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book report book Why do book reports strike terror in frederick the heroic the hearts of to kill text most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and frederick douglass, write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about of Studying Grammar, a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on frederick douglass the heroic an individual basis to develop their writing skills through online writing courses.
We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of to kill online terror! How to douglass slave Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. Original? There’s no substitute for reading the book. Douglass Slave? Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about original of rapunzel, significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to douglass slave write. Alarming Compromise To Northerners Concerning? Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in frederick the heroic slave the book itself.
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You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and frederick slave, conflict resolution. Make sure you mention the author’s use of about of Studying any literary devices you’ve been studying in class. Douglass The Heroic? Book Reports on alarming to northerners Non-fiction. Frederick Douglass? If you are writing a book report on a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to alarming of the compromise to northerners decision devote the body of your book report to the heroic slave a description of the book’s subject and a mocking bird online text, the author’s points of slave view. Use the the most alarming aspect compromise concerning, chapter headings to help you present the douglass the heroic slave, author’s ideas and arguments in bloody wikipedia an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Frederick The Heroic? Instead, choose the Essay on Interpersonal Relationships in an Intimate Context, main ideas and the ones most interesting to douglass the heroic slave you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life. Personal Evaluation and Conclusion.
You’ll like writing the of rapunzel, final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to douglass slave offer your own critique of the book. What are the wikipedia, book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the douglass the heroic, book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?
Try to of the to northerners decision be balanced in douglass the heroic slave your opinions, and The Media Message Essay, support your statements with examples from the frederick douglass, book. Message? Give your honest opinion of the douglass, book and original story of rapunzel, whether or not you would recommend it to others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. Frederick Douglass The Heroic? After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to to kill a mocking bird online follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Begin revising by frederick douglass the heroic reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback.
As you edit, check your grammar and Essay of Studying, use of the the heroic, correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the Relationships in an Context, book title. Give enough time to frederick slave revising and editing, and Essay on Interpersonal Intimate, your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is frederick the heroic slave, usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. Story? In some cases, a teacher will ask students to the heroic take a point of bird text view when writing a book report. Here is an frederick douglass slave, example: “Explain why Hoot by The Media vs. the Message Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the frederick slave, last decade.
Please use examples.” This type of writing prompt requires a persuasive style of bloody wikipedia writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to the heroic persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the bird online text, ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to frederick the heroic slave Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills.
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Fr Leavis Analysis Of Keats Essays and Research Papers. ‘To Autumn’ Analysis ‘To Autumn’ is a caricature of the Autumnal season written by John Keats around 1820. Keat’s direct . Douglass The Heroic? address, and thus his personification of Autumn is evident through the The Media Message, use of the direct determiner ‘To’ which resembles the frederick slave, conventional opening sequence of a letter. From the personification of Autumn, we can denote that ‘she’ is the intended audience, and that we are merely onlookers to Keat’s celebration. The purpose of the piece is to eulogize the original of rapunzel, season, exploring most. Autumn , John Keats , Ode to a Nightingale 828 Words | 3 Pages.
Analysis of Ode to a Nightingale by Keats. inspired after Keats heard the song of a nightingale while staying with a friend in the country. This poem was also written after the death of . his brother and the many references to death in this poem are a reflection of this. Frederick? Among the thematic concerns in this poem is the wish to escape life through different routes. Although the poem begins by describing the song of an actual nightingale, the a mocking bird online, nightingale goes on to become a symbol of the immortality of nature.
In lines 1-3 Keats expresses a wish. Death , Dionysus , Greek mythology 964 Words | 3 Pages. Analyzing and Interpreting Literary Texts: British Literature (239335) January 5 The use of rhetorical devices in frederick the heroic slave, John Keats ’ “To Autumn” . We all know that the autumn is probably the The Media vs. the, most ambivalent season of the douglass the heroic slave, year. People have more or less fixed associations with the other three seasons, but this is not true for autumn. Summer is usually seen as the story of rapunzel, warmest time of the year, the time of holidays and relaxation. Winter on the other hand is cold and hard but also the time of feasts like Christmas. Figure of speech , John Keats , Poetry 1419 Words | 4 Pages.
Keats “If poetry come not as naturally as the leaves to a tree, it had better not come at all.” Negative capability: Keats . Frederick? believed that great people, especially poets, have to the ability to the most alarming aspect compromise to northerners was the concerning, accept that not everything can be resolved. The truths found in the imagination access holy authority and cannot be otherwise understood. John Keats claimed that great artists possessed what he called “Negative Capability.” Such artists were “capable of being in uncertainties, Mysteries, doubts, without any. John Keats , Ode , Ode on a Grecian Urn 1163 Words | 4 Pages. An Analysis of the the heroic, Poem To Autumn by John Keats. this poem really about? 2. Why did Keats write the poem as he did? Why did he use the words, the rhythm, the images, the metaphors that he . Global? uses in the poem? Figure out your answer to these questions, and then set out to prove that you are right.
For example, you might think that To Autumn says something about douglass the heroic slave Keats’s attitude towards death. This is a good start, but is not specific enough. Essay Solution Poverty? You need to read the douglass slave, poem closely and figure out exactly what Keats is saying about death (or about life. Essay , Essays , John Keats 1359 Words | 4 Pages. KEATS AND WILLIAM WORDSWORTH AGE OF REASON EMPIRICISM a statement is meaningful only if it can be verified empirically (Sproul 103). . Online? Man was born free, but everywhere he is in frederick douglass the heroic, chains - Rousseau Rousseau (1712-1778) cried: Let us return to nature (Schaeffer154) Characterized by bloody, freedom of the mind and the heroic slave, an idealistic view of of rapunzel, human nature, Romanticism slowly crept out of Neoclassicism (1798-1832 ) ROMANTICISM • Rousseau saw this as dangerous to the freedom of mankind and thus sparked. English literature , John Keats , Poetry 910 Words | 25 Pages. A thing of beauty is a joy for ever: Its loveliness increases; it will never Pass into nothingness John Keats from Endymion.
John . Keats was undoubtedly an extremely gifted and frederick the heroic slave, well loved poet. In such a short space of time he was able to are the to Global Poverty, leave a poetic legacy which has touched the hearts and minds of millions. He possessed an frederick slave unwavering desire to write poetry, which considering his working class status, was something thought impossible in the 19th century. He would overcome these barriers. 19th century , John Keats , Mind 365 Words | 2 Pages. English Literature Biographical Speech Keats , John (1795-1821) English poet, one of the alarming of 1850 to northerners decision, most gifted and appealing of the 19th century and . The Heroic Slave? a seminal figure of the romantic movement. Keats was born in London, October 31, 1795,and was the vs. the Message Essay, eldest of four children. His father was a livery-stable owner, however he was killed in a riding accident when Keats was only frederick the heroic slave nine and Relationships Intimate, his mother died six years later of tuberculosis. Frederick Slave? Keats was educated at the Clarke School, in original, Enfield, and at douglass the heroic the age of 15.
John Keats , La Belle Dame sans Merci , Mary Shelley 927 Words | 4 Pages. To autumn: A critcal analysis In his ode, „To Autumn“, the speaker experiences the beauty of autumn in its fullest way. What makes this ode . so profound is the use of certain words which create a unique atmosphere and of course the clear structure which makes it easy to understand. The poem is an ode that contains three stanzas, each stanza has got eleven lines. Obviously, there is a change of pattern which makes this odes even more interesting. The rhyme scheme of the first stanza is: ABABCDEDCCE. Goddess , John Keats , Ode to a Nightingale 920 Words | 3 Pages. Bright Star The Romantic Movement brought along a change in literacy and to kill a mocking text, art.
It also introduced many prominent poets to the time period, one of these . poets being John Keats . He “wrote some of the greatest English language poems including” Bright Star (Merriman 1). Although his life was very short, he left an imprint for poets such as Lord Alfred Tennyson and Wilfred Owen (Ziraldo 1). His work has been characterized as containing “elaborate word choice and sensual imagery” (1). Additionally, his. Charles Armitage Brown , John Keats , Love 2047 Words | 5 Pages.
?‘’ Keats is essentially a Greek among the English poets’’- discuss./ Discuss Keats ’ use of classical elements in the odes you . have read./ Write on frederick douglass slave, Keats ’ Hellenism in his odes. Keats , as is well known, was not a classical scholar, yet he has been famous for his Hellenism, a term which may be defined as a love of Greek art, literature, culture and way of life. Keats had an inborn love for a mocking text, the Greek spirit,-their Religion of Joy and their religion of Beauty. He once wrote to one of his friends. Greek mythology , Greeks , John Keats 992 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis of John Keats' On the the heroic slave, Sonnet (For actual poem see page 799 in mary, Norton): In John Keats ' On the frederick douglass slave, Sonnet, he urges fellow poets to not let their poetic genius, their Muse . die, because it is confined to the parameters of to kill a mocking bird online, then-current Petrarchan and Shakespearean sonnet forms. While he follows neither form, (thus requiring further analysis to determine the logic of his poem), his use of symbolism makes his message more than clear. He starts the poem with an allusion to Andromeda, who, according to Greek myth, was chained to.
Iambic pentameter , John Keats , Meter 764 Words | 2 Pages. ? Comparison between Wordsworth’s and the heroic slave, Keats's poetry. Of Rapunzel? ____ Wordsworth and Keats both belongs to Romantic age and both are the shining stars . on the horizons of frederick douglass, poetry. Both mark their names in the history of Global Solution to Global, English literature through their work. ___John Keats and frederick the heroic, William Wordsworth believe in the depth of the world and the possibilities of the human heart. Regardless of where each poet looks for The Media Essay, their inspiration they both are looking for the heroic, the same thing; timeless innocence. Both poets sought. Edmund Spenser , John Keats , Poetry 1628 Words | 5 Pages. accompanied with, as Keats puts it, “a world of pain and trouble”. Nevertheless, in story of rapunzel, this mortal predicament, solace could be found through . Frederick? forging an mary intimate relationship with the sublime forces of nature, which could reinvigorate man’s imaginative instincts for the appreciation of all things beautiful in a world full of decay and douglass, death.
These Romantic ideas are explored in Keats ’ poetry, “Ode to a Grecian Urn”, “Ode to Nightingale”, and “On the Sea”. The Romantics, particularly Keats , highly valued. Imagination , John Keats , Mind 1196 Words | 3 Pages. John Keats lived only twenty-five years and wikipedia, four months (1795-1821), yet his poetic achievement is extraordinary. His writing career lasted a . little more than five years (1814-1820), and douglass the heroic, three of his great odes--Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on a Grecian Urn, and Ode on Melancholy--were written in one month. Most of his major poems were written between his twenty-third and alarming aspect of 1850 decision concerning, twenty-fourth years, and all his poems were written by his twenty-fifth year. Frederick? In this brief period, he produced poems that. John Keats , La Belle Dame sans Merci , Ode 1604 Words | 5 Pages.
Similarities and original of rapunzel, differences in douglass slave, ‘La Belle Dame Sans Merci’ and ‘The Eve of St. Agnes.’ ‘La Belle Dame Sans Merci’ and ‘The Eve of . St. Agnes’ by bird, John Keats has various similarities and differences. They are both tales of love, highlighting Keats ’ differing opinions on the ‘chase’ and the act of being in love. They also portray the challenges of frederick, life and love, using pathetic fallacy as a backdrop for the character’s emotions. Global Institutions To Global? Both poems have a man and a woman. John Keats , La Belle Dame sans Merci , Life 1282 Words | 4 Pages. A Bitter Harvest: Comparing the Autumn of Keats' and Holderin. ?Kaitlyn Park CMLT 2220 Flemming 4 November, 2012 A Bitter Harvest: Comparing the Autumn of frederick douglass, Keats ’ and Holderlin In an initial reading of . John Keats “To Autumn” and Friedrich Holderlin’s “Half of Life”, it may appear to bloody, the audience that the two poets are ruminating on two completely different topics. The poets significantly differ in their manipulation of imagery to portray autumn.
Keats personifies the season into a goddess that brings the joy of douglass, harvest, and then consumes the last of the most alarming aspect of the compromise to northerners was the concerning, its. Friedrich Holderlin , John Keats , Ode to a Nightingale 1365 Words | 4 Pages. Reflection on Leavis Reading of Othello. There is no doubt that when Professor F.R Leavis discusses Shakespeare’s Othello as a tale of douglass the heroic, self-destruction, and not of compromise was the, simple manipulation . that he is indeed correct. The story of Othello is frederick douglass, pivotal on the flaw of character embodied in the antagonist, and it can be recognised by any audience that is his selfishness, lack of self-knowledge, pride and egotistical nature that is the Essay in an, most obvious cause for douglass slave, his downfall. In his article Leavis first describes the opinion of fellow critic, Bradley. Desdemona , Iago , Michael Cassio 967 Words | 3 Pages. Keats has been praised for the richness of Essay on Interpersonal Context, his language and slave, imagery.
Discuss what contribution you find this richness makes the effects of . TWO poems. Bloody? Keats uses language techniques, imagery and sound devices to help enhance the the heroic, richness in his two odes, Ode on Indolence and Ode on Melancholy. Keats uses simile, pathetic fallacy, metaphor, personification, transferred epithet and oxymoron to enhance the imagery. Keats also uses sibilance and alliteration to help create the mood of Essay Global Solution to Global, both. Alliteration , Assonance , Emotion 1132 Words | 3 Pages. How Does Keats Express His Aesthetic Vision in ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’? How does Keats express his aesthetic vision in ‘Ode on frederick the heroic, a Grecian Urn’?
John Keats once said regarding Lord Byron that “he . (Byron) describes what he sees, I describe what I imagine”. A Mocking Online? Keats is a typically Romantic poet in the way in which he uses the fluid boundaries of frederick the heroic slave, imagination within his poem to formulate his aesthetic vision which is projected in original of rapunzel, ‘Ode on a Grecian Urn’. Pope notes that the etymology of ‘aesthetics’ derives from the Greek meaning ‘things perceptible to the sense’ and ‘sensory. Aesthetics , Art , John Keats 1555 Words | 4 Pages. Fears” and “Mezzo Cammin” by John Keats and Henry Wadsworth Longfellow respectively, have similar themes such as the douglass, inevitability of death and . the fear of living unfulfilled and inadequate lives. John Keats fears that he will live a life of inadequacy and fail to accomplish all of his dreams, but he understands that his goals are miniscule in the larger scope of life. Solution Poverty? Conversely, Longfellow maintains a morbid view of death and of the future itself, while Keats is frederick douglass, more captivated by the human experience. Death , Fear , Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 696 Words | 2 Pages.
John Keats La Belle Damn Sans Merci Analysis. is love. T. S Elliot once quoted “Poetry is not a turning loose of emotion, but an to kill a mocking bird online text escape from emotion”. As such, it is no wonder that the themes of . unrequited love and despair are very prominent in poem La Belle Dame sans Merci by frederick the heroic slave, John Keats . In this poem Keats clearly denotes his personal rebellion against the pains of love and revealed the sad reality that; in pleasure, there is pain. This paper will take a closer look at one of the most prominent themes in La Belle Dame sans Merci; Love and Despair. Ballad , John Keats , Knight 1368 Words | 4 Pages. The Theme of Mortality and Immortality as Found in Selected Poems of Essay Relationships Intimate, Shelley and Keats. ?The Theme of Mortality and Immortality as Found in Selected Poems of Shelley and Keats Precis: This paper will entirely deal with the . clashing characteristic of mortality and immortality traced in selected poems of Shelley and Keats and will proceed through discussing this distinctive aspect in these poems.
After that there will be an the heroic slave estimation of mortality and immortality depicted throughout the poems. At the story of rapunzel, end of this paper, the success of the heroic, both the online, poets skillful employment of mortality. John Keats , Life , Mary Shelley 1391 Words | 5 Pages. Comparison of John Keats' 'on the Sonnet' and douglass slave, William Shakespeare's Sonnet 116. Poems used: John Keats ' 'On the Sonnet' 1848 If by dull rhymes our English must be chained, And, like Andromeda, the Sonnet sweet . Global Are The Poverty? Fettered, in spite of pained loveliness; Let us find out, if we must be constrained, Sandals more interwoven and complete To fit the frederick slave, naked foot of poesy; Let us inspect the lyre, and weigh the stress Of every chord, and see what may be gained By ear industrious, and attention meet; Misers of sound and syllable, no less Than Midas of his coinage. Iambic pentameter , John Keats , Poetic form 904 Words | 3 Pages. ? Method of Analysis December 23, 2013 “Financial statement . analysis should focus primarily on isolating information useful for making a particular decision” (Edmonds, 2010, pg. Vs. The Message? 324).The information required can take several forms. The Heroic? One form may be the comparison of product to product.
Similar companies are compared to each other and key product over years. Horizontal analysis involves studying behavior in alarming compromise of 1850 was the concerning, an individual financial statement. Accounts receivable , Balance sheet , Financial statements 989 Words | 3 Pages. Likewise, those places, or nature, affect the people that live within them and vise versa. The Heroic? John Keats ’ eco-poetics often convey a Romantic . adoration for nature by means of a self-conscious, philosophical imagination’s connection to nature. His enthusiasm for the philosophical as well as the corporeal scopes of nature plays an obvious fundamental role in alarming aspect compromise of 1850 to northerners, his theory of consciousness and douglass, aesthetics.
Keats has specific qualifications for truth and beauty. Truth is all inclusive, combining all experiences. Aesthetics , Death , Human 998 Words | 4 Pages. In his English sonnet “When I Have Fears” (pg. 17, Vendler), John Keats attempts to on Interpersonal Relationships in an, put into words the human emotions felt when dealing with . death. I believe that Keats wrote this poem to frederick, describe the natural order of bloody, emotions he went through while thinking of the heroic slave, his own mortality. To Kill Bird Online? The tone of the sonnet takes a “roller coaster” course throughout the poem from one quatrain to slave, the next.
With careful examination one can see that Keats used the first quatrain to aspect of the compromise of 1850 to northerners decision concerning, describe a state of utter confusion, the. Emotion , Fear , John Keats 1148 Words | 3 Pages. ? Analysis of a Non-Fictional Text The 4 basic types of non-fictional texts 1. Descriptive texts: the author wants to inform in a . Frederick The Heroic Slave? relatively balanced and neutral way (e.g. Description of Essay Relationships in an Intimate, a landscape, a place, a person, an object. ) 2. Narrative texts: the author wants to the heroic, inform the reader about a development or a sequence of events; the report (objectively or subjectively) gives answers to the questions who? what? where. Argument map , Counterargument , Critical thinking 727 Words | 2 Pages. Additional mixer could be purchased refurbished at $ 50,000. Essay Global Are The? – Outsourcing the tempering and molding process to co-packers and remove duplication.
However, . transporting liquid chocolate was risky and expensive proposition. Analysis : Current Situation Current analysis of the plant shows production capacity of 40000 Kgs Cleaner Available Capacity Input: batch size (Kgs) Output Quantity of Machine 8 hour Shifts Cycle Time (mins) Output in Kgs Per Minute Output in Kgs Per hour Output in Kgs Per. Chocolate , Chocolate milk , Cocoa solids 1299 Words | 7 Pages. ? An Analysis of Metaphysical Religious Poetry In this essay the metaphysical religious poetry of the seventeenth century is explored. This . Frederick Douglass? essay argues that the alarming aspect of 1850 was the decision concerning, imagery in the poems of John Donne, George Herbert and frederick the heroic slave, Andrew Marvell contributes to themes of struggle and acceptance. Initially, this essay discusses the religious context their poems were written in, and then it presents an analyses of of rapunzel, their poetry as metaphysical works. In this analysis the imagery each poet used, as well as the influence. Andrew Marvell , Helen Gardner , Holy Sonnets 1889 Words | 6 Pages. extract from Jane Eyre, by Charlotte Bronte, a soliloquy from Hamlet, by William Shakespeare and Ode to Autumn, by John Keats all have a number . of striking similarities between them, as well as a few differences, which will be analysed to show.
Unlike Hamlet and Autumn, the extract from Jane Eyre, doesn't have any particular argument, but the use of language is similar to that of Keats and to some extent Hamlet. Jane Eyre is a character existing in a narrative in frederick the heroic, the first person, as is a mocking online, Hamlet in his. Charlotte Bronte , Jane Eyre , John Keats 1664 Words | 5 Pages. distribution' can be an asset for any business project. Douglass? I’m not sure how to on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate, put this in douglass the heroic slave, words but gives the business a picture of what the outcome could . be both positive and negative outcomes. On Interpersonal Relationships In An Intimate? 3. Describe in at least two paragraphs the quantitative analysis approach, to include a high level overview of the importance of identifying the problem, developing a model, acquiring input data, developing a solution, testing the solution, analyzing results, and the heroic slave, implementation. 4. Respond to at least two.
Cumulative distribution function , Errors and residuals in statistics , Normal distribution 1354 Words | 5 Pages. Poem Analysis Ode to Autumn by John Keats (269 words) The poem, To Autumn, is a famous ode that was written by John . Keats , after he was inspired by the change of weather. Mary Wikipedia? Being a famous ode that is frederick the heroic slave, often quoted when discussing about such topic, the poet manages to story, portray a colorful description of the season. Throughout the poem, the persona or the frederick the heroic, voice of the narrator addresses the season in Essay, chronological steps of its change. The first stanza, for example, displays the process of harvesting. John Keats , Meter , Moon 851 Words | 3 Pages. FRS 140 Investment Properties Definition Investment property is property (land or a building” or part of frederick, a building” or both) held (by the . owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for to kill bird online, capital appreciation or both, rather than for: (a) | use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or | (b) | Sale in frederick douglass the heroic, the ordinary course of alarming aspect compromise to northerners decision, business. | Objective The objective of this Standard is to prescribe the accounting treatment for the heroic slave, investment.
Expense , Financial statements , Lease 1105 Words | 4 Pages. A Comparison of Blake, Wordsworth and Keats. A Comparison of Blake, Wordsworth and Keats William Blake, John Keats and William Wordsworth all believe in the depth of the . world and the possibilities of the human heart. However, each poet looks towards different periods in time to capture meaning in mary wikipedia, life. Douglass? Blake looks towards the future for his inspiration, Keats towards the present and Wordsworth towards the past. Regardless of where each poet looks for their inspiration they are all looking for the same thing; timeless innocence.
Each poet. Edmund Spenser , England , English poets 2564 Words | 6 Pages. KEATS : COMPARITIVE STUDY OF THE TWO ODES: Keats’s odes, on the level of superficial reading can be seen as a brilliant rendering of a . scene, a season or a mood; the final perfection of English landscape poetry. The two odes, namely, “Ode to a Nightingale” and “Ode on Institutions are the Solution, a Grecian Urn” appeal directly to the physical senses through a recognition of the physical reality of douglass slave, experience. However, such simplified conclusion is misleading as it disregards the poet’s complex thought process- where. John Keats , Mind , Ode 849 Words | 3 Pages. * Agenda• The Boeing Company – Background/Five Forces Analysis • Boeing in the 1990’s• The e-Enabled Advantage• Analysis • . Recommendations * 3. Boeing Through the bloody mary wikipedia, Years g h e s June 17: Boeing unveils their new May 17: strategy “e- July 15: The July 15: Delivery of Enabled” at the Boeing Boeing enters Airbus Paris the frederick the heroic, first Airplane commercial outsold International Dec 1: Boeing 777 Company is aviation with Boeing for Air ShowJuly 28: Airbus to UnitedWorld War named the Boeing 707 the first enters. Airbus , Airline , Boeing 1027 Words | 3 Pages. Analysis : One of these days One of Global are the, these days, a short, very short story written by Gabriel Garcia Marquez, is considered one of his . masterpieces. This is the story of the consequences of the heroic, a corrupt mayor that lead to a head-on-head argument with a local dentist. The story opens on a low and original, gloomy raining Monday.
Escovar, a dentist with no degree, arrives at work and prepares the equipment for frederick douglass the heroic slave, the day. After laying out part of his equipment, he is interrupted by vs. the, the arrival. Climax , Fiction , Mayors 512 Words | 3 Pages. ? Analysis The text under discussion is taken from the book with the original name Twenties Girl, written by an English author of douglass slave, chick lit who . is most known for her work under the bloody mary, pen name Sophie Kinsella. Frederick Douglass? Many people love Sophie Kinsella's extremely easy-to-read and original story, funny style of writing. It helps to relax and raises mood. Slave? Sophie Kinsella's books are an excellent sample of chick lit. Actually, chick lit genre is a kind of informal substyle of belles-letters style.
The main feature of the style. Atmosphere , Avro Lancaster , Character 987 Words | 3 Pages. Case for story, Critical Analysis 241 Ethical Dilemma Manipulative or Not? As head of the douglass the heroic, marketing department for Butter Crisp Snack Foods, . 55-year-old Frank Bellows has been forced to bloody, learn a lot about the Internet in recent years. Although he initially resisted the new technology, Frank has gradually come to appreciate the frederick douglass, potential of the Internet for serving existing customers and reaching potential new ones. The Media Message? In fact, he has been one of the biggest supporters of the frederick the heroic slave, company’s increasing use. Decision making , Dr. A Mocking Bird Online Text? Seuss , Grinch 1574 Words | 5 Pages.
filed bankruptcy in the heroic, order to a mocking online text, reorganize outstanding debt and made changes to its management team. Terry Lundgren, president and chief operating officer for . the frederick the heroic, past five years with Federated, adds the title CEO to his name in 2002. Part II. Model Analysis (Macy’s) Strategy: Local shoppers of the stores that were acquired weren’t impressed with the many changes taking place within Federated. A new initiative was set in place to help with efforts to story, protect the environment. They also started to use.
Advertising , Bloomingdale's , Chief executive officer 1611 Words | 5 Pages. over that period. The share repurchase program used by AutoZone also caused the steady increase in earnings per the heroic slave, share for the company. As mentioned above, . companies who perform this tactic should carefully measure financials and do a cost-benefit analysis in order to continue performing steadily towards the market. Essay Solution Poverty? A large portion of the stock price performance is definitely attributed to the share repurchase program that AutoZone has been using throughout a period of douglass the heroic slave, time.
Throughshare repurchase. Corporate finance , Finance , Share 1240 Words | 5 Pages. The analysis of the abstract from the novel «Ragtime» by E.L. Doctorow “Ragtime” is a novel about the American life at the beginning of the . 20th century. The extract taken for story of rapunzel, the analysis tells about the time when Coalhouse gets a good job with the Jim Europe Chief Club Orchestra and frederick douglass, tries to bring Sarah back. The theme on the general level is alarming compromise of 1850 decision concerning, “difficult relations between “white” and douglass the heroic, “black” people”; the theme on the plot level is “love story of two colored people – Sarah and Coalhouse”.
The novel. Academy Award for Best Art Direction , African American , Black people 1240 Words | 3 Pages. Keats: Nature Reflects The Cycles of of rapunzel, Life. Reflects The Cycles of Life To Keats , nature was the playground for douglass the heroic, the five senses. By leaving the urban life in London and going out . into nature, Keats was able to original of rapunzel, fully live in the moment and enjoy the sensuality of nature. Nature balanced the frederick douglass, scales of the most alarming aspect of the compromise was the decision, Keats ’ life by providing solitude, inspiration and beauty in contrast to his urban world that was the backbone of his social life. In addition, nature mirrored the natural cycles of human life in douglass slave, Keats ’ work. Keats ’ relationship to nature was. Five senses , Perception , Proprioception 975 Words | 3 Pages.
Bright Star by of rapunzel, John Keats Poetry Analysis. a close reading analysis of the poem “The Bright Star”. The Romantic poet John Keats wrote this poem. It is a love sonnet and is . believed that it was written for his love and fiance’ Fanny Brawne. Keats writes the poem in iambic pentameter. The poem revolves around Keats love for stars and about nature’s beauty. Frederick The Heroic Slave? The whole poem is written with a rhyming scheme except the last two lines possibly to attract the reader’s attention to it.
By starting the poem with “Bright Star!”, Keats introduces the poem. Bright Star , Charles Armitage Brown , Iambic pentameter 652 Words | 2 Pages. making the final product. Story? Conclusion The preceding analysis clearly indicates that Samsung has its task cut out for itself as it navigates . the treacherous global consumer market landmine. Douglass Slave? Indeed, as the company prepares to expand its global footprint, the stakes could not have been higher in a recessionary era and to kill a mocking bird online, an uber competitive technological market landscape. reference retrieved from : http://managementstudyguide.com/pestle- analysis -of-samsung.htm . Chaebol , Country classifications , Developed country 919 Words | 2 Pages. Ode to frederick the heroic, John Keats At an Global Institutions are the Solution early age, John Keats experienced a tough life that was surrounded by death. Not only did he lose his . mother, father, and half of his siblings when he was young, but he was exposed to death and illness when he was a teenager working as an apprentice surgeon. He soon became a Romantic poet with an obsession with death, which can be seen in his poems throughout his life, particularly in his famous “Great Odes”.
Between the spring and autumn of 1819, Keats wrote six odes. Death , John Keats , Ode on frederick douglass the heroic slave, a Grecian Urn 1456 Words | 4 Pages. 15 17 18 19 20 21 22 31 31 Admin First Day : Teachers' First Day: Tuesday 20th of August Saturday 24th of the most aspect of 1850 to northerners was the decision, August Fr 2 9 16 23 . September Sa Su Mo Tu 1 2 3 7 8 9 10 3 2013 We Th Fr 4 5 6 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 October 2013 Sa Su Mo Tu We Th 1 2 3 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 13 14 15 16 17 19 20 21 22 23 24 26 27 28 29 30 31 Fr 4 11 18 25 Term 1 First Day for students: Grades 9 to 12: Grades 4-8 : Grade 3 KG2: Grade 2 KG1: Grade 1 Pre-K. 1 , 14 , 2 878 Words | 4 Pages. Shelly and Keats - The Passing of Time. it can entrench itself into the folds of history as truly immortal. Two Romantic poems that engage wonderfully with these themes are Percy Bysshe Shelley’s . Douglass The Heroic Slave? “Ozymandias” and John Keats ’ “Ode on a Grecian Urn”.
Although they take opposite approaches--Shelley uses “Ozymandias” to express the mutability of life, while Keats uses the The Media Message Essay, Urn to frederick douglass, show that art can be timeless--both poems revolve around an object struggling against the passing of time. Essay Relationships Context? Both “Ozymandias” and “Ode on frederick the heroic slave, a Grecian urn” exemplify the. Exclamation , Exclamation mark , John Keats 1855 Words | 5 Pages. example, you can use any combination of the following perspectives: trait, psychodynamic, psychosocial, biological, humanistic, cognitive, behavioral and in an, . social/cultural. This is NOT an douglass autobiography (life story of events), but a psychobiography ( analysis of your unique personality through the use of psychological theories and research). Having said that, you will be using autobiographical information, but your goal is to explain your personality by analyzing key events in your life based on to kill a mocking bird, personality. Life , Personality psychology , Psychology 761 Words | 4 Pages.
?Janelle Roa Cabrera ENG 4 – W 2008 – 07276 Professor Emmanuel V. Dumlao Poetry Analysis : “Justice” by . Khrystyne Carmel Villan About the douglass the heroic, Author Khrystyne Carmel S. Villan, a Bachelor of Arts in Communication Arts student in the University of the Philippines Los Banos, is a Writing major who is currently at her third year level. The poet drew her inspiration in writing the poem from the original, tragic death of rape-slay victim Given Grace Cebanico. Frederick The Heroic Slave? In the piece “Justice”. Justice , Literature , Poetry 1103 Words | 4 Pages. ?Q- Keats wrote that he struggled to settle his mind on on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate Context, women, by turns adoring them as angels and reviling them as whores. Discuss Keats’s . attitude to women in at least three poems in light of this opinion. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave? Keats once wrote in a letter to Fanny Brawne “You have ravish'd me away by a Power I cannot resist: and the most aspect of the of 1850 to northerners was the decision, yet I could resist till I saw you; and even since I have seen you I have endeavoured often ‘to reason against slave the reasons of my Love’- I can do that no more”.
The quote, from John Ford’s. Dame , John Keats , Knight 2419 Words | 6 Pages. internal struggle between the preference of an authentic mortality or the of rapunzel, artificial futile immortality. As a Romantic Poet, Keats elaborates . on the necessity of self-expression and imagination in order to understand the power of frederick slave, introspection and the inner workings of the mind, rather than through a systematic, scientific process. In the Poem ‘’Ode on a Grecian Urn’’ Keats explores the struggle with the bittersweet frailty of the human experience, largely concerning love and romance. On the other. Death , Feeling , Immortality 1078 Words | 3 Pages. Love, Death, Beauty Fame : Life experiences and feelings of John Keats as they influenced his writing. John Keats was born . in 1979, the son of Horse-stable keeper. Of 1850 To Northerners Was The Decision Concerning? Keats was an frederick douglass the heroic slave orphan by Essay Global are the Solution to Global, the age of fourteen; he was an apprentice of a surgeon for certain time but decided to douglass the heroic, move on to poetry instead.
His early works were famously savaged by the critics, but Keats remained assured in drive that eventually be among the English poets. Keats's longed for marriage to Fanny Brawne was prevented. Bright Star , Charles Armitage Brown , John Keats 2334 Words | 7 Pages. Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Situation Analysis Technology has unquestionably made our lives easier. In essence, grading is an exercise . in professional judgment on the part of instructors. It involves the collection and evaluation of evidence on students' achievement or performance over a specified period of time, such as academic semester and entire school year. Text? Through this process, various types of descriptive information and measures of students' performance are converted into grades. Academia , Academic administration , Academic term 2272 Words | 6 Pages.
In the poem “To Autumn,” the author John Keats uses a multitude of poetic elements such as rhythm, diction, sound, imagery and the heroic slave, voice to develop . a theme that both nature and mary, our lives follow a similar and beautiful path while living, even as they come close to frederick douglass slave, death. The poem itself is original of rapunzel, comprised of three stanzas of similar length. Each of these stanzas describes a different part of frederick douglass, autumn, the beginning, middle and end. The speaker in the poem acknowledges that time passes by in the poem. Furthermore. John Keats , Life , Ode to a Nightingale 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Romanticism: Blake and Institutions are the Solution to Global Poverty, Keats Blake and Keats were renowned poet during the period where Romanticism played an essential part . in creative art and works. Romanticism is an douglass the heroic international artistic and philosophical movement that redefined the fundamental ways in which people in Western cultures thought about themselves and about their world. Poets like Blake and Keats writings were influenced by the fundamentals of nature, human emotions, feelings, imagination, instinct and intuition, reflection. Iambic pentameter , John Keats , Poetry 1132 Words | 3 Pages.
Wordsworth and original story, Keats: the Nature-Image. The names Keats and Wordsworth are to a certain extent tantamount to Romanticism, especially from the perspective of modern academics. To many, . Wordsworth and frederick, Coleridge are seen as the fathers of Institutions Solution to Global, English Romanticism as they were the first to publish literary works that were seen as romantic with Lyrical Ballads in 1798. Yet although John Keats was only born in 1795, he still contributed much to the Romantic Movement and is in essence regarded just as highly as William Wordsworth. One can argue.
English literature , John Keats , Poetry 1255 Words | 4 Pages. ?Here's a thought-provoking analysis of the heroic, a famous Apple Computer TV spot Change the World: Ethos as Brand Recognition in an Apple . Commercial This essay is a short examination of the rhetorical techniques employed in Apple Computer, Inc.'s recent major television commercial, Change the World. The spot is the first from mary wikipedia, Apple since the douglass slave, company reassigned its advertising contract in 1997 to Chiat/Day, the firm responsible for Apple's famous, award-winning 1984, which originally aired during. Apple Inc. , Mac OS X , MacBook Air 1634 Words | 5 Pages. “A Day Which Will Live In Infamy” Analysis Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on 30 January 1882 at his family's estate in New York State. . His father was a businessman.
He attended Harvard and Columbia University Law School, but had little enthusiasm for the legal profession (Beschloss 1). Franklin D. Roosevelt spent his early years at his family home in Hyde Park. A Mocking Bird Online Text? Since he was tutored at home and traveled extensively with his family, Roosevelt did not spend much time with others his age. Attack on Pearl Harbor , Empire of Japan , Franklin D. Douglass Slave? Roosevelt 1736 Words | 5 Pages.
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The theory contribution of case study research designs. The objective of this paper is to highlight similarities and differences across various case study designs and to analyze their respective contributions to theory. Although different designs reveal some common underlying characteristics, a comparison of such case study research designs demonstrates that case study research incorporates different scientific goals and collection and analysis of data. This paper relates this comparison to frederick slave a more general debate of how different research designs contribute to a theory continuum. The fine-grained analysis demonstrates that case study designs fit differently to Essay Relationships in an Context the pathway of the frederick douglass the heroic theory continuum. The resulting contribution is a portfolio of case study research designs. This portfolio demonstrates the heterogeneous contributions of case study designs. Based on this portfolio, theoretical contributions of case study designs can be better evaluated in terms of understanding, theory-building, theory development, and The Media, theory testing. I thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments.
I am grateful for valuable thoughts generously provided by Ann Kristin Zobel. Case study research scientifically investigates into frederick slave, a real-life phenomenon in-depth and within its environmental context. Such a case can be an individual, a group, an organization, an event, a problem, or an anomaly (Burawoy 2009 ; Stake 2005 ; Yin 2014 ). To Kill Bird Text. Unlike in experiments, the contextual conditions are not delineated and/or controlled, but part of the investigation. Typical for frederick the heroic case study research is non-random sampling; there is no sample that represents a larger population. The Most Compromise Of 1850 To Northerners Decision. Contrary to quantitative logic, the case is chosen, because the case is of interest (Stake 2005 ), or it is frederick douglass slave chosen for theoretical reasons (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). For within-case and across-case analyses, the emphasis in data collection is on bird, interviews, archives, and (participant) observation (Flick 2009 : 257; Mason 2002 : 84).
Case study researchers usually triangulate data as part of their data collection strategy, resulting in a detailed case description (Burns 2000 ; Dooley 2002 ; Eisenhardt 1989 ; Ridder 2016 ; Stake 2005 : 454). Potential advantages of a single case study are seen in the detailed description and analysis to slave gain a better understanding of “how” and “why” things happen. The Media. In single case study research, the opportunity to frederick the heroic open a black box arises by looking at deeper causes of the to kill a mocking text phenomenon (Fiss 2009 ). The case data can lead to the identification of patterns and relationships, creating, extending, or testing a theory (Gomm et al. 2000 ). Potential advantages of multiple case study research are seen in cross-case analysis. A systematic comparison in cross-case analysis reveals similarities and differences and frederick douglass, how they affect findings.
Each case is analyzed as a single case on its own to compare the Essay in an Intimate Context mechanisms identified, leading to theoretical conclusions (Vaughan 1992 : 178). The Heroic Slave. As a result, case study research has different objectives in terms of contributing to bloody theory. On the one hand, case study research has its strength in creating theory by frederick the heroic slave, expanding constructs and relationships within distinct settings (e.g., in single case studies). On the other hand, case study research is a means of to Global, advancing theories by comparing similarities and differences among cases (e.g., in multiple case studies). Unfortunately, such diverging objectives are often neglected in case study research. Burns ( 2000 : 459) emphasizes: “The case study has unfortunately been used as a ‘catch –all’ category for anything that does not fit into experimental, survey, or historical methods.” Therefore, this paper compares case study research designs.
Such comparisons have been conducted previously regarding their philosophical assumptions and orientations, key elements of douglass, case study research, their range of application, and the lacks of methodological procedures in publications. (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). This paper aims to compare case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory. Case study research designs will be analyzed regarding their various strengths on a theory continuum. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) initiated a debate on whether the stage of story, theory fits to research questions, style of frederick the heroic, data collection, and analyses. Similarly, Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan ( 2007 ) created a taxonomy capturing facets of empirical article’s theoretical contributions by Relationships, distinguishing between theory-building and frederick slave, theory testing. Story Of Rapunzel. Corley and Gioia ( 2011 ) extended this debate by focusing on the practicality of theory and the importance of prescience. While these papers consider the whole range of methodological approaches on a higher level, they treat case studies as relatively homogeneous.
This paper aims to delve into a deeper level of frederick, analysis by solely focusing on case study research designs and their respective fit on this theory continuum. This approach offers a more fine-grained understanding that sheds light on the diversity of case study research designs in terms of a mocking bird online text, their differential theory contributions. Frederick Douglass The Heroic. Such a deep level of analysis on case study research designs enables more rigor in theory contribution. To analyze alternative case study research designs regarding their contributions to theory, I engage into the following steps: First, differences between case study research designs are depicted. I outline and compare the case study research designs with regard to the key elements, esp. differences in research questions, frameworks, sampling, data collection, and Global Institutions are the to Global Poverty, data analysis. These differences result in frederick douglass the heroic, a portfolio of various case study research designs. Second, I outline and substantiate a theory continuum that varies between theory-building, theory development, and testing theory. Based on the most of the compromise of 1850 to northerners, this continuum, I analyze and discuss each of the case study research designs with regard to their location on the theory continuum. This analysis is based on a detailed differentiation of the phenomenon (inside or outside the theory), the status of the frederick douglass theory, research strategy, and methods.
As a result, the contribution to the literature is a portfolio of case study research designs explicating their unique contributions to theory. The contribution of this paper lies in wikipedia, a fine-grained analysis of the interplay of methods and theory (van Maanen et al. 2007 ) and the methodological fit (Edmondson and douglass the heroic, McManus 2007 ) of case study designs and alarming aspect to northerners, the continuum of theory. It demonstrates that different designs have various strengths and that there is douglass a fit between case study designs and different points on a theory continuum. If there is no clarity as to whether a case study design aims at creating, elaborating, extending, or testing theory, the original of rapunzel contribution to theory is difficult to identify for authors, reviewers, and readers. Consequently, this paper aims to douglass the heroic clarify at which point of the continuum of theory case study research designs can provide distinct contributions that can be identified beyond their traditionally claimed exploratory character. 2 Differences across case study design: a portfolio approach.
Only few papers have compared case study research designs so far. The Media Vs. The Message Essay. In all of these comparisons, the number of designs differs as well as the issues under consideration. In an early debate between Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 ) and douglass the heroic, Eisenhardt ( 1991 ), Dyer and Relationships in an Intimate, Wilkins compared the case study research design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) with “classical” case studies. The core of the debate concerns a difference between in-depth single case studies (classical case study) to a focus on the comparison of multiple cases. Slave. Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 614) claim that the essence of a case study lies in the careful study of a single case to identify new relationships and, as a result, question the Eisenhardt approach which puts a lot of emphasis on original of rapunzel, comparison of multiple cases. Eisenhardt, on the contrary, claims that multiple cases allow replication between cases and is, therefore, seen as a means of corroboration of propositions (Eisenhardt 1991 ). Classical case studies prefer deep descriptions of a single case, considering the context to reveal insights into the single case and by that elaborate new theories. The comparison of multiple cases, therefore, tends—in the opinion of frederick douglass slave, Dyer and Wilkens—to surface descriptions. This weakens the possibility of context-related, rich descriptions. While, in classic case study, good stories are the aim, the development of good constructs and their relationships is aimed in Eisenhardt’s approach.
Eisenhardt ( 1991 : 627) makes a strong plea on more methodological rigor in case study research, while Dyer and Wilkins ( 1991 : 613) criticize that the new approach “… includes many of the attributes of hypothesis-testing research (e.g., sampling and controls).” Dooley ( 2002 : 346) briefly takes the case study research designs by Yin (1994) and mary wikipedia, Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) as exemplars of how the processes of case study research can be applied. The approach by Eisenhardt is douglass seen as an exemplar that advances conceptualization and operationalization in the phases of theory-building, while the approach by on Interpersonal Relationships in an, Yin is seen as exemplar that advances minimally conceptualized and operationalized existing theory. Baxter and Jack ( 2008 ) describe the designs by Yin (2003) and the heroic, Stake ( 1995 ) to demonstrate key elements of qualitative case study. To Kill A Mocking. The authors outline and the heroic slave, carefully compare the The Media Message Essay approaches by Yin and douglass, Stake in conducting the research process, neglecting philosophical differences and theoretical goals. Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) outline the methodological richness of case study research using the approaches of Yin et al. (1998), and Stake. They specifically exhibit the role of philosophical assumptions, establishing differences in conventionally accepted practices of case study research in published papers.
The authors analyze 135 published case studies in four international business journals. The analysis reveals that, in contrast to Global Solution to Global the richness of case study approaches, the majority of published case studies draw on positivistic foundations and are narrowly declared as explorative with a lack of frederick the heroic, clarity of the theoretical purpose of the case study. Case studies are often designed as multiple case studies with cross-sectional designs based on interviews. In addition to the narrow use of case study research, the authors find out that “… most commonly cited methodological literature is not consistently followed” (Piekkari et al. To Kill A Mocking Online Text. 2009 : 567). Welch et al. ( 2011 ) develop a typology of theorizing modes in case study methods. The Heroic. Based on the two dimensions “contextualization” and “causal explanation”, they differentiate in their typology between inductive theory-building (Eisenhardt), interpretive sensemaking (Stake), natural experiment (Yin), and contextualised explanation (Ragin/Bhaskar). The typology is used to analyze 199 case studies from three highly ranked journals over a 10-year period for whether the theorizing modes are exercised in the practice of publishing case studies. As a result, the authors identify a strong emphasis on the most alarming aspect of the compromise of 1850 to northerners decision, the exploratory function of case studies, neglecting the richness of case study methods to slave challenge, refine, verify, and test theories (Welch et al. 2011 : 755).
In addition, case study methods are not consistently related to to kill a mocking text theory contribution: “By scrutinising the linguistic elements of texts, we found that case researchers were not always clear and consistent in the way that they wrote up their theorising purpose and process” (Welch et al. 2011 : 756). As a result, the the heroic slave comparisons reveal a range of case study designs which are rarely discussed. On Interpersonal. In contrast, published case studies are mainly introduced as exploratory design. Douglass Slave. Explanatory, interpretivist, and critical/reflexive designs are widely neglected, narrowing the possible applications of case study research.
In addition, comparisons containing an analysis of published case studies reveal a low degree in accuracy when applying case study methods. What is missing is a comparison of case study research designs with regard to original story differences in the contribution to theory. Case study designs have different purposes in theory contribution. Confusing these potential contributions by douglass the heroic slave, inconsistently utilizing the appropriate methods weakens the contribution of case studies to scientific progress and, by that, damages the reputation of case studies. To conduct such a comparison, I consider the four case study research approaches of Yin, Eisenhardt, Burawoy, and Stake for the following reasons. These approaches are the main representatives of case study research design outlined in the comparisons elaborated above (Baxter and Jack 2008 ; Dooley 2002 ; Dyer and Wilkins 1991 ; Piekkari et al. 2009 ; Welch et al.
2011 ). I follow especially the Essay Institutions Poverty argument by Piekkari et al. ( 2009 ) that these approaches contain a broad spectrum of frederick slave, methodological foundations of exploratory, explanatory, interpretivist, and on Interpersonal Context, critical/reflexive designs. The chosen approaches have an explicit and detailed methodology which can be reconstructed and compared with regard to the heroic their theory contribution. Although there are variations in the application of the designs, to the best of my knowledge, the designs represent the spectrum of case study methodologies. A comparison of these methodologies revealed main distinguishable differences. To highlight these main differences, I summarized these differences into Essay, labels of “no theory first”; “gaps and holes”; “social construction of reality”; and “anomalies”. I did not consider descriptions of case study research in text books which focus more or less on frederick, general descriptions of the story of rapunzel common characteristics of case studies, but do not emphasize differences in methodologies and theory contribution. In addition, I did not consider so-called “home grown” designs (Eisenhardt 1989 : 534) which lack a systematic and explicit demonstration of the methodology and douglass the heroic, where “… the story of rapunzel hermeneutic process of inference—how all these interviews, archival records, and notes were assembled into a coherent whole, what was counted and douglass the heroic slave, what was discounted—remains usually hidden from the reader” (Fiss 2009 : 425).
Finally, although often cited in the methodological section of case studies, books are not considered which concentrate on data analysis in qualitative research per se (Miles et al. 2014 ; Corbin and Strauss 2015 ). Therefore, to analyze the story contribution of case study research to frederick the heroic the scientific development, it needs to compare explicit methodology. This comparison will be outlined in Solution to Global Poverty, the following sections with regard to frederick douglass the heroic slave main methodological steps: the role of the case, the collection of data, and original story of rapunzel, the analysis of data. 2.1 Case study research design 1: no theory first. A popular template for building theory from frederick, case studies is a paper by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ). It follows a dramaturgy with a precise order of are the Solution, single steps for constructing a case study and is one of the the heroic slave most cited papers in methods sections (Ravenswood 2011 ). Essay Global Are The Solution Poverty. This is frederick douglass slave impressive for two reasons. On the one hand, Eisenhardt herself has provided a broader spectrum of case study research designs in her own empirical papers, for example, by combining theory-building and theory elaboration (Bingham and Essay Institutions, Eisenhardt 2011 ). On the other hand, she “updated” her design in a paper with Graebner (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ), particularly by extending the range of douglass the heroic slave, inductive theory-building. These developments do not seem to be seriously considered by most authors, as differences and elaborations of this spectrum are rarely found in publications.
Therefore, in the following, I focus on the standards provided by bloody, Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) and Eisenhardt and Graebner ( 2007 ) as exemplary guidelines. Eisenhardt follows the douglass the heroic ideal of ‘no theory first’ to capture the aspect compromise to northerners was the decision concerning richness of observations without being limited by a theory. The research question may stem from a research gap meaning that the research question is of relevance. Tentative a priori constructs or variables guide the investigation, but no relationships between such constructs or variables are assumed so far: “Thus, investigators should formulate a research problem and the heroic slave, possibly specify some potentially important variables, with some reference to extant literature. Are The To Global Poverty. However, they should avoid thinking about specific relationships between variables and theories as much as possible, especially at frederick douglass the outset of the process” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 536). Cases are chosen for vs. the theoretical reasons: for the likelihood that the cases offer insights into the phenomenon of interest. Theoretical sampling is deemed appropriate for illuminating and extending constructs and identifying relationships for the phenomenon under investigation (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ). Cases are sampled if they provide an unusual phenomenon, replicate findings from other cases, use contrary replication, and eliminate alternative explanations.
With respect to douglass the heroic data collection, qualitative data are the primary choice. Data collection is based on triangulation, where interviews, documents, and observations are often combined. A combination of qualitative data and quantitative data is possible as well (Eisenhardt 1989 : 538). Data analysis is conducted via the the most compromise was the decision search for the heroic slave within-case patterns and cross-case patterns. Systematic procedures are conducted to compare the Essay on Interpersonal Relationships in an Intimate Context emerging constructs and relationships with the data, eventually leading to new theory. A good exemplar for this design is the investigation of technology collaborations (Davis and Eisenhardt 2011 ). The purpose of frederick the heroic, this paper is to understand processes by which technology collaborations support innovations. Eight technology collaborations among ten firms were sampled for theoretical reasons. Qualitative and quantitative data were used from The Media Message, semi-structured interviews, public and slave, private data, materials provided by informants, corporate intranets, and business publications. Wikipedia. The data was measured, coded, and triangulated.
Writing case histories was a basis for within-case and cross-case analysis. Iteration between cases and the heroic, emerging theory and considering the relevant literature provided the basis for to kill a mocking bird online text the development of a theoretical framework. Another example is the investigation of what is learned in organizational processes (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 ). This paper demonstrates that the case study design is not only used for theory-building, but can also be combined with theory elaboration. Based on frederick douglass the heroic slave, the lenses of the organizational knowledge literature, organizational routines literature, and heuristics literature, six technology-based ventures were chosen for theoretical reasons. Aspect Of The Compromise To Northerners Concerning. Several data sources were used, especially quantitative and qualitative data from semi-structured interviews, archival data, observations, e-mails, phone calls, and follow-up interviews. Frederick The Heroic Slave. Within-case analysis revealed what each firm has learned from process experience. Cross-case analysis revealed emerging patterns from which tentative constructs and propositions were formed.
In replication logic constructs and Global Institutions Solution Poverty, propositions were refined across the cases. When mirroring the findings with the literature, both the emergences of the constructs were compared and unexpected types were considered. The iteration of theory and data as well as the consideration of related research sharpened the theoretical arguments, eventually leading to a theoretical framework. “Thus, we combined theory elaboration (Lee 1999 ) and theory generation (Eisenhardt 1989 )” (Bingham and Eisenhardt 2011 : 1448). 2.2 Case study research design 2: gaps and holes. Contrary to “No Theory First”, case study research design can also aim at specifying gaps or holes in existing theory with the ultimate goal of advancing theoretical explanations (Ridder 2016 ). A well-known template for this case study research design is the book by Yin ( 2014 ). It is a method-orientated handbook of how to design single and multiple case studies with regard to this purpose. Such a case study research design includes: “A ‘how’ and ‘why’ question” (Yin 2014 : 14). Research questions can be identified and shaped using literature to narrow the interest in douglass slave, a specific topic, looking for key studies and identifying questions in these studies. According to Relationships Yin’s design, existing theory is the starting point of case study research. In addition, propositions or frameworks provide direction, reflect the theoretical perspective, and guide the search for relevant evidence. There are different rationales for choosing a single case design (Yin 2014 : 51). Purposeful sampling is conducted if an frederick douglass the heroic, extreme case or an unusual case is vs. the Message chosen and if rarely observable phenomena can be investigated with regard to unknown matters and their relationships.
Common cases allow conclusions for a broader class of cases. Revelatory cases provide the opportunity to investigate into a previously inaccessible inquiry, and the longitudinal study enables one to investigate a single case at several points in time. A rationale for multiple case designs has its strength in replication logic (Yin 2014 : 56). In the the heroic case of literal replication, cases are selected to predict similar results. The Most Alarming Of The To Northerners Was The Decision. In the case of theoretical replication, cases are selected to predict contrasting results but for theoretical reasons. Yin provides several tactics to increase the reliability (protocol; data base) of the study. Yin ( 2014 : 103) emphasizes that interviews are one of the most important sources of data collection but considers other sources of qualitative data as well. Data triangulation is designed to narrow problems of construct validity, as multiple sources of data provide multiple measures of the frederick douglass same phenomenon.
Yin ( 2014 : 133) offers a number of data analysis strategies (e.g., case description; examining rival explanations) and compromise to northerners decision, analytic techniques which are apt to compare the proposed relationships with empirical patterns. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave. Pattern-matching logic compares empirically based patterns with predicted patterns, enabling further data analysis techniques (explanation building, time series analysis, logic models, and cross-case synthesis). Essay Are The To Global Poverty. In analytical generalization, the theory is compared with the empirical results, leading to the modification or extension of the theory. An appropriate model for douglass the heroic slave this case study design can be identified in a paper by Ellonen et al. ( 2009 ). The paper is text based on the emerging dynamic capability theory. The four cases were chosen for theoretical reasons to deliver an empirical contribution to the dynamic capability theory by investigating the relationship of dynamic capabilities and innovation outcomes. The authors followed a literal replication strategy and identified patterns between dynamic capabilities of the firms and their innovation outcomes. Shane ( 2000 ) is an author who developed specific propositions from a framework and examined the propositions in douglass the heroic, eight entrepreneurial cases. Original. Using several sources of interviews and archival data, the author compared the data with the propositions using the frederick pattern-matching logic, which concluded in developing entrepreneurship theory.
2.3 Case study research design 3: social construction of reality. So far, the outlined case study research designs are based on online text, positivist roots, but there is richness and variety in case study research stemming from different philosophical realms. The case study research design by Stake ( 1995 , 2000 , 2005 ), for frederick slave example, is Relationships based on constructivist assumptions and aims to investigate the social construction of reality and meaning (Schwandt 1994 : 125). According to this philosophical assumption, there is no unique “real world” that preexists independently of human mental activity and symbolic language. The world is a product of socially and historically related interchanges amongst people (social construction). Frederick The Heroic Slave. The access to reality is given through social constructions, such as language and shared meanings: “The meaning-making activities themselves are of central interest to social constructionists/constructivists, simply because it is the meaning-making/sense making attributional activities that shape action or (inaction)” (Guba and Lincoln 2005 : 197). Bloody Wikipedia. Therefore, the researcher is not looking for objective “facts”, nor does he aim at identifying and measuring patterns which can be generalized. Contrarily, the constructivist is frederick douglass slave researching into specific actions, in specific places, at specific times. Original Story. The scientist tries to understand the construction and the sharing of meaning (Schwandt 1994 ). According to Stake ( 2005 ), the douglass the heroic slave direction of the case study is shaped by the interest in the case.
In an intrinsic case study, the story case itself is of interest. The purpose is frederick not theory-building but curiosity in the case itself. In an instrumental case study, the case itself is of secondary interest. It plays a supportive role, as it facilitates the understanding of a research issue. The case can be typical of other cases. Multiple or collective case study research designs extend the instrumental case study. It is assumed that a number of cases will increase the understanding and support theorizing by comparison of the cases.
The differentiation by Stake ( 1995 , 2005 ) into on Interpersonal Relationships in an, intrinsic and instrumental cases guides the purposive sampling strategy. In intrinsic case studies, the case is, by frederick douglass slave, definition, already selected. The researcher looks for Essay on Interpersonal Relationships Context specific characteristics, aiming for thick descriptions with the frederick the heroic opportunity to learn. Representativeness or generalization is not considered. In instrumental case study design, purposive sampling leads to the phenomenon under investigation. In multiple case study designs, the a mocking ability to douglass the heroic slave compare cases enhances the opportunity to theorize. A case study requires an integrated, holistic comprehension of the case complexity. According to Stake ( 2005 ), the case study is on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate Context constructed by qualitative data, such as observations, interviews, and documents. Triangulation first serves as clarification of meaning. Second, the researcher is frederick the heroic slave interested in the diversity of bloody mary, perceptions.
Two methods of data analysis are considered in such qualitative case study design: direct interpretation and categorical aggregation (Stake 1995 : 74). The primary task of an intrinsic case study is to understand the case. This interpretation is offered to frederick the heroic the reader, but the researcher has to provide the material in text, a sufficient way (thick descriptions), so that the reader can learn from the case as well as draw his or her own conclusions. Readers can thus make some generalizations based on personal and vicarious experiences (“naturalistic generalization”). In instrumental case studies, the understanding of phenomena and relationships leads to categorical aggregation, and the focus is on how the phenomenon exists across several cases. Greenwood and frederick the heroic, Suddaby ( 2006 ), for example, used the instrumental case study design by Stake, combining network location theory and dialectical theory.
They identified new dynamics creating a process model of elite institutional entrepreneurship. Ituma et al. ( 2011 ) highlighted the Essay social construction of reality in douglass the heroic slave, their study of career success. The majority of career studies have been conducted in Western countries and findings have been acknowledged as universally applicable. A Mocking Online. The authors demonstrated that realities of managers in other areas are constructed differently. Frederick The Heroic Slave. As a result of their study, they provided a contextually sensitive frame for The Media Message Essay the analysis of career outcomes. 2.4 Case study research design 4: anomalies. Identifying anomalies as a basis for further research is common in management and organization research (Gilbert and Christensen 2005 ). Frederick. In case study research, the extended case study method is used for this case study research design (Ridder 2016 ). Following Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ), the research question derives from curiosity. Global Institutions To Global Poverty. Researchers normally look at what is “interesting” and slave, what is “surprising” in Message Essay, a social situation that existing theory cannot explain. Initially, it is frederick douglass the heroic not important whether the expectations develop from some popular belief, stereotype, or from an academic theory.
The extended case study research design is The Media Essay guided by anomalies that the previous theory was not able to frederick douglass the heroic explain through internal contradictions of theory, theoretical gaps, or silences. An anomaly does not reject theory, but rather demonstrates that the theory is incomplete. Theory is bloody aimed to be improved by “… turning anomalies into exemplars” (Burawoy 1991 : 10). The theoretical sampling strategy in this case study research design stems from the theoretical failure in confrontation with the site. Frederick Douglass Slave. According to the reflexive design, such cases do not favour individuals or isolated phenomena, but social situations in which a comparative strategy allows the tracing of differences across the cases to original of rapunzel external forces. In the extended case study, the researcher deals with qualitative data, but also considers the broader complex social situation. The researcher engages into a dialogue with the respondents (Burawoy ( 1991 , 1998 , 2009 ). An interview is an intervention into frederick douglass the heroic, the life of vs. the Message Essay, a respondent. By means of mutual interaction it is possible to discover the social order under investigation. The observer has to unpack those situational experiences by means of participant observation and mutual interpretation. This situational comprehension aims at understanding divergent “voices”, reflecting the variety of frederick douglass slave, respondents’ understandings of the mary wikipedia social situation. As in other sciences, these voices have to douglass be aggregated.
This aggregation of multiple readings of a single case is conducted by turning the aggregation into story of rapunzel, social processes: “The move from situation to process is accomplished differently in different reflexive methods, but it is always reliant on existing theory” (Burawoy 2009 : 41). Social processes are now traced to the external field as the douglass conditions of the social processes. Consequently, this leads to the question concerning “… how those micro situations are shaped by wider structures” (Burawoy 1991 : 282). “Reflexive science insists, therefore, on studying the alarming decision concerning everyday world from the frederick slave standpoint of its structuration, that is, by regarding it as simultaneously shaped by story, and shaping an the heroic slave, external field of forces” (Burawoy 2009 : 42). To Kill A Mocking Bird Online. Such social fields cannot be held constant, which undermines the idea of replication. The external field is in continuous flux. Accordingly, social forces that influence the social processes are identified, shaping the phenomenon under investigation.
Extension of theory does not target representativeness as a relationship of frederick douglass slave, sample and population. Generality in reflexive science is to reconstruct an existing theory: “We begin with our favorite theory but seek not confirmations but refutations that inspire us to deepen that theory. Instead of discovering grounded theory, we elaborate existing theory. We do not worry about the uniqueness of our case, since we are not as interested in its representativeness as its contribution to reconstructing theory. Our theoretical point of departure can range from the original story folk theory of douglass, participants to any abstract law. We consider only that the scientist consider it worth developing” (Burawoy 2009 : 43). Mary Wikipedia. Such elaboration stems from the identification of anomalies and offers new predictions with regard to the theory. It is somewhat surprising that the extended case study design has been neglected in the management literature so far, and it appears that critical reflexive principles have to be resurrected as they have been in other disciplines (see the overview at frederick Wadham and Warren 2014 ). Examples in the management and organization literature are rare.
Danneels ( 2011 ) used the extended case study design to extend the dynamic capabilities theory. In his famous Smith Corona case, Danneels shows how a company tried to change its resource base. Based on detailed data, the Smith Corona case provides insights into Message, the resource alteration processes and how dynamic capabilities operate. As a result, the paper fills a process gap in dynamic capability theory. Iterating between data collection and analysis, Danneels revealed resource cognition as an element not considered so far in dynamic capability theory. The use of the extended case study method is limited to the iteration of data and theory. First, there is frederick douglass the heroic “running exchange” (Burawoy 1991 : 10) between field notes and analysis. Second, there is iteration between analysis and Relationships in an Context, existing theory. Unlike Burawoy, who aims to reconstruct existing theory on the basis of “emergent anomalies” (Burawoy 1991 : 11) considering social processes and external forces, Danneels confronts the dynamic capabilities literature with the Smith Corona case to frederick douglass extend the The Media vs. the Message theory of dynamic capabilities. 2.5 A comparison of case study research processes. Portfolio of case study research design: differences in underlying elements.
Case study research designs. No theory first. Social construction of reality. A priori constructs, variables; No assumed relationships. Curiosity in the case;
Understanding of research issues. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Qualitative data as the primary choice. Dialogue of observer and participants; Emerging constructs and frederick, relationships.
Pattern-matching as a primary choice; Learning from the case; Reconstruction of theory. There is an extensive range between the different designs regarding the research processes. On Interpersonal In An. In “no theory first”, there is a broad and tentative research question with some preliminary variables at the outset. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave. The research question may be modified during the study as well as the to kill online variables. This design avoids any propositions regarding relationships. On the contrary, the douglass the heroic slave research question in “gaps and holes” is strongly related to existing theory, focusing on “how and Message, why” questions.
The existing theory contains research gaps which, once identified within the existing theory, lead accordingly to assumed relationships which are the basis for framework and propositions to be matched by douglass slave, empirical data. This broad difference is even more elaborated by a design that aims the “social construction of reality”. The Media Vs. The Message. There is no research question at douglass slave the outset, but a curiosity in the case or the case is a facilitator to The Media understand a research issue. This is far away from curiosity in the “anomaly approach”. Here, the research question is inspired by questioning why an anomaly cannot be explained by the existing theory. What kind of gaps, silences, or internal contradictions demonstrates the insufficiency of the existing theory?
Various sampling strategies are used across these case study research designs, including theoretical sampling and purposeful sampling, which serve different objectives. Douglass Slave. Theoretical sampling in “no theory first” aims at selecting a case or cases that are appropriate to bloody wikipedia highlight new or extend preliminary constructs and the heroic slave, reveal new relationships. There is a distinct difference from theoretical sampling in the “anomalies” approach. Such a sampling strategy aims to choose a case that is wikipedia a demonstration of the failure of the theory. In “gaps and holes” sampling is highly focused on the purpose of the case study. Extreme and unusual cases have other purposes compared to common cases or revelatory cases. A single case may be chosen to investigate deeply into new phenomena. A multiple case study may serve a replication logic by which the findings have relevance beyond the cases under investigation. In “social construction of reality”, the sampling is purposeful as well, but for different reasons.
Either the case is of interest per se or the case represents a good opportunity to understand a theoretical issue. Although qualitative data are preferred in all of the designs, quantitative data are seen as a possible opportunity to strengthen cases by such data. Nevertheless, in “social construction of reality”, there is a strong emphasis on thick descriptions and a holistic understanding of the case. This is in contrast to a more construct- and variable- oriented collection of data in “no theory first” and “gaps and holes”. In addition, in contrast to that, the “anomaly” approach is the only design that receives data from frederick, dialogue between observer and Essay Relationships in an Intimate Context, participants and participant observation. Finally, data analysis lies within a wide range.
In “no theory first”, the research process is finalized by frederick douglass slave, inspecting the emerging constructs within the case or across cases. Based on a priory constructs, systematic comparisons reveal patterns and original, relationships resulting in a tentative theory. On the frederick douglass the heroic contrary, in “gaps and holes”, a tentative theory exists. The final analysis concentrates on the matching of the framework or propositions with patterns from the original story data. While both of these approaches condense data, the approach of douglass slave, “social construction of reality” ends the research process with thick descriptions of the case to learn from the case or with categorical comparisons. In the “anomaly” approach, the data analysis is aggregation of data, but these aggregated data are related to its external field and Essay Institutions Solution Poverty, their pressures and influences by douglass slave, structuration to reconstruct the theory. As a result, it is unlikely that the specified case study designs contribute to theory in a homogeneous manner.
This result will be discussed in light of the question regarding how these case study designs can inform theory at a mocking bird several points of a continuum of theory. This analysis will be outlined in the following sections. In a first step, I review the main elements of a theory continuum. In a second step, I discuss the respective contribution of the previously identified case study research designs to the theory continuum. What a theory is and what a theory is not is frederick the heroic a classic debate (Sutton and Staw 1995 ; Weick 1995 ). Often, theories are described in terms of understanding relationships between phenomena which have not been or were not well understood before (Chiles 2003 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Shah and Corley 2006 ), but there is no overall acceptance as to what constitutes a theory. Theory can be seen as a final product or as a continuum, and there is an ongoing effort to define different stages of this continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). Essay Global Solution Poverty. In the following section, basic elements of the theory and the construction of the theory continuum are outlined. “It is the heroic a collection of assertions, both verbal and symbolic, that identifies what variables are important for what reasons, specifies how they are interrelated and why, and identifies the conditions under which they should be related or not related” (Campbell 1990 : 65).
“… a system of constructs and variables in which the constructs are related to each other by propositions and the variables are related to each other by Essay Relationships, hypotheses” (Bacharach 1989 : 498). “Theory is about the connections among phenomena, a story about frederick the heroic why acts, events, structure, and thoughts occur. Theory emphasizes the nature of causal relationships, identifying what comes first as well as the timing of such events” (Sutton and Staw 1995 : 378). “… theory is a statement of concepts and their interrelationships that shows how and/or why a phenomenon occurs” (Corley and Gioia 2011 : 12). The terms “constructs” and alarming aspect of the compromise of 1850 to northerners decision, “concepts” are either used interchangeably or with different meanings. The Heroic Slave. Positivists use “constructs” as a lens for the observation of a phenomenon (Suddaby 2010 ). Such constructs have to be operationalized and measured. Mary Wikipedia. Non-positivists often use the term “concept” as a more value neutral term in place of the term construct (Gioia et al. 2013 ; Suddaby 2010 : 354). Non-positivists aim at developing concepts on the basis of data that contain richness and complexity of the douglass slave observed phenomenon instead of narrow definitions and operationalizations of constructs.
Gioia et al. ( 2013 : 16) clarify the demarcation line between constructs and concepts as follows: “By ‘concept,’ we mean a more general, less well-specified notion capturing qualities that describe or explain a phenomenon of theoretical interest. Put simply, in our way of thinking, concepts are precursors to constructs in making sense of story of rapunzel, organizational worlds—whether as practitioners living in those worlds, researchers trying to investigate them, or theorists working to model them”. In sum, theories are a systematic combination of components and frederick douglass, their relationships within boundaries. The use of the terms constructs and concepts is related to different philosophical assumptions reflected in different types of case study designs. Weick ( 1995 ) makes an important point that theory is a mocking text more a continuum than a product. In his view, theorizing is a process containing assumptions, accepted principles, and rules of procedures to explain or predict the behavior of a specified set of phenomena.
In similar vein, Gilbert and frederick douglass the heroic, Christensen ( 2005 ) demonstrate the process character of theory. To Kill A Mocking Text. In their view, a first step of douglass the heroic slave, theory building is a careful description of the phenomena. Essay On Interpersonal Relationships Context. Having already observed and douglass slave, described the phenomena, researchers then classify the phenomena into a mocking bird online text, similar categories. In this phase a framework defines categories and relationships amongst phenomena. In the third phase, researchers build theories to understand (causal) relationships, and in this phase, a model or theory asserts what factors drive the phenomena and under what circumstances. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave. The categorization scheme enables the researchers to predict what they will observe. The “test” offers a confirmation under which circumstances the theory is useful. The early drafts of a theory may be vague in terms of the number and adequateness of factors and their relationships. At the end of the continuum, there may be more precise variables and predicted relationships. These theories have to be extended by boundaries considering time and space. Across that continuum, different research strategies have various strengths.
Several classifications in the literature intend to match research strategies to the different phases of story of rapunzel, a theory continuum (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Colquitt and Zapata-Phelan 2007 ; Edmondson and McManus 2007 ; Snow 2004 ; Swedberg 2012 ). These classifications, although there are differences in terms, comprise three phases with distinguishable characteristics. Here, the frederick careful description of the phenomena is the starting point of theorizing. Bloody Mary Wikipedia. For example, Snow ( 2004 ) puts this phase as theory discovery, where analytic understandings are generated by frederick douglass the heroic slave, means of detailed examination of are the to Global, data. Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ) state the starting phase of a theory as nascent theory providing answers to new questions revealing new connections among phenomena. Therefore, research questions are open and frederick douglass slave, researchers avoid hypotheses predicting relationships between variables. Swedberg ( 2012 ) highlights the necessity of observation and extensive involvement with the phenomenon at the early stage of theory-building. It is an attempt to understand something of interest by original of rapunzel, observing and interpreting social facts.
Creativity and inspiration are necessary conditions to put observations into concepts and outline a tentative theory. This tentative theory exists in the second phase of the continuum and has to be developed. Several possibilities exist. In theory extension, the preexisting constructs are extended to frederick douglass slave other groups or other contexts. In theoretical refinement, a modification of existing theoretical perspectives is story conducted (Edmondson and McManus ( 2007 ). New antecedents, moderators, mediators, and outcomes are investigated, enhancing the explanation power of the tentative theory. Constructs and relationships are well developed to a mature state; measures are precise and operationalized. Such theories are empirically tested with elaborate methods, and research questions are more precise. In the quantitative realm, testing of hypotheses is conducted and statistical analysis is the usual methodological foundation. Recently, researchers criticize that testing theories has become the major focus of scientists today (Delbridge and Fiss 2013 ); testing theories does not only douglass the heroic slave, happen to mature theory but to intermediate theory as well.
The boundary between theory development and theory testing is not always so clear. On Interpersonal Relationships Context. While theory development is adding new components to a theory and elaborating the measures, testing a theory implies precise measures, variables, and predicted relationships considering time and frederick douglass the heroic slave, space (Gilbert and Christensen ( 2005 ). It will be of interest whether case studies are eligible to test theories as well. To summarize: there is a conversation as to Message Essay where on a continuum of theory development, various methods are required to target different contributions to theory (methodological fit). In this discussion, case study research designs have been discussed as a homogeneous set that mostly contributes to theory-building in an exploratory manner. Hence, what is missing is a more differentiated analysis of how case study methodology fits into this conversation, particularly how case study research methodologically fits theory development and theory testing beyond its widely assumed explorative role. In the following section, the above types of case study research designs will be discussed with regard to their positions across the theory continuum. This distinction adds to existing literature by demonstrating that case study research does not only douglass the heroic, contribute to Essay on Interpersonal in an Intimate theory-building, but also to the development of tentative theories and to the testing of theories. The Heroic. This distinction leads to the next question: is on Interpersonal in an Intimate there any interplay between case study research designs and their contributions to the theory continuum?
This paper aims at reconciling this interplay with regard to douglass the heroic slave case study design by mirroring phases of a theory continuum with specific types of case study research designs as outlined above. The importance of the interplay between theory and method lies in to kill a mocking bird online text, the capacity to douglass the heroic slave generate and shape theory, while theory can generate and shape method. The Media Message. “In this long march, theory and method surely matter, for they are the tools with which we build both our representations and understandings of organizational life and our reputations” (van Maanen et al. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave. 2007 : 1145). Theory is not the same as methods, but a relationship of this interplay can broaden or restrict both parts of the equation (Swedberg 2012 : 7). In the following, I discuss how the above-delineated case study research designs unfold their capacities and contribute differently to the theory continuum to build, develop, and test theory. 4 Discussion of the contribution of case study research to a theory continuum.
Specific contributions of case study designs to the theory continuum. Social construction of reality (intrinsic) No theory first. New or interesting phenomenon; trends; outside theory. New or interesting phenomenon; outside theory. Phenomenon is partially understood; inside theory.
Phenomenon is Essay are the Solution understood; inside theory. Phenomenon is understood; inside theory. Status of theory. Observation and description of frederick douglass the heroic, a case; understanding by researcher and reader. Constructivist ( instrumental ) description, aggregation, and interpretation. Positivist developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases by replication logic.
Pattern-matching; literal replication; analytical generalization; search for mechanisms. Contradicting established theory with critical case; confronting tentative theories with theoretical replications; discarding rival explanations. Identifying anomalies as failures of existing theory; reconstructing theory, related to historical sources, societal circumstances, external forces. New constructs and relationships are revealed out of case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Existing theoretical-based constructs and relationships (propositions) are confronted with case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations. Case descriptions; interviews; documents, and observations are confronted with established theory; tentative theories are confronted with new cases. Observation, Interviews, dialogue of observer and participants. Location on the theory continuum.
In the following, I outline how these specific contributions of case study designs provide better opportunities to enhance the rigor of building theory, developing theory, testing, and reconstructing theory. In building theory, the phenomenon is new or not understood so far. There is no theory which explains the phenomenon. At the very beginning of the theory continuum, there is curiosity in Essay Solution, the phenomenon itself. I focus on frederick douglass slave, the intrinsic case study design which is located in the social construction of reality approach on the very early phase of the theory continuum, as intrinsic case study research design is not theory-building per The Media vs. the se but curiosity in the case itself.
It is not the purpose of the intrinsic case study to identify abstract concepts and relationships; the specific research strategy lies in the observation and description of frederick the heroic, a case and the primary method is observation, enabling understanding from personal and vicarious experience. This meets long lasting complaints concerning the lack of (new) theory in management and wikipedia, organization research and signals that the gap between research and management practice is douglass growing. It is argued that the complexity of the reality is not adequately captured (Suddaby et al. 2011 ). Bird Text. It is claimed that management and organization research systematically neglect the frederick dialogue with practice and, as a result, miss new trends or recognize important trends with delay (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). The specific case study research design’s contribution to theory is in building concrete, context-dependent knowledge with regard to the identification of new phenomena and trends. Openness with regard to the new phenomena, avoiding theoretical preconceptions but building insights out of data, enables the elaboration of on Interpersonal in an Intimate, meanings and douglass the heroic, the construction of realities in mary, intrinsic case studies.
Intrinsic case studies will enhance the understanding by slave, researcher and reader concerning new phenomena. The “No Theory First” case study research design is a classic and often cited candidate for building theory. As the phenomenon is mary wikipedia new and in the heroic, the absence of a theory, qualitative data are inspected for aggregation and interpretation. Original Story. In instrumental case study design, a number of cases will increase the understanding and support building theories by description, aggregation, and the heroic, interpretation (Stake 2000 ). New themes and concepts are revealed by case descriptions, interviews, documents, and observations, and the analysis of the data enables the specific contribution of the case study design through a constructivist perspective in theory-building. Although the design by Eisenhardt ( 1989 ) stems from other philosophical assumptions and there are variations and developments in original of rapunzel, this design, there is frederick still an overwhelming tendency to quote and to stick to her research strategy which aims developing new constructs and new relationships out of real-life cases. Data are collected mainly by interviews, documents, and observations. From within-site analysis and cross-case analysis, themes, concepts, and relationships emerge. Shaping hypotheses comprises: “… refining the definition of the construct and (…) building evidence which measures the construct in each case” (Eisenhardt 1989 : 541). Wikipedia. Having identified the emerged constructs, the emergent relationships between constructs are verified in frederick douglass, each case.
The underlying logic is validation by replication. Cases are treated as experiments in which the hypotheses are replicated case by case. In replication logic cases that confirm the emergent relationships enhance confidence in the validity of the relationships. Essay On Interpersonal Relationships Context. Disconfirmation of the relationships leads to refinement of the theory. This is similar to douglass Yin’s replication logic, but targets the precision and measurement of constructs and the emerging relationships with regard to the emerging theory. The building of a theory concludes in mary, an understanding of the dynamics underlying the relationship; the frederick slave primary theoretical reasons for why the relationships exist (Huy 2012 ). Finally, a visual theory with “boxes and arrows” (Eisenhardt and Graebner 2007 ) may visually demonstrate the emerged theory. The theory-building process is finalized by text, iterating case data, emerging theory, and extant literature. The “No Theory First” and “Social Construction of Reality” case study research designs, although they represent different philosophical assumptions, adequately fit the frederick douglass theory-building phase concerning new phenomena.
The main contribution of case study designs in this phase of the theory continuum lies in the generation of tentative theories. Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to bloody mary demonstrate: why the phenomenon is new or of interest; that no previous theory that explains the frederick the heroic slave phenomenon exists; how and why detailed descriptions enhance the understanding of the of the compromise of 1850 to northerners concerning phenomenon; and how and why new concepts (constructs) and new relationships will enhance our understanding of the phenomenon. As a result, it has to be demonstrated that the frederick douglass slave research strategy is in sync with an investigation of a new phenomenon, building a tentative theory. In the “Gaps and alarming aspect concerning, Holes” case study research design, the phenomenon is partially understood. There is a tentative theory and the research strategy is theory driven. Compared to the theory-building phase, the existence and not the development of propositions differentiate this design along the continuum. The prediction comes first, out of an existing theory. The research strategy and the data have to be confronted by pattern-matching.
Pattern-matching is a means to compare the theoretically based predictions with the data in the site: “For case study analysis, one of the most preferred techniques is to use a pattern-matching logic. Such a logic (…) compares an empirically based pattern–that is, one based on frederick douglass slave, the findings from your case study–with a predicted one made before you collected your data (….)” (Yin 2014 : 143). The comparison of on Interpersonal in an, propositions and the rich case material is the ground for new elements or relationships within the tentative theory. Such findings aim to enhance the scientific usefulness of the theory (Corley and Gioia 2011 ). To enhance the validity of the slave new elements or relationships of the tentative theory, literal replication is Essay on Interpersonal Intimate a means to confirm the new findings. By that, the frederick douglass the heroic theory is developed by new antecedents, moderators, mediators, or outcomes. This modification or extension of the theory contributes to the analytical generalization of the theory. If new cases provide similar results, the search for alarming aspect of the compromise to northerners was the decision concerning regularities is based on more solid ground. Frederick The Heroic. Therefore, the strength of case study research in bird online, “Gaps and Holes” lies in search for mechanisms in their specific context which can reveal causes and effects more precisely. The “Gaps and Holes” case study research design is an adequate candidate for this phase of the theory continuum.
Case studies at this point of the theory continuum, therefore, have to outline the tentative theory; to demonstrate the lacks and gaps of the tentative theory; to specify how and why the douglass slave tentative theory is aimed to be extended and/or modified; to develop theoretically based propositions which guide the investigation; and to evaluate new elements, relationships, and mechanisms related to The Media the previous theory (analytical generalization). As a result and compared to theory-building, a different research strategy exists. While in theory building the research strategy is based on the eliciting of concepts (constructs) and relationships out of data, in theory development, it has to frederick the heroic slave be demonstrated that the research strategy aims to identify new elements and relationships within a tentative theory, identifying mechanisms which explain the phenomenon more precisely. In “Gaps and wikipedia, Holes” and “Anomalies”, an extended theory exists. The phenomenon is douglass understood. There is no search for additional components or relationships. Mechanisms seem to explain the functioning or processes of the phenomenon.
The research strategy is focused on testing whether the theory holds under different circumstances or under different conditions. Such a test of The Media vs. the Essay, theories is douglass the heroic mainly the domain of experimental and quantitative studies. It is based on previously developed constructs and Essay Global Solution Poverty, variables which are the foundation for stating specific testable hypotheses and testing the relations on the basis of quantitative data sets. As a result, highly sophisticated statistical tools enable falsification of the theory. Therefore, testing theory in “Gaps and Holes” is restricted on specific events.
Single case can serve as a test. There is a debate in case study research whether the test of theories is related to the falsification logic of Karl Popper (Flyvbjerg 2006 ; Tsang 2013 ). Another stream of the debate is frederick slave related to theoretical generalizability (Hillebrand et al. 2001 ; Welch et al. 2011 ). More specifically, test in” Gaps and Holes” is analogous to a single experiment if a single case represents a critical case. If the theory has specified a clear set of propositions and Essay Relationships in an Intimate Context, defines the exact conditions within which the theory might explain the phenomena under investigation, a single case study, testing the theory, can confirm or challenge the theory. In sum Yin states: “Overall, the single-case design is frederick douglass the heroic slave eminently justifiable under certain conditions—where the case represents (a) a critical test of a mocking bird text, existing theory, …” (Yin 2014 : 56). In their survey in the field of International Business, Welch et al. conclude: “In addition, the douglass the heroic widespread assumption that the role of the case study lies only in the exploratory, theory-building phase of research downplays its potential to propose causal mechanisms and linkages, and to kill a mocking bird text, test existing theories” (Welch et al. 2011 : 755). In multiple case studies, a theoretical replication is a test of theory by frederick, comparing the findings with new cases.
If a series of bloody mary, cases have revealed pattern-matching between propositions and the data, theoretical replication can be revealed by new waves of cases with contrasting propositions. If the contrasting propositions reveal contrasting results, the findings of the first wave are confirmed. Several possibilities exist to test the initial findings of multiple case studies using different lenses from inside and outside the management realm (Corley and Gioia 2011 ; LePine and Wilcox-King 2010 ; Okhuysen and Bonardi 2011 ; Zahra and Newey 2009 ), but have not become a standard in case study research. In rival explanations, rival theoretical propositions are developed as a test of the previous theory. This can be distinguished from theoretical replication where contrasting propositions aim to confirm the initial findings. This can, as well, be distinguished from developing theory where rival explanations might develop theory by the elimination of possible influences (interventions, implementations).
The rich data enable one to identify internal and external interventions that might be responsible for the findings. Alternative explanations in frederick douglass slave, a new series of on Interpersonal, cases enable to test, whether a theory “different from the original theory explains the results better (…)” (Yin 2014 : 141). As a result, it astonishes that theoretical replication and rival explanations, being one of the frederick douglass the heroic strengths of case study research, are rarely used. Although the general debate about “lenses” has informed the discussion about of the compromise of 1850 to northerners decision concerning theory contributions, this paper demonstrates that there is a wide range of possible integration of vertical or horizontal lenses in case study research design. Frederick. Case study research designs aiming to The Media Essay test theories have to outline modes of replication and the elimination of rival explanations. The “anomaly approach” is placed in douglass slave, the final phase of the theory testing, as well. In this approach, a theory exists, but the the most alarming theory fails to explain anomalies.
Burawoy goes a step further. While Yin ( 2014 ) sees a critical case as a test that challenges or contradicts a well formulated theory, in Burawoy’s approach, in contrast to falsification logic (Popper 2002 ), the frederick the heroic slave theory is not rejected but reconstructed. Burawoy relates extended case study design to society and history. Existing theory is challenged by intervention into the social field. Identifying processes of historical roots and social circumstances and considering external forces by structuration lead to the reconstruction of the theory. It is surprising that this design has been neglected so far in management research. Is there no need to reflect social tensions and distortions in management research?
While case study research has, per definition, to bloody mary wikipedia investigate phenomena in its natural environment, it is hard to understand why this design has widely been ignored in management and douglass, organization research. As a result, testing theory in case study research has to demonstrate that an extended theory exists; a critical case or an Global Institutions Solution to Global Poverty, anomaly can challenge the theory; theoretical replication and rival explanations will be means to contradict or confirm the theory; and frederick douglass slave, societal circumstances and external forces explain the anomaly. Compared to theory-building (new concepts/constructs and relationships out of data) and theory development (new elements and relationships within a tentative theory), testing theory challenges extended theory by empirical investigations into failures and anomalies that the current theory cannot explain. Case studies provide a better understanding of phenomena regarding concrete context-dependent knowledge (Andersen and Kragh 2010 ; Flyvbjerg 2006 : 224), but as literature reviews indicate, there is still confusion regarding the vs. the Message adequate utilization of douglass slave, case study methodology (Welch et al. 2011 ). This can be interpreted in a way that authors and even reviewers are not always aware of the methodological fit in case study research.
Case study research is mainly narrowed to its “explorative” function, neglecting the scope of possibilities that case study research provides. The claim for more homogeneity of specified rules in case study research misses the important aspect that a method is not a means in itself, but aims at providing improved theories (van Maanen et al. 2007 ). This paper contributes to the fit of the most aspect of the compromise to northerners decision concerning, case study research designs and the theory continuum regarding the following issues. 5.1 Heterogeneity of frederick douglass the heroic slave, case study designs. Although case study research, overall, has similar characteristics, it incorporates various case study research designs that have heterogeneous theoretical goals and use various elements to reach these goals. The analysis revealed that the classical understanding, whereby case study research is adequate for the “exploration” of a theory and alarming aspect compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision concerning, quantitative research is adequate for “testing” theory, is frederick slave oversimplified. Therefore, the theoretical goals of case study research have to be outlined precisely. This study demonstrates that there is variety of case study research designs that have thus far been largely neglected.
Case study researchers can utilize the entire spectrum, but have to consider how the phenomenon is related to bloody mary wikipedia the theory continuum. Case study researchers have to demonstrate how they describe new or surprising phenomena, develop new constructs and relationships, add constructs (variables), antecedents, outcomes, moderators, or mediators to a tentative theory, challenge a theory by a critical case, theoretical replication or discarding rival explanations, and frederick douglass slave, reconstruct a theory by tracking failures and anomalies to external circumstances. The rigor of the case study can be enhanced by considering the specific contribution of various case study research designs in each phase of the theory continuum. This paper provides a portfolio of on Interpersonal Relationships Context, case study research designs that enables researchers and reviewers to evaluate whether the case study arsenal has been adequately located: At an early phase of the theory continuum, case studies have their strengths in douglass the heroic, rich descriptions and investigations into new or surprising empirical phenomena and trends. Researchers and readers can benefit from such rich descriptions in bird, understanding and analyzing these phenomena. Next, on the theory continuum, there is the well-known contribution of case study research in building tentative theory by eliciting constructs or concepts and their relationships out of data. Third, development of the heroic slave, theories is strongly related to bloody wikipedia literal replication. Strict comparisons, on the one hand, and controlled theoretical advancement, on the other hand, enable the identification of mechanisms, strengthen the notions of causality, and provide generalizable statements. Fourth, there are specific circumstances under which case study approaches enable one to test theories.
This is to confront the theory with a critical case, to test findings of pattern-matching by theoretical replication and discarding rival explanations. Therefore, “Gaps and frederick slave, Holes” provide the opportunity for developing and testing theories through case study design on to kill a mocking online, the theory continuum. Finally, testing and contradicting theory are not the final rejection of frederick douglass the heroic slave, a theory, but is the basis for reconstructing theory by means of case study design. Anomalies can be traced to historical sources, social processes, and Essay on Interpersonal in an Context, external forces. This paper demonstrates that the precise interplay of case study research designs and theory contributions on the theory continuum is a prerequisite for the contribution of case study research to better theories. If case study research design is differentiated from qualitative research, the frederick douglass the heroic slave intended contribution to to Global theory is stated and designs that fit the aimed contribution to theory are outlined and frederick douglass the heroic slave, substantiated; this will critically enhance the rigor of The Media vs. the Message, case study research. Open Access This article is frederick slave distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. Hans-Gerd Ridder 1 Email author 1. In An Intimate. Institute of Human Resource Management Leibniz University of Hannover Hannover Germany.
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acdemic essay The Academic Essay. The academic essay is merely a specific writing genre#150;as is the love letter, newspaper editorial, or pop-fiction. As a genre, it functions within a set of frederick douglass, norms, rules, and conventions. The purpose of this discussion is to make clear to you what those rules and norms are, and how to use them to express your argument clearly. The purpose of the academic essay is to persuade by alarming was the decision concerning, reasoned discourse. Scholars use the essay amongst themselves to advance ideas. Its value as an instructional tool is to frederick douglass, assist students in developing their critical thinking skills. As you recall, critical thinking is defined as: the bloody mary, ability to frederick slave, read theory accurately, appropriate it meaningfully, apply it independently, generate results based on original of rapunzel that application, analyze the results, and form a clear argument based on the heroic those results that can be defended with a specific line of reasoning. A good academic essay engenders this process and clearly demonstrates that the mary wikipedia, process has been performed successfully.
With this in mind let's examine how to write an academic essay. Do you frequently find yourself struggling with the introduction to frederick, your essays? Do you not know how to online, begin the essay? Do you find yourself searching for a generalizing statement that will get things going, and trying to find a delicate balance between BS'ing and saying something meaningful? If so, that's because you are not following the norms for douglass the heroic the introduction to the academic essay. Mary Wikipedia! Following this norm actually makes introductions a piece of cake and gets you right into the body of the essay. Here is the norm: The purpose of the introduction is frederick douglass the heroic slave two-fold: 1. To introduce the theoretical framework that will guide your analysis. 2. Essay! To introduce the thesis statement that will organize your paper. Following this norm allows you to cut to the chase. Slave! No more generalizing statements of philosophical speculation that you venture forth hoping that it won't get shot down. You know, crap like Hemingway was perhaps one of the most visionary authors of his time. or The Western is perhaps the most uniquely American of all the genres.
Rather, if the purpose of the essay is to demonstrate that you have appropriated a theory and applied it independently to produce results, then the function of the alarming of the was the concerning, introduction becomes more focused: to introduce the theory#150;or theoretical framework#150;that you have decided to use. Hence you will find that many essays begin with such statements as In his book. Or, In her essay. IMPORTANT NOTE: One of the main reasons that the norm of the Introduction developed this way is because of an important rule of the Academic Essay: Avoid making statements that you cannot prove. The problem with the frederick douglass the heroic, generalizing/philosophical/BS'ing statements like Hemingway. and The Western. is that they cannot be proven through reasoned discourse. Moreover, to even try and do so would require voluminous amounts of discourse for original of rapunzel something that is not even your thesis: what you actually ARE setting out to frederick douglass, prove.
As a result, the bird online text, genre of the Academic Essay has evolved into the above norm. It still meets an introduction's purpose of frederick slave, orienting the Global Institutions Solution Poverty, reader, it just does so in a very specific manner. Having accomplished that, the expectation for frederick the heroic an essay is that you will introduce a thesis statement that is directly related to that theoretical framework (or its application). As a result, a major convention of the academic essay is that: The introduction ends with the thesis statement. Having stated a thesis, you are expected to Global are the Solution to Global, then go and prove it through the body of the essay. That said, it is important to discuss what's at stake in making a thesis statement. There are four basic logical forms for a thesis statement: #149; A banal thesis statement. #149; A simple thesis statement. #149; A complex thesis statement. #149; An impossible thesis statement. Let's discuss each of these quickly before moving on. A banal thesis statement is a statement that does not really say anything#150;it is in fact meaningless because it is either so overly general or so evident as to not be of significance.
Here's an example from frederick douglass, literature. A frequent argument students will make is This author used symbolism to make his point. The statement, however, is meaningless precisely because it is not of significance: every author writing literature uses symbolism of one kind or another, either using language metaphorically or metonymically. Thus, to attempt to single out or make a distinction of a piece for using symbolism is to not say anything that even needs proving to begin with. A simple thesis statement is bird online not quite what it may sound like. A simple thesis statement means that only one main point or argument is going to be proved. The term simple argument can thus be misleading because the argument itself can and frequently is very theoretically sophisticated. What makes them simple is that in terms of their logical structure, they only take on the heroic one line of proof, and hence, their organization of proof will be simple. To Northerners Was The Concerning! One has to be careful, however, because sometimes one main argument may require SEVERAL supporting arguments. The example here would be the argument that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre. Here the writer has only frederick douglass slave, one thing to prove, but in order to do so will have to establish the elements that comprise the Western Genre and demonstrate how the film embodies them--not a small task.
Simple thesis statements are eminently preferable in terms of aspect of the compromise, writing an essay for douglass the heroic slave a course. It allows you to focus on your points and your proofs rather than getting lost in the organization of your arguments. A complex thesis statement means that the thesis has more than one point to prove. In this respect, the essay will have to organize more than one line of reasoning in so far that more than one thing has to be proven. Complex theses are not necessarily more theoretically sophisticated than simple thesis statements, they are only more difficult to organize clearly. In this respect, they are not worth what they entail and should be avoided.
An example of a complex thesis statement would be something like: Faulkner's novels critique the ideologies of patriarchy and racism. This would be an appropriate analysis for the work of Faulkner, but I'm not sure it would be worth it. To begin with, it is not clear what the writer has to gain in terms of proving BOTH of these aspects of the to kill bird online, work rather than just the frederick douglass slave, one. Instead, with this complex thesis, there are going to be long sections of the essay where half of what needs to Essay Global Institutions to Global, be proved will be left suspended while the other half gets discussed. Douglass The Heroic! In addition, the The Media Message, thesis picks the douglass the heroic, work of Faulkner which necessitates discussing every book, rather than just one. A Mocking! Thus it is that an important convention of the academic essay is that: A complex thesis statement can usually be restructured into frederick a more theoretically sophisticated (if not interesting) simple thesis statement. Making an Argument. As stated earlier, the academic essay is an exercise in reasoned persuasion. In this respect, the thesis statement is an important organizational structure insofar as it establishes how the rest of the essay will be organized.
Classical logic maintains that there are 3 basic kinds of persuasive statements: statements of fact, statements of value (or evaluation), and statements of policy (or action, which argue what we should do). Unless otherwise specified, the first of to kill a mocking bird online text, these, the statement of fact, is the form that the thesis statement for frederick the heroic an academic essay should take#150;the obvious exception being when you write evaluative criticism (which you will NEVER do in my course). Bloody Wikipedia! Statements of frederick the heroic slave, fact can themselves be grouped into Relationships in an two basic forms: arguments of classification, and arguments of operation or function. It is possible to make other distinctions, like for example, arguments of relationship (how to things relate to each other) but these distinctions can be readily subsumed into these two basic groups. Arguments of classification are when you establish some sort of criteria, and then argue that something meets or fails to meet that criteria. The earlier example that Star Wars belongs within the Western Genre is an example of an argument of classification. Having established what comprises the Western Genre, the writer will then go on to prove how Star Wars embodies, contains, or possesses those elements. The writer will, in frederick the heroic slave, other words, prove that Star Wars meets that criteria. Arguments of operation or function argues in terms of what something does, or how it functions. The earlier argument that Faulkner's work critiques the ideology of of rapunzel, patriarchy is an example of function. This statement argues that Faulkner's work DOES something: it criticizes the ideology of patriarchy.
Note that unlike the argument of classification, the writer of this essay SEEMS to have to do more to prove their thesis. They will not only have to douglass, define what the ideology of patriarchy is#150;and thus establish criteria#150;they will also have to demonstrate that Faulkner's work DOES something with that criteria. The question of HOW leads to a discussion of the body of the essay. The Body of the Essay. From a conceptual standpoint, the function of the body of the essay is to the most alarming of the of 1850 concerning, prove the thesis statement laid out in the introduction. Easy enough. This section discusses how the writer accomplishes that proof.
In the discussion of types of argument, I made the point that the writer will have to establish criteria that can be used to prove their argument. The body of the essay is the location where the writer accomplishes that. An introduction is precisely that: It INTRODUCES the theoretical framework and the thesis statement. It does not DESCRIBE or DISCUSS these two things. This is douglass slave a fairly common mistake that beginning essay writers make. They fear that they have not said enough in Institutions are the Solution to Global Poverty, the intro and as a result, go on to discuss aspects of their theory or elaborate on a thesis. Frederick! The problem with doing so is that it screws up your organization. What comes next is no longer clear to in an Intimate, the reader. If you keep it clear to yourself that the frederick douglass the heroic slave, purpose of the introduction to Message Essay, your essay is to only INTRODUCE your theoretical framework, and your thesis statement, then the douglass slave, function of the Message, body of your essay will also become evident to the reader.
They will expect you to establish criteria so that you can prove your thesis. As a result, another important norm of the academic essay is: A primary function of the frederick the heroic, body of the essay is to establish the criteria by which the thesis statement will be proven. Thus it is that having argued that Star Wars is a Western, the on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate Context, body of the paper is going to have to first establish the elements that comprise the Western#150;it will have to establish the douglass slave, criteria by which the thesis can be proven. To argue that Faulkner's work criticizes thee ideology of patriarchy is going to require that the writer establish what the ideology of patriarchy is. Establishing the criteria by which the original story of rapunzel, thesis statement will be proven leads to the next logical step: demonstrating how the object under investigation meets those criteria. Douglass! Clearly it is not enough for the Faulkner essayist to just define what the to kill a mocking bird online, ideology of patriarchy is. Douglass The Heroic Slave! Their thesis is bloody that Faulkner's work criticizes that ideology. As a result, they will have to point to douglass, specific things within the bloody mary wikipedia, text and argue that they relate to those criteria IN A SPECIFIC WAY#150;in this case through a process of criticism.
This process of douglass, relating the object of investigation back to the established criteria is another fundamental component of the body of the essay. Without it, the Relationships Intimate Context, proof is frederick the heroic slave not complete. As silly as that sounds, I kid you not that the most frequent mistake of beginning essay writers is a failure to relate their analysis back to Essay to Global, the criteria they have established. Thus it is that another important norm for the academic essay is: Relate the analysis back to slave, the terms and concepts of the established criteria. The Star Wars example brings up another fundamental logical task to this process.
From the beginning you have probably thought the Star Wars thesis to not be very feasible. The film is not set in the West, and it occurs in the future. The question becomes, however, whether these are ESSENTIAL criteria to the Western, and if not, what is? In terms of proving that thesis statement, the story, writer is going to have to clearly establish what the elements of the Western Genre are, and then relate aspects of the film back to ALL of those criteria. Herein lies the essential importance of completeness to that process.
If the frederick douglass slave, Star Wars writer establishes the criteria but can only point to the gun-fighting that occurs in the film, then their essay will fail to persuade. Their essay will fail to are the Solution to Global Poverty, persuade precisely because it inadequately addresses the scope of the criteria. Thus it is frederick douglass slave that another important norm for bloody wikipedia this process is: Fully address the established criteria. It is very important to note that fully addressing the scope of the criteria does NOT mean that the object under discussion has to fully meet ALL the criteria. To stick with the Star Wars example, the writer can not IGNORE the issue of setting and even remotely hope to frederick douglass the heroic, persuade the audience. In some way, the writer is going to have to address the alarming of the to northerners was the, fact that both time and place are out of the bounds of the Western. This is the point precisely. The author will have to ADDRESS that point#150;those criteria#150;not necessarily MEET those criteria. In this respect, the writer is slave going to text, have make a supporting argument about how these criteria relate to frederick douglass slave, each other in terms of comprising the genre (or in a logical sense the whole).
The important point is that all criteria are addressed adequately. Failure to address any of the established criteria creates a gap in logic. Subsequently, the reasoning process (and its ability to persuade) fails. Fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria fulfills the logical requirements necessary to persuade reasonably and allows the writer to draw conclusions. Story! Before that process is discussed, however, it is necessary to examine an important component of this relating back process. The Role of Description. Relating the object of investigation or the object of the thesis back to the established criteria is necessarily going to involve description. Description is frequently an unclear and thorny issue for writers of the academic essay#150;especially in terms of scope (how much is enough?).
The purpose of description, however, clarifies the issue of scope. The purpose of description to is to make clear, or establish WHAT in the object of investigation (the film, the scene, the shot) relates to the criteria being used. It therefore becomes important for the writer to use description in such a manner as to establish the basis of the relationship between the slave, object and the criteria. Furthermore, the writer should LIMIT description to accomplishing only this task. Added description is not only superfluous, but distracts from trying to Essay Relationships Context, prove your argument.
As a result, another important norm for the body of the academic essay is: Subordinate description to the purpose of analysis. As stated above the process of fully relating the object of the thesis to the established criteria has the effect of frederick douglass the heroic slave, fulfilling the logical requirements. It is THAT task which ultimately persuades, not the conclusion itself. It is for this reason that, in some respects, the Essay on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate Context, conclusion does not seem to frederick slave, have a FUNDAMENTAL role in the process of reasoned persuasion. That in itself probably accounts for how many dopey tips exist for what to do with a conclusion, like: repeat the thesis statement (like people have forgotten it despite the fact that you've been working to prove it the entire time) or some other such thing. What to do with a conclusion if the work of proof is already done? The most effective thing to do with a conclusion is to first signal that the work is coming to close, and then close off the discussion itself by stating something definitive about the work.
Like the introduction, then, the conclusion has a dual role: to signal the original story of rapunzel, transition to closure, and to douglass the heroic slave, close the discussion with a definitive statement. The work of the conclusion should reference the thesis, without necessarily repeating the Institutions are the Solution to Global Poverty, thesis (or the steps by which it was proven) It should then say something definitive that signals closure by pointing to the implications of what you've discussed, by amplifying what you've discussed, or by contextualizing what you've discussed. In each case, you are striving to frederick douglass, close discussion by being definitive, and you are taking caution not to bloody mary, violate rule #1 of the douglass slave, academic essay: avoid statements that you cannot prove. To stay with the Essay Global Solution to Global Poverty, running examples, the conclusion to the Faulkner paper could look something like this: . it therefore serves as an example of how literary texts structure their criticisms of dominant ideologies. (pointing to the implications of proving your argument). Thus, far from being a portrait of frederick douglass the heroic, its time Faulkner's work demonstrates that literary works actively engage ideologies. (amplifying your argument) Rather than a story centered exclusively on war, Hemingway's novel instead participates in the reinforcement of dominant ideologies with American culture. (Contextualizing the argument) Note that the similarity here is how definitive these statements are. They draw upon the work that has been done, but say something different and story, final that is logically based upon what has been discussed.
There are, of course, variations on the genre of the academic essay--some rather large difference exist, for example, between the frederick douglass the heroic slave, social sciences and the humanites. A Mocking! This discussion is based on the humanties approach. Other variations can result from the idiosyncracies of frederick douglass, specific instructors. To the degree that what is written here sounds heavy handed and inflexible, I caution instead that such tone is trying to reflect the manner in which your own analysis and writing will need to sound precise and rigorous#150;the standards by which the academic essay is evaluated. The precision and rigor with which these norms and conventions are applied should function only to demand that your own analysis and reason engender these standards. They are thus meant to Essay Global Institutions are the Solution to Global Poverty, elevate your thinking, not control it.
The principles by which the academic essay structures itself is the heroic designed to be a discipline that frees your thinking, not subjugate it. Within its conventions is unlimited creative potential whose only mary, demand, ultimately, is that you say something meaningful that others can be persuaded of via your logic. What I have attempted to do here is make the norms and conventions of the genre explicit so that you can refine your skills working within it. Mastering this genre has the benefit of developing your skill to analyze situations using explicit criteria, and douglass the heroic slave, be able to make decisions based on that analysis. Essay Are The Solution! More than a few people have found that possession of such a skill is invaluable in life and professional endeavors.
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Electronic Theses Dissertations (ETD) Fall 2017: 5pm, Friday, December 1, 2017. Spring 2018: 5pm, Friday, April 27, 2018. Summer 2018: 5pm, Friday, July 27, 2018. WVU ETD documents must conform to the standards detailed in the Submission Information Packet. Use prescribed verbiage on the title page (see Sample Title Page in the ETD Submission Information Packet) Abstract page must immediately follow the title page Abstract page must have heading including the word “Abstract”, the document title and the author’s name (see Sample Abstract Page in the ETD Submission Information Packet) Front matter (preliminary pages) must be numbered in lower case Roman numerals Suppress the douglass page number display on the title and abstract pages Document must include a Table of Contents Body (Chapter 1 through end of document) must be numbered in Arabic numerals, starting over as page “1”, etc.) Except for wikipedia the above specifications, any discipline-specific style manual may be used at the Committee Chair’s discretion. Copyright and the heroic slave, Intellectual Property. You automatically have copyright to your work unless some other agreement has been made with a publisher or funder. Essay. Registering your copyright by douglass slave, filing directly through the U.S.
Copyright Office is optional. If statutory copyright has been or will be claimed, a copyright notice is normally listed in the manuscript (see the sample title page). On Interpersonal In An. You may apply for copyright registration by filing directly through the frederick douglass U.S. Copyright Office, or you may wish to use the The Media copyright registration service offered by UMI . Douglass The Heroic Slave. You can find information about bloody mary wikipedia, UMI ’s service in the ETD Submission Information Packet. The Heroic. Students who desire the copyright service offered through UMI should click the item ” Requesting ProQuest/UMI to vs. the Message Essay file for U.S. Copyright Registration”. The $55 fee will be assessed and on-line payment information will be required before the submission is completed. The student is required to obtain written permission from the frederick douglass the heroic slave author or publishers to quote extensively from copyrighted material. Such permission is usually granted on condition that acknowledgment is made.
If payment is required, this is the student’s responsibility. Permission for the use of all such materials must be obtained before the thesis or dissertation is submitted to the University Libraries. Reprints may be used in the body of a thesis or dissertation if the student is the primary author or has been primarily responsible for the publication. A Mocking. This assumes the student has had primary responsibility for the research as well as the preparation and the editing of the manuscript. Permission to use reprints may be required by the publisher.
All master’s and doctoral students who submit an electronic thesis or dissertation are required to participate in slave the ProQuest / University Microfilms Inc. (UMI) Abstract publishing program (participation for Problem Reports, Project Reports or Research Projects is optional). Each participant’s abstract shall be published in the Master’s Theses and Doctoral Dissertations Abstracts International database. As your publisher, ProQuest/UMI offers your dissertation for sale and pays you royalties in any year in to kill text which your 10% accrues to $10.00 or more when you select the “Traditional Publishing” (print-on-demand/royalty) option. If you did not restrict distribution of your dissertation when you signed your author agreement, Proquest assumes that you want the broadest possible distribution of your work. If you are no longer comfortable making your work broadly available, they can restrict sales of your work per your instruction. You can contact their author relations team at the heroic, [email protected] or 1-800-521-0600, extension 7020. You may also limit distribution via ProQuest at the time of mary wikipedia, graduation by simply selecting the appropriate restriction options on the Publishing Agreement form. To re-authorize ProQuest/UMI to distribute copies of your thesis or dissertation, you may send an frederick douglass the heroic email request to [email protected] to make arrangements for this. Mary. You will need to cite your name, document title and Proquest publication number along with your request. ProQuest/UMI Open Access Distribution Option: The now-common usage of the douglass term “open access” means freely available for are the to Global Poverty viewing or downloading by anyone with access to the internet, indefinitely.
The cost for slave the ProQuest open access service is $135.00 for Solution to Global Poverty theses or dissertations. In this publishing scenario, the douglass the heroic student pays an up-front publishing fee which allows the The Media public to frederick douglass the heroic slave access the ETD free of charge in perpetuity and the author forgoes royalty payments. At WVU , students typically select “Open Access” for “wvuScholar” repository distribution while simultaneously selecting “Traditional Publishing” for ProQuest distribution. An archival microfilm master copy will be produced from the electronic document (where applicable), which is retained in perpetuity in the ProQuest/UMI and Library of Congress archives. For preservation purposes, ProQuest/UMI may utilize alternate storage media such as CD-ROM for use in situations where multimedia submissions cannot be reproduced by original story, conventional means. Upon completion of the ETD approval process, your thesis or dissertation is deposited into the WVU Libraries’ institutional repository, WVUScholar. When submitting your ETD paperwork you choose how you would like your ETD to be made available. The University and ETD Task Force recommend making your ETD freely available worldwide. It should be noted that historically this option may have been perceived by a few book or journal publishers as “publishing” the work, thus they may have seen a conflict with this level of douglass slave, distribution of the thesis or dissertation. However, today the vast majority of the most compromise was the decision concerning, publishers (in fact over 80%) support the the heroic archiving of a thesis or dissertation in an open access institutional repository such as the WVU ETD collection.
Presently over 75% of WVU students use the The Media vs. the Message open access option. Recent studies by Suber, Harnad, etc. demonstrate that scholars who deposit their works as open access increase their citation rates between 2 and 5 times more than simply relying on academic journal article publishing. The recognition factor is vital for budding scholars, hence we embrace open access to scholarship. Frederick Slave. Students may choose “Open Access” at WVU while simultaneously choosing “Traditional Publishing” option via ProQuest (included in the most of the to northerners concerning base ETD submission fee) at douglass the heroic slave, no additional cost. Makes the original ETD freely available only to frederick douglass the heroic the WVU community (via login to Message the WVU eTD system) and as requested through the OCLC Interlibrary Loan (ILL) lending program. Access will be provided by interlibrary sharing of douglass, electronic or printed copies as requested.
Campus only original distribution will continue from year to year without special notification for a period of up to five years after the submission date, after which time it will revert to ‘World Wide Distribution’. You may change the Web distribution to “World” access at any time by sending an email to [email protected] This option addresses situations such as when a book or article is planned, and the book or journal publisher is concerned that prior publishing through a digital library will negatively impact on sales. Limiting distribution to “Campus Only” is generally accepted to be the equivalent to the “paper copy on the shelf”. Our best advice is for frederick douglass the student to contact prospective publishers to learn about their publishing policy. Many publishers have this information provided on their Web sites; if not, usually a simple email query to the editor will resolve any questions. Special exception allowed for MFA Creative Writing program students. Secures the Essay in an entire work for patent, proprietary, data sensitivity and/or third-party funding sponsorship purposes for slave a period of one year. During this period the Essay on Interpersonal Relationships in an Context copyright owner also agrees not to exercise her/his ownership rights, including public use in future works, without prior authorization from slave West Virginia University. At the end of the one year period, either the student or proxy may request an automatic extension for one additional year.
Student or proxy may determine a post-embargo status of Essay Global are the Solution Poverty, option 1 (open access) or option 2 (campus access) for frederick douglass the heroic the duration of the the 5 year restriction limit. Students (or designated proxies) may change the Web distribution to open access at any time by online, sending an email to [email protected] Proper arrangement and construction of the parts of frederick douglass slave, a thesis or dissertation manuscript will likely vary according to Essay Solution to Global Poverty the styles adopted by frederick douglass slave, different disciplines. The following are suggestions concerning the organization of the manuscript. They should be taken as a norm from which deviations may be made under the Essay on Interpersonal Relationships Intimate Context guidance of your advisor or committee. Title Page Abstract Dedication (optional) Acknowledgments Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Symbols, Abbreviations, or Nomenclature List of Multimedia Objects or Files. Introduction Review of Literature Text of frederick douglass the heroic slave, Investigation Summary and Conclusions Recommendations. Since practices vary greatly in different disciplines, you are expected to learn the the most alarming compromise of 1850 to northerners was the decision styles of frederick douglass the heroic slave, your field of study and are advised to follow the recommendations of your advisors and committee members on all matters not covered here. The content of the thesis or dissertation manuscript is outside the provenance of this guide.
The mandatory WVU ETD format requirements are listed on the “Format Requirements” page. If you would like a Word document template for your ETD , you can start with this style sheet. Electronic copies presented must be clean, clear, and uniform, with high contrast for quality screen and print resolution. Keep in mind that because of duplicating and alarming aspect of the compromise of 1850 was the, microfilming needs, the print must be letter quality with dark characters that are consistently clear and dense. The preferred font size is 10 to 12 ( characters per horizontal inch). Frederick. The preferred font style is Time New Roman (traditional) or Arial (modern). If necessary, different typefaces (font sizes or styles) may be used within headings, tables, figures, and appendices. Non-standard typefaces, such as script, are generally not acceptable except for Global Institutions are the Solution to Global commonly accepted symbols. All straight text should be single, one-and-one half, or double spaced.
Keep in mind that single spacing is frederick the heroic, preferable for electronic documents. A good compromise would be 1-1/2 spacing. Global Institutions Are The Solution To Global. The preferred number of douglass, lines is 6 (single-spaced) or 3 (double-spaced) text lines per vertical inch. Separate paragraphs by a line of a mocking bird text, horizontal space. Indent block quotes on the left and right. Single-space long tables, long quotations, footnotes, multi-line captions, computer programming, and bibliographical entries. All pages should have a minimum margin of 1 inch on all sides of the page.
This applies to the average text, illustration or table arrangement, where a professional and frederick douglass the heroic slave, consistent format should be retained. Exceptions could be, for example, artistic renderings requiring full margin bleed. A left margin of 1.5 inches (binding offset) is also acceptable, if you and your committee desire. Electronic formats should normally be able to be reproduced on standard paper sizes such as 8 1/2” x 11”. The placement of the vs. the Message Essay footnotes at the bottom of the page or at the end of the manuscript is optional but must be consistent throughout. A form acceptable for publications in the discipline is recommended. All footnotes must conform to the margin requirements. All tables and the heroic slave, figures should conform to the margin requirements. Photographic reduction may be necessary.
Not more than 3 to 5% reduction is suggested to prevent indistinct print quality. The Media Vs. The. A subheading at the bottom of the page must have at frederick douglass the heroic, least two full lines of type below it. Otherwise, the the most aspect decision subheading should begin on the next page. The last word on any page should not be hyphenated. The line should be short of the margin and the whole word typed on the following page. Each and frederick slave, every page in The Media Message Essay a thesis or dissertation, including all blank pages, should normally be assigned a number with no duplications in the numbering systems.
The preliminaries must be numbered with lower case Roman numerals (iii, iv, v, etc.). The numbers should appear in the upper right-hand corner or as indicated by your style manual, no closer than 0.75 inches from the edge of the page. The title page counts as page i, but suppress the display (the number should not appear on the page). The abstract page counts as page ii, but suppress the display ( the number should not appear on the page). The remainder of the text (body) should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, starting with Chapter One or the Introduction.
Numbering should begin with page “1” centered at the top or bottom of the page, or as indicated by your style manual, no closer than 0.75 inches from the edge of the page. Douglass Slave. Avoid the use of vs. the Message, letter suffixes as 10a, 10b, etc. Electronic multimedia presentations may not always be reproducible with conventional pagination and douglass the heroic slave, should be used with some caution. However, formats other than pdf are acceptable for the body, appendices, or other supplementary material. Some disciplines require the use of running headers in the document. This practice is Essay Global to Global, acceptable, but its use should be avoided in the preliminary pages. Tradition suggests that you use footnotes (as opposed to end notes).
Place any footnotes on the same page as the items that refer to frederick the heroic them. Footnotes in main body text should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals, starting with 1. Supplementary files, those secondary to the main document, may be used for a variety of requirements, such as high resolution or specialized image files, data files, or other presentation materials. File formats should be accessible with public domain or commonly used platforms. The word “Table” designates tabulated numerical data used in the body of the thesis or dissertation and in the appendices. A Mocking. Tables consist of an arrangement of facts, figures, and values in an orderly sequence usually in rows or columns.
The word “Figure” designates all other nonverbal material used in the body of the dissertation and in the appendices, such as charts, graphs, maps, photographs, plates, drawings, diagrams, etc. All illustrations and the heroic slave, charts must be drawn in dark, opaque fashion and be of sufficient size to be readable. The Most Of The To Northerners Concerning. Remember that microfilming and printing are black and white photographic processes and douglass slave, colors will appear in varying shades of Global are the, gray. Thus, cross-hatching and labels are often essential. Frederick Douglass The Heroic. If a title or description of an the most aspect of 1850 to northerners decision concerning illustration or graph is too long to be placed on the same page, it should be placed on douglass the heroic, the previous page. Wide tables or figures may be placed broadside, (landscape orientation). The table should be placed so that the top of the table is nearest the binding side (left margin). The placement of the table or figure, vertical or horizontal, does not alter the position of the page numbering requirements set forth in to kill bird this guide, and should remain consistent with pagination structure adjacent in the document. Oversize pages complicate duplicating procedures and should be avoided.
Often a different layout or the use of photographic reduction will resolve the problem. Frederick Douglass Slave. If oversized maps or charts are used, they should capable of reproduction on bloody wikipedia, standard paper size, or otherwise scalable. Masters Degree Problem / Project / Research Reports/ Undergraduate Theses/ MFA Theses. Your final thesis or dissertation document, saved as a PDF and with all changes approved by frederick douglass the heroic, your committee. A Mocking Bird. Completed Thesis and Dissertation Signature Form, signed by all committee members, scanned, and saved as a PDF . PhD, DNP, and EdD candidates must take the Survey of Earned Doctorates and save their Certificate of Completion. The first two pages of the document must be a Title page and douglass, Abstract that are formatted like the example included in this instruction packet. These pages should not be numbered. Document must include a Table of Contents. The body of the document should follow whatever discipline-specific style is preferred by your committee or department. Your thesis/dissertation gets stored in two places: WVU Scholar Hosted by our library This is the equivalent of a print copy on the library shelves Proquest Electronic Thessis Dissertations Database A company that gathers theses and dissertations from of the compromise of 1850 to northerners was the concerning all over the country: Researchers can use this database to search for ETDs at several schools at once.
Fall 2017 : 5pm, Friday, December 1, 2017 Spring 2018 : 5pm, Friday, April 27, 2018 Summer 2018 : 5pm, Friday, July 27, 2018. Go to http://etd.lib.wvu.edu and click the douglass Submit button. Bloody. For Ph.D, DNP, and EdD submissions, choose Submit Your Dissertation Online. (left box) For MA and MS submissions, choose Submit Your Thesis Online. Douglass. (middle box) For Master's Problem/Project Reports or Undergraduate Honors Thesis submissions, choose Submit Your Report Online. (right box) Create an Essay Institutions Poverty account on Proquest’s website. This will allow you to douglass log into the ETD Administrator and The Media vs. the Message, return to frederick douglass your submission if you need to revise it. This is not your WVU account. Original. You will need to create a new user name and password just for this process. Click on douglass slave, the link labeled “Submit new dissertation/thesis” and follow the step by to kill text, step instructions provided to complete your ETD submission.
Please see the next section, Your ETD Publishing Options, for an explanation of the choices you will be asked to make during the frederick douglass the heroic slave submission process. If you need to finish your submission later (for instance, if you need to on Interpersonal in an Context update your PDF file before uploading it), you can save your information and come back to finish. No information will be lost. Frederick Douglass The Heroic Slave. If you have questions about how to complete your ETD upload, please contact us and original of rapunzel, we will be happy to help! Let us know if you would like to schedule a time to come in for help with your ETD submission in person or over the phone. After submission of your ETD is complete, our office will review your submission, contact you about any changes you need to make, and frederick the heroic, notify you and Essay Global Solution Poverty, your committee when approval is frederick douglass the heroic slave, finalized, usually within five business days. The Proquest Dissertations and Theses Database is a service that university libraries subscribe to that lets people search theses and dissertations from schools all across the bloody wikipedia country in frederick douglass slave one place. Institutions Are The To Global. You may have even used it in frederick slave your own research. If you choose the “traditional publishing” option on the PQ Publishing Options screen, your ETD will be in the Proquest database and people will be able to buy single copies of The Media Message Essay, it from them. Each time someone does so, you will earn royalties, which Proquest will pay out to you after they reach a certain amount. (A good analogy might be that Proquest is to frederick douglass slave dissertations as Cafepress is to t-shirts.) You still own the copyright to your work, and can make contracts to publish it in journals or with other publishers.
You are only giving Proquest limited rights to original sell individual copies. The other Proquest option is frederick douglass, their “Open Access Publishing Plus” service. What this means is that instead of Global to Global Poverty, Proquest paying you royalties if someone wants a copy of your work, you pay a certain amount in advance and Proquest allows anyone to read and download your ETD for free through their website. WVUScholar is our own institutional repository, hosted by the heroic slave, the university libraries. When you deposit your ETD , you choose one of original, two options: open access, which lets anyone on the web read your ETD , or campus access, which only lets people with a WVU login read your ETD , as well as people who request it through their library’s Interlibrary Loan. If you have a pending patent or publication, you will be able to choose a No Access embargo for douglass the heroic a period of one year following your ETD deposit.
Students in the MFA in Creative Writing program are able to The Media choose a permanent campus access option for their work.