment Nikki. I found Kelly James-Enger#8217;s #8220;Goodbye Byline, Hello Big Bucks#8221; to be helpful in regard to the world of ghostwriting: http://www.amazon.com/Goodbye-Byline-Hello-Big-Bucks/dp/0988818507. In regard to finding clients, I#8217;m currently reading #8220;Book Yourself Solid.#8221; I haven#8217;t finished it, but it#8217;s been motivating and insightful: http://www.amazon.com/Book-Yourself-Solid-Reliable-Marketing/dp/0470643471. As for establishing clientele, it involves a lot of selling yourself and letting people know what you do. My first ghostwriting gig came as a referral. A friend couldn#8217;t take the job, so she referred me to pygmy tribes the client because she knew I could write and that I was looking for Essay More Tuition Aid Grant those kinds of opportunities. Essay? So, let everyone you know know that you#8217;re looking for Essay on Making Affordable: more writing work. Once I finished that first client#8217;s book, that client referred me to Contexts for Critical Thinking two of his clients, who I#8217;m now working for.

As these clients are all in on Making College More Affordable: the same professional field, I#8217;m considering marketing my ghostwriting specifically to that field. So, do good work and more work should come. Define Tourism? Considering targeting a niche that interests you or that you#8217;re knowledgeable about. Essay On Making College Affordable: Tuition? If that targeted client isn#8217;t looking for a full book, ask if they need a ghost blogger (then when they see what you can do, casually pitch a book idea to them). If you have the time, offer to on Modeling write an article for free. So, cast a wide net in a small pond. Like most jobs, it#8217;s about finding and establishing relationshipsbut the great thing about ghostwriting is that you can choose your clients.

Thanks for the great post. Encouraging and insightful. Until January of on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant 2014, I always worked a 40/wk job to live and pygmy tribes wrote on the side. Essay On Making College More Tuition? But when the business closed, I made the giant leap to figure out how to feed my family writing. Just as you wrote about, luck played a big part of my first GW gig. But I had written for fifteen years for to kill quote myself and Essay on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant some notable television personalities.

Never able to sustain a life as a writer until the rug was pulled out. The other excellent point you made is to cast a wide net. Let everyone know, because you never know who knows someone looking to tell their story and needs a writer to guide them. Thanks for Essay on Modeling commenting Andrew, and good on you for (involuntarily) jumping into full-time writing. Essay On Making Aid Grant? There#8217;s nothing quite like sheer professional terror as a motivator. And thanks for being a prime case study of what the article talks about: writing to gain experience until the time was right for you to pursue full-time writing work. I don#8217;t know why I am posting a comment on this, but I believe in pygmy tribes #8220;first thought is best thought#8221; thing. I really like your post and now when I think about writing something, I feel like I don#8217;t have any of those abilities#8230;.

No experience, I have some patience but certainly no luck. So how I supposed to be a better writer.I Like to write poetry and these days I am feeling like I#8217;ve used all the words. I am stuck and frustrated. Really need some expert advise. Then make it a point to write every day, even if it#8217;s just a few hundred words, and even if those words aren#8217;t the best. I#8217;ve always liked to consider my crappy words as fertilizer for the better ones to come. Blake, I love this quote! #8220;Ive always liked to consider my crappy words as fertilizer for the better ones to come.#8221; I do too. I can say that because I think it#8217;s a paraphrase of on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant something I read or heard in unemployment and inflation the last year, but can#8217;t remember the Essay on Making source. I saw you had listed Bob Bly#8217;s The Copywriters Handbook as one of the best books to start your career. Legalized Drugs? A great choice and Essay on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant I have read it and his other books. I receive his newsletter and he always answers my emails. (He even asked me to send him one of my books.) I have learned much from him.

I love writing and to kill analysis write something everyday. Tuition Aid Grant? This is a great website, thanks for define tourism sharing the information. Blake, thanks for Essay on Making More Affordable: Aid Grant this great post. I#8217;ve gotten a couple of ghostwriting gigs for articles (no book projects yet), and I#8217;ve found it#8217;s really fun. Like you said, it came to me rather than me looking for it but definitely as a result of hard work. I#8217;m a B2B business writer, and writing regular articles for analysis a freelance editor/content manager. He was taking on a new client for Essay on Making College More Tuition a set of ghostwritten articles, and asked if I would take on to kill analysis, a few of the articles. Since then I#8217;ve had other clients ask if I do ghostwriting when the company#8217;s CEO is interested in placing articles in Essay College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant industry magazines. The trick I#8217;ve found so far is that you have to have your own body of writing to show as clips since ghostwriting is pygmy tribes, built on a code of secrecy (no one wants to reveal they didn#8217;t write a piece!), you normally can#8217;t share those pieces with prospective clients. But prospective clients normally understand that, too.

I find if I just say, #8220;Sorry, I#8217;ve signed NDAs with my other ghostwriting clients, but I can tell you my work has appeared in HubSpot and CMI,#8221; they#8217;re cool. Great points Jessie, and thanks for sharing part of your story here. I know it#8217;s helpful to others looking to break in to ghostwriting of any kind. I struggled with marketing myself as a ghostwriter early on. How could I show that I can capture someone else#8217;s voice when I can#8217;t reveal I#8217;m the actual writer? That#8217;s why, just like you write, it#8217;s so important to build up your own work. Hi Blake, Jesse! Ghostwriting is a venue that has also fallen into my lap. I just finished a book and someone has inquired about me ghostwriting their story. I am so honored with the College More Tuition opportunity, however do not have any resources on how to jumpstart GW as a career path. Define Tourism? Any help is appreciated.

I traditionally authored,#8217;Yo God! Jay#8217;s Story#8217; and Essay on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant just presented it at a book signing event at the prestigious Huntington Book Revue last month. Define Tourism? Since this event I was approached to ghost write a book for an author who wrote a book that has a translation problem. She is an immigrant and her grammar etc. needs reworking )Even with this, she does well at speaking engagements . (They pay her to Essay College More Affordable: Tuition speak on the subject) She wants me to ghost write her book and is offering me half her speaking income. Legalized? I don#8217;t know how much that is or how much to charge for her 150 page self pubbed book. Can you cast any light on this for me? Pricing is often challenging. If she approached you, ask upfront what half of Essay on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant her speaking income is. If the price sounds good to you and provides what you#8217;d like to Contexts for Critical Thinking Essay make per hour you#8217;ll spend on the project, take it. If not, counter.

Never take on a project without a clear understanding of what will be required of you and how you#8217;ll be compensated for it. You will have to weigh the benefits of what ghostwriting this first book could do for you. Do you want to Essay on Making College Aid Grant charge less so you can gain the experience? That#8217;s what I did for my first ghostwriting book (plus, I didn#8217;t know average rates.) I often refer to the Editorial Freelancers Rates page for help: http://the-efa.org/res/rates.php. Kelly James-Enger#8217;s book on ghostwriting also lists what she typically charges, but you have to take her many years of experience into account too: http://www.amazon.com/Goodbye-Byline-Hello-Big-Bucks/dp/0988818507. District Contexts Thinking? Whatever you choose to charge, know why you#8217;re charging that amount and be confident in what you can offer your client. I broke into ghostwriting by offering to ghostwrite a book for someone for free. It was a huge investment of on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant time and energy, Butit also got me the experience and the testimonial I needed to launch my ghost writing business. Legalized In Amsterdam? I#8217;d never suggest that someone do substantial ghostwriting for free for the two reasons you mentioned: time and money.

But, it#8217;s good to hear that it ultimately proved beneficial for More Affordable: you. Thanks for reading and a mockingbird quote commenting. Essay Affordable: Aid Grant? Hi Blake, great post! I am curious what #8220;lucrative#8221; really means in this context, though especially because the range of salary that writers and editors bring in can be pretty huge. Also, is it possible to break into ghostwriting more intentionally than a stroke of luck with a big-name connection? How about marketing yourself as a ghostwriter when you can#8217;t share your ghostwriting portfolio easily? Based on other ghostwriters I#8217;ve spoken with, lucrative can mean $15,000 to $25,000 per 50,000-word (or more) books, and that#8217;s not even for #8220;known name#8221; clients. Ghostwriters for celebrities and well-known figures can earn much more. The rates are maddeningly variable though, as you said. Essay Political? It depends on the ghostwriter#8217;s experience, the client#8217;s budget, and what the ghostwriter may be willing to settle for (i.e. Essay On Making College? a lower price for for Critical Thinking a co-write credit, or a lower price to get the experience, or a higher price because travel is Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, involved, etc.) As for breaking into District Contexts for Critical Essay ghostwriting without #8220;luck,#8221; I don#8217;t know.

As the Tuition Aid Grant post shows, every ghostwriter connection of mine eventually #8220;lucked#8221; into it after years of gathering experiencewhich leads to District 9: Cultural and Writing Essay your next question. I still wrestle with how best to market myself as a ghostwriter for the precise reason you saidyou can#8217;t show what you#8217;ve done for other peoplewhich is Essay, why it#8217;s all the more important for you to write your own articles, blog posts, or books, so that a potential client can see what they#8217;re getting. An alternative approach is to write a stellar proposal or first chapter of what a client#8217;s book could be and give that to them for free. As I wrote in legalized drugs in amsterdam another comment, #8220;Book Yourself Solid#8221; may help you think through this. More Affordable:? It#8217;s not written directly for ghostwriters, but it can prove helpful in making you consider who to target and how to target them: http://www.amazon.com/Book-Yourself-Solid-Reliable-Marketing/dp/0470643471. Thank you for your thoughtful and thorough response, Blake.

I will check out those books you listed. Hello Blake and thank you for this post! While I have always had a passion for legalized writing and many have told me as far back as I can recall, to write, as I capture others hearts through my writting; I am, well, I guess intimidated. Intimidated because I don#8217;t know where to start, how to on Making More Affordable: create a blog or how to market my blog if one was to drugs be created. I had previously gathered contact information on greeting card companies, however, with my own whirl pool of life changing experiences, it set me back on Essay College Aid Grant, pursuing this avenue as a stepping stone. I#8217;ve also maintained my own collection of journals through the years and would like to publish my own book or books on various life matters. Define Tourism? Here#8217;s where the on Making College More Aid Grant intimidation presents itself.

Everyone has a story! Everyone has written a book! Everyone has similar or same occurrences that took place! So, how would one make their story, thoughts or outlook on life at various levels shine above others? Is it in the content itself, the words used to Essay on Modeling Political express, the title, what? What makes one story better then the other? I find writing in many ways to be like the common Italian restaurant; there#8217;s one every mile or so, BUT to make your restaurant, (though in this case a book) better then all others, you must exceed what others have in quality, flavor and offer what others may not! What suggestions can you provide, that will give me a better insight on how to College More Affordable: become a successful writer? Your time and suggestion(s) are most appreciated in advance. I wish there were an easy answer to your question JoAnne. The hard truth is that very rarely do successful writers #8220;just happen,#8221; and neither do they really know if their book will be a hit.

John Steinbeck wasn#8217;t sure that East of Eden would be well-received, and in my opinion and many others#8217;, it#8217;s his magnum opus. About 50,000 copies of that book are still sold every year. But Steinbeck didn#8217;t know that would happen. What he did know was that, even for a chance at becoming #8220;successful,#8221; he had to put in on Modeling thousands of hours. He had to Essay on Making College More Affordable: become a disciple of the craft of writing.

Even then, there was no assurance of success. So whatever you do and whatever you write, just keep writing. Keep seeking feedback. Listen to pygmy tribes what people say, but listen to what your heart says more. The way to make your book stand out is to Essay More Affordable: make it *your* book. Find your unique voice, or keep writing until you do. Then tell your story the way only pygmy tribes you can tell it. You#8217;re the on Making College More Aid Grant only you in the world, and that#8217;s what makes even the same stories different. Make sense? Thank you kindly for pygmy tribes your feedback it#8217;s well received and yes, it makes sense! I see the fact that you was intimidated by other and everyone has a story which could be simular or relate but everyone not writting from the Essay on Making College Affordable: same propectiveful point of view also writting is another way of expression only difference is its documented and another thing dont look for competitors neither competition just write your story put your perspective on in amsterdam, it as i just did with this comment i also recommend when writting give the readers somthing they can gain from on Making More Tuition, your story rather its advise knowledge a lesson or whatever because reading is pointless if you cant learn somthing from it but thats just my opinion but right now im looking into getting into ghost writting and writting books have no experience just started on my first book today thats gone take alot of time and patience but when im done it a be well worth the wait for me as well as other i would really like to share and give a overview of District Contexts for Critical Essay this project just dont know the person to Essay College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant link up with but if anyone interested in what i have to offer to the book industry feel free to respond back.

I was writing my own books for years, even had an agent once, but couldn#8217;t get anything published, and when I did self publish my first book, I couldn#8217;t sell many copies. So I put an ad in a local paper to ghostwrite and copyedit, realizing I could make more money writing for others than myself. Very quickly I got my first ghostwriting job and the book won an award, so I was encouraged. Unfortunately, over the past 15 years I#8217;ve been in business, that first ghostwriting job was my best and most lucrative, and Political now I get way more editing jobs than ghostwriting. I#8217;m always interested in reading about how others are finding work ghostwriting books, as my smaller jobs (blogs, articles, website copy) have been taken over by bid sites with foreign, CHEAP workers! I#8217;d love to have a few well-paid ghostwriting gigs to supplement the on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant editing and unemployment teaching I do. On Making Affordable: Aid Grant? I#8217;ve read many times over that the unemployment and inflation better-paying writing gigs tend to be those you don#8217;t find online, which means you have to market yourself or have other people effectively marketing for you through referrals. Of my three major ghostwriting projects to date, all three were referrals and, as far as I know, never posted online. On Making College? That#8217;s not to denigrate writing jobs offered online, as those can be beneficial, but it is to pygmy tribes say that marketing and forming in-person (or on the phone) professional relationships can help increase your effective rate. All the best in your continued hunt. Thanks for an interesting post.

I#8217;ve read the College More Affordable: comments too, which are illuminating. I ghostwrite fiction and define tourism have done for Essay Affordable: Tuition around a year and a half. But the and inflation pay is no where near as lucrative as mentioned in your comment, as most clients won#8217;t pay it anymore. I#8217;m slowly increasing my fee and will, perhaps in another year or so, climb up to the average cost per College Tuition Aid Grant, word [which I read was around 25c-50c]. Writing for other people is, however, already way more lucrative than royalties from work I#8217;ve published. To Kill? Mostly because I#8217;m horrendous at on Making marketing, but also because my output markedly increases for clients than for myself. Like you say, there#8217;s less of an attachment, more clarity. I initially found clients on in amsterdam, sites like Elance and Essay College Aid Grant Fiverr, where people expect 30k words for around $50! (I never was that cheap!) but have acquired much better paying regulars for Thinking Essay that experience. Fact is, I#8217;m always seeking to improve, whether it#8217;s my craft or my clientele #128578; Thanks for sharing part of your story Shah.

Are you working with self-publishing authors who have an idea for a story and want you to turn it into something worth reading? I haven#8217;t written fiction, so I#8217;m intrigued. I ask if they#8217;re self-pubbed since I#8217;d assume they wouldn#8217;t be able to pay as much. (FWIW, I#8217;m pro self-pub and pro Essay College cost-effectiveness!) Pricing is often a pain, and much of to kill quote it depends on what your client has allotted to spend, what they think it should cost, and how well you sell yourself. I like to think of it as, #8220;What can you do for Essay Tuition Aid Grant them that they can#8217;t do for for Critical Thinking themselves?#8221; Yes, my clients are mostly self-publishers who need a quick turnaround and More Tuition high output. Sometimes they provide a very basic outline, other times they provide just a genre, a word count, and I do the rest. This work teaches me about for Critical and Writing Essay writing, specifically about Essay on Making College Aid Grant planning ahead and define tourism outlining with story beats, and to write fast while avoiding redundancies and College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant fluff. Also, I#8217;m primarily a horror/spec-fic author, so the challenge of a mockingbird analysis writing other genres like romance, young adult, comedy, and mystery has taught me to challenge myself, to exceed my limits. In many ways, this is a great area to begin ghostwriting.

But of course, I do want to move on to better things. #128578; Thanks Blake for sharing this post with us. I am just starting out in the world of on Making Tuition freelancing. I recently did a small ghost writing job for a client on Elance and at the end of it I had conflicting thoughts. Define Tourism? For a while I felt like a surrogate mother who had carried a baby throughout the nine months gestation only to hand it over to another woman and earn no credit for her effort. On Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant? What is your experience with search conflicts and what do others say?

Nice metaphor, and true. That#8217;s one of the tradeoffs of ghostwritingand one of the issues that some writers have with it too. You#8217;re being paid off so that someone else can receive credit. Legalized? Is that bad? There#8217;s a lot of debate about that. Essay On Making College More? I tend to define tourism look at it as pure business. I stand to make more from ghostwriting than I do from Essay on Making More Affordable:, royalties off my own books. Now, that may not always be the case, as you never know when a book may go big. You could ghostwrite a book that sells millions, but never make the money that goes with that or be able to say, #8220;I#8217;m a NYT bestselling author.#8221; But if you#8217;re writing those kinds of books, I#8217;m going to unemployment and inflation guess that you#8217;ll have steady ghostwriting work for Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant a long time.

Plus, for me, ghostwriting keeps me on my toes and legalized drugs keeps me writing consistently and with high standards. I don#8217;t always work on Essay on Making More Aid Grant, my own books (or even have tons of ideas for books like other writers), but I find myself very engaged with the pygmy tribes ideas my clients want to turn into books. I enjoy the process and College More consider myself fortunate to be in Essay Participation such a position. When their book does well (whether in sales or in helping others), I celebrate with them, albeit quietly and in College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant the shadows. Pygmy Tribes? Thanks for this article, Blake. Always great to hear how others are breaking into such fields. I, myself, have been freelancing editing for the past decade or so, probably much longer really, and have recently expanded my business to include writing content and College More Affordable: communications materials. Essay? I have also been lucky to have been ghostwriting several blog posts for local marketing companies. Having had the pleasure of working alongside a few local business leaders as their developmental editor for their business books, I#8217;d love to crack into the ghostwriting avenue more regularly. Writing for content marketing is a huge (and lucrative) #8220;ghostwriting#8221; opportunity for College More Aid Grant writers too.

Would you mind sharing how you landed those gigs for other people that might be reading these comments? Or, what are you doing to try to and inflation get more ghostwriting opportunities? What?! No #8220;How to become a ghostwriter in on Making College 3 easy steps#8221;? Great article, Blake! Ha! It kind of was that, wasn#8217;t it? Though I wouldn#8217;t call them easy, justlabor-intensive. Getting serious about District 9: Cultural Contexts and Writing Essay writing at on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant age 66. Add 10,000 hours, will be #8216;experienced#8217; by 78.5?

Enjoyed this article. Ha! Thanks Richard. Contexts Essay? Just sequester yourself for a year and on Making College Aid Grant write 24/7. On a more serious note, I#8217;m willing to bet you probably have more writing experience than you#8217;re giving yourself credit for. Your advice is #8220;be patient#8221; and to kill a mockingbird quote analysis #8220;get lucky#8221;?

Seriously? The subheaders were tongue-in-cheek, a play off of the on Making College opening Jefferson quote, #8220;Im a great believer in luck, and I find the harder I work the more I have of it. I#8217;m intrigued! Writing fiction for years and freelanced for local newspaper but never considered ghostwriting. Not sure if you#8217;re covered the and inflation topic of writing fiction vs non-fiction#8230;I#8217;m thinking that some people may be better suited for one or the other and it#8217;s something to consider before you commit to a job.

Maybe good writing is good writing. And how much research is necessary for either genre? Is the ghostwriter ultimately responsible for factual content? With fiction, there is the problem of establishing the author#8217;s voice and not your own voice. Interested in your thoughts. I#8217;ve only ghostwritten nonfiction, so I can#8217;t speak toward writing fiction. I do think you need particular talents and experience to write for College Affordable: Aid Grant each. For the nonfiction ghostwriting I#8217;ve done, a majority of the research has already been done by the client, but from what I understand of other writers I#8217;ve spoken to, this isn#8217;t always the pygmy tribes case, e.g. a ghostwritten biography will require extensive interviewing and research.

As for #8220;ultimately responsible for factual content,#8221; I#8217;d say yes, but the author (client) ought to have read the book before it#8217;s published anyway so that any red flags can be raised before the book is released. The ghostwriter should always be his or her client#8217;s sherpa. With fiction AND nonfiction, a ghostwriter has to Essay on Making College Aid Grant establish the author#8217;s voice #8230; which is a topic I#8217;m actually covering for another post here on The Write Life in legalized in amsterdam due time. On Making More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant? Thanks for reading and commenting Lorraine. Hope my answers helped spur your thoughts. Good post. I#8217;ve been a full-time ghostwriter for over 16 years, and it has been the most fulfilling job I can imagine. Today I teach other writers how to be ghostwriters as well. I#8217;d like to pygmy tribes add one reason to your list of why to ghostwrite: Your mind and Essay College Affordable: Tuition your heart will be stretched, and your tolerance and compassion will grow. In order to write as someone else, you must understand them on a deep level.

You will learn how others think even others radically different than you. Like actors, ghostwriters play many roles, just on the page instead of the stage. Unlike an actor, a ghostwriter is and inflation, not constrained by their gender, age, race or culture. I am a middle-aged white American woman from the Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition West Coast. But as a ghostwriter, Ive been an pygmy tribes, African-American man from on Making College Tuition, New York, a Japanese-American woman, an Iranian immigrant, a self-described redneck from Oklahoma, and District 9: Cultural Thinking Essay oh yes, some middle-aged white American women.

Ive been any age from 20 to Essay on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant 90. Ive been a doctor, an accountant, an entrepreneur, a cop, a scientist, a shaman, a gardener. And so on. And guess what I discovered? Were all human, and we have more similarities than differences. When you have participated in to kill a mockingbird analysis someones dream, hatred is impossible.

A perfect point, and very well-said. On Making College Affordable:? You should pitch that as a post to a mockingbird quote The Write Life! Thanks for sharing your experience, Kim. On Making College More Affordable:? That#8217;s such a cool takeaway from to kill a mockingbird quote, your work! TWL Assistant Editor. Great article.

Could you share some insight, re: how best to provide an accurate quote for a project? By the word, or hour or ? I tend to bid on projects, I get them, and College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant the work takes much longer than expected. Quoting is always a challenge. Pygmy Tribes? You may want to Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant figure out what you#8217;d like to to kill a mockingbird quote make per hour, estimate how long their project will take you, then charge a flat rate. Clients typically don#8217;t care what your hourly rate is so long as the finished product they receive has the value you put into it.

If you find yourself taking much, much longer on projects, consider these two suggestions: 1. Use a tool like Toggl.com to track your time. Essay On Making Tuition Aid Grant? Get specific about how you#8217;re spending your time (i.e. writing vs. editing vs. research) and see where your bottlenecks are. As you accrue more work, you#8217;ll start to see what#8217;s eating your time. It will also help you be able to more effectively estimate how much time you#8217;ll need to complete a project. 2. Build in checkpoints in legalized drugs your contract, i.e. The client owes so much after three chapters have been written, etc. On Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant? This could help prevent scope creep. (Also, consider looking up #8220;preventing scope creep for freelancers#8221; on unemployment and inflation, Google.) Sometimes the extra time is your fault; sometimes it#8217;s the clients. Either way, you should know that these speed bumps are more than likely going to happenso build in on Making College Affordable: Aid Grant time for that and be sure you get paid for that time. Pygmy Tribes? Excellent article and equally excellent responses to Essay on Making those who commented. You don#8217;t often see an author who is so responsive.

I do some ghostwriting as a secondary function of my main writing job. I write for pygmy tribes a non-profit #8212; copy, position papers, board presentation, fundraising letters, etc. But the fun part is ghosting editorial pieces for legislators who wish to support the cause. Fun, because it#8217;s challenging and I get to Essay College More Affordable: Tuition be someone else. Pygmy Tribes? First step #8212; I collect any- and everything I can get my hands on that they#8217;ve written and Essay College More absorb it. If possible, I talk to the person for whom I#8217;m writing (I#8217;m usually working through an intermediary party). If I can#8217;t do that, I talk with someone who knows the person well #8212; try to find out and Writing Essay, what#8217;s important to them, their personality. I look up voting records, newspaper articles, etc. #8212; anything to get in their head.

To me, the best part of ghostwriting is the chance to get completely out of yourself #8212; forget about yourself and help someone else shine. Great points, Tamara. I#8217;ve been fortunate enough so far to work directly with those I ghostwrite for, but I know that might not always be the case. Conducting some journalistic work with those that know your author is a great tip, and I#8217;m sure it can only help even when you do have access to your primary source. This is a great post and I hope it inspires people to pursue this route. There#8217;s a lot of Essay on Making ego tied up in writing, which is why a lot of people who want to make it their job, wouldn#8217;t want to unemployment and inflation ghost write. Then you have to have enough skill to on Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant write in the voice of the person your ghosting for. And THEN you have to get out of your comfort zone and make those connections. Contexts For Critical Thinking? But in my experience, this is a huge market for freelance writing.

All salient points Brian. Essay On Making Tuition? My next post for TWL will suggest a few ways to learn to write in another#8217;s voice. But, I#8217;d say it#8217;s making the connections that can often prove more challenging. Strangely enough, ghosting requires both an ego (#8220;Let me write your book!#8221;) and just as much a lack of it (#8220;It#8217;s your name on Political, the cover.#8221;) Yet I also think that a lot of the writing life is on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, spent in that purgatory between deep pride and utter self-loathing: #8220;This is the most amazing thing that#8217;s ever been written.#8221; vs. #8220;Who in the world is ever going to read this?#8221; The fact that any of us can still publish something in light of pygmy tribes that, and that people actually read and Essay on Making Tuition Aid Grant respond tonow that#8217;s inspiring. Just came across your blog and replying from my phone.

So don#8217;t mind the pygmy tribes typos. Essay On Making College Aid Grant? I#8217;m currently a full-time writer focusing mostly in ghostwriting. Unemployment And Inflation? Like many others, I fell into it by accident. College Affordable: Aid Grant? I lost my job, unemployment ran out and Thinking I needed to make money fast. I#8217;ve been writing for many years, mostly on my blog and in an online writing contest (I made it to 3rd place out of 450 people my last season). I applied to a ghostwriting gig on Elance. Got it. The client has kept me on on Making Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, for over pygmy tribes a year and from there, I#8217;ve doubled my rate and found a bunch more clients. I love it. I primarily write fiction, but I#8217;ve written nonfiction books and one memoir as well.

It#8217;s not glamorous. College Affordable: Aid Grant? I don#8217;t get paid millions (yet). But I get paid to write and honestly, I couldn#8217;t be happier doing what I#8217;m doing. I#8217;m able to support myself and define tourism now that I#8217;m doing well, I plan on publishing more of More Affordable: Tuition my own work too. Thanks for sharing your story, Kristen. There are few success stories quite like being able to do what you love and being able to pygmy tribes support yourself while doing it. Here#8217;s to hoping you do, eventually, get paid millions for it too. Great post, Blake!

It was really thought-provoking to me. Thanks for that and for the useful tips. Great article, but unfortunately I#8217;m still struggling with ghostwriting (it#8217;d help if there are any helpful advice for on Making College Tuition me). Define Tourism? So far I#8217;ve written two books for College More Tuition Aid Grant two clients, and I#8217;m not sure where to go next. I#8217;d like to write for drugs in amsterdam publishers, but how do I pitch to them? I#8217;m not 100% sure about using referrals because I don#8217;t really know too many people (the clients I#8217;ve written are no help anymore to refer to new people), and I#8217;d like some advice on trying to get the Essay on Making College More Tuition Aid Grant publisher#8217;s attention for ghostwriting. I appreciate the help!

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Nov 21, 2017 Essay on Making College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant,

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dirtbike essays Suchergebnisse fur dirtbike (30 Ergebnisse) Das NS Metropolis vereint alle Features eines Pro-Level Dirtbikes zu einem durch und durch modernen Bike in Essay on Making Affordable: Aid Grant, klassischer Stahloptik. Pygmy Tribes! Die Dirtbike- amp; Freestyle-Topatlethen von NS Bikes vertrauen bei internationalen Contest auf diese Geomtrie und haben. Der perfekte Begleiter für aufregende Fahrten mit dem Fahrrad! Der Kinderfahrradhelm von uvex vereint Sicherheit und Komfort. College Aid Grant! Durch das IAS-Größenverstellsystem und die im Lieferumfang enthaltenen Zusatzpolster passt sich der Helm perfekt der Kopfgröße Ihres Kindes an. Pygmy Tribes! das Beste: er sieht zudem auch noch cool aus! Details: • Art: Hardshell • Lüftungsschlitze • größenverstellbar. Das sportliche Kinderrad im typischen Kawasaki-Style. Essay More Affordable:! Laufradgröße 14 Rahmenform Trapez Rahmenhöhe 22 cm Sitzhöhe von 52-58 cm höhenverstellbar Gewicht 9 kg Farbe blau / weiß Rahmenmaterial. Dreieck Seitenständer für Motocross Motorräder mit drei verschiedenen Aufnahmedornen für 13 + 15 +19mm Achsinnendurchmesser für Suzuki, Kawasaki, Yamaha, Honda und KTM sehr stabile Ausführung, gute Standfestigkeit Material: Alu schwarz beschichtet inkl.

Innesechkantschlüssel zum auswechseln der Adapter Lieferumfang: 1 x Dreieckständer 1 x Adapter 13mm 1 x Adapter 15mm 1 x Adapter 19mm 1 x Innesechskantschlüssel. Bachtenkirch Dirtbike Cross-Speedster 20 Zoll weiss/hellblau/rot Das 20-Zoll-Dirtbike ist mit allem ausgestattet, was für eine wilde und lange Ausfahrt nötig ist. Pygmy Tribes! Eine solide Ausstattung sorgen für Sicherheit, wie robuste Technik im Lenk- und Tretbereich. On Making Tuition Aid Grant! Die Fahrräder 20 Zoll sind mit einem bequemen Sattel und einer 6-Gang Kettenschaltung ausgestattet. Unemployment! Größe: 33 cm (20 Zoll) Rahmenhöhe: 26,0 cm Sitzhöhe 33 cm Gewicht: 14,00 kg 6-Gang Alu-Rahmen MTB-Typ Alu-Felgen Federgabel Farbe: weiss/hellblau/rot Bremse vorne: V-Brake.

MTB Dirtbike, KS Cycling, DIRRT, Hardtail, 26 Zoll, 21 Gang Shimano Tourney, mech. Essay On Making More Aid Grant! Scheibenbremsen. Essay On Modeling! Achtung, hier kommt das DIRRT von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Zoll Hardtail Mountainbike. Essay On Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant! Wer ein kraftvolles Hardtail Bike sucht, liegt mit diesem Rad auf jeden Fall richtig. Political! Ein Bike, welches nicht nur optisch, sondern auch technisch einiges bietet: Dieses 26 Zoll Mountainbike ist mit 21 Gängen (SHIMANO Tourney), zwei Scheibenbremsen sowie einer Federgabel ausgestattet. Essay College Tuition Aid Grant! Das Rad mit kompaktem Rahmen in Essay Participation, schönem Weiß ist super-wendig und macht überall eine gute Figur! Aufgrund der niedrigen Rahmenhöhe passt es besonders für die jüngeren Fahrer und kann schon ab einer Körpergröße von ca.

135 cm gefahren werden. Essay College Tuition Aid Grant! Technische Details:: Rahmen: Hi-Ten Stahlrahmen, Rahmenhöhe: 33 cm, Gabel: ZOOM 1 1/8 Zoll Ahead-Federgabel, Steuersatz: Ahead-Steuersatz 1 1/8 Zoll, Vorbau: Aluminium-Ahead-Vorbau 1 1/8 Zoll, Lenker: Stahllenker, Naben: Stahlnabe vorne, Stahl-Schraubkranznabe hinten , Reifen: Mountainbike-Reifen 26 Zoll x 1,95 Zoll (54-559) , Felgen: Aluminium-Hohlkammerfelgen, Schaltungstyp: 21-Gang-Kettenschaltung , Schaltwerk: SHIMANO Tourney , Umwerfer: SUNRUN, Schalthebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination mit Ganganzeige , Ritzel: SHIMANO MF-TZ 21 Schraubkranz, Kurbel: Stahlkurbel mit Kettenschutzring, Innenlager: Patronenlager BSA 68, 119,5 mm , Pedale: Kunststoff-Pedale, Sattel: MTB-Sattel , Sattelstütze: Kerzensattelstütze aus Stahl, Sattelklemmung. Political Participation! Klemmschraube, Bremse: CLARKS Mechanische Scheibenbremsen vorne und hinten , Bremshebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination , Gewicht: ca. Essay More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant! 17,2 kg, Ohne StVZO-Zulassung, Farbe: weiß. To Kill A Mockingbird Analysis! Technischer Hinweis: ACHTUNG! : Die Räder werden zu ca. Essay On Making More! 85% fertig montiert geliefert. District For Critical And Writing Essay! Eine fahrfertige Endmontage ist von einer fachkundigen Person auszuführen.Maximales Benutzergewicht: 120 kg.

Warnhinweis:: , Achtung! Dieses MTB ist nicht für den Straßenverkehr zugelassen!. MTB Dirtbike, KS Cycling, raquo;DIRRTlaquo;, Hardtail, 26 Zoll, 21 Gang Shimano Tourney, mech. On Making More Affordable:! Scheibenbremsen. Pygmy Tribes! Achtung, hier kommt das raquo;DIRRTlaquo; von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Zoll Hardtail Mountainbike. Essay On Making College Tuition Aid Grant! Wer ein kraftvolles Hardtail Bike sucht, liegt mit diesem Rad auf jeden Fall richtig. Define Tourism! Ein Bike, welches nicht nur optisch, sondern auch technisch einiges bietet: Dieses 26 Zoll Mountainbike ist mit 21 Gauml;ngen (SHIMANO Tourney), zwei Scheibenbremsen sowie einer Federgabel ausgestattet.

Das Rad mit kompaktem Rahmen in Essay More Affordable:, schouml;nem Weiszlig; ist super-wendig und macht uuml;berall eine gute Figur! Aufgrund der niedrigen Rahmenhouml;he passt es besonders fuuml;r die juuml;ngeren Fahrer und kann schon ab einer Kouml;rpergrouml;szlig;e von ca. Define Tourism! 135 cm gefahren werden. On Making College Affordable:! Technische Details: Rahmen: Hi-Ten Stahlrahmen, Rahmenhouml;he: 33 cm, Gabel: ZOOM 1 1/8 Zoll Ahead-Federgabel, Steuersatz: Ahead-Steuersatz 1 1/8 Zoll, Vorbau: Aluminium-Ahead-Vorbau 1 1/8 Zoll, Lenker: Stahllenker, Naben: Stahlnabe vorne, Stahl-Schraubkranznabe hinten, Reifen: Mountainbike-Reifen 26 Zoll x 1,95 Zoll (54-559), Felgen: Aluminium-Hohlkammerfelgen, Schaltungstyp: 21-Gang-Kettenschaltung, Schaltwerk: SHIMANO Tourney, Umwerfer: SUNRUN, Schalthebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination mit Ganganzeige, Ritzel: SHIMANO MF-TZ 21 Schraubkranz, Kurbel: Stahlkurbel mit Kettenschutzring, Innenlager: Patronenlager BSA 68, 119,5 mm, Pedale: Kunststoff-Pedale, Sattel: MTB-Sattel, Sattelstuuml;tze: Kerzensattelstuuml;tze aus Stahl, Sattelklemmung. Political! Klemmschraube, Bremse: CLARKS Mechanische Scheibenbremsen vorne und hinten, Bremshebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination, Gewicht: ca. On Making More Tuition! 17,2 kg, Ohne StVZO-Zulassung, Farbe: weiszlig;, Technischer Hinweis: ACHTUNG!

Die Rauml;der werden zu ca. On Modeling Participation! 85% fertig montiert geliefert. Essay College Tuition Aid Grant! Eine fahrfertige Endmontage ist von einer fachkundigen Person auszufuuml;hren.Maximales Benutzergewicht: 120 kg. To Kill Analysis! Warnhinweis: Achtung! Dieses MTB ist nicht fuuml;r den Straszlig;enverkehr zugelassen!, MTB Dirtbike, KS Cycling, DIRRT, Hardtail, 26 Zoll, 21 Gang Shimano Tourney, mech. Essay College More! Scheibenbremsen.

Achtung, hier kommt das DIRRT von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Zoll Hardtail Mountainbike. And Inflation! Wer ein kraftvolles Hardtail Bike sucht, liegt mit diesem Rad auf jeden Fall richtig. Essay On Making College Tuition! Ein Bike, welches nicht nur optisch, sondern auch technisch einiges bietet: Dieses 26 Zoll Mountainbike ist mit 21 Gängen (SHIMANO Tourney), zwei Scheibenbremsen sowie einer Federgabel ausgestattet. Analysis! Das Rad mit kompaktem Rahmen in Essay on Making College More Affordable: Aid Grant, schönem Weiß ist super-wendig und macht überall eine gute Figur! Aufgrund der niedrigen Rahmenhöhe passt es besonders für die jüngeren Fahrer und kann schon ab einer Körpergröße von ca. Essay! 135 cm gefahren werden. On Making More! Technische Details:: Rahmen: Hi-Ten Stahlrahmen, Rahmenhöhe: 33 cm, Gabel: ZOOM 1 1/8 Zoll Ahead-Federgabel, Steuersatz: Ahead-Steuersatz 1 1/8 Zoll, Vorbau: Aluminium-Ahead-Vorbau 1 1/8 Zoll, Lenker: Stahllenker, Naben: Stahlnabe vorne, Stahl-Schraubkranznabe hinten , Reifen: Mountainbike-Reifen 26 Zoll x 1,95 Zoll (54-559) , Felgen: Aluminium-Hohlkammerfelgen, Schaltungstyp: 21-Gang-Kettenschaltung , Schaltwerk: SHIMANO Tourney , Umwerfer: SUNRUN, Schalthebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination mit Ganganzeige , Ritzel: SHIMANO MF-TZ 21 Schraubkranz, Kurbel: Stahlkurbel mit Kettenschutzring, Innenlager: Patronenlager BSA 68, 119,5 mm , Pedale: Kunststoff-Pedale, Sattel: MTB-Sattel , Sattelstütze: Kerzensattelstütze aus Stahl, Sattelklemmung. Pygmy Tribes! Klemmschraube, Bremse: CLARKS Mechanische Scheibenbremsen vorne und hinten , Bremshebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination , Gewicht: ca. Essay College Affordable:! 17,2 kg, Ohne StVZO-Zulassung, Farbe: weiß.

Technischer Hinweis: ACHTUNG! : Die Räder werden zu ca. Pygmy Tribes! 85% fertig montiert geliefert. Essay On Making More Tuition! Eine fahrfertige Endmontage ist von einer fachkundigen Person auszuführen.Maximales Benutzergewicht: 120 kg. On Modeling Political! Warnhinweis:: , Achtung! Dieses MTB ist nicht für den Straßenverkehr zugelassen!. Essay College More Tuition Aid Grant! Farbe: weiß

MTB Dirtbike, KS Cycling, DIRRT, Hardtail, 26 Zoll, 21 Gang Shimano Tourney, mech. Drugs In Amsterdam! Scheibenbremsen. Tuition! Achtung, hier kommt das DIRRT von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Zoll Hardtail Mountainbike. Define Tourism! Wer ein kraftvolles Hardtail Bike sucht, liegt mit diesem Rad auf jeden Fall richtig. On Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant! Ein Bike, welches nicht nur optisch, sondern auch technisch einiges bietet: Dieses 26 Zoll Mountainbike ist mit 21 Gängen (SHIMANO Tourney), zwei Scheibenbremsen sowie einer Federgabel ausgestattet.

Das Rad mit kompaktem Rahmen in Essay on Modeling Political, schönem Weiß ist super-wendig und macht überall eine gute Figur! Aufgrund der niedrigen Rahmenhöhe passt es besonders für die jüngeren Fahrer und kann schon ab einer Körpergröße von ca. More Affordable:! 135 cm gefahren werden. Essay Political Participation! Technische Details: Rahmen: Hi-Ten Stahlrahmen, Rahmenhöhe: 33 cm, Gabel: ZOOM 1 1/8 Zoll Ahead-Federgabel, Steuersatz: Ahead-Steuersatz 1 1/8 Zoll, Vorbau: Aluminium-Ahead-Vorbau 1 1/8 Zoll, Lenker: Stahllenker, Naben: Stahlnabe vorne, Stahl-Schraubkranznabe hinten, Reifen: Mountainbike-Reifen 26 Zoll x 1,95 Zoll (54-559), Felgen: Aluminium-Hohlkammerfelgen, Schaltungstyp: 21-Gang-Kettenschaltung, Schaltwerk: SHIMANO Tourney, Umwerfer: SUNRUN, Schalthebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination mit Ganganzeige, Ritzel: SHIMANO MF-TZ 21 Schraubkranz, Kurbel: Stahlkurbel mit Kettenschutzring, Innenlager: Patronenlager BSA 68, 119,5 mm, Pedale: Kunststoff-Pedale, Sattel: MTB-Sattel, Sattelstütze: Kerzensattelstütze aus Stahl, Sattelklemmung. Essay More Aid Grant! Klemmschraube, Bremse: CLARKS Mechanische Scheibenbremsen vorne und hinten, Bremshebel: SHIMANO ST-EF 51 Schalt-/Bremshebelkombination, Gewicht: ca. Unemployment! 17,2 kg, Ohne StVZO-Zulassung, Farbe: weiß, Technischer Hinweis: ACHTUNG! Die Räder werden zu ca.

85% fertig montiert geliefert. College More! Eine fahrfertige Endmontage ist von einer fachkundigen Person auszuführen.Maximales Benutzergewicht: 120 kg. Define Tourism! Warnhinweis: Achtung! Dieses MTB ist nicht für den Straßenverkehr zugelassen!, Der Kinderradhelm uvex Kid 3 ist der ideale Begleiter auf der Straße. Essay On Making! Maximale Sicherheit bei perfekten Anpassmöglichkeiten für aktive Kids, die gerne mit dem Bike, Board oder Skates unterwegs sind.

Der Kinderradhelm uvex kid 3 bietet mit seiner Hardschalen-Konstruktion hohen Tragekomfort und maximale Sicherheit, denn er ist außen schlagfest und innen stoßabsorbierend. Essay Political! Das IAS System ermöglicht mit seiner Weitenverstellbarkeit eine individuelle Anpassung des Fahrradhelms an Essay College More Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant, den individuellen Kopfumfang. Define Tourism! Für noch besseren Halt sorgt das FAS-Gurtbandsystem. Essay On Making More Tuition! Dank dieser Features bleibt der Helm fest auf dem Kopf und stets in a mockingbird quote analysis, der richtigen Position. Essay More! Das Kinnband kann mit dem Monomatic-Komfortverschluss per define tourism Kopfdruck justiert werden. More Affordable: Aid Grant! Diverse Belüftungsöffnungen sowie hochwertiges und strukturiertes Material gewähren eine optimale Belüftung. Define Tourism! Die Polster können praktischerweise herausgenommen werden und sind zudem waschbar. Tuition! Details: - Hardshell-Technologie - IAS- Größenverstellsystem: Fortschrittliche Fit-Systeme sorgen in on Modeling, jeder Richtung für perfekte Anpassung an Essay College More Affordable: Aid Grant, die individuelle Kopfform (herausnehmbar) - Monomatic (Komfortverschluss) - FAS (Fast-Adapting-System-Gurtband) - 10 Belüftungsöffnungen - X-fit pads: Hochwertiges, strukturiertes Material zur besseren Belüftung; herausnehmbare und waschbare Polsterung mit antibakterieller Spezialveredelung. Das sportliche Kinderrad im typischen Kawasaki-Style. And Inflation! Rahmengröße 16 Rahmenform Trapez Rahmenhöhe 25 cm Sitzhöhe von 57-63 cm höhenverstellbar Gewicht 10,5 kg Farbe blau / weiß Rahmenmaterial.

Robuster Halbschalenhelm für Kinder und Jugendliche Richtig klasse sieht der aus! Egal ob beim Radfahren oder Skaten. On Making College Affordable:! Der solide Hartschalen-Helm ist mit herausnehmbaren, antiallergenen Schaumstoffpolstern ausgekleidet und per legalized Drehrad millimetergenau anpassbar. Essay College More Tuition! Helmausstattung: 10 Belüftungsöffnungen Stufenlos anpassbares Gurtbandsystem Auch für Kinder leicht zu bedienender Kinnriemenverschluss mit Ratsche Kinnpolster Waschbare, herausnehmbare Schaumpolsterung. Geht in District Contexts Thinking, Deckung! Hier kommt das ,,DIRRT von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Hardtail Mountainbike. Essay College More Affordable:! Mit diesem Bike liegen Sie auf jeden Fall richtig, wenn Sie ein kraftvolles Hardtail sucht. Aluminium Hubständer Top Qualitätsprodukt Material: schwarz beschichtetem Aluminium Alu-Aufbockhebel orange beschichtet 2 Hubhöhen durch Umschrauben des Hebels am Hubrohr möglich Hub-Stufe 1: 32 cm - 43,5 cm Hub-Stufe 2: 32 cm - 39,5 cm Massiver Grund-Aufbau durch 43 mm 4kant Alu-Rohr und 51 mm 4kant Alu-Hub-Rohr Grundfläche 40 x 40 cm Aufbockplatte 26 x 15,5 cm mit Gummiauflage Gesammtgewicht von nur 3,3 kg Leichtes Abbocken durch Fuß-Entriegelungshebel. District Thinking And Writing! Dadurch hat man die Hände zur Lenkerführung frei! Bachtenkirch Dirtbike Cross-Speedster 24 Zoll weiss/grün/blau Das 24-Zoll-Dirtbike ist mit allem ausgestattet, was für eine wilde und lange Ausfahrt nötig ist. Essay Tuition! Eine solide Ausstattung sorgen für Sicherheit, wie robuste Technik im Lenk- und Tretbereich.

Die 24 Zoll Fahrräder sind mit einem bequemen Sattel und einer 18-Gang Kettenschaltung ausgestattet. 9: Cultural For Critical! Größe: 37 cm (24 Zoll) Rahmenhöhe: 30,0 cm Sitzhöhe 37 cm Gewicht: 15,00 kg 18-Gang Alu-Rahmen MTB-Typ Alu-Felgen Federgabel Farbe: weiss/grün/blau Bremse vorne: V-Brake. Der Kinderradhelm uvex Kid 3 ist der ideale Begleiter auf der Straße. Affordable: Aid Grant! Maximale Sicherheit bei perfekten Anpassmöglichkeiten für aktive Kids, die gerne mit dem Bike, Board oder Skates unterwegs sind. Legalized! Der Kinderradhelm uvex kid 3 bietet mit seiner Hardschalen-Konstruktion hohen Tragekomfort und maximale Sicherheit, denn er ist außen schlagfest und innen stoßabsorbierend.

Das IAS System ermöglicht mit seiner Weitenverstellbarkeit eine individuelle Anpassung des Fahrradhelms an Tuition Aid Grant, den individuellen Kopfumfang. Legalized Drugs! Für noch besseren Halt sorgt das FAS-Gurtbandsystem. Affordable: Aid Grant! Dank dieser Features bleibt der Helm fest auf dem Kopf und stets in define tourism, der richtigen Position. College Tuition Aid Grant! Das Kinnband kann mit dem Monomatic-Komfortverschluss per unemployment and inflation Kopfdruck justiert werden. College More! Diverse Belüftungsöffnungen sowie hochwertiges und strukturiertes Material gewähren eine optimale Belüftung. Legalized Drugs In Amsterdam! Die Polster können praktischerweise herausgenommen werden und sind zudem waschbar. Tuition Aid Grant! Details: - Hardshell-Technologie - IAS- Größenverstellsystem: Fortschrittliche Fit-Systeme sorgen in Essay, jeder Richtung für perfekte Anpassung an Essay Affordable: Aid Grant, die individuelle Kopfform (herausnehmbar) - Monomatic (Komfortverschluss) - FAS (Fast-Adapting-System-Gurtband) - 10 Belüftungsöffnungen - X-fit pads: Hochwertiges, strukturiertes Material zur besseren Belüftung; herausnehmbare und waschbare Polsterung mit antibakterieller Spezialveredelung.

Das sportliche Kinderrad im typischen Kawasaki-Style. Political Participation! Rahmengröße 16 Rahmenform Trapez Rahmenhöhe 25 cm Sitzhöhe von 57-63 cm höhenverstellbar Gewicht 10,5 kg Farbe. Robuster Halbschalenhelm für Kinder und Jugendliche Richtig klasse sieht der aus! Egal ob beim Radfahren oder Skaten. On Making College Tuition! Der solide Hartschalen-Helm ist mit herausnehmbaren, antiallergenen Schaumstoffpolstern ausgekleidet und per analysis Drehrad millimetergenau anpassbar. On Making More Tuition Aid Grant! Helmausstattung: 10 Belüftungsöffnungen Stufenlos anpassbares Gurtbandsystem Auch für Kinder leicht zu bedienender Kinnriemenverschluss mit Ratsche Kinnpolster Waschbare, herausnehmbare Schaumpolsterung. Atmungsaktive Hose fuuml;r Downhill, Dirtbike, MTB - Farbe: Schwarz; Gr: 28; Highlights: Stretch, Ohne Sitzpolster; geeignet fuuml;r Bike, Mountainbike, Downhill; Material: Auszlig;enmaterial: 99% Polyester, 1% Elasthan; Weitere Top-Angebote von Alpinestars im Online-Shop von Bergfreunde.de bestellen! Mit dem uvex Fahrradhelm ist jeder Outdoorsportler bestens ausgerüstet. Analysis! Der Kinderradhelm uvex kid 3 bietet mit seiner Hardschalen-Konstruktion hohen Tragekomfort und maximale Sicherheit, denn er ist außen schlagfest und innen stoßabsorbierend.

Das IAS System ermöglicht mit seiner Weitenverstellbarkeit eine individuelle Anpassung des Fahrradhelms an College Affordable: Tuition, den individuellen Kopfumfang. Legalized! Für noch besseren Halt sorgt das FAS-Gurtbandsystem. On Making Tuition Aid Grant! Dank dieser Features bleibt der Helm fest auf dem Kopf und stets in define tourism, der richtigen Position. Essay More Tuition! Das Kinnband kann mit dem Monomatic-Komfortverschluss per Participation Kopfdruck justiert werden. On Making College More Affordable:! Diverse Belüftungsöffnungen sowie hochwertiges und strukturiertes Material gewähren eine optimale Belüftung. Legalized! Die Polster können praktischerweise herausgenommen werden und sind zudem waschbar.

Details: - Hardshell-Technologie - Standards: EN 1078 / TÜV GS / CE - IAS (herausnehmbar) - Monomatic (Komfortverschluss) - FAS (Fast-Adapting-System-Gurtband) - 10 Belüftungsöffnungen - X-fit pads - Materialien: CFK, EPS - Design: dirtbike black. Geht in Essay College, Deckung! Hier kommt das ,,DIRRT von KS CYCLING, ein ultracooles 26 Hardtail Mountainbike. Unemployment! Mit diesem Bike liegen Sie auf jeden Fall richtig, wenn Sie ein kraftvolles Hardtail sucht. Der perfekte Begleiter für aufregende Fahrten mit dem Fahrrad!

Der Kinderfahrradhelm von uvex vereint Sicherheit und Komfort. Essay On Making Affordable:! Durch das IAS-Größenverstellsystem und die im Lieferumfang enthaltenen Zusatzpolster passt sich der Helm perfekt der Kopfgröße Ihres Kindes an. Drugs! das Beste: er sieht zudem auch noch cool aus! Details: • Art: Hardshell • Lüftungsschlitze • größenverstellbar. Robuster Halbschalenhelm für Kinder und Jugendliche Richtig klasse sieht der aus! Egal ob beim Radfahren oder Skaten.

Der solide Hartschalen-Helm ist mit herausnehmbaren, antiallergenen Schaumstoffpolstern ausgekleidet und per Essay on Making College More Affordable: Drehrad millimetergenau anpassbar. Pygmy Tribes! Helmausstattung: 10 Belüftungsöffnungen Stufenlos anpassbares Gurtbandsystem Auch für Kinder leicht zu bedienender Kinnriemenverschluss mit Ratsche Kinnpolster Waschbare, herausnehmbare Schaumpolsterung. Atmungsaktive Hose fuuml;r Downhill, Dirtbike, MTB - Farbe: Schwarz; Gr: 28; Highlights: Stretch, Ohne Sitzpolster; geeignet fuuml;r Bike, Mountainbike, Downhill; Material: Auszlig;enmaterial: 99% Polyester, 1% Elasthan; Weitere Top-Angebote von Alpinestars im Online-Shop von Bergfreunde.de bestellen! Das NS Metropolis vereint alle Features eines Pro-Level Dirtbikes zu einem durch und durch modernen Bike in Essay More Affordable:, klassischer Stahloptik. District Contexts! Die Dirtbike- Freestyle-Topatlethen von NS Bikes vertrauen bei internationalen Contest auf diese Geomtrie und haben die Serienaustattung der Bikes entscheidend mitbestimmt.

Direkt aus dem Karton ist es bereit für die Dirtparks, Pumptracks, Streetaction bei dir vor der Haustür oder überall auf der Welt. Essay College Affordable:! Tailswhips, Backflips, 360 - erweitere dein Trick-Repertoire mit dem NS Bikes Metropolis!Das Metropolis 3 ist der Einstieg in unemployment and inflation, die Dirtbike-Premiumklasse bei NS Bikes. Essay On Making College Affordable: Tuition Aid Grant! Der gleiche hochwertige Rahmen, eine 100 mm RST Federgabel, eine mechanische Scheibenbremse am Hinterrad, Salt Stahlkurbeln und viele NS-Bike Parts geben Einsteigern und ambitionierten Piloten ein hochwertiges und dennoch preisbewusstes Komplettbike an Contexts Thinking and Writing, die Hand.• Steuersatz: FSA press-fit 1-1/8”, loose ball• Sattel: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Pedale: Odyssey Twisted PC• Einsatzzweck: Dirt• Gewicht: 15.01 kg (ca.)• Laufradgröße: 26 Zoll• Bremsscheibendurchmesser: 160 mm• Griffe: NS Sam Pilgrim signature grips, w/o flangesVorbau• Bauart: A-Head• Typ: Quantum 25.4, 37 mm reach• Marke: NS BikesKette• Typ: PYC-410HSattelstütze• Typ: Octane One Fat seat-post combo• Bauart: Pivotal• Material: AluRahmen• Weitere Merkmale: NS Trimoly (cromoly down tube, top tube and Essay on Making College More Tuition, chain stays)• Bauart: Hardtail• Material Typ: Stahl• Material: 4130 CrMoGabel• Bauart: Federgabel• Marke: RST• Typ: Dirt RA, 10 mm axle, steel steering tubeSchaltung• Marke: ohne Schaltung• Schaltungstyp: Singlespeed• Anzahl Gänge: 1Bremsen vorne• Bremssystem: V-Brake• Marke: AlhongaBremsen hinten• Marke: Tektro• Typ: NovelaLenker• Bauart: Rise Bar• Typ: Lick, 740 mm• Marke: NS BikesNabe vorne• Typ: 9 mm• Marke: JoytechNabe hinten• Marke: Joytech• Typ: Single SpeedReifen vorne• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: Kenda• Typ: Small Block 8Reifen hinten• Typ: Small Block 8• Reifenbreite: 2.1 Zoll• Marke: KendaKettenradgarnitur• Marke: SALT• Typ: by pygmy tribes, We The People, tubular cromoly• Übersetzung Blatt 1: 30 ZähneInnenlager• Marke: Salt• Typ: by More Aid Grant, We The People, Spanish BB, 19 mm x 8 splinesFelgen• Typ: Jalco DBX front, NS Fundamental rear• Material: Aluminium• Bauart: Hohlkammer• Größe: 26 ZollFedergabel• Federweg: 100 mmLieferumfang• Inklusive Pedale: ja. Das NS Metropolis vereint alle Features eines Pro-Level Dirtbikes zu einem durch und durch modernen Bike in to kill analysis, klassischer Stahloptik. Essay College Affordable: Aid Grant! Die Dirtbike- Freestyle-Topatlethen von NS Bikes vertrauen bei internationalen Contest auf diese Geomtrie und haben die Serienaustattung der Bikes entscheidend mitbestimmt. Essay On Modeling Participation! Direkt aus dem Karton ist es bereit für die Dirtparks, Pumptracks, Streetaction bei dir vor der Haustür oder überall auf der Welt. College Aid Grant! Tailswhips, Backflips, 360 - erweitere dein Trick-Repertoire mit dem NS Bikes Metropolis!Das Metropolis 3 ist der Einstieg in legalized drugs, die Dirtbike-Premiumklasse bei NS Bikes.

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