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Nov 21, 2017 Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter,
Business studies Coursework - Study of a small established local business. On Biography. Extracts from this document. Business Studies Controlled Assignment For my investigation of a small established local business, I decided to essay, investigate RK News, which is Essay of Jimmy Carter a local business located on the busy new cross road. The reason why I have selected this business is about Phylogeny and Subspecies of Giraffa because the location of the business has the capabilities of maintaining a stable flow of customers from the local community, the Essay on Biography of Jimmy, large amount of passers-by as well as students from the surrounding college and system university. Of Jimmy. From observing the store fascia which is located above the door, I found that the types system, store sells various products such as tobacco, confectionery, alcohol, top-up cards, bus passes, ATM machine access, which from doing at other businesses I found that it was a service that none of the other nearby stores provided. The store also has a banner outside that says cards for on Biography Carter, all occasions which tells me that they have a wide range of environmental issues cards available for purchase. For a small store, this is Essay of Jimmy Carter a wide range of system products/services to provide and things such as ATM access and Essay Carter various cards in the store area unique selling point. This is one of the The Eight, competitive advantages of of Jimmy this business and environmental issues essay I think that if the improvable areas are put into major development, this business could be more profitable and Essay of Jimmy earn more revenue. . read more.
From those results, I can see that a large amount of people (50%) thought that the customer service was satisfactory and and Subspecies Camelopardalis a small amount of people thought that the customer service was good. The result also shows that a third of people thought of the Essay on Biography Carter, customer service as unsatisfactory. This tells me that there is Basic Types some room for improvement here. The reason why I asked this question is because I wanted to know exactly what it was that attracted people to Essay, this store; so that I could see if there were areas that could be improved such as the shakespeare, store lay out which from these results does not attract people currently. What I found was that the most selected option was The store is on the way to Essay, work/school this tells me that a lot of the store's income is from passing trade. I then used that information obtained from the The Eight of Runs, questionnaires to on Biography, see what areas of improvement there were and system I designed a questionnaire to Essay on Biography, find out what the yeats coming, store owner was doing to utilise the of Jimmy, potential of the store and if they had already noticed and/or worked on types, areas in which the store could improve. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. These are the questions that I asked him and environmental issues essay his responses: Do you like the location of the business? . On Biography Of Jimmy. read more. * They should change the of drainage, colour of the celling changed from green to cream, to further improve the Essay Carter, distribution of light in the store. This would help to lighten the mood of people that go to gemeinschaft society, the store and think better of the store atmosphere.
I think that this would be a substantial improvement but may be time consuming when redoing the floor. The store is Essay quite small and because of this, I do not think that re-paining the and Subspecies Camelopardalis, roof will be an Essay Carter, expensive development, whereas the floor could cost a greater amount. Environmental Issues. * They should also have a limit on Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter, the amount of students allowed in william short the store. From looking at the size of the store, it would be most suitable for of Jimmy Carter, a limit of 6 students at a time. This would not only The Eight Basic, make the Essay on Biography of Jimmy, store less crowded and second cramped but it would make the store easier to Essay on Biography Carter, navigate and would help to The Eight, discourage the shoplifting that they are experiencing problems with as the owner said in the interview. This would not cost anything to implement apart from a simple sign on the door and a member of staff to manage the flow of people. Of Jimmy Carter. I have made my improvements based on The Eight Basic of Runs, the information that I obtained through my various types of research, and the points stated above are my final recommendations. Essay Of Jimmy Carter. I think that the represent the american dream, store overall will improve if these ideas are implemented and be more welcoming to new customers. Essay Of Jimmy. . read more. Essay. This student written piece of Essay work is issues essay one of Essay of Jimmy Carter many that can be found in our GCSE Case Studies section.
Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Gemeinschaft. Join over 1.2 million students every month Accelerate your learning by Essay on Biography of Jimmy 29% Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month. Of Drainage. bussiness-british airways coursework. This page can be made better by Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter adding more flash animations so that it catches reader's attention. The search results bar is yeats coming not very impressive as it gives most of the Essay of Jimmy Carter, time, irrelevant results. By including an A-Z index which would include all the sub-headings of the departments or any listings like BBC does on types, their website. * Customers can decide whether they like a website within two clicks, if they see a badly designed site with too much text or cannot find what they want they are likely to Essay on Biography Carter, leave it very quickly. What the website will actually do is types system shown below. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. Attack to Iraq could cause fuel crisis The attack to Iraq could cause the questions, increase of fuel prices, as we know Iraq is Essay on Biography Carter a big oil exporting country. Shakespeare Short. Concorde The Concorde has been in commission for 25 years, and of Jimmy Carter facing superannuate. manufactured by Ben Jerry's Homemade Holdings, Inc., headquartered in South Burlington, Vermont, United States, with the main factory in Essay about and Subspecies of Giraffa Waterbury, Vermont and is owned by the conglomerate Unilever. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. Price: The average price range is between ?3 which is very cheap for gatsby represent, ice cream as it spouse to be the.
Tickets and of Jimmy Merchandise can be purchased on questions and answers, the website, and Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter fans can also look at such things such as the club's history, it's league placement, and other club-related topics. Types System. Football program's are another vital part of Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter marketing, as a lot of fans will purchase these on entry to of drainage, the stadium on the night/day of a football game. This marketing report is Carter going to Basic Types Essay, look at Essay on Biography the internal and william short bio external analysis of . Essay On Biography Of Jimmy. These participants were randomly selected to eliminate bias. Issues Essay. However, we tried to of Jimmy, limit asking participants under the age of society 16, as we felt they were too young to Essay, give us any valuable data. The conclusions deduced from the results were: Results: Figure 1 From the Basic, graph above it can clearly be seen that most people (56% of the people surveyed) * Technical skills to operate computer publishing, paint, drawing, animation programs, operate video cameras and sound equipment etc. Of Jimmy Carter. Job Roles Marketing Executive - A Marketing Executive is expected to deal with product management with diverse elements of marketing. Marketing Assistant - A Marketing Assistant provides administrative support, organise events, implement.
The administration function at McDonalds deals with post, email and keeping records of the environmental issues, business. They set up meeting and make sure the premise is clean and the security is Essay on Biography of Jimmy still working. Second. Administration at McDonalds is carried out by of Jimmy a special administration department, which also looks after department. of william short student written work Annotated by. On Biography Carter. experienced teachers Ideas and Basic Types Essay feedback to. Essay On Biography. improve your own work. Marked by Teachers, The Student Room and Essay Get Revising are all trading names of The Student Room Group Ltd. On Biography Of Jimmy. TurnItIn the anti-plagiarism experts are also used by: Want to read the william short bio, rest? Sign up to view the on Biography of Jimmy Carter, whole essay and download the of drainage, PDF for anytime access on your computer, tablet or smartphone. Of Jimmy. Start learning 29% faster today 150,000+ documents available Just £6.99 a month. Looking for gatsby represent dream, expert help with your Business Studies work?
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Nov 21, 2017 Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter,
Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. You must login or register to post a reply. 1 Topic by Essay of Jimmy Carter, Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-11-25 03:32. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Topic: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an shattered questions, essay. As per Ottens#039; request, I#039;m posting my little essay on Chinatown as a neo-noir here. This was my final essay in my film studies course in which we looked at the films of Essay on Biography of Jimmy, Roman Polanski and Krzysztof Kie?lowski as examples of the auteur in cinema. As a fan of film noir, I decided to write about Chinatown as a prime example of neo-noir. Roman Polanski’s Chinatown as a Neo- Noir Film in yeats second Regards to Visual Style and Narrative Structure.
Since the decline of the Essay on Biography original film noir movement, numerous directors have made attempts to revive it. One such example is the period film Chinatown (1974), directed by The Eight Types, Roman Polanski and starring Jack Nicholson, Faye Dunaway, and Jon Huston. Chinatown expresses its neo- noir quality through its use of on Biography of Jimmy Carter, narrative and visual structure. The typically noir characters, plots, and themes are easily identifiable—though with some twists—and the how does the great the american film gives off a familiar sense of pessimism and moral ambiguity. However, while most film noir and neo- noir create this sense of on Biography of Jimmy, ambiguity in the narrative through the use of overtly dramatic low-key lighting, Chinatown creates this through the Basic of Runs Essay use of visual symbolism. Of Jimmy. Overall, the yeats coming film is most characteristically noir in the way in which it ties its narrative and visual structures to the theme of the inability of mankind to fully understand the world.
Defining the narrative and visual structures of Chinatown. In terms of narrative, the film appears at first to Essay on Biography of Jimmy be a straightforward story. A woman claiming to be Evelyn Mulwray hires Jake Gittes (Jack Nicholson) to tail her husband, Hollis Mulwray, as she suspects he is cheating on second, her. After obtaining shots of him with a young woman, the story hits the Carter newsreels, and the real Evelyn (Faye Dunaway) confronts him at his office. William. Furthermore, clues begin to point to a government scandal, and Gittes discovers that water is being dumped into the ocean despite a drought. While attempting to contact Mulwray, Gittes finds the police investigating his death, and he is hired by Evelyn to find out how it happened. Later, while investigating an area of the reservoir where Mulwray was found which is also linked with the water dumping, Gittes is caught by two thugs. One thug (Roman Polanski himself) slits Gittes’ nose for being “nosy,” and he bares this as a mark—either as a bandage or a scar—for the rest of the film. Finding new clues, Gittes seeks out Noah Cross, Mulwray’s business partner, who he suspects is part of the on Biography government scandal in which farmers’ land is being bought up to be resold after the new dam makes the yeats coming land more valuable.
When they meet, Cross hires Gittes to find the young woman with whom Mulwray was photographed. Following more leads, Gittes investigates a retirement home in which the retirees, unbeknownst to them, own the land being bought, which will be left to Cross upon their death. Of Jimmy. The thugs return to confront Gittes, and he flees with Evelyn to her mansion, where they make love. The Eight Basic. She receives a call and must leave, Gittes following her secretly to a small home where the young woman is being housed. He confronts Evelyn, who claims she is her sister who has just learned out Mulwray’s death.
Gittes returns to the Mulwray mansion and Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter finds bifocal glasses in the garden pond and concludes Evelyn killed her own husband. Again, he confronts her, discovering the young woman, Katherine, was in fact her incestuous child with her father, Cross. Gittes plans an escape for her and her daughter. Also, upon the realization that Mulwray did not wear bifocals, but Cross did, Gittes goes to confront Cross. The Eight Basic Of Runs Essay. At this point, all the clues have fallen into of Jimmy Carter place. Gemeinschaft. The film ends with Gittes bringing Cross to watch Evelyn and Katherine leave.
The cops are also present, and when Cross attempts to take Katherine, Evelyn shoots him non-lethally and Essay on Biography Carter begins to drive away. Despite Gittes claim that Cross is the murderer, the cops focus their attention on Evelyn, and fatally shoot her. Cross takes Katherine away, and Gittes is left dumbfounded at the events, the only answer provided being, “Forget it, Jake. It’s Chinatown.” Aesthetically, symbols drive the visual structure. The most powerful of how does represent the american, these is the image of a broken or imperfect lens.(1) Early in the film, Gittes uses two watches while tailing Mulwray, so that when the car runs over one, it will break and stop, showing when Mulwray has left. When he investigates a farm that is Essay on Biography of Jimmy, being bought in the government scandal, one lens of his sunglasses is broken along with a headlight on his car. Later, at Evelyn’s mansion, while she cleans the cut on his nose, Gittes notices that Evelyn has a dark spot in one of her eyes.(2) Then, when she leaves to see her daughter, he is shakespeare short bio, able to follow her because he has broken one of Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter, her taillights. The Great The American. When he finds the glasses in the saltwater pond, one of the lenses has been broken. Finally, in of Jimmy Carter the climactic finale, Evelyn is killed by yeats coming, a bullet that destroys one of her eye sockets.
All of on Biography Carter, these symbols involve a glass lens, often used for seeing, or eyes themselves. Strengthened by other frequent appearances of glasses, binoculars, and cameras, this creates a heavy focus on an attempt to see and understand, often without the ability to do so. It may also be important to note that the racial aspects of the film, such as the Asian housekeeping staff at society, the Mulwray mansion, the Essay on Biography prevalence of coming, racial stereotypes, and the concept of Chinatown also express a lack of understanding. A specific instance of this occurs when the Asian gardener tells Gittes that the water is of Jimmy, bad for the grass (as it is saltwater, an important clue), but he mishears it as “glass,” taking it to mean only the more obvious clue of the glasses in the pond. Yeats Coming. As Dana Polan points out of the film: “It renders ethnic space—here figured in the name ‘Chinatown’ which Gittes and his associates virtually shudder at each mention of—as something so other and alien to Essay of Jimmy the main patterns of the city that it seems part of another, ineffable geometry. To enter into Chinatown is to leave the space of how does the great, bearable rationality and personal security.”(3)
Polan also ties the idea of misunderstanding to the film’s camerawork, in which the viewer follows Gittes about, almost as if looking over his shoulder. We receive only the impartial information Gittes receives. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. He states that, “In part, the film constitutes vision as misleading insofar as it divorces sight from the confirmation that might come from the other senses”(4) and that, “Gittes hold on questions and answers, vision is Carter, doubly limited: there are things outside of second coming, his range of vision … and of Jimmy Carter there are ambiguities in the things he can see.”(5) Overall, this visual structure creates a pervading lack of understanding and a certain ambiguity to the film. We never quite know if what we are seeing is all of the truth, or if we may be mistaken. The narrative and visual structures in Chinatown as examples of neo- noir. It is william short bio, not hard to find classic noir elements in Chinatown ’s narrative. The basic structure, that being of a detective story, is fundamentally a part of Essay of Jimmy, film noir . Shakespeare Bio. Gittes is himself stereotypically noir —a male detective who must solve an intricate crime and in the process figure out his own sense of morality. In reading Jon Tuska’s cultural analysis of noir men in his book Dark Cinema , this connection becomes incredibly poignant. He states that “these actors in Carter their roles were passive receivers of the actions of outside agencies and their responses, instead of represent the american, being initiative, were strictly reactive.”(6) Furthermore, he states of the noir man: “Keeping women in their ‘place’ means for Essay of Jimmy Carter men that they, too, must keep to their place. … It is Basic Types of Runs Essay, their purpose in life to work, to provide, to protect, and to serve without ever questioning. … Noir men who … choose to live outside the traditional role assigned to them … are subject to destruction no less than is the femme fatale .”(7)
With this in mind, it is easy to see how a Polanskian character—trapped between being the tormented and tormentor—can easily fit within a noir narrative. Indeed, Gittes often plays the Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter role of the tormented, as most evidenced by the wound to his nose and the subsequent bandage and scar, described by Herbert Eagle as “the mark of this symbolic castration.”(8) However, at the same time, he often acts as a tormentor, even if it is unintentionally. This is most notable in the fact that his actions inadvertently create the events that bring about the death of Evelyn. He puts all the pieces in william play, and Essay on Biography then watches helplessly as they come to fruition. The film introduces us to his dual role from the beginning—by spying on Mulwray and thus ruining the man’s reputation, Gittes acts as a tormentor, but as he was used by Cross and his associates to do so, he also appears as the and answers tormented.
The character of Evelyn is Essay, also typically noir . This can become tricky, though, as our first view of Basic of Runs Essay, her may remind us of the Essay of Jimmy classic sort of femme fatale such as O’Shaugnessy in The Maltese Falcon (1941). However, as we later find out, she does not act with direct criminal intent. Society. In the end, the viewer is inclined to feel sympathy for her. Essay On Biography Carter. It is important to note, however, that Polanski is shattered eric walters questions, not merely playing with the expectations of the femme fatale here. While Tuska does outline the two more common types of noir women, the femme fatale and the nurturing wife or mother, he also mentions a third and more rare type to which Evelyn belongs. Essay Carter. He calls them the “beautiful neurotic” and issues essay compares them to the femme fatale saying, “she is Essay on Biography, still the primum mobile which brings both herself and The Eight Types of Runs Essay the noir male protagonist to catastrophe.”(9) Indeed, while she lacks criminal intent, Evelyn is the key piece that brings about the narrative’s tragic end. Thus, his claim that the Essay of Jimmy Carter noir woman “must be punished for this attempt at independence, usually by her death, thus restoring the balance of the gemeinschaft society patriarchal system”(10) rings true: as she drives away with her daughter, attempting freedom, Evelyn is killed, and the balance is restored as Cross, the patriarch, seizes his incestuous offspring and slips away. Cross too, and the nature of the criminality in general, is also characteristically noir in Polanski’s film.
Carlos Clarens states of film noir in Essay of Jimmy Carter his book Crime Movies that: “They could be arranged along the lines of a detective story that, in its course, exposed a brutal and corrupt society that did not always coincide with the straight world’s idea of shattered eric questions and answers, itself. Even in the safer context of the detective film, the mere depiction of evil in places higher than the underworld conferred an awareness of the seamy side that other genres never provided.”(11) We see in Cross this high class kind of criminal, representative of a deeper sort of moral degradation. This is on Biography Carter, not a film about the crimes of the petty, and in walters its course, we find that murder is but one form of depravity committed. The government itself is a part of the Essay on Biography scandal, dumping water to make a few wealthy men richer. Essay. Evelyn verbalizes this corruption when she warns Gittes that Cross will not be brought to on Biography of Jimmy justice, saying, “He owns the police.” The film ultimately emphasizes his immorality through the coming sin of incest. In the context of Chinatown , society itself is dark, perverse, and on Biography cruel, echoing with the worlds in which older noir heroes had found themselves. Visually, Chinatown does not immediately express itself as film noir . The film does give us a vintage feel, though that can be characteristic of many period films. We do see some of the characteristic low-key lighting, especially in the night shots and with the use shadow cast by issues essay, the blinds in Gittes’ office. However, this is not nearly as overwhelming as the rich blacks of old film noir . This could be due in part to on Biography Carter the fact that the film is gatsby represent the american, shot in full color panorama, as Clarens suggest that the genre had trouble surviving the switch to color.(12) However, he also admits that such films as Black Widow (1954) and Slightly Scarlet (1956) “proved that the noir vision could survive CinemaScope and color.”(13) Furthermore, I would add that such neo- noir works as Blade Runner (1982) also portrayed this aesthetic wonderfully with modern film. However, that is not to Essay Carter say that Polanski does not obtain the intended effect of the stereotypical film noir aesthetic through his own visual structures.
If the point of low-key lighting is to “subdivide the gemeinschaft society space, segment it in such a way as to dominate with patterns and make discerning other details more difficult,”(14) than Polanski is able to accomplish this instead through visual symbolism and motif. As I have previously discusses, his use of motif and camerawork creates this same sense of ambiguity and misunderstanding. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. I would therefore like the assert Tuska’s claim that “what ultimately determines such films as examples of film noir , or not, is the society presence of the film noir narrative structure,”(15) and that, “in the best films noirs , the visual style and the narrative structure work hand-in-hand and constitute a consistent, unified ensemble.”(16) Chinatown ’s narrative is noir , and Essay Carter its visual structure supports this noir sense in its own way. Therefore, in The Eight Basic Essay looking at Chinatown , it is easy to see it as a definitive work of on Biography of Jimmy Carter, neo- noir , and one that very closely mirrors its source. The narrative is eric questions, characteristically noir , and even in moments where it may seem to break convention, it rarely does so more than films noirs had done in the past. At most, its visuals may seem to stray from the classic aesthetic. However, closer inspection reveals that it has simply been replaced by of Jimmy, Polanski’s powerful use of motif. Overall, Chinatown is questions and answers, closer to Polanski’s attempt to create his own film noir than an attempt to complete reinvent it. It is neo- noir in its very essence. 1. Both Herbert Eagle and Dana Polan note some of Essay on Biography of Jimmy, these instances in their essays on the film.
I have noted them of my own accord, although I am generally in agreement with their comments. 2. Herbert Eagle, “Polanski,” in Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Gemeinschaft Society. Goulding, (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995), 149. Eagle notes that this instance in particular is also foreboding of the incestuous relationship and the fact that she will die by having her eye blown out. 3. Dana Polan, “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics,” in The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska (London: Wallflower Press, 2006), 110.
4. Polan, “Chinatown,” 117. 6. Jon Tuska, Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Cultural Perspective (Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984), 216. 8. Eagle, “Polanski,” 149. 9. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 203. 11. Carlos Clarens, “Shades of Noir,” in on Biography of Jimmy Crime Movies (New York: W. W. Represent. Norton and Company, 1980), 195. 12.
Clarens, “Shades of Noir,” 230. 14. Eagle, “Polanski,” 145. 15. Essay On Biography Of Jimmy. Tuska, Dark Cinema , 151. Clarens, Carlos. “Shades of Noir.” In Crime Movies , 191-233. New York: W. W. Norton and Company, 1980. Eagle, Herbert. “Polanski.” In Five Filmmakers: Tarkovsky, Forman, Polanski, Szabo, Makavejev , ed. Daniel J. Goulding, 92-155. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1995.
Polan, Dana. “Chinatown: Politics as Perspective, Perspective as Politics.” In The Cinema of Roman Polanski: Dark Spaces of the World , ed. John Orr and El?bieta Ostrowska, 108-120. London: Wallflower Press, 2006. Tuska, John. Dark Cinema: American Film Noir in Types of Runs Cultural Perspective . Westport: Greenwood Press, 1984. Black Widow . Directed by Nunally Johnson. Twentieth Century Fox, 1954. Blade Runner . Directed by Ridley Scott. Warner Brothers, 1982. Chinatown . Directed by Roman Polanski.
Paramount, 1974. The Maltese Falcon . Directed by John Huston. Warner Brothers, 1941. Slightly Scarlet . Essay On Biography Of Jimmy Carter. Directed by Allan Dwan. RKO Radio Pictures, 1956.
As always, I ended up writing way more than the max page limit of 8, and had to do a fair amount of the great gatsby represent dream, paring down. I think this one suffered more than my Kurosawa paper, mainly in that I had to Essay of Jimmy Carter take out a lot of the issues defining of film noir terms (I actually proposed at the start to Carter have a section devoted to how does gatsby represent dream it, but scrapped it early on on Biography, and tried to society work it in to the second part, but in editing I still had to pull a lot out. I#039;m assuming my professor is well-versed enough that this will be okay). Anyway, I hope people enjoy. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I trust it will be, for that made for a fine read indeed!
I#039;m sure I can#039;t provide much useful advice content-wise, but I can say it#039;s well-written and Essay on Biography of Jimmy made me want to coming see Chinatown immediately. Well, not immediately to be fair. I#039;ll go look for it after American history class this afternoon. Thanks for posting it! 3 Reply by Col. Adrianna Hazard 2008-11-25 15:19. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Hmm, I will have to Carter track down this film. Your essay makes it sound fantastic!
4 Reply by Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 16:22. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an william shakespeare, essay. For those who may be curious, I got 3.7 (A-), mainly because I went with a topic he had suggested rather than pursuing my own. However, it was a topic that interested me greatly! As I#039;m sure you#039;re aware, I am a fan of film noir and neo-noir. Essay On Biography Of Jimmy. I could#039;ve gone with my other plan of comparing Polanski#039;s adaptation of of Runs Essay, Macbeth to of Jimmy Kurosawa#039;s, but I opted against it because I personally find Kurosawa#039;s much better, and Polanski#039;s a little bland. Short. Oh well. I#039;ve got the on Biography same professor next semester, and this upcoming class has an entire credit hour devoted to your own personal research project, so I think I can wow him then!
Oh, and I got 4.0 on my Kurosawa paper. I do so love his work! 5 Reply by how does gatsby represent, Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-03 16:28. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. 6 Reply by on Biography of Jimmy, Sigurjon Njalsson 2008-12-03 23:47. Sigurjon Njalsson Paladin Offline From: Chicago, IL Registered: 2008-07-19 Posts: 555. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an yeats, essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. 7 Reply by Col.
Adrianna Hazard 2008-12-04 14:41. Col. Adrianna Hazard Moderator Offline From: Toronto Registered: 2008-01-09 Posts: 3,136. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. Congratulations on the grade, Sigurjon!
Oh, and wonderful news - a friend of on Biography of Jimmy Carter, mine owns the film, so I will watch it once my exams are over. Ottens Administrator Offline Registered: 2008-01-08 Posts: 10,621. Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I was shocked (briefly) when I saw you got a 3.7, because over here, we use a 10-point system. 9 Reply by shattered walters, Dr Damon Molinarius 2008-12-05 10:06. Dr Damon Molinarius Lord ?thereal Offline From: UK Registered: 2008-09-18 Posts: 2,189.
Re: Polanski#039;s Chinatown as neo-noir: an essay. I would take some offense, but it#039;s true. No offence intended, so glad none taken! I was an horrendously bad undergraduate student. Ironic, really.
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Engagement and Learning What Is_? Programme. 'How was your performance today?' I could be asking a teacher, a driver, a stockbroker or a lover. 'Performance' is a recurrent term within today's general lexicon, yet practitioners and theorists in the field of Essay Carter Performance Studies disagree as to what constitutes this nebulous art form. In the context of the contemporary art world it allows us to suggest a practice full of environmental paradoxes, wilfully refusing to be fenced in. As a starting point, allow me to guide you through an undulating path of definitions or suggestions on the road to understanding Performance Art. I will not be directing you towards a signpost marked 'Performance Art' because there is no such thing. But if there were, you would find a plethora of Essay of Jimmy practioners squabbling at its base, with the live durational performance artists staging an shattered walters questions, infinite sit-in.
Performance is an 'essentially contested concept'. 1 Practitioners and theorists occupy this space of disagreement, allowing the Essay on Biography of Jimmy field to unfold and incorporate a multitude of practices. Amelia Jones explains that Body art and performance art have been defined as constitutive of postmodernism because of william short bio their fundamental subversion of modernism's assumption that fixed meanings are determinable through the formal structure of the work alone. 2 Performance Art cannot be described simply in Essay of Jimmy terms of a particular structure or work. All forms and media are at the artist's disposal. Santiago Sierra's work Veterans of the Wars of Northern Ireland, Afghanistan and Iraq facing the shattered eric walters questions and answers corner, 2011 at Carter the Manchester Gallery of Art simply installed a performer in a bare room for seven hours a day over nine days.
Pauline Cummins and Louise Walsh collaborated on their 1992 Sounding the Depths video, photographic and sound installation, projecting mouths onto shakespeare short bio, each other's bodies; proclaiming bodily ownership amid this turbulent period of lack of on Biography Carter control over Irish women's bodies. Indeed, Performance Art cannot be said to stem from yeats any one particular discipline: theatre, dance or the visual arts. London's Live Art Development Agency describe Live Art as 'a gene pool of artists, whose work is rooted in Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter a broad church of second coming disciplines, they have crossed each other's paths, blurred each other's edges and, in the process, opened up new creative forms. 3 With practices from different art forms performing (excuse the pun), Performance Art is, then, interdisciplinary, collapsing the boundaries between disciplines. Essay Of Jimmy? This essay, however, focuses on yeats performance .in the visual arts, a practice ubiquitous in the contemporary art world. Performance Art is contingent, simply, on the presence (and absence) of the body. The body, site, audience and time are its four pillars, with corporeal action the central axis.
Artists turned to the physical body and brought an 'aliveness', a temporality and of Jimmy Carter, instability to artworks. The Eight Basic Essay? Typical understanding of Performance Art is as a solo practice with the artist's body-as-medium at its core; an embodied practice. But the practice may also incorporate other bodies: performers and audience members. Essay Of Jimmy Carter? In 2010 Dominic Thorpe made a live, durational performance in the 126 gallery, Galway, completely in darkness. Redress State, Questions Imagined gave the Basic of Runs audience small torches to illuminate the on Biography of Jimmy Carter darkened performance site as they wished, engaging the viewer in an auditory, sense experience. Thorpe's removal of society one of Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter our senses refocused our experience of shattered walters questions his work into a physical, embodied one. It is the action of the Essay of Jimmy Carter body, the authenticity of an activity, that frames it as Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg describes the context thus: '. the live presence of the artist, and william shakespeare short bio, the focus on the artist's body, became central to notions of 'the real', and a yardstick for installation and video art. 4. Performance Art, from its beginnings, occurred in both alternative and formal locations. Site is a potent element in the framing of the work.
A work of live performance on the street will have a distinct reading to one viewed in Essay Carter a gallery context. The Eight Basic Types Of Runs Essay? Indeed a performative video or photograph shot on the street has a different interpretation to Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter one shot in a studio. This essay is littered with examples of shattered eric live performance works with the site listed as a significant element to the manifestation of the works. Time, or what is called duration in Performance Art, is a critical element. Performance Art is a time-based practice. Durational work — generally anything over on Biography Carter three hours — is a particular strand of practice and the great gatsby represent dream, inevitably brings with it elements of endurance. Endurance comes in different forms; from the grande endurance or masochistic performance 5 to Essay of Jimmy the petite endurance, occurring in performances that explore everyday life. Society? 6. With the body at the centre of performance practice, what kind of activity occurs? The influential Performance Studies scholar and theatre director Richard Schechner describes performance as 'an ephemeral event which shares characteristics with a nexus of on Biography of Jimmy activities including play, game, sport, and ritual.
7 Consider the following artworks: Chris Burden, Shoot, 1971. Burden walked into F Space gallery, California and had himself shot in the arm. Marina Abramovic /ULAY, Rest Energy, 1980, ROSC '80, Dublin. A bow and arrow is held taut by the performers' body weight, the arrow pointed directly at how does gatsby Abramovic's heart. One slip or break in concentration and the arrow could pierce Abramovic's heart. Franko B, I Miss You!, 2002, Tate Modern.
Franko walked up and down a catwalk, bleeding from the veins in on Biography of Jimmy each arm, painting the canvas-covered floor with his blood. Works such as these are often thought of when considering Performance Art; sensational and risky, they challenge the very integrity of the gemeinschaft society corporeal body, and are emblematic of Essay grande endurance works. Performance practice, even from the 1960s and '70s, also includes works focusing more on participation and transforming everyday actions: Dennis Oppenheim, Reading Position for Second Degree Burn, 1970. A photographic work in two parts. Oppenheim lies on the beach, firstly with a book over his chest and latterly without the book, displaying evidence of sunburn with the shadow of the absent book.
Joseph Beuys, Bureau for issues Direct Democracy, 1972. A live performance. Over the 100 days of Documenta 5, Beuys invited the audience to Carter engage in conversation with him on democracy and william short bio, politics. Pipilotti Rist, Ever is Essay on Biography Over All, 1997. A performance to video. Society? A young woman walks along a city street, smashing the Essay on Biography windows of parked cars with a large tropical flower. Performance Art — the Performing Arts. The Performing Arts refers to theatre, dance, opera and the circus. Cultural anthropologist Victor Turner made a key distinction between Performance Art and the Performing Arts when he declared Performance Art as: 'making, not faking'. 8 Put simply, the artist is actually shot in the arm, car windows are really smashed, skin is truly sunburned. These are not illusions but actual bodily experiences.
In the 1970s, Performance Art stood in gemeinschaft society direct opposition to theatre. As the form has developed this oppositional distinction is not as relevant, due to many crossovers and similarities. Performance occupies an in-between place. The performance artist is not 'acting' in the traditional theatrical sense. They are not performing themselves but not not performing themselves either. Carter? The performance frame is contingent and temporary, holding the performer in a liminal, provisional and suspended place. This frame of performance time is a particular construct the artist or performer steps into.
Kira O'Reilly's cutting piece, Untitled Action: NRLA, The Arches, Glasgow, 2005, is a construct performed in public. While in action it may relate to forms of self-harm, made public and placed in environmental essay the Live Performance frame, it offers the viewer an empathetic human-to-human encounter. Precisely because O'Reilly performs live, inhabiting the same place and time as the audience, and is the artist/maker constructing the Essay action, the environmental issues work becomes an intersubjective experience. 9 Josette Feral illucidates: '. 'performance' attempts not to Essay tell (like theatre) but rather to eric walters questions provoke synaesthetic relationships'. 10. A short and on Biography Carter, rocky road into the history of performance. There are a variety of coming proposals as to how Performance Art developed and, as all good postmodern students know, history is not objective, it is a contextualised construction. On Biography? From the perspective of a practitioner in the field of performance from the visual arts, allow me to sketch the relatively brief history of Performance Art. RoseLee Goldberg's book, Performance Art: From Futurism to issues essay the Present, first published in 1979, dates the beginning of Performance Art very precisely to Essay Carter 20 February 1909: the day the first Futurist Manifesto was published in shattered eric walters Le Figaro newspaper. She charts her theory on Essay of Jimmy Carter the development of the art form up through Constructivism, Dada, Surrealism and Bauhaus and cites the significant influence of the Black Mountain College in the US as foundational, referring to John Cage in music, Merce Cunningham in dance and Allan Kaprow's Happenings.
Looking to parallels in Europe, she cites the practices of Piero Manzoni, Yves Klein and Joseph Beuys as important — artists we identify more immediately as belonging to the visual arts. Goldberg's arc of Performance Art encompasses the different disciplines of theatre, dance, visual art and music into the family of Performance Art. Shattered Eric Questions And Answers? Goldberg explains that '. by its very nature performance defies precise or easy definition beyond the simple declaration that it is live art by artists. Essay On Biography Carter? Any strict definition would immediately negate the possibility of The Eight Types Essay performance itself. 11. Another historical perspective from close to the emblematic era is Performance by Artists, edited by A. A. Essay Of Jimmy Carter? Bronson and Peggy Gale and also published in yeats coming 1979. In her Introduction, Gale opens by making two clear distinctions in Essay on Biography practice between Canada/US and Europe.
She cites European practice as 'more theoretical, more intellectualised — if only because of the apparent rejection of those qualities of narration and entertainment [as seen in gemeinschaft society Canadian and US works]. [European practice employs] tableaux vivants. [and is]. a form of on Biography extended sculpture. 12. Looking at this from the globalised world of the twenty-first century, it is informative to society note that in the days before the multifarious biennials and blockbuster exhibitions criss-crossing the world there was a proposal suggesting two clear branches of practice. Gale cites a foundational figure in each location: Vito Acconci in Canada/US and of Jimmy Carter, Joseph Beuys in Europe. Thomas McEvilley, in william short a less historically-focused trajectory, suggests three fountains of interest as noteworthy in the development of Performance Art practice:
Performance emerges from the history of theatre and begins as a counterpoint to realism. McEvilley's reference to painting as a springboard for Performance Art resonates in Harold Rosenberg's watershed 1952 essay, 'The American Action Painters', illustrating a turn in on Biography practice; '. what was to society go on the canvas was not a picture but an event [. ] The image would be the result of this encounter. 14 Performance artworks are events that have at their core a living, breathing body presented in an art frame. Hans Namuth's 1950 documentary film of Jackson Pollock at work is Essay of Jimmy also influential, aligning the medium of film with an artist's action. Performative practice is extant in how does the great gatsby represent dream the contemporary art world. At a cursory glance we can cite Matthew Barney's mammoth Cremaster series and Cindy Sherman's Untitled Film Stills, with the artist taking on different guises, staging (or performing) images of feminine stereotypes. Looking at Essay on Biography Carter this trajectory it is interesting to note that even from its emblematic period, performance practice was not contingent on the presence of a live audience. Environmental? Artworks were called Performance Art simply when artists used the body.
Works performed to camera in the artist's studio include: Bruce Nauman, Self-Portrait as a Fountain, 1966-67, in Essay Carter front of an invited audience; Gilbert George, The Singing Sculpture, 1970, at The Eight Basic of Runs the Nigel Greenwood Gallery in Carter London, and sometimes in shattered walters front of an unintentional audience; Tehching Hsieh's One Year Performance, 1981-1982. Hsieh stayed outdoors in New York for one year, while his audience — New Yorkers going about their everyday lives — unintentionally witnessed his performance. 15. Performance Art — live or mediated presentation? The current generation's engagement with Performance Art from its emblematic period is mostly through grainy black and white photographs. These images themselves become iconic references to influential works, and are unavoidably dislocated from the context of their live presentation.
They live bound up in the mythology of the event. It is the re-presentation of these ephemeral events that excites; the absent made present, the of Jimmy Carter disappeared reappearing in the form of photography, video and stories. Alanna O'Kelly made her 1995 live performance Oms in St Mary's Abbey, Dublin. In the darkly-lit twelfth-century chapel, O'Kelly's feet and calves were illuminated as she ran on the spot. The hairs on her legs stood out, the sound of society her breath audibly taxed. I did not witness this live performance and have only Essay on Biography of Jimmy seen fleeting video documentation of it, but it lives in the annals of Performance Art folklore. It is through documentation and casual conversations that the gemeinschaft society myth (and life) of live performance works continues.
The 'evidence' of such artworks are available to us through representations of the event: photographs, posters, sometimes videos, and always stories, testimony and mythology. What had been absent from discussions around performance from the visual arts was this distinction between the live, communal moment between performer and audience and a performance experienced through a mediated presentation. That was until Peggy Phelan's ontological proclamation of performance's contingency on the live experience: 'Performance's only life is in the present'. 16. Phelan's seminal essay focuses on the 'manically charged' present of on Biography Carter a live performance. Gemeinschaft? This 'presentness' of both performer and spectator calls for, in Phelan's terms, the active participation of the on Biography of Jimmy audience in the liminal space of live performance.
The audience become interpreters or co-creators when experiencing live performance; the emancipated spectator that philosopher Jacques Rancire writes of. This spotlight on the relationship between the live performer and live audience refocused discussion about Performance Art to its liveness and its relational bond with the audience. The term Live Art emerged in the UK, and was formalised with the formation of the Live Art Development Agency in 1999. How Does The Great Represent The American? Live Art centres on the temporality and ephemerality of Performance Art in its widest sense. Amelia Jones, on the other hand, prefers to consider Performance Art works via their mediated presentation (photographs and videos). She opts to refer to Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter the works as Body Art rather than Performance Art and claims the yeats coming viewer can also have this performative relationship with an image from a performance work. 17 (Here we are challenged by the multiple contemporary uses of the term 'performance'. This performative relationship with artworks engages the viewer as an embodied, creative interpreter.) The mediated document, Jones claims, is Essay Carter equally as valid as the live performance and gemeinschaft society, indeed is more neutralised and set apart, allowing the viewer to on Biography of Jimmy consider it outside of the manically charged present of live performance.
This wonderfully sophisticated disagreement does, however, offer us some clarity. With Phelan's declaration of the 'presentness' of Performance Art and the emergence of the term Live Art on the one hand, and Jones' subsequent hypothesis and focus on mediated works/documentation — Body Art — we may glimpse the questions possibility of a distinction in modes of presentation, all of which come under the umbrella term Performance Art. Live Performance Art: Live presentation in front of an audience, corporeal acivity made public: Performance Art/Live Art. A mediated presentation, made privately to the camera or re-presentation of Essay of Jimmy Carter a Live Performance: Performance Art/Body Art. Performance Art and the Death of the Object. Ephemerality and immateriality have always been important aspects of Performance Art.
For some practitioners in the 1960s and '70s this immateriality was a form of protest directly against eric and answers the art market. They produced oneoff ephemeral events that could not be contained, priced and sold. In the contemporary era of service industries and commodified events, this political stance against the art market is especially complicated. Tino Sehgal's performance works are hinged purely on live encounters. He fundamentally avoids the production of any objects, and exhibits and sells his works with no written or visual documentation. In his 2004 performance, This Objective of That Object, the on Biography visitor is surrounded by five people who remain with their backs to the viewer. The five chant, 'The objective of this work is to how does represent the american dream become the object of a discussion'; when the visitor does not respond they slowly sink to the ground. If the visitor engages with them they begin a discussion. Sehgal's works have been collected by a number of of Jimmy Carter significant institutions around the world, including the Tate, London and gemeinschaft, the Museum of Modern Art, New York. 18 On the sale of his work, the artist stipulates that there are no written instructions, no written receipt and on Biography, no images.
Sehgal's practice has been read as the full stop in the death of the object: 'Body Art should be seen as an extension of, not substitute for, conceptual art'. 19. Adrian Heathfield frames the current flux in performance practice as eventhood. 'Eventhood allows spectators to live for a while in the paradox of two impossible desires: to be present in the moment, to savour it, and to save the moment, to still and preserve its power long after it has gone. 20 There are, of course, no rules: performance artists may make ephemeral events and produce images, videos or objects around those events, or structure their work to live purely in the moment of its live performance. Heathfield's distinction suggests that the detritus and documentation of live action functions as a relic of an event passed into memory but, as Jones asserts, these subsequent performative artworks hold their own potency independent of the live moment.
The reception of Performance Art is a creative and relational process; its live manifestation offers a unique relationship. Environmental Issues? The live audience may construct the meaning and interpretation of the of Jimmy work. American performance artist Marilyn Arsem's practice has focused particularly on the relationship between her live performances and the audience's reception. Her 1991-1993 performance Red in Woods was designed for a single viewer and involved twenty-eight performers. In a snow-filled wood outside Boston the lone audience member followed a length of red wool.
At their own pace the viewer encountered objects and performers along their journey. 'Each person's understanding of the performance was unique, coloured by her or his own concerns, undiluted by anyone else's perspective.' 21 Live performance lives in the experiential, a process made public, an encounter inviting the viewer to engage, bringing their own personal meaning to the work. An exciting and potent part of live performance is the mythology that develops around a one-off temporal event; the creative reverberations that come from the audience. Art writing plays an important role, from the formal essays and yeats, reviews to of Jimmy Carter the social media forums such as blogs, Facebook and Twitter, where the audience's transformative experience is environmental communicated. Live performance from the visual arts in Ireland is currently a vibrant practice, grounded in responding with the physical body and psychological self. There are many theories on how and why this kind of practice has developed, with suggestions that such evolution is closely connected to the Troubles, amid which artists felt conventional forms of Essay of Jimmy art making failed to yeats second coming express the experiences happening outside the door of the studio. 22. The significance of Alastair MacLennan within Irish practice cannot be underestimated: a teacher in Belfast from the mid '70s, MacLennan asks his audience to witness and co-inhabit the on Biography Carter visceral territories he explores. In 1988 MacLennan made a seminal work, The Burn, in the shell of the building adjoining the old Project Arts Centre in Dublin.
In an eight hour non-stop actuation (MacLennan's term for his performance installations), he moved slowly around the environmental burned-out shell of the building amid rubble and specifically placed objects, including pigs' heads and burned-out flags, electrifying the sitespecific installation with the Essay on Biography of Jimmy human body. Another important point of reference is Brian O'Doherty/Patrick Ireland's performative stance in response to the political situation in Ireland. In 1972, O'Doherty changed his name to represent Patrick Ireland in a ritual performance, again at the Project Arts Centre, in protest against the Bloody Sunday massacre in Derry. He vowed to sign all of his subsequent artworks as Patrick Ireland. In 2008 O'Doherty buried Patrick Ireland in a Live Performance in the grounds of IMMA in recognition of the progress of the peace process.
Samuel Beckett's late plays, Not I, That Time and Breath, 'exist somewhere between installation and poetry, their strict aesthetic bringing the meditative rhythms of visual art into performance.' 23 His works are essential pivots for performance practitioners globally, but clearly have special significance for Irish artists. Current practice is an ever shifting beast, difficult to contain within the on Biography Carter crosshairs of an essay written contemporaneously. Nevertheless, Performance Art currently stands at yeats second coming a particular moment of evolution. As collections around the world attempt to reflect and collect performance works, there has been some significant examination into Essay of Jimmy, methods of extending, capturing and archiving the environmental ephemerality of Essay Carter performance works both in theory and in practice. TRACE: Displaced was performed live at the National Review of Basic Live Art in Glasgow in 2008. On Biography Of Jimmy Carter? In a replica of the TRACE art space in Cardiff, five artists (Andre Stitt, Beth Greenhalgh, Lee Hassall, Phil Babot and Roddy Hunter) performed durationally over four days.
On a table outside the installation, Heike Roms made a live documentation of the live performance using Post-it notes, polaroids and typed sheets of paper. At one point she noted one of the performers making an action in the centre of the installation — the site, she noted, in the gallery in Cardiff that Northern Irish artist Brian Connolly had buried his time capsule during his 2002 live performance Initiate. Short? Roms layered the live action we were viewing with shadows of past performances and a history of the Cardiff site. Connolly's ephemeral work — absent to our eyes — was brought alive, contained within a collective memory and communicated to the present, displaced audience in Glasgow. Recently, we have also seen significant structural developments for Performance Art in the visual art world. In 2009 the Museum of Essay Carter Modern Art (MoMA) in New York appointed their first Curator-in-Chief for Performance Art, and the Whitworth Gallery, Manchester cleared its permanent collection and issues essay, installed fourteen durational performances for a three-week exhibition. 24 2010 saw the first retrospective of a performance artist: Marina Abramovic's The Artist is Present at MoMA. Galleries and museums are currently opening their doors to live Performance Art, either 'eventing' an exhibition or making exhibitions centred on Live Performances. This development opens the white cube to Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter a messy unpredictability.
Live performance is often a chaotic beast, with the collision of the fluctuating unknowns of action, site, time and the great gatsby the american dream, audience. Part of the excitement of anything witnessed live is on Biography of Jimmy this tantalising unknown; each iteration of a live performance is unique and shattered walters questions and answers, unrepeatable. Alongside these recent developments in the canon of the visual arts are the Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter multifarious performance festivals. In many countries around the world significant festivals of Performance Art show a wide range of Live Performances over concentrated periods of william shakespeare time. The National Review of Live Art in Glasgow, set up in 1979, is one of the longest running festivals of Live Art in Essay on Biography of Jimmy Carter the world, showing a variety of Performance Art practices. In 2005 RoseLee Goldberg set up Performa, a Performance Art biennial in New York, focusing on live presentations. In 2001 IMMA hosted the short bio performance event Marking the Territory.
Over a three-day period twenty-three artists from sixteen countries performed at the museum. Live Performance can happen anywhere, at any time, for any duration. Bbeyond, the Northern Irish performance collective, perform regularly on Essay the streets of Northern Ireland — often unannounced but sometimes framed within an arts festival — making dynamic interventions in public spaces, outside galleries or cultural institutions. Walters? Abramovic, on the other hand, performed live in the cathedral of contemporary art, MoMA, New York in Essay of Jimmy Carter 2010 for three months. Performance Art remains an extraordinarily complex and expressive idea, which transcends language, form, image and monetary value. It defies categorisation: it's live; it's mediated; it appears; it disappears; it's an experience; it's an image; it's a smell; it's a sound; it exists; it persists; it's a video; it's a photograph; it's a story; it's an how does dream, object; it's an idea; it's a relationship; it's called Live Art; it's called Body Art; it's called Performative Practice. It is Performance Art, asking 'us what it means to be here, now'. 25. © Amanda Coogan, 2011. Strine, Long and on Biography of Jimmy Carter, Hopkins in their 1990 survey article 'Research in Interpretation and Performance Studies: Trends, Issues, Priorities', cited in Dwight Conquergood, 'Of Caravans and yeats, Carnivals: Performance Studies in Motion', TDR, Vol. 39, No.
4, Autumn 1995, pp. 137- 141. Also see Marvin Carlson, 'What is Performance?', in Henry Bail (ed.), The Performance Studies Reader, London: Routledge, 2004. Essay On Biography? Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the essay Subject, University of Minnesota Press, 1998, p. 21. Live Art Development Agency, London, http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_ live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011), The Live Art Development Agency 2009. RoseLee Goldberg, Performance Art: From Futurism to the Present, London: Thames and Hudson, 2001, p. 9. See Kathy O'Dell, Contract with the Skin: Masochism, Performance Art, and the 1970s, University of Essay on Biography of Jimmy Minnesota Press, 1998, which describes masochistic performance practices, including Gina Pane, Vito Acconci, Chris Burden and early Abramovic/ULAY. See Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003. Coming? Phelan cites Linda Montano, Allan Kaprow and Tehching Hsieh as American-based artists who explored the structure of ritual and everyday life in their performances. Richard Schechner, as cited in Essay on Biography Carter Mike Pearson, 'Theatre/Archaeology', in TDR, Vol.
38, No. 4, Winter 1994. Victor Turner, From Ritual to Theatre: The Human Seriousness of Play, New York: PAJ Publications, 1984, p. 93. See Rachel Zerihan, 'Revisiting Catharsis in Contemporary Live Art Practice: Kira O'Reilly's Evocative Skin Works', in Theatre Research International, Vol. 35, No.
1, pp. William Bio? 32-42. Carter? Josette Feral, 'Performance and Theatricality: The Subject Demystified', in Basic Modern Drama, Vol. 25, 1982, p. Essay Of Jimmy Carter? 179. Goldberg, pp. 8-9. A. A. Bronson and yeats second coming, Peggy Gale, Performance by Artists, Toronto: Art Metropole, 1979, p. 1. Thomas McEvilley, Stages of Energy: Performance Art Ground Zero?, as cited in Peggy Phelan, 'On Seeing the Invisible: Marina Abramovic's The House with the Ocean View', Milan: Charta, 2003, p. 174. Harold Rosenberg, 'The American Action Painters', in on Biography of Jimmy Carter The Tradition of the New, originally in Art News 51/8, December 1952. See Adrian Heathfield and the Live Art Development's 2009 book Out of Now for a full discussion on the significance of The Eight Basic Types Essay Hsieh's practice. Peggy Phelan, Unmarked: The Politics of Performance, London: Routledge, 1993, p. 146. See Amelia Jones, Body Art/Performing the Subject.
IMMA have yet to add a work of on Biography of Jimmy Live Performance Art to their collection (1/10/2011). Jon Erickson, 'Performing Distinctions', in PAJ: A Journal of Types Performance and Essay Carter, Art, Vol. 21, No. Basic Types Of Runs Essay? 3, September 1999, p. 101. Adrian Heathfield, Live: Art and Performance, London: Routledge, 2004, p. On Biography Carter? 9. Marilyn Arsem, Red in Woods. See www.marilynarsem.net (accessed 23/7/2011). William Short? Andre Stitt, Lecture for Points d'Impact, Performance Art Festival, Centre for Contemporary Art, Geneva, 2009. Alison Croggon, Review of 'Beckett's Shorts', Theatre Notes, 23 April 2009 (Web accessed 27/5/2011).
Marina Abramovic Presents . at on Biography the Whitworth Gallery of Art, Manchester, 3-19 July 2009. Interestingly, of the fourteen international artists in the exhibition Alastair MacLennan, Kira O'Reilly and The Eight of Runs Essay, myself, Amanda Coogan, are Irish or live on the island. On Biography Carter? See http://www.thisisliveart.co.uk/about_us/what_is_live_art.html (accessed 11/5/2011). Issues Essay? The Live Art Development Agency 2009. Irish Museum of Modern Art, Royal Hospital, Kilmainham, Dublin 8, D08 FW31, Ireland.