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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and social Tips. Studying for AP US History is an day of the dead exercise in social, memorization and The Muslim Essay critical thinking. Disney? Multiple-choice questions in why did macbeth kill family, this course will ask you to read and analyze documents based on disney responsibility your historical knowledge. Wedding Groom? Essay questions require similar skills, but with the added challenge of synthesizing your ideas into a coherent argument that incorporates outside knowledge and disney social evidence presented by the test. In this AP US History study guide, I'll give you all the resources and strategies you need to of Ancient, prepare for not only the AP exam, but any test that comes your way in disney responsibility, this course! Whats the on First Confession - A Short Purpose of This AP US History Study Guide? This guide will help you prepare for the AP test and social responsibility other assessments you encounter throughout the Essay at Every school year. It includes instructions for disney creating an effective study plan, some useful study tips, an overview of the content covered in the course, and a list of resources for speeches template practice questions.

This is a one-stop-shop for all the information you need to disney social responsibility, master the material covered in AP US History. Creating a Study Plan for AP US History. You should start studying sooner rather than later for The Government of Ancient this test because theres so much information to remember. Ideally, youll build on disney knowledge throughout the year and Tragedy regularly review to avoid forgetting earlier parts of the social responsibility course. Id recommend doing a holistic review after each in-class exam that covers everything youve learned up to that point. Begin your final review for the AP test in March or April so you have a month or two to spread out your studying. Here's an Essay on First Humorous Short Story essential step-by-step prep process that I recommend for disney responsibility the test: Step 1: Take a Full Practice Test (3 Hours 15 Minutes) The first step is to take a practice test under realistic conditions. Internationalization? Time yourself in accordance with the disney responsibility real AP test, and write out both essays completely. Rome? Put a mark next to any multiple-choice questions that required you to guess - it's important to go over this information later even if you happen to guess correctly. When youre done, score the disney social test to macbeth, see how well you would do on the real AP exam if you took it right now. Depending on disney responsibility how much you're hoping to improve your score, you may have to kill family, budget in more or less study time.

If youre already scoring close to a 5 (or a low 5), you might complete these steps once and find that youre satisfied with your results (about a 10-12 hour commitment). If youre scoring two or more AP points lower than you would like, however; you should probably plan to go through this process several times. Step 2: Catalog Your Mistakes and disney social Guesses (1 Hour) After you score the Essay test, go through your mistakes and disney lucky guesses. Try to categorize the wedding speeches groom template mistakes by disney social content area so you can see patterns and why did kill macduff's family determine which parts of the course you need to disney, study most. Once youve identified what you need to study, you can move on Essay on Taking a Look at Non-Lethal Weapons to reviewing the social responsibility actual content. Of Ancient? Make a list in disney responsibility, descending order of the topics that correspond to why did kill, the highest number of missed multiple-choice questions and social responsibility missed points on wedding groom essay/short answer questions. Social? Step 3: Study Relevant Content Areas and day of grave Practice Multiple Choice Questions (2 Hours) Use the disney responsibility list you made in the previous step to guide your review of the Essay on First Short content. Start with the areas where you just need a little refresher, and work your way up to the big issues you had on the diagnostic test. When youre satisfied that youve fixed the gaps in knowledge that led to your errors, you should do some practice multiple-choice questions to social, make sure you really know your stuff (find them in review books or on one of the Confession - A Humorous Short Story sites listed later in this article!).

Step 4: Practice Planning and Writing Essays (2 Hours) You need to practice writing essays before you take the test so that you feel comfortable with the disney responsibility time constraints and requirements. On Taking Weapons? This is disney social especially true when it comes to Essay Confession Humorous Short Story, the document-based question, which has a unique format. After examining the problems with your essays from the social responsibility original diagnostic test, practice your skills on additional free-response questions. For the sake of saving time, you dont necessarily need to write out entire essays, but you should at least make rough outlines that include all the components of a successful essay. That being said, if you struggled a lot with time on wedding the initial test, I would recommend going through another timed free-response section in responsibility, full so that you can practice moving more quickly. Essay At Non-Lethal? Step 5: Take a Second Full Practice Test (3 Hours 15 Minutes) After youve gotten more familiar with the material, take a second full practice test to assess your progress. If you find that youve improved to disney responsibility, a satisfactory level, you might stop there and just do light review until the exam. If youre still not happy with your results, repeat this process, and make sure youre really absorbing the - A Humorous material as you study. The next section will give you some more tips for studying effectively! Always time practice tests to the specifications of the responsibility AP exam! You have to get used to thinking and writing quickly.

These tips will help you get the most out of your time as you go through the process outlined in Essay Confession Story, the previous section. This exam assesses your historical knowledge in a different way than other tests you may have taken in the past. Make sure your study methods lend themselves to disney, the format! The ultimate goal of groom template, AP US History is for you to responsibility, be able to The Government of Ancient, connect individual events to the main themes of the responsibility course and draw conclusions about historical trends based on Tragedy at Every Corner your analysis. As you study, dont just look at events in social responsibility, isolation. Of Ancient Rome? Examine how they relate to other events of the time and how they might have resulted from different cultural and political attitudes. Social? What were the macduff's outcomes of particular events and disney how and why did they feed into different, larger trends? Ask yourself to Essay Tragedy, dig deeper. This will help you on in-class assessments and disney responsibility the AP test.

When you read content notes for Essay at Non-Lethal Weapons AP US History, you may think you have a fact committed to memory but forget it when it comes up on a test. P ause every couple of disney social, minutes, and try to of Ancient Rome, remember the disney facts that you just reviewed without looking back at the dead grave your notes. Y oull know immediately if youre not absorbing the disney responsibility information. On Taking A Look? If youre having trouble remembering a particular fact, try to disney social responsibility, make a distinctive connection with something else that's easier to remember. For example, l ets say you were trying to remember which items were taxed by the Townshend Acts. The Government Rome? It was glass, lead, paint, paper, and tea.

You could think of the disney responsibility mnemonic GuLPP iT to wedding speeches template, remember them. It also makes sense because all of the taxes were repealed except for the one on tea, which you can gulp! I know this sounds super weird, but I find the weirder the method of remembering something, the more likely it is to disney responsibility, stick in your mind. Tip #3: Practice Writing Essay Questions. The free-response section is the biggest challenge on The Government of Ancient Rome the AP exam because you have to plan and write two coherent essays over the course of responsibility, less than two hours. The Muslim Essay? Its imperative that you do lots of practice before the test to prevent your essays from responsibility being disorganized or lacking in focus . You can consult the the dead College Board site for links to past AP US History free-response questions. Disney? Make sure you always have a strong thesis statement and The Government all the disney points in your essay relate directly back to it. On First Humorous Short? Plan out your essay before you start writing to disney, keep yourself on track. Try to The Muslim Culture, include relevant outside knowledge, but ONLY if it pertains directly to responsibility, your argument and Culture Essay the subject of the question. Disney Social? Dont just spew out everything you know about the topic! AP US History covers history in what is Corner now the disney responsibility United States from 1491 to wedding speeches groom template, the present.

There are seven main themes (covering 19 different learning objectives) in the course that connect events throughout this 500+ year period. Disney Social? For each of why did, these themes, Ill briefly go over disney responsibility, the skills you're expected to master so you can study strategically: Theme 1: American and internationalization National Identity. Explain how ideas of social responsibility, democracy, freedom, and kill macduff's individualism factored into disney, the development of American political institutions, cultural values, and identity. Explain how various interpretations of the Constitution and model debates over which rights are granted to which groups have affected American society and social responsibility politics. Analyze how American national identity changed with US involvement in international conflicts and the expansion of the country. Analyze relationships between different regional, social, and uppsala ethnic groups in the US, and responsibility explain how their various experiences relate to the countrys national identity. Explain how and why political ideas and institutions have developed and changed over The Government of Ancient, time. Explain how reform groups and disney social responsibility other activists have sought to change American society and institutions. On Taking At Non-Lethal? Explain how differing views on the role of the social responsibility federal government in the social and Essay Tragedy at Every economic lives of Americans have impacted political debates and policies.

Theme 3: Work, Exchange, and Technology. Disney Social Responsibility? Explain the development of Essay a Look at Non-Lethal, labor systems and social responsibility how they have impacted the lives of US workers and Essay at Non-Lethal society as a whole. Explain how patterns of disney social responsibility, exchange, markets, and private businesses have developed, and analyze governmental responses to on Taking Weapons, economic issues. Disney? Analyze how technology has impacted economic development and society as a whole. Explain how religious groups and ideas have affected American politics and society. Explain how artistic, philosophical, and The Muslim Culture Essay scientific ideas have developed and disney social responsibility shaped society and institutions. Wedding Groom? Explain how ideas about gender roles and disney social womens rights have affected society and the dead grave politics. Social? Explain how different group identities (ethnic, racial, class, regional) have emerged and Culture Essay changed over time. Explain the causes of responsibility, migration to colonial America and, later, the US, and analyze the effects of The Muslim Culture, immigration on US History.

Analyze patterns of internal migration and disney responsibility settlement in what would become the uppsala internationalization model US and disney social how this has impacted American life. Uppsala Internationalization Model? Theme 6: Geography and disney social the Environment. Why Did Macbeth Kill Family? Explain how geographic and social environmental factors have shaped the The Muslim development of disney responsibility, communities in the US and speeches analyze how debates about natural resources have impacted group interactions and government policy. Explain how different types of interactions between empires, nations, and social peoples have influenced political, social, and economic developments in North America. Analyze the Essay reasons for social and results of US diplomatic, economic, and military initiatives elsewhere in on First - A, the world. Disney? Look at Essay all these themes! It's like being at a theme park minus the scents of fried food and despair! Also, I HIGHLY doubt this roller coaster could pass a safety inspection. Disney Social Responsibility? AP US History Content: Notes and Outlines. Now, Ill give you notes on the course content so that you can study the facts and connect them to the themes and wedding groom template learning objectives! The content is divided into nine different historical periods.

Under each, I will list important topics with links to notes. Every period also includes a link to at least one timeline of significant events. Disney? I think it's helpful to have these handy so you get a better grasp of the chronology (which will be very helpful on free-response questions). The Government Of Ancient Rome? The timelines are from APstudynotes.org, and the rest of the social notes are from uppsala internationalization a different site called APnotes.net. Responsibility? I choose to at Non-Lethal, source the notes from the second site because it gives a more succinct overview of the content, with key dates and major events bolded. Disney Responsibility? It's good for a quick review. I'd recommend looking at the chapter outlines on APstudynotes.org if you want to see a longer, more detailed description of Essay Tragedy, historical trends and disney social events. Timeline of Significant Events (1940-1960) Start of the Cold War Eisenhower Era Timeline of Significant Events (1960-1970) Political and the dead social unrest in the sixties Timeline of disney, Significant Events (1970-1980) Stagnation in the seventies.

Timeline of Significant Events (1980-1990) Resurgence of Conservatism Timeline of The Government Rome, Significant Events (1990-2000) Clinton presidency and social responsibility post-Cold War era Timeline of Significant Events (2000-Present) The start of the new century. Spacious skies, amber waves of grain, etc. Why Did Macbeth Macduff's Family? Here some print and disney responsibility online resources that you can use to review for Essay Corner the AP test and smaller portions of the responsibility curriculum throughout the year: Cracking the AP US History Exam Kaplan AP US History 2016 AP US History Crash Course. These practice questions come directly from the College Board, so they're the most accurate representations of what you can expect on the real test. Groom Template? Try to disney responsibility, save these resources for later in The Muslim Culture, your studying so you can get an accurate reading on disney your strengths and day of grave weaknesses when you're close to the exam. Youll find practice quizzes for every topic covered in social responsibility, the course here. There are multiple choice questions and, for wedding template some topics, short answer questions (youre given a drop-down menu of 12 answer choices). Disney Responsibility? These wont help much with the wedding speeches groom more analytical elements of the disney responsibility test, but if you want to Essay Tragedy at Every Corner, test your knowledge of facts, they'll serve you well.

This is disney social responsibility a series of Humorous Story, quizzes on every topic in social responsibility, the curriculum. As you go through them, the site will display stats detailing how you fared on questions of speeches, varying difficulty levels. This should help you figure out whether youve mastered the disney responsibility material. Macbeth Family? You can sign up for free for this service and disney social enroll in the dead, the AP US History course. There are lots of practice questions and video lessons that may be helpful in responsibility, your studying. Groom Template? This site has chapter-by-chapter practice quizzes organized around an disney old edition of The American Pageant textbook.

Questions are multiple choice and The Government Rome true-false. Disney? Again, this is more helpful for Essay on First - A Humorous Short factual recall than for analysis questions. This site has six pages of responsibility, multiple-choice quizzes on wedding groom template all the topics you need to know for the exam! Varsity Tutors has short multiple-choice practice quizzes on every topic as well. Disney Social? This site has sets of matching and on Taking a Look at Non-Lethal Weapons multiple choice questions for disney social every period in macduff's, US History. They've got questions; YOU'VE got answers! AP US History covers seven major themes across nine periods. It's hard to disney, study this much material, which is The Muslim Culture why it's good to have a game plan! To recap, the steps I'd recommend you take in your studying are: Step 1: Take a Full Practice Test Step 2: Catalog Your Mistakes Step 3: Study Relevant Content Areas and Practice Multiple-Choice Questions Step 4: Practice Planning and Writing Essays Step 5: Take a Second Full Practice Test. You can repeat these steps as necessary depending on how much you need to improve!

As you review, also keep a few key tips in responsibility, mind: Tip #1: Make Thematic Connections Tip #2: Read and Repeat Tip #3: Practice Writing Essays Frequently. Essay On First Confession - A Humorous Short Story? Use the disney social responsibility notes provided in the content overview and the resources in the last section to get yourself up to speed. Start studying for the final exam at speeches template least one or two months beforehand, so you aren't forced to social responsibility, cram! You can also check out our complete study guide to speeches groom, the SAT US History Subject Test. If you take it right after the disney social AP US History exam, you might not need to Tragedy at Every Corner, study much at all!

Want to social, improve your SAT score by 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points? We've written a guide for each test about the Rome top 5 strategies you must be using to disney responsibility, have a shot at improving your score. Download it for free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Samantha is grave a blog content writer for responsibility PrepScholar.

Her goal is to help students adopt a less stressful view of standardized testing and other academic challenges through her articles. Rome? Samantha is social also passionate about art and Essay on Taking at Non-Lethal Weapons graduated with honors from Dartmouth College as a Studio Art major in 2014. Disney Social Responsibility? In high school, she earned a 2400 on at Every the SAT, 5's on all seven of disney responsibility, her AP tests, and uppsala model was named a National Merit Scholar. You should definitely follow us on social media. Disney Social Responsibility? You'll get updates on The Government of Ancient Rome our latest articles right on social your feed. Tragedy? Follow us on all 3 of our social networks: Have any questions about this article or other topics? Ask below and we'll reply!

Series: How to social responsibility, Get 800 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to The Muslim Culture Essay, Get to disney social, 600 on Each SAT Section: Series: How to Get 36 on - A Each ACT Section: Our hand-selected experts help you in a variety of other topics! Looking for Graduate School Test Prep? Check out our top-rated graduate blogs here: Get the responsibility latest articles and test prep tips! PrepScholar 2013-2015. Wedding Speeches Groom Template? All rights reserved. Disney Social? SAT is macbeth macduff's a registered trademark of the College Entrance Examination Board TM . The College Entrance Examination.

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3 The Application Program Interface. This section describes the C API for disney responsibility, Lua, that is, the set of C functions available to the host program to communicate with Lua. Confession Humorous? All API functions and related types and constants are declared in the header file lua.h . Even when we use the term function, any facility in social the API may be provided as a macro instead. All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once (except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state), and Tragedy at Every Corner, so do not generate any hidden side-effects. As in most C libraries, the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency. However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua with a proper definition for the macro luai_apicheck , in file luaconf.h . Lua uses a virtual stack to pass values to and from disney social, C. Each element in this stack represents a Lua value ( nil , number, string, etc.). Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack, which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of C functions that are still active. Kill Macduff's? This stack initially contains any arguments to disney responsibility the C function and it is where the macduff's C function pushes its results to social responsibility be returned to The Muslim Essay the caller (see lua_CFunction ). For convenience, most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.

Instead, they can refer to responsibility any element in the stack by using an index : A positive index represents an absolute stack position (starting at the dead grave, 1); a negative index represents an responsibility, offset relative to Culture Essay the top of the stack. More specifically, if the stack has n elements, then index 1 represents the first element (that is, the element that was pushed onto social responsibility the stack first) and index n represents the last element; index -1 also represents the last element (that is, the element at the top) and index -n represents the first element. Uppsala Internationalization Model? We say that an index is responsibility, valid if it lies between 1 and the stack top (that is, if 1 ≤ abs(index) ≤ top ). When you interact with Lua API, you are responsible for ensuring consistency. In particular, you are responsible for controlling stack overflow . You can use the function lua_checkstack to grow the stack size. Whenever Lua calls C, it ensures that at least LUA_MINSTACK stack positions are available. LUA_MINSTACK is defined as 20, so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space unless your code has loops pushing elements onto model the stack. Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size you have set through lua_checkstack . Such indices are called acceptable indices . More formally, we define an acceptable index as follows: Note that 0 is never an acceptable index. Unless otherwise noted, any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with pseudo-indices , which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C code but which are not in the stack. Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment, the social function environment, the registry, and the upvalues of a C function (see §3.4).

The thread environment (where global variables live) is always at pseudo-index LUA_GLOBALSINDEX . The environment of the running C function is always at pseudo-index LUA_ENVIRONINDEX . To access and change the value of global variables, you can use regular table operations over The Muslim Culture, an environment table. For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do. When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure ; these values are called upvalues and are accessible to the function whenever it is called (see lua_pushcclosure ). Whenever a C function is called, its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices. These pseudo-indices are produced by disney responsibility the macro lua_upvalueindex . The first value associated with a function is at position lua_upvalueindex(1) , and so on. Uppsala Internationalization? Any access to lua_upvalueindex( n ) , where n is disney social, greater than the The Government of Ancient number of upvalues of the current function (but not greater than 256), produces an acceptable (but invalid) index. Lua provides a registry , a pre-defined table that can be used by any C code to store whatever Lua value it needs to store. This table is always located at pseudo-index LUA_REGISTRYINDEX . Any C library can store data into this table, but it should take care to choose keys different from those used by other libraries, to social responsibility avoid collisions. Uppsala Model? Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name or a light userdata with the address of a C object in your code. The integer keys in disney responsibility the registry are used by the reference mechanism, implemented by internationalization the auxiliary library, and disney, therefore should not be used for other purposes.

Internally, Lua uses the model C longjmp facility to handle errors. (You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++; see file luaconf.h .) When Lua faces any error (such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors, and runtime errors) it raises an error; that is, it does a long jump. A protected environment uses setjmp to disney social responsibility set a recover point; any error jumps to the most recent active recover point. Most functions in the API can throw an error, for instance due to a memory allocation error. The documentation for each function indicates whether it can throw errors. Inside a C function you can throw an error by calling lua_error . Here we list all functions and types from the C API in alphabetical order. The Government Of Ancient Rome? Each function has an indicator like this: [-o, +p, x ] The first field, o , is how many elements the function pops from the disney stack. The second field, p , is Essay Confession - A Humorous, how many elements the function pushes onto the stack. Disney Social? (Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.) A field in the form x|y means the day of grave function can push (or pop) x or y elements, depending on the situation; an interrogation mark ' ? ' means that we cannot know how many elements the disney responsibility function pops/pushes by looking only at its arguments (e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).

The third field, x , tells whether the function may throw errors: ' - ' means the function never throws any error; ' m ' means the function may throw an error only due to not enough memory; ' e ' means the function may throw other kinds of errors; ' v ' means the function may throw an error on purpose. The type of the why did macbeth macduff's family memory-allocation function used by Lua states. The allocator function must provide a functionality similar to realloc , but not exactly the same. Its arguments are ud , an opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate ; ptr , a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed; osize , the disney original size of the block; nsize , the new size of the The Muslim Culture block. ptr is NULL if and only if osize is zero. Disney Responsibility? When nsize is zero, the why did allocator must return NULL ; if osize is not zero, it should free the disney block pointed to by ptr . When nsize is not zero, the Essay allocator returns NULL if and disney social, only if it cannot fill the request. When nsize is - A Humorous Story, not zero and disney social, osize is zero, the The Government of Ancient allocator should behave like malloc . When nsize and osize are not zero, the allocator behaves like realloc . Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when osize = nsize . Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function. It is used in the auxiliary library by luaL_newstate . This code assumes that free(NULL) has no effect and that realloc(NULL, size) is equivalent to malloc(size) . ANSI C ensures both behaviors. Sets a new panic function and returns the old one. If an error happens outside any protected environment, Lua calls a panic function and disney social, then calls exit(EXIT_FAILURE) , thus exiting the host application. Your panic function can avoid this exit by never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).

The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack. Calls a function. To call a function you must use the following protocol: first, the The Government Rome function to be called is pushed onto disney responsibility the stack; then, the arguments to the function are pushed in direct order; that is, the first argument is pushed first. Finally you call lua_call ; nargs is the number of arguments that you pushed onto why did macbeth kill family the stack. All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack when the disney function is day of the dead grave, called. The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.

The number of results is adjusted to responsibility nresults , unless nresults is LUA_MULTRET . Essay Confession Humorous Story? In this case, all results from the function are pushed. Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space. The function results are pushed onto the stack in responsibility direct order (the first result is pushed first), so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack. Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards (with a longjmp ). The following example shows how the host program can do the equivalent to this Lua code: Here it is in The Muslim Essay C: Note that the code above is balanced: at its end, the disney responsibility stack is The Muslim Essay, back to disney social responsibility its original configuration. This is Culture, considered good programming practice. Type for C functions. In order to communicate properly with Lua, a C function must use the disney responsibility following protocol, which defines the way parameters and results are passed: a C function receives its arguments from day of, Lua in disney social its stack in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).

So, when the function starts, lua_gettop(L) returns the The Muslim Essay number of arguments received by the function. The first argument (if any) is at index 1 and its last argument is at index lua_gettop(L) . To return values to Lua, a C function just pushes them onto the stack, in social responsibility direct order (the first result is pushed first), and returns the number of results. Why Did Macduff's Family? Any other value in the stack below the responsibility results will be properly discarded by Lua. Like a Lua function, a C function called by Lua can also return many results. As an kill, example, the following function receives a variable number of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum: Ensures that there are at least extra free stack slots in the stack. It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size. This function never shrinks the stack; if the responsibility stack is already larger than the new size, it is left unchanged. Destroys all objects in the given Lua state (calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any) and frees all dynamic memory used by this state. On several platforms, you may not need to call this function, because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.

On the other hand, long-running programs, such as a daemon or a web server, might need to release states as soon as they are not needed, to avoid growing too large. Concatenates the n values at the top of the stack, pops them, and leaves the result at the top. If n is 1, the result is the The Government of Ancient single value on the stack (that is, the function does nothing); if n is 0, the result is the empty string. Disney Social? Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua (see §2.5.4). Calls the C function func in protected mode. func starts with only why did kill family one element in its stack, a light userdata containing ud . In case of errors, lua_cpcall returns the same error codes as lua_pcall , plus the error object on the top of the stack; otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack. All values returned by func are discarded. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. The new table has space pre-allocated for narr array elements and nrec non-array elements. This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements the social responsibility table will have. Otherwise you can use the internationalization model function lua_newtable . Dumps a function as a binary chunk.

Receives a Lua function on social the top of the stack and produces a binary chunk that, if loaded again, results in a function equivalent to Essay the one dumped. As it produces parts of the chunk, lua_dump calls function writer (see lua_Writer ) with the disney given data to write them. The value returned is the Humorous Short error code returned by the last call to the writer; 0 means no errors. This function does not pop the Lua function from the disney social stack. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are equal, following the semantics of the Lua == operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Generates a Lua error. The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type) must be on the stack top. This function does a long jump, and therefore never returns. (see luaL_error ). Controls the garbage collector. This function performs several tasks, according to the value of the parameter what : LUA_GCSTOP : stops the garbage collector. LUA_GCRESTART : restarts the day of the dead garbage collector. LUA_GCCOLLECT : performs a full garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCCOUNT : returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.

LUA_GCCOUNTB : returns the disney social remainder of dividing the current amount of Essay Short bytes of memory in use by disney Lua by 1024. LUA_GCSTEP : performs an incremental step of garbage collection. The step size is controlled by data (larger values mean more steps) in uppsala model a non-specified way. If you want to control the step size you must experimentally tune the value of data . The function returns 1 if the disney responsibility step finished a garbage-collection cycle. LUA_GCSETPAUSE : sets data as the new value for of Ancient Rome, the pause of the collector (see §2.10). Responsibility? The function returns the previous value of the pause. LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL : sets data as the new value for the step multiplier of the uppsala internationalization collector (see §2.10). The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.

Returns the memory-allocation function of disney responsibility a given state. Why Did Family? If ud is not NULL , Lua stores in *ud the opaque pointer passed to lua_newstate . Pushes onto the stack the environment table of the value at responsibility, the given index. Pushes onto The Government of Ancient Rome the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index. As in responsibility Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Pushes onto the stack the value of the global name . Internationalization? It is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given acceptable index. If the index is not valid, or if the disney value does not have a metatable, the uppsala model function returns 0 and pushes nothing on the stack. Pushes onto the stack the value t[k] , where t is the value at the given valid index and k is the value at the top of the stack. This function pops the key from the stack (putting the responsibility resulting value in its place).

As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the index event (see §2.8). Returns the of Ancient index of the top element in disney responsibility the stack. Because indices start at 1, this result is Essay - A Humorous, equal to disney social responsibility the number of elements in the stack (and so 0 means an empty stack). Moves the macbeth family top element into social the given valid index, shifting up the elements above this index to open space. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values. By default it is a ptrdiff_t , which is usually the The Muslim largest signed integral type the machine handles comfortably. Returns 1 if the social responsibility value at the given acceptable index has type boolean, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C function, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function (either C or Lua), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is why did macduff's, a light userdata, and 0 otherwise.

Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid (that is, it refers to disney an element outside the The Government of Ancient current stack), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is disney social responsibility, not valid (that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack) or if the value at Tragedy, this index is nil , and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number or a string convertible to disney social a number, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is why did kill, a string or a number (which is always convertible to a string), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread, and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is disney social, a userdata (either full or light), and 0 otherwise. Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index index1 is smaller than the value at acceptable index index2 , following the semantics of the Lua operator (that is, may call metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices is non valid.

Loads a Lua chunk. If there are no errors, lua_load pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua function on family top of the disney social responsibility stack. Otherwise, it pushes an error message. The return values of lua_load are: 0: no errors; LUA_ERRSYNTAX : syntax error during pre-compilation; LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. This function only loads a chunk; it does not run it. lua_load automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary, and loads it accordingly (see program luac ). The lua_load function uses a user-supplied reader function to read the chunk (see lua_Reader ). Rome? The data argument is an social, opaque value passed to on First Confession the reader function. The chunkname argument gives a name to the chunk, which is used for error messages and in debug information (see §3.8). Creates a new, independent state. Returns NULL if cannot create the state (due to lack of memory).

The argument f is the allocator function; Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function. The second argument, ud , is an opaque pointer that Lua simply passes to the allocator in every call. Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack. It is equivalent to disney social responsibility lua_createtable(L, 0, 0) . Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack, and returns a pointer to a lua_State that represents this new thread. The new state returned by this function shares with the Rome original state all global objects (such as tables), but has an independent execution stack. There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread. Social? Threads are subject to why did macduff's garbage collection, like any Lua object. This function allocates a new block of memory with the social given size, pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the Essay block address, and returns this address.

Userdata represent C values in Lua. A full userdata represents a block of memory. It is an object (like a table): you must create it, it can have its own metatable, and you can detect when it is being collected. A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality). When Lua collects a full userdata with a gc metamethod, Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized. When this userdata is collected again then Lua frees its corresponding memory.

Pops a key from the stack, and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index (the next pair after the given key). If there are no more elements in the table, then lua_next returns 0 (and pushes nothing). A typical traversal looks like this: While traversing a table, do not call lua_tolstring directly on a key, unless you know that the key is actually a string. Disney Responsibility? Recall that lua_tolstring changes the value at the given index; this confuses the next call to lua_next . The type of numbers in Lua.

By default, it is The Muslim Essay, double, but that can be changed in luaconf.h . Through the responsibility configuration file you can change Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long). Returns the macduff's family length of the disney responsibility value at the given acceptable index: for Essay Tragedy at Every, strings, this is the string length; for tables, this is the result of the length operator (' # '); for userdata, this is the social responsibility size of the block of memory allocated for Confession - A Humorous Short Story, the userdata; for other values, it is 0. Calls a function in protected mode. Both nargs and nresults have the same meaning as in lua_call . If there are no errors during the call, lua_pcall behaves exactly like lua_call . However, if there is disney social responsibility, any error, lua_pcall catches it, pushes a single value on the stack (the error message), and returns an error code. Like lua_call , lua_pcall always removes the function and its arguments from the stack.

If errfunc is 0, then the error message returned on the stack is exactly the original error message. Otherwise, errfunc is the stack index of an error handler function . Culture? (In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.) In case of runtime errors, this function will be called with the error message and its return value will be the message returned on social responsibility the stack by at Every lua_pcall . Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug information to the error message, such as a stack traceback. Such information cannot be gathered after the return of social lua_pcall , since by then the stack has unwound. The lua_pcall function returns 0 in case of Confession Story success or one of the following error codes (defined in lua.h ): LUA_ERRRUN : a runtime error. LUA_ERRMEM : memory allocation error. For such errors, Lua does not call the disney social responsibility error handler function. LUA_ERRERR : error while running the error handler function. Pops n elements from the day of grave stack. Pushes a boolean value with value b onto the stack. Pushes a new C closure onto the stack.

When a C function is created, it is possible to associate some values with it, thus creating a C closure (see §3.4); these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is social responsibility, called. To associate values with a C function, first these values should be pushed onto the stack (when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first). Then lua_pushcclosure is called to create and day of, push the C function onto the stack, with the argument n telling how many values should be associated with the function. lua_pushcclosure also pops these values from the stack. The maximum value for n is 255. Pushes a C function onto disney social responsibility the stack.

This function receives a pointer to a C function and of Ancient Rome, pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type function that, when called, invokes the disney social responsibility corresponding C function. Any function to be registered in Lua must follow the uppsala correct protocol to receive its parameters and return its results (see lua_CFunction ). lua_pushcfunction is defined as a macro: Pushes onto the stack a formatted string and returns a pointer to this string. It is similar to the C function sprintf , but has some important differences: You do not have to allocate space for the result: the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation (and deallocation, through garbage collection). The conversion specifiers are quite restricted. There are no flags, widths, or precisions. The conversion specifiers can only be ' %% ' (inserts a ' % ' in the string), ' %s ' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions), ' %f ' (inserts a lua_Number ), ' %p ' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral), ' %d ' (inserts an int ), and ' %c ' (inserts an int as a character). Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes a light userdata onto the stack. Userdata represent C values in Lua.

A light userdata represents a pointer. Disney? It is a value (like a number): you do not create it, it has no individual metatable, and it is not collected (as it was never created). A light userdata is equal to any light userdata with the same C address. This macro is equivalent to lua_pushlstring , but can be used only when s is a literal string. In these cases, it automatically provides the string length. Pushes the string pointed to kill family by s with size len onto the stack. Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the social given string, so the memory at day of, s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string can contain embedded zeros.

Pushes a nil value onto the stack. Pushes a number with value n onto the stack. Pushes the social zero-terminated string pointed to by s onto Culture Essay the stack. Social? Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the Culture Essay given string, so the memory at s can be freed or reused immediately after the function returns. The string cannot contain embedded zeros; it is responsibility, assumed to end at the first zero. Pushes the thread represented by L onto the stack. Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state. Pushes a copy of the internationalization element at the given valid index onto the stack. Equivalent to lua_pushfstring , except that it receives a va_list instead of social responsibility a variable number of internationalization arguments. Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices index1 and index2 are primitively equal (that is, without calling metamethods). Otherwise returns 0. Also returns 0 if any of the indices are non valid.

Similar to lua_gettable , but does a raw access (i.e., without metamethods). Pushes onto the stack the value t[n] , where t is the value at the given valid index. The access is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. Similar to disney lua_settable , but does a raw assignment (i.e., without metamethods). Does the equivalent of t[n] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at the top of the stack.

This function pops the value from the the dead stack. The assignment is raw; that is, it does not invoke metamethods. The reader function used by lua_load . Every time it needs another piece of the chunk, lua_load calls the disney responsibility reader, passing along its data parameter. The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory with a new piece of the chunk and set size to the block size. The block must exist until the reader function is called again.

To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return NULL or set size to zero. The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero. Sets the The Muslim Essay C function f as the disney social responsibility new value of global name . The Government Of Ancient? It is defined as a macro: Removes the element at the given valid index, shifting down the social elements above this index to fill the kill gap. Cannot be called with a pseudo-index, because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position. Moves the top element into social responsibility the given position (and pops it), without shifting any element (therefore replacing the value at the given position). Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.

To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread (see lua_newthread ); then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments; then you call lua_resume , with narg being the number of arguments. This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution. When it returns, the why did stack contains all values passed to lua_yield , or all values returned by disney responsibility the body function. lua_resume returns LUA_YIELD if the coroutine yields, 0 if the coroutine finishes its execution without errors, or an error code in case of errors (see lua_pcall ). On First Confession Humorous Story? In case of errors, the stack is not unwound, so you can use the social responsibility debug API over it. The error message is on the top of the stack. To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the family values to be passed as results from disney social, yield , and then call lua_resume . Changes the uppsala allocator function of a given state to f with user data ud . Pops a table from the stack and sets it as the new environment for the value at the given index. If the value at the given index is neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata, lua_setfenv returns 0. Otherwise it returns 1. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index and v is the value at disney social responsibility, the top of the stack. This function pops the value from the stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Pops a value from the stack and sets it as the new value of The Government of Ancient Rome global name . It is defined as a macro:

Pops a table from the stack and social, sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given acceptable index. Does the equivalent to t[k] = v , where t is the value at the given valid index, v is the value at the top of the Essay - A Humorous Story stack, and k is the value just below the top. This function pops both the key and the value from the social stack. As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod for the newindex event (see §2.8). Accepts any acceptable index, or 0, and why did macbeth, sets the stack top to this index.

If the new top is larger than the disney responsibility old one, then the new elements are filled with nil . If index is 0, then all stack elements are removed. Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter. The Lua library is of Ancient, fully reentrant: it has no global variables. All information about a state is kept in this structure. A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to every function in the library, except to disney lua_newstate , which creates a Lua state from scratch. Returns the status of the why did macduff's family thread L . The status can be 0 for a normal thread, an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error, or LUA_YIELD if the thread is suspended. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C boolean value (0 or 1).

Like all tests in Lua, lua_toboolean returns 1 for disney responsibility, any Lua value different from false and nil ; otherwise it returns 0. It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index. (If you want to accept only The Muslim Essay actual boolean values, use lua_isboolean to disney social responsibility test the value's type.) Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C function. That value must be a C function; otherwise, returns NULL . Converts the Lua value at Essay Tragedy at Every Corner, the given acceptable index to the signed integral type lua_Integer . Disney Social Responsibility? The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tointeger returns 0. If the number is not an integer, it is truncated in some non-specified way. Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C string. If len is grave, not NULL , it also sets *len with the string length. The Lua value must be a string or a number; otherwise, the function returns NULL . If the disney responsibility value is The Government of Ancient Rome, a number, then lua_tolstring also changes the responsibility actual value in Essay Tragedy the stack to a string . (This change confuses lua_next when lua_tolstring is applied to keys during a table traversal.) lua_tolstring returns a fully aligned pointer to a string inside the responsibility Lua state. This string always has a zero (' 0 ') after its last character (as in of Ancient C), but can contain other zeros in its body.

Because Lua has garbage collection, there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by disney lua_tolstring will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack. Converts the macduff's family Lua value at the given acceptable index to social responsibility the C type lua_Number (see lua_Number ). The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number (see §2.2.1); otherwise, lua_tonumber returns 0. Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic C pointer ( void* ). The value can be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function; otherwise, lua_topointer returns NULL . Different objects will give different pointers. There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value. Typically this function is Tragedy Corner, used only for debug information. Equivalent to lua_tolstring with len equal to disney social responsibility NULL . Converts the why did macduff's family value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread (represented as lua_State* ). Responsibility? This value must be a thread; otherwise, the uppsala function returns NULL . If the responsibility value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata, returns its block address.

If the value is a light userdata, returns its pointer. Otherwise, returns NULL . Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index, or LUA_TNONE for a non-valid index (that is, an index to Tragedy at Every an empty stack position). The types returned by lua_type are coded by the following constants defined in lua.h : LUA_TNIL , LUA_TNUMBER , LUA_TBOOLEAN , LUA_TSTRING , LUA_TTABLE , LUA_TFUNCTION , LUA_TUSERDATA , LUA_TTHREAD , and LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA . Returns the name of the type encoded by the value tp , which must be one the values returned by lua_type . The type of the writer function used by lua_dump . Every time it produces another piece of chunk, lua_dump calls the responsibility writer, passing along the buffer to be written ( p ), its size ( sz ), and the data parameter supplied to Essay on First Confession - A lua_dump . The writer returns an error code: 0 means no errors; any other value means an error and stops lua_dump from calling the writer again. Exchange values between different threads of the same global state. This function pops n values from the stack from , and pushes them onto the stack to . Yields a coroutine.

This function should only be called as the return expression of a C function, as follows: When a C function calls lua_yield in that way, the running coroutine suspends its execution, and the call to lua_resume that started this coroutine returns. The parameter nresults is the number of values from the stack that are passed as results to lua_resume . Lua has no built-in debugging facilities. Instead, it offers a special interface by disney means of functions and hooks . This interface allows the construction of different kinds of Essay on First - A Short Story debuggers, profilers, and social, other tools that need inside information from the interpreter. A structure used to macduff's family carry different pieces of information about an active function. lua_getstack fills only the private part of responsibility this structure, for later use. To fill the other fields of lua_Debug with useful information, call lua_getinfo . The fields of lua_Debug have the following meaning: source : If the function was defined in a string, then source is that string. If the function was defined in a file, then source starts with a ' @ ' followed by the file name. Uppsala Internationalization Model? short_src : a printable version of source , to be used in error messages. linedefined : the line number where the definition of the function starts. Responsibility? lastlinedefined : the line number where the definition of the function ends. Of Ancient Rome? what : the disney social responsibility string Lua if the day of grave function is a Lua function, C if it is a C function, main if it is the main part of a chunk, and tail if it was a function that did a tail call. In the latter case, Lua has no other information about the responsibility function. Essay Tragedy At Every? currentline : the disney social responsibility current line where the given function is executing. When no line information is available, currentline is set to -1. Macbeth Family? name : a reasonable name for disney responsibility, the given function.

Because functions in Essay on First Confession - A Short Story Lua are first-class values, they do not have a fixed name: some functions can be the value of multiple global variables, while others can be stored only in a table field. Responsibility? The lua_getinfo function checks how the function was called to find a suitable name. If it cannot find a name, then name is set to NULL . namewhat : explains the why did kill macduff's name field. The value of disney social namewhat can be global , local , method , field , upvalue , or (the empty string), according to how the function was called. (Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.) nups : the number of upvalues of the function. Returns the current hook function.

Returns the current hook count. Returns the current hook mask. Returns information about a specific function or function invocation. To get information about a function invocation, the grave parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by disney a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). To get information about a function you push it onto the stack and The Muslim Culture, start the what string with the character ' '. (In that case, lua_getinfo pops the function in the top of the stack.) For instance, to know in social which line a function f was defined, you can write the Essay on First Confession Short Story following code: Each character in the string what selects some fields of the structure ar to be filled or a value to social responsibility be pushed on the stack: ' n ': fills in the field name and namewhat ; ' S ': fills in the fields source , short_src , linedefined , lastlinedefined , and what ; ' l ': fills in the field currentline ; ' u ': fills in the field nups ; ' f ': pushes onto the stack the function that is running at Essay Tragedy Corner, the given level; ' L ': pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the numbers of the lines that are valid on the function. (A valid line is a line with some associated code, that is, a line where you can put a break point. Disney? Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)

This function returns 0 on error (for instance, an on First Confession - A Story, invalid option in what ). Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record. Disney Responsibility? The parameter ar must be a valid activation record that was filled by a previous call to lua_getstack or given as argument to a hook (see lua_Hook ). Rome? The index n selects which local variable to inspect (1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and disney social, so on, until the of Ancient Rome last active local variable). lua_getlocal pushes the variable's value onto the stack and returns its name. Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and social responsibility, C function locals). Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is greater than the number of Culture active local variables. Get information about the interpreter runtime stack. This function fills parts of a lua_Debug structure with an disney, identification of the activation record of the function executing at Confession - A Humorous Short, a given level. Level 0 is the current running function, whereas level n+1 is the function that has called level n . When there are no errors, lua_getstack returns 1; when called with a level greater than the stack depth, it returns 0. Gets information about a closure's upvalue. (For Lua functions, upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses, and that are consequently included in its closure.) lua_getupvalue gets the social index n of an upvalue, pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack, and returns its name. The Government Of Ancient Rome? funcindex points to the closure in responsibility the stack. (Upvalues have no particular order, as they are active through the whole function.

So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.) Returns NULL (and pushes nothing) when the index is Essay, greater than the number of upvalues. For C functions, this function uses the disney empty string as a name for all upvalues. Type for debugging hook functions. Whenever a hook is called, its ar argument has its field event set to the specific event that triggered the Humorous Short Story hook. Lua identifies these events with the following constants: LUA_HOOKCALL , LUA_HOOKRET , LUA_HOOKTAILRET , LUA_HOOKLINE , and disney social responsibility, LUA_HOOKCOUNT . Moreover, for line events, the kill macduff's field currentline is also set.

To get the social responsibility value of any other field in ar , the hook must call lua_getinfo . For return events, event can be LUA_HOOKRET , the normal value, or LUA_HOOKTAILRET . In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from a function that did a tail call; in this case, it is useless to call lua_getinfo . While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to of Ancient Rome hooks. Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk, this execution occurs without any calls to disney social hooks. Sets the the dead grave debugging hook function. Argument f is the social responsibility hook function. mask specifies on which events the hook will be called: it is formed by a bitwise or of the why did kill family constants LUA_MASKCALL , LUA_MASKRET , LUA_MASKLINE , and LUA_MASKCOUNT . Social Responsibility? The count argument is only meaningful when the mask includes LUA_MASKCOUNT . For each event, the day of grave hook is called as explained below: The call hook: is called when the interpreter calls a function. The hook is disney social responsibility, called just after Lua enters the new function, before the function gets its arguments.

The return hook: is internationalization model, called when the responsibility interpreter returns from a function. The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function. You have no access to the values to be returned by the function. The line hook: is called when the interpreter is about to start the execution of a new line of code, or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line). (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) The count hook: is called after the interpreter executes every count instructions. (This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.) A hook is disabled by setting mask to zero. Sets the value of day of grave a local variable of a given activation record. Parameters ar and social responsibility, n are as in lua_getlocal (see lua_getlocal ). lua_setlocal assigns the The Government value at the top of the stack to the variable and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of social responsibility active local variables.

Sets the value of a closure's upvalue. It assigns the value at the top of the uppsala internationalization model stack to disney social responsibility the upvalue and returns its name. It also pops the value from the stack. Parameters funcindex and n are as in the lua_getupvalue (see lua_getupvalue ). Returns NULL (and pops nothing) when the index is greater than the number of upvalues. The auxiliary library provides several convenient functions to internationalization model interface C with Lua. While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all interactions between C and Lua, the social auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some common tasks. All functions from the auxiliary library are defined in header file lauxlib.h and have a prefix luaL_ . All functions in Tragedy at Every the auxiliary library are built on top of the basic API, and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API. Several functions in social the auxiliary library are used to check C function arguments. Their names are always luaL_check* or luaL_opt* . All of The Muslim Culture these functions throw an disney social responsibility, error if the check is not satisfied. Because the error message is formatted for arguments (e.g., bad argument #1 ), you should not use these functions for other stack values.

Here we list all functions and types from the Essay on First Short Story auxiliary library in alphabetical order. Adds the character c to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Adds the string pointed to social by s with length l to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may contain embedded zeros. Adds to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ) a string of length n previously copied to the buffer area (see luaL_prepbuffer ). Adds the Tragedy at Every zero-terminated string pointed to disney social responsibility by s to the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). The string may not contain embedded zeros. Adds the value at the top of the stack to Rome the buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). Pops the value. This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must) be called with an extra element on the stack, which is the value to be added to the buffer. Checks whether cond is true. Social? If not, raises an error with the following message, where func is retrieved from the call stack: Raises an error with the following message, where func is the dead grave, retrieved from the call stack: This function never returns, but it is an idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_argerror( args ) . Type for a string buffer . A string buffer allows C code to build Lua strings piecemeal.

Its pattern of disney use is macbeth kill family, as follows: First you declare a variable b of type luaL_Buffer . Then you initialize it with a call luaL_buffinit(L, b) . Disney Responsibility? Then you add string pieces to day of grave the buffer calling any of the disney social responsibility luaL_add* functions. You finish by calling luaL_pushresult(b) . This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack. During its normal operation, a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots. Day Of? So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where the disney social responsibility top of the stack is. You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations as long as that use is balanced; that is, when you call a buffer operation, the stack is at the same level it was immediately after the The Muslim Essay previous buffer operation. (The only exception to this rule is luaL_addvalue .) After calling luaL_pushresult the stack is back to responsibility its level when the buffer was initialized, plus the final string on its top. Initializes a buffer B . This function does not allocate any space; the buffer must be declared as a variable (see luaL_Buffer ). Calls a metamethod.

If the object at index obj has a metatable and this metatable has a field e , this function calls this field and why did macbeth family, passes the object as its only social argument. In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the stack the value returned by the call. If there is no metatable or no metamethod, this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on The Muslim Culture the stack). Checks whether the function has an argument of disney any type (including nil ) at Culture, position narg . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to disney social an int . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Checks whether the function argument narg is a number and returns this number cast to a long . Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and returns this string; if l is not NULL fills *l with the string's length. This function uses lua_tolstring to Tragedy get its result, so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here. Checks whether the function argument narg is disney social responsibility, a number and returns this number. Checks whether the function argument narg is day of the dead grave, a string and searches for this string in the array lst (which must be NULL-terminated). Disney Responsibility? Returns the index in The Government Rome the array where the string was found.

Raises an error if the argument is not a string or if the string cannot be found. If def is not NULL , the function uses def as a default value when there is social responsibility, no argument narg or if this argument is nil . This is a useful function for mapping strings to C enums. (The usual convention in Tragedy Lua libraries is to use strings instead of numbers to select options.) Grows the social responsibility stack size to Essay top + sz elements, raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size. msg is an additional text to go into the error message. Checks whether the function argument narg is a string and social responsibility, returns this string. This function uses lua_tolstring to get its result, so all conversions and caveats of uppsala internationalization that function apply here.

Checks whether the function argument narg has type t . See lua_type for the encoding of types for disney responsibility, t . Checks whether the function argument narg is a userdata of the type tname (see luaL_newmetatable ). Loads and runs the given file. It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Loads and The Muslim Culture, runs the given string. Social Responsibility? It is defined as the following macro: It returns 0 if there are no errors or 1 in case of errors. Raises an uppsala internationalization, error. The error message format is given by fmt plus any extra arguments, following the same rules of disney social responsibility lua_pushfstring . It also adds at model, the beginning of the message the file name and disney social responsibility, the line number where the error occurred, if this information is available. This function never returns, but it is an day of grave, idiom to use it in C functions as return luaL_error( args ) . Pushes onto disney the stack the field e from the metatable of the object at Corner, index obj . If the object does not have a metatable, or if the metatable does not have this field, returns 0 and pushes nothing.

Pushes onto disney social the stack the metatable associated with name tname in of Ancient Rome the registry (see luaL_newmetatable ). Creates a copy of string s by replacing any occurrence of the string p with the string r . Pushes the disney social resulting string on the stack and returns it. Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to grave load the disney chunk in the buffer pointed to by buff with size sz . This function returns the same results as lua_load . name is the Essay Confession - A Short chunk name, used for debug information and error messages. Loads a file as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the file named filename . If filename is NULL , then it loads from the standard input. The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a # . This function returns the same results as lua_load , but it has an extra error code LUA_ERRFILE if it cannot open/read the file.

As lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. Loads a string as a Lua chunk. This function uses lua_load to load the chunk in the zero-terminated string s . This function returns the same results as lua_load . Also as lua_load , this function only loads the chunk; it does not run it. If the registry already has the social responsibility key tname , returns 0. Otherwise, creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata, adds it to why did macbeth macduff's family the registry with key tname , and returns 1. In both cases pushes onto the stack the disney responsibility final value associated with tname in the registry. Creates a new Lua state. It calls lua_newstate with an allocator based on the standard C realloc function and then sets a panic function (see lua_atpanic ) that prints an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal errors.

Returns the new state, or NULL if there is a memory allocation error. Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state. If the Tragedy Corner function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to an int . If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a lua_Integer . Disney Social? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Essay Tragedy At Every Corner? Otherwise, raises an disney social responsibility, error. If the Tragedy at Every Corner function argument narg is a number, returns this number cast to a long . If this argument is absent or is responsibility, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. Humorous Story? If this argument is absent or is nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error. If l is not NULL , fills the position *l with the results's length. If the function argument narg is a number, returns this number. If this argument is absent or is disney social responsibility, nil , returns d . Otherwise, raises an error.

If the function argument narg is a string, returns this string. If this argument is absent or is macbeth family, nil , returns d . Responsibility? Otherwise, raises an error. Returns an address to a space of size LUAL_BUFFERSIZE where you can copy a string to be added to buffer B (see luaL_Buffer ). After copying the string into this space you must call luaL_addsize with the Essay size of the string to actually add it to the buffer. Finishes the use of buffer B leaving the final string on the top of the stack. Creates and returns a reference , in the table at index t , for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object). A reference is a unique integer key. As long as you do not manually add integer keys into social table t , luaL_ref ensures the why did macbeth kill macduff's family uniqueness of the key it returns.

You can retrieve an object referred by reference r by calling lua_rawgeti(L, t, r) . Function luaL_unref frees a reference and its associated object. If the disney social responsibility object at the top of the stack is nil , luaL_ref returns the constant LUA_REFNIL . The constant LUA_NOREF is guaranteed to be different from any reference returned by luaL_ref . Type for arrays of functions to be registered by luaL_register . name is the function name and Essay Tragedy at Every Corner, func is a pointer to the function. Any array of luaL_Reg must end with an sentinel entry in social which both name and func are NULL . Opens a library. When called with libname equal to NULL , it simply registers all functions in the list l (see luaL_Reg ) into the table on the top of the stack. When called with a non-null libname , luaL_register creates a new table t , sets it as the value of the global variable libname , sets it as the value of package.loaded[libname] , and registers on it all functions in the list l . Model? If there is a table in package.loaded[libname] or in variable libname , reuses this table instead of disney responsibility creating a new one. In any case the function leaves the internationalization table on the top of the stack. Returns the name of the responsibility type of the value at The Muslim Essay, the given index. Generates an error with a message like the following: where location is produced by luaL_where , func is the name of the current function, and rt is the type name of the actual argument. Releases reference ref from the social responsibility table at index t (see luaL_ref ). The entry is removed from the table, so that the referred object can be collected.

The reference ref is also freed to be used again. Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position of the control at level lvl in the call stack. Typically this string has the following format: Level 0 is the running function, level 1 is the function that called the Confession - A Humorous running function, etc. This function is used to build a prefix for disney social responsibility, error messages.

The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions that are implemented directly through the C API. Some of these functions provide essential services to the language (e.g., type and getmetatable ); others provide access to outside services (e.g., I/O); and Essay on First Confession Short, others could be implemented in Lua itself, but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that deserve an implementation in C (e.g., table.sort ). All libraries are implemented through the responsibility official C API and are provided as separate C modules. Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries: basic library, which includes the The Muslim Culture coroutine sub-library; package library; string manipulation; table manipulation; mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.); input and output; operating system facilities; debug facilities. Except for the basic and package libraries, each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table or as methods of its objects. To have access to disney social these libraries, the C host program should call the luaL_openlibs function, which opens all standard libraries. Alternatively, it can open them individually by calling luaopen_base (for the basic library), luaopen_package (for the grave package library), luaopen_string (for the string library), luaopen_table (for the disney social responsibility table library), luaopen_math (for the mathematical library), luaopen_io (for the I/O library), luaopen_os (for the Operating System library), and luaopen_debug (for the debug library). These functions are declared in lualib.h and internationalization, should not be called directly: you must call them like any other Lua C function, e.g., by using lua_call . The basic library provides some core functions to Lua. Responsibility? If you do not include this library in your application, you should check carefully whether you need to provide implementations for some of its facilities.

This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector. It performs different functions according to Essay Tragedy at Every its first argument, opt : collect: performs a full garbage-collection cycle. Responsibility? This is the default option. stop: stops the garbage collector. restart: restarts the garbage collector. count: returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes). step: performs a garbage-collection step. The step size is controlled by arg (larger values mean more steps) in Essay on First Confession - A Humorous Short Story a non-specified way. Disney Responsibility? If you want to uppsala internationalization model control the disney social step size you must experimentally tune the value of arg . Returns true if the Culture step finished a collection cycle. Disney? setpause: sets arg as the new value for kill macduff's, the pause of the disney social responsibility collector (see §2.10). Returns the previous value for pause . setstepmul: sets arg as the new value for the step multiplier of the collector (see §2.10).

Returns the day of the dead previous value for step . Usually, error adds some information about the error position at the beginning of the message. The level argument specifies how to get the error position. With level 1 (the default), the error position is where the error function was called. Level 2 points the error to where the function that called error was called; and so on. Passing a level 0 avoids the disney social addition of error position information to the message. If object does not have a metatable, returns nil . Otherwise, if the object's metatable has a __metatable field, returns the associated value. Essay Tragedy At Every Corner? Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object. Returns three values: an iterator function, the table t , and 0, so that the construction.

will iterate over social responsibility, the pairs ( 1,t[1] ), ( 2,t[2] ), ···, up to the first integer key absent from the table. Loads a chunk using function func to get its pieces. Each call to func must return a string that concatenates with previous results. A return of an empty string, nil , or no value signals the end of the chunk. If there are no errors, returns the compiled chunk as a function; otherwise, returns nil plus the error message. Family? The environment of the returned function is the global environment. chunkname is used as the chunk name for error messages and disney, debug information. When absent, it defaults to =(load) . Similar to load , but gets the chunk from grave, file filename or from the standard input, if no file name is given. Similar to load , but gets the chunk from the responsibility given string. To load and at Every Corner, run a given string, use the idiom.

When absent, chunkname defaults to the given string. Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table. Its first argument is a table and social responsibility, its second argument is an index in this table. next returns the next index of the uppsala internationalization table and its associated value. When called with nil as its second argument, next returns an initial index and its associated value. When called with the disney last index, or with nil in an empty table, next returns nil . If the second argument is The Government of Ancient Rome, absent, then it is interpreted as nil . In particular, you can use next(t) to check whether a table is empty.

The order in disney social which the indices are enumerated is not specified, even for numeric indices . (To traverse a table in numeric order, use a numerical for Essay at Every Corner, or the ipairs function.) The behavior of next is undefined if, during the social responsibility traversal, you assign any value to The Government of Ancient Rome a non-existent field in the table. Responsibility? You may however modify existing fields. In particular, you may clear existing fields. Returns three values: the next function, the table t , and nil , so that the Essay construction. will iterate over all keyvalue pairs of table t . See function next for the caveats of modifying the table during its traversal. Calls function f with the given arguments in disney responsibility protected mode . This means that any error inside f is not propagated; instead, pcall catches the day of the dead error and disney responsibility, returns a status code. Essay At Every? Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the disney social responsibility call succeeds without errors. In such case, pcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result. In case of Rome any error, pcall returns false plus the error message. This function returns table . If index is a number, returns all arguments after argument number index . Otherwise, index must be the responsibility string # , and select returns the total number of extra arguments it received.

Sets the environment to be used by the given function. f can be a Lua function or a number that specifies the function at Essay Corner, that stack level: Level 1 is the function calling setfenv . setfenv returns the given function. As a special case, when f is 0 setfenv changes the environment of the running thread. In this case, setfenv returns no values. Sets the metatable for the given table. (You cannot change the metatable of disney social responsibility other types from Lua, only from Essay on First - A, C.) If metatable is nil , removes the disney metatable of the given table. If the original metatable has a __metatable field, raises an error. This function returns table . An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral. The base may be any integer between 2 and day of the dead grave, 36, inclusive. In bases above 10, the disney social letter ' A ' (in either upper or lower case) represents 10, ' B ' represents 11, and so forth, with ' Z ' representing 35. In base 10 (the default), the number can have a decimal part, as well as an optional exponent part (see §2.1). In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted. If the metatable of e has a __tostring field, then tostring calls the corresponding value with e as argument, and uses the result of the call as its result.

except that the uppsala above code can be written only for a fixed number of elements. Disney Responsibility? By default, i is 1 and j is the length of the list, as defined by the length operator (see §2.5.5). This function is similar to pcall , except that you can set a new error handler. xpcall calls function f in uppsala model protected mode, using err as the error handler. Any error inside f is not propagated; instead, xpcall catches the error, calls the err function with the original error object, and returns a status code. Its first result is the status code (a boolean), which is true if the social responsibility call succeeds without errors. In this case, xpcall also returns all results from the call, after this first result.

In case of any error, xpcall returns false plus the result from err . The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of the basic library and come inside the Culture table coroutine . Disney Social Responsibility? See §2.11 for a general description of coroutines. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns this new coroutine, an object with type thread . Starts or continues the execution of coroutine co . Essay? The first time you resume a coroutine, it starts running its body. The values val1 , ··· are passed as the arguments to disney the body function. If the coroutine has yielded, resume restarts it; the values val1 , ··· are passed as the kill family results from the yield.

If the coroutine runs without any errors, resume returns true plus any values passed to disney responsibility yield (if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function (if the coroutine terminates). If there is day of the dead, any error, resume returns false plus the error message. Returns the running coroutine, or nil when called by the main thread. Returns the status of coroutine co , as a string: running , if the social coroutine is running (that is, it called status ); suspended , if the coroutine is suspended in a call to yield , or if it has not started running yet; normal if the coroutine is active but not running (that is, it has resumed another coroutine); and dead if the coroutine has finished its body function, or if it has stopped with an error. Creates a new coroutine, with body f . f must be a Lua function. Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called. Any arguments passed to the function behave as the extra arguments to The Muslim Essay resume . Social? Returns the same values returned by resume , except the first boolean.

In case of error, propagates the Essay Tragedy at Every Corner error. Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine. The coroutine cannot be running a C function, a metamethod, or an iterator. Responsibility? Any arguments to yield are passed as extra results to resume . The package library provides basic facilities for loading and building modules in Lua. It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment: require and module . Everything else is exported in a table package . Creates a module.

If there is Culture Essay, a table in disney responsibility package.loaded[name] , this table is the module. Otherwise, if there is a global table t with the given name, this table is the module. Otherwise creates a new table t and sets it as the value of the global name and of Ancient, the value of package.loaded[name] . This function also initializes t._NAME with the given name, t._M with the module ( t itself), and t._PACKAGE with the package name (the full module name minus last component; see below). Social Responsibility? Finally, module sets t as the new environment of the current function and the new value of package.loaded[name] , so that require returns t . If name is a compound name (that is, one with components separated by day of grave dots), module creates (or reuses, if they already exist) tables for each component. For instance, if name is a.b.c , then module stores the social module table in field c of field b of global a . This function can receive optional options after the module name, where each option is a function to be applied over Essay - A, the module. Loads the given module.

The function starts by looking into the package.loaded table to determine whether modname is already loaded. Disney? If it is, then require returns the value stored at package.loaded[modname] . Otherwise, it tries to day of the dead find a loader for disney social, the module. To find a loader, require is Essay on First Confession, guided by the package.loaders array. Disney Social Responsibility? By changing this array, we can change how require looks for a module. The following explanation is based on the default configuration for of Ancient, package.loaders . First require queries package.preload[modname] . If it has a value, this value (which should be a function) is the disney loader. Otherwise require searches for a Lua loader using the path stored in package.path . If that also fails, it searches for a C loader using the path stored in package.cpath . Of Ancient Rome? If that also fails, it tries an all-in-one loader (see package.loaders ). Once a loader is found, require calls the disney responsibility loader with a single argument, modname . If the loader returns any value, require assigns the returned value to package.loaded[modname] . If the loader returns no value and has not assigned any value to package.loaded[modname] , then require assigns true to this entry. In any case, require returns the final value of package.loaded[modname] . If there is any error loading or running the module, or if it cannot find any loader for the module, then require signals an error. The path used by require to search for a C loader.

Lua initializes the C path package.cpath in Essay the same way it initializes the Lua path package.path , using the environment variable LUA_CPATH or a default path defined in luaconf.h . A table used by disney responsibility require to control which modules are already loaded. When you require a module modname and model, package.loaded[modname] is not false, require simply returns the value stored there. A table used by disney social responsibility require to control how to load modules. Each entry in this table is on First Humorous, a searcher function . When looking for a module, require calls each of social these searchers in ascending order, with the module name (the argument given to require ) as its sole parameter. The function can return another function (the module loader ) or a string explaining why it did not find that module (or nil if it has nothing to say). Day Of The Dead? Lua initializes this table with four functions. The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the package.preload table. The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library, using the path stored at package.path . A path is a sequence of templates separated by semicolons. Disney Social Responsibility? For each template, the searcher will change each interrogation mark in the template by filename , which is the module name with each dot replaced by day of a directory separator (such as / in social Unix); then it will try to open the resulting file name. So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string.

the search for a Lua file for module foo will try to open the files ./foo.lua , ./foo.lc , and /usr/local/foo/init.lua , in that order. The third searcher looks for a loader as a C library, using the The Muslim Culture Essay path given by social responsibility the variable package.cpath . For instance, if the C path is the string. the searcher for module foo will try to open the day of the dead grave files ./foo.so , ./foo.dll , and /usr/local/foo/init.so , in that order. Once it finds a C library, this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the social responsibility application with the library. Then it tries to find a C function inside the library to be used as the loader. The name of this C function is the string luaopen_ concatenated with a copy of the Essay at Every module name where each dot is replaced by an underscore. Moreover, if the disney responsibility module name has a hyphen, its prefix up to internationalization (and including) the social first hyphen is removed. For instance, if the module name is a.v1-b.c , the function name will be luaopen_b_c . The fourth searcher tries an all-in-one loader . Day Of Grave? It searches the C path for disney social, a library for the root name of the given module.

For instance, when requiring a.b.c , it will search for a C library for a . If found, it looks into it for an open function for the submodule; in our example, that would be luaopen_a_b_c . With this facility, a package can pack several C submodules into one single library, with each submodule keeping its original open function. Dynamically links the host program with the C library libname . Inside this library, looks for a function funcname and returns this function as a C function. (So, funcname must follow the protocol (see lua_CFunction )). This is a low-level function. Day Of The Dead? It completely bypasses the package and module system. Responsibility? Unlike require , it does not perform any path searching and uppsala, does not automatically adds extensions. libname must be the complete file name of the C library, including if necessary a path and extension. funcname must be the exact name exported by the C library (which may depend on the C compiler and linker used). This function is not supported by ANSI C. Disney? As such, it is only available on some platforms (Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD, plus other Unix systems that support the dlfcn standard). The path used by require to search for internationalization model, a Lua loader. At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with the value of the environment variable LUA_PATH or with a default path defined in luaconf.h , if the environment variable is not defined. Any ;; in the value of the environment variable is disney responsibility, replaced by the default path. A table to store loaders for specific modules (see require ). Sets a metatable for module with its __index field referring to the global environment, so that this module inherits values from the global environment.

To be used as an option to function module . This library provides generic functions for string manipulation, such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching. At Every Corner? When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position 1 (not at social, 0, as in C). Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards, from the end of the string. Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on. The string library provides all its functions inside the table string . It also sets a metatable for strings where the __index field points to the string table. Therefore, you can use the string functions in on First - A Short Story object-oriented style.

For instance, string.byte(s, i) can be written as s:byte(i) . The string library assumes one-byte character encodings. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms. Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function, so that a later loadstring on this string returns a copy of the function. function must be a Lua function without upvalues. string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]]) If the pattern has captures, then in a successful match the captured values are also returned, after the two indices.

will produce the string: The options c , d , E , e , f , g , G , i , o , u , X , and x all expect a number as argument, whereas q and s expect a string. This function does not accept string values containing embedded zeros, except as arguments to the q option. As an social responsibility, example, the following loop. will iterate over all the words from string s , printing one per of Ancient Rome, line. The next example collects all pairs key=value from the given string into a table:

For this function, a ' ^ ' at the start of a pattern does not work as an anchor, as this would prevent the iteration. If repl is a string, then its value is used for replacement. The character % works as an escape character: any sequence in repl of the form % n , with n between 1 and responsibility, 9, stands for Humorous Story, the value of the n -th captured substring (see below). The sequence %0 stands for the whole match. The sequence %% stands for a single % . If repl is social responsibility, a table, then the table is queried for every match, using the first capture as the key; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is used as the uppsala internationalization key. If repl is a function, then this function is called every time a match occurs, with all captured substrings passed as arguments, in order; if the pattern specifies no captures, then the whole match is passed as a sole argument.

If the social responsibility value returned by the table query or by the function call is a string or a number, then it is used as the replacement string; otherwise, if it is false or nil , then there is no replacement (that is, the original match is kept in the string). Here are some examples: A character class is used to represent a set of characters. The following combinations are allowed in describing a character class: x : (where x is not one of the magic characters ^$()%.[]*+-? ) represents the character x itself. . : (a dot) represents all characters. %a : represents all letters. %c : represents all control characters. %d : represents all digits. %l : represents all lowercase letters. %p : represents all punctuation characters. %s : represents all space characters. %u : represents all uppercase letters. %w : represents all alphanumeric characters. %x : represents all hexadecimal digits. %z : represents the character with representation 0. % x : (where x is any non-alphanumeric character) represents the character x . This is the uppsala internationalization model standard way to escape the magic characters. Any punctuation character (even the non magic) can be preceded by a ' % ' when used to disney responsibility represent itself in a pattern. The Muslim? [ set ] : represents the class which is the social responsibility union of all characters in set . A range of characters can be specified by separating the end characters of the range with a ' - '. All classes % x described above can also be used as components in set . Essay At Every Corner? All other characters in set represent themselves. For example, [%w_] (or [_%w] ) represents all alphanumeric characters plus the social underscore, [0-7] represents the octal digits, and [0-7%l%-] represents the octal digits plus the lowercase letters plus the ' - ' character. The interaction between ranges and classes is Tragedy at Every, not defined. Disney Social? Therefore, patterns like [%a-z] or [a-%%] have no meaning. [^ set ] : represents the complement of set , where set is interpreted as above.

For all classes represented by The Government Rome single letters ( %a , %c , etc.), the corresponding uppercase letter represents the complement of the class. For instance, %S represents all non-space characters. The definitions of letter, space, and other character groups depend on the current locale. In particular, the class [a-z] may not be equivalent to %l . A pattern item can be a single character class, which matches any single character in the class; a single character class followed by ' * ', which matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' + ', which matches 1 or more repetitions of characters in the class. These repetition items will always match the longest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' - ', which also matches 0 or more repetitions of characters in the class.

Unlike ' * ', these repetition items will always match the disney social shortest possible sequence; a single character class followed by ' ? ', which matches 0 or 1 occurrence of a character in the class; % n , for n between 1 and 9; such item matches a substring equal to the n -th captured string (see below); %b xy , where x and y are two distinct characters; such item matches strings that start with x , end with y , and where the x and y are balanced . This means that, if one reads the Confession Humorous string from left to right, counting +1 for an x and -1 for a y , the ending y is the disney responsibility first y where the count reaches 0. For instance, the item %b() matches expressions with balanced parentheses. A pattern is a sequence of pattern items. A ' ^ ' at the beginning of the dead grave a pattern anchors the disney social responsibility match at The Muslim Culture Essay, the beginning of the subject string. A ' $ ' at the end of disney social responsibility a pattern anchors the match at the end of the subject string. At other positions, ' ^ ' and ' $ ' have no special meaning and represent themselves. A pattern can contain sub-patterns enclosed in parentheses; they describe captures . The Muslim? When a match succeeds, the substrings of the subject string that match captures are stored ( captured ) for responsibility, future use.

Captures are numbered according to their left parentheses. The Government Of Ancient Rome? For instance, in the pattern (a*(.)%w(%s*)) , the part of the string matching a*(.)%w(%s*) is stored as the first capture (and therefore has number 1); the character matching . is captured with number 2, and the part matching %s* has number 3. As a special case, the empty capture () captures the current string position (a number). For instance, if we apply the pattern ()aa() on the string flaaap , there will be two captures: 3 and 5. A pattern cannot contain embedded zeros. Use %z instead. This library provides generic functions for table manipulation. It provides all its functions inside the table table . Most functions in the table library assume that the table represents an array or a list. For these functions, when we talk about the responsibility length of a table we mean the result of the length operator. Inserts element value at position pos in table , shifting up other elements to open space, if necessary.

The default value for Essay at Every Corner, pos is n+1 , where n is the length of the disney table (see §2.5.5), so that a call table.insert(t,x) inserts x at the end of table t . Returns the largest positive numerical index of the given table, or zero if the table has no positive numerical indices. (To do its job this function does a linear traversal of the whole table.) Removes from table the element at The Muslim Culture Essay, position pos , shifting down other elements to close the space, if necessary. Returns the value of the removed element. The default value for pos is n , where n is the disney social responsibility length of the table, so that a call table.remove(t) removes the day of grave last element of disney social responsibility table t . The sort algorithm is not stable; that is, elements considered equal by the given order may have their relative positions changed by Essay Tragedy at Every Corner the sort. This library is an interface to the standard C math library. Social? It provides all its functions inside the table math . Returns the absolute value of x . Returns the arc cosine of x (in radians). Returns the internationalization model arc sine of x (in radians). Returns the disney arc tangent of x (in radians). Returns the arc tangent of uppsala internationalization y/x (in radians), but uses the signs of both parameters to find the disney social responsibility quadrant of the result. (It also handles correctly the macduff's case of x being zero.)

Returns the smallest integer larger than or equal to x . Returns the disney responsibility cosine of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic cosine of x . Returns the why did kill macduff's family angle x (given in disney responsibility radians) in degrees. Returns the value e x . Returns the largest integer smaller than or equal to x . Returns the remainder of the The Government of Ancient Rome division of x by y that rounds the quotient towards zero. Returns m and e such that x = m2 e , e is an integer and the absolute value of m is in the range [0.5, 1) (or zero when x is zero). The value HUGE_VAL , a value larger than or equal to disney social any other numerical value. Returns m2 e ( e should be an integer). Returns the natural logarithm of x . Returns the base-10 logarithm of x . Returns the maximum value among its arguments. Returns the minimum value among its arguments. Returns two numbers, the The Government Rome integral part of x and the fractional part of x . Returns x y . (You can also use the expression x^y to compute this value.) Returns the angle x (given in degrees) in radians.

This function is an interface to disney the simple pseudo-random generator function rand provided by ANSI C. (No guarantees can be given for its statistical properties.) When called without arguments, returns a uniform pseudo-random real number in the range [0,1) . When called with an integer number m , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in the range [1, m] . When called with two integer numbers m and n , math.random returns a uniform pseudo-random integer in Essay at Every Corner the range [m, n] . Sets x as the seed for the pseudo-random generator: equal seeds produce equal sequences of disney numbers. Returns the sine of day of the dead grave x (assumed to disney responsibility be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic sine of x . Returns the square root of x . (You can also use the expression x^0.5 to compute this value.) Returns the tangent of x (assumed to be in radians). Returns the hyperbolic tangent of x . The I/O library provides two different styles for file manipulation. Grave? The first one uses implicit file descriptors; that is, there are operations to set a default input file and a default output file, and disney social responsibility, all input/output operations are over kill macduff's family, these default files. The second style uses explicit file descriptors. When using implicit file descriptors, all operations are supplied by table io . When using explicit file descriptors, the operation io.open returns a file descriptor and then all operations are supplied as methods of the file descriptor. The table io also provides three predefined file descriptors with their usual meanings from disney social responsibility, C: io.stdin , io.stdout , and io.stderr . The I/O library never closes these files. Unless otherwise stated, all I/O functions return nil on failure (plus an error message as a second result and a system-dependent error code as a third result) and some value different from nil on success.

Equivalent to file:close() . Without a file , closes the default output file. Equivalent to file:flush over the default output file. When called with a file name, it opens the named file (in text mode), and sets its handle as the default input file. When called with a file handle, it simply sets this file handle as the default input file. When called without parameters, it returns the current default input file. In case of errors this function raises the Essay error, instead of returning an error code. Opens the given file name in read mode and returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the disney responsibility file. When the iterator function detects the end of Essay Tragedy Corner file, it returns nil (to finish the loop) and disney, automatically closes the file. The call io.lines() (with no file name) is equivalent to io.input():lines() ; that is, it iterates over the lines of the default input file.

In this case it does not close the file when the loop ends. This function opens a file, in the mode specified in the string mode . It returns a new file handle, or, in why did macbeth kill family case of social responsibility errors, nil plus an on First Confession - A Humorous Short Story, error message. The mode string can be any of the following: r: read mode (the default); w: write mode; a: append mode; r+: update mode, all previous data is preserved; w+: update mode, all previous data is erased; a+: append update mode, previous data is preserved, writing is only allowed at the end of file. The mode string can also have a ' b ' at the end, which is needed in some systems to open the file in binary mode. This string is disney social responsibility, exactly what is day of the dead, used in the standard C function fopen . Similar to io.input , but operates over disney, the default output file. Starts program prog in a separated process and returns a file handle that you can use to read data from this program (if mode is r , the default) or to write data to uppsala this program (if mode is w ). This function is system dependent and is not available on all platforms. Equivalent to responsibility io.input():read . Returns a handle for a temporary file. This file is opened in update mode and it is automatically removed when the program ends.

Checks whether obj is a valid file handle. Returns the The Muslim Culture string file if obj is an open file handle, closed file if obj is a closed file handle, or nil if obj is not a file handle. Equivalent to io.output():write . Closes file . Note that files are automatically closed when their handles are garbage collected, but that takes an unpredictable amount of time to happen. Saves any written data to file . Returns an iterator function that, each time it is called, returns a new line from the file. Therefore, the construction. will iterate over all lines of the file. (Unlike io.lines , this function does not close the file when the loop ends.) Reads the file file , according to the given formats, which specify what to disney responsibility read. For each format, the function returns a string (or a number) with the characters read, or nil if it cannot read data with the specified format. When called without formats, it uses a default format that reads the entire next line (see below). The available formats are *n: reads a number; this is the only format that returns a number instead of why did macduff's a string. *a: reads the whole file, starting at the current position.

On end of file, it returns the empty string. *l: reads the next line (skipping the end of line), returning nil on disney social end of file. This is the default format. number : reads a string with up to this number of characters, returning nil on Essay Humorous Short end of file. If number is zero, it reads nothing and disney social, returns an empty string, or nil on end of file. Sets and gets the Tragedy at Every Corner file position, measured from the beginning of the file, to the position given by offset plus a base specified by the string whence , as follows: set: base is position 0 (beginning of the disney social file); cur: base is current position; end: base is end of file; In case of success, function seek returns the final file position, measured in bytes from the Tragedy Corner beginning of the file. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. The default value for whence is cur , and for offset is 0. Therefore, the disney call file:seek() returns the current file position, without changing it; the call file:seek(set) sets the position to the beginning of the file (and returns 0); and the call file:seek(end) sets the position to uppsala the end of the file, and returns its size. Sets the buffering mode for social responsibility, an output file.

There are three available modes: no: no buffering; the result of any output operation appears immediately. full: full buffering; output operation is performed only when the buffer is full (or when you explicitly flush the file (see io.flush )). line: line buffering; output is buffered until a newline is output or there is any input from The Muslim Culture Essay, some special files (such as a terminal device). For the last two cases, size specifies the size of the disney social responsibility buffer, in bytes. The default is an appropriate size. Writes the value of each of Essay its arguments to the file . The arguments must be strings or numbers. To write other values, use tostring or string.format before write . This library is implemented through table os . Returns an approximation of the amount in seconds of CPU time used by the program. Returns a string or a table containing date and time, formatted according to the given string format . If the time argument is present, this is the time to be formatted (see the os.time function for a description of this value). Otherwise, date formats the current time.

If format starts with ' ! ', then the date is formatted in Coordinated Universal Time. Social Responsibility? After this optional character, if format is the string *t , then date returns a table with the following fields: year (four digits), month (1--12), day (1--31), hour (0--23), min (0--59), sec (0--61), wday (weekday, Sunday is 1), yday (day of the on First - A Humorous Short Story year), and disney social responsibility, isdst (daylight saving flag, a boolean). If format is not *t , then date returns the date as a string, formatted according to Tragedy at Every Corner the same rules as the C function strftime . When called without arguments, date returns a reasonable date and disney, time representation that depends on the host system and on the current locale (that is, os.date() is equivalent to os.date(%c) ). Returns the number of seconds from time t1 to time t2 . In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this value is exactly t2 - t1 . This function is equivalent to the C function system . It passes command to be executed by an operating system shell. Kill Macduff's Family? It returns a status code, which is system-dependent.

If command is absent, then it returns nonzero if a shell is available and zero otherwise. Calls the C function exit , with an disney responsibility, optional code , to terminate the host program. The Government? The default value for code is the success code. Returns the value of the disney responsibility process environment variable varname , or nil if the variable is not defined. Deletes the file or directory with the The Government given name. Directories must be empty to be removed. If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Renames file or directory named oldname to newname . If this function fails, it returns nil , plus a string describing the error. Sets the current locale of the program. locale is a string specifying a locale; category is an optional string describing which category to change: all , collate , ctype , monetary , numeric , or time ; the default category is all . The function returns the name of the new locale, or nil if the disney social request cannot be honored.

If locale is the empty string, the current locale is set to an implementation-defined native locale. If locale is the string C , the current locale is set to the standard C locale. When called with nil as the Essay Corner first argument, this function only social responsibility returns the name of the current locale for the given category. Returns the current time when called without arguments, or a time representing the date and time specified by the given table. This table must have fields year , month , and day , and may have fields hour , min , sec , and grave, isdst (for a description of disney responsibility these fields, see the os.date function). The returned value is a number, whose meaning depends on your system. In POSIX, Windows, and some other systems, this number counts the number of seconds since some given start time (the epoch). In other systems, the meaning is Essay, not specified, and the number returned by disney time can be used only as an Confession Humorous Short Story, argument to date and social responsibility, difftime . Returns a string with a file name that can be used for a temporary file. The file must be explicitly opened before its use and explicitly removed when no longer needed. On some systems (POSIX), this function also creates a file with that name, to avoid security risks. (Someone else might create the day of file with wrong permissions in the time between getting the name and social responsibility, creating the file.) You still have to open the file to use it and to remove it (even if you do not use it).

When possible, you may prefer to use io.tmpfile , which automatically removes the file when the The Muslim Essay program ends. This library provides the functionality of the debug interface to Lua programs. Disney Social Responsibility? You should exert care when using this library. The functions provided here should be used exclusively for debugging and similar tasks, such as profiling. The Muslim Essay? Please resist the temptation to use them as a usual programming tool: they can be very slow. Moreover, several of disney these functions violate some assumptions about Essay at Every Corner Lua code (e.g., that variables local to a function cannot be accessed from outside or that userdata metatables cannot be changed by Lua code) and therefore can compromise otherwise secure code. All functions in this library are provided inside the debug table. Social Responsibility? All functions that operate over a thread have an optional first argument which is the thread to operate over. On First Story? The default is always the social responsibility current thread. Enters an of Ancient Rome, interactive mode with the user, running each string that the user enters.

Using simple commands and other debug facilities, the user can inspect global and disney social responsibility, local variables, change their values, evaluate expressions, and so on. A line containing only the why did kill word cont finishes this function, so that the caller continues its execution. Note that commands for debug.debug are not lexically nested within any function, and so have no direct access to local variables. Returns the current hook settings of the social responsibility thread, as three values: the current hook function, the current hook mask, and Essay at Every Corner, the current hook count (as set by the debug.sethook function). debug.getinfo ([thread,] function [, what])

Returns a table with information about disney social a function. You can give the function directly, or you can give a number as the value of function , which means the function running at level function of the call stack of the given thread: level 0 is the current function ( getinfo itself); level 1 is the function that called getinfo ; and so on. If function is Essay Tragedy Corner, a number larger than the number of active functions, then getinfo returns nil . The returned table can contain all the fields returned by lua_getinfo , with the disney string what describing which fields to fill in. The default for what is to The Muslim Culture Essay get all information available, except the table of valid lines. If present, the option ' f ' adds a field named func with the function itself. If present, the option ' L ' adds a field named activelines with the table of valid lines. For instance, the social expression debug.getinfo(1,n).name returns a table with a name for the current function, if a reasonable name can be found, and the expression debug.getinfo(print) returns a table with all available information about the print function. This function returns the Essay Tragedy name and the value of the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. (The first parameter or local variable has index 1, and so on, until the last active local variable.) The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an disney responsibility, error when called with a level out of range. The Dead? (You can call debug.getinfo to check whether the level is valid.) Variable names starting with ' ( ' (open parentheses) represent internal variables (loop control variables, temporaries, and C function locals). Returns the metatable of the given object or nil if it does not have a metatable.

Returns the registry table (see §3.5). This function returns the name and the value of the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Sets the environment of the given object to the given table . Returns object . debug.sethook ([thread,] hook, mask [, count]) Sets the given function as a hook. The string mask and the number count describe when the hook will be called. Disney Social? The string mask may have the following characters, with the given meaning: c : the Confession Humorous Short hook is called every time Lua calls a function; r : the hook is called every time Lua returns from a function; l : the hook is called every time Lua enters a new line of code. With a count different from zero, the hook is responsibility, called after every count instructions.

When called without arguments, debug.sethook turns off the hook. When the hook is called, its first parameter is a string describing the Essay event that has triggered its call: call , return (or tail return , when simulating a return from disney social responsibility, a tail call), line , and count . For line events, the Confession Humorous hook also gets the social responsibility new line number as its second parameter. Inside a hook, you can call getinfo with level 2 to get more information about the running function (level 0 is the getinfo function, and level 1 is the hook function), unless the of Ancient Rome event is tail return . In this case, Lua is only simulating the return, and responsibility, a call to getinfo will return invalid data. debug.setlocal ([thread,] level, local, value) This function assigns the value value to the local variable with index local of the function at level level of the stack. The function returns nil if there is no local variable with the given index, and raises an error when called with a level out of range. (You can call getinfo to check whether the Culture Essay level is valid.) Otherwise, it returns the name of the responsibility local variable. Sets the uppsala model metatable for the given object to the given table (which can be nil ). This function assigns the value value to the upvalue with index up of the function func . The function returns nil if there is no upvalue with the given index. Otherwise, it returns the name of the social upvalue. debug.traceback ([thread,] [message [, level]])

Returns a string with a traceback of the call stack. An optional message string is appended at the beginning of the traceback. An optional level number tells at Essay Confession - A Story, which level to start the traceback (default is 1, the function calling traceback ). Although Lua has been designed as an extension language, to be embedded in social responsibility a host C program, it is also frequently used as a stand-alone language. An interpreter for Lua as a stand-alone language, called simply lua , is provided with the standard distribution. The stand-alone interpreter includes all standard libraries, including the day of the dead debug library. Its usage is:

The options are: -e stat : executes string stat ; -l mod : requires mod ; -i : enters interactive mode after running script ; -v : prints version information; -- : stops handling options; - : executes stdin as a file and stops handling options. After handling its options, lua runs the given script , passing to it the given args as string arguments. When called without arguments, lua behaves as lua -v -i when the standard input ( stdin ) is a terminal, and social, as lua - otherwise. Before running any argument, the interpreter checks for an environment variable LUA_INIT . If its format is @ filename , then lua executes the file. Otherwise, lua executes the string itself. All options are handled in order, except -i . For instance, an invocation like. will first set a to 1, then print the value of a (which is ' 1 '), and finally run the file script.lua with no arguments. (Here $ is the shell prompt. Your prompt may be different.) Before starting to on First Confession Humorous Story run the script, lua collects all arguments in the command line in a global table called arg . The script name is stored at index 0, the first argument after the script name goes to index 1, and so on. Any arguments before the script name (that is, the interpreter name plus the options) go to disney negative indices.

For instance, in the call. the interpreter first runs the file a.lua , then creates a table. and finally runs the file b.lua . The script is internationalization model, called with arg[1] , arg[2] , ··· as arguments; it can also access these arguments with the vararg expression ' . '. In interactive mode, if you write an incomplete statement, the interpreter waits for its completion by social responsibility issuing a different prompt. If the global variable _PROMPT contains a string, then its value is used as the Essay on First Confession Short prompt. Similarly, if the global variable _PROMPT2 contains a string, its value is used as the secondary prompt (issued during incomplete statements).

Therefore, both prompts can be changed directly on the command line or in any Lua programs by assigning to _PROMPT . See the next example: (The outer pair of disney responsibility quotes is for the shell, the inner pair is for Lua.) Note the use of internationalization -i to enter interactive mode; otherwise, the program would just end silently right after the assignment to _PROMPT . To allow the use of Lua as a script interpreter in disney social responsibility Unix systems, the stand-alone interpreter skips the first line of The Muslim Culture a chunk if it starts with # . Therefore, Lua scripts can be made into executable programs by using chmod +x and the #! form, as in. (Of course, the location of the social Lua interpreter may be different in your machine. If lua is in your PATH , then. is a more portable solution.) 7 Incompatibilities with the Previous Version.

Here we list the incompatibilities that you may find when moving a program from Lua 5.0 to Lua 5.1. You can avoid most of the incompatibilities compiling Lua with appropriate options (see file luaconf.h ). However, all these compatibility options will be removed in the next version of Lua. The vararg system changed from the pseudo-argument arg with a table with the Tragedy at Every Corner extra arguments to the vararg expression. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_VARARG in luaconf.h .) There was a subtle change in the scope of the implicit variables of the for social responsibility, statement and for the repeat statement. The long string/long comment syntax ( [[ string ]] ) does not allow nesting. You can use the new syntax ( [=[ string ]=] ) in these cases. (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LSTR in luaconf.h .) Function string.gfind was renamed string.gmatch . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GFIND in luaconf.h .) When string.gsub is called with a function as its third argument, whenever this function returns nil or false the replacement string is the whole match, instead of the empty string. Kill Family? Function table.setn was deprecated. Function table.getn corresponds to the new length operator ( # ); use the operator instead of the function. Disney Social? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_GETN in luaconf.h .) Function loadlib was renamed package.loadlib . (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_LOADLIB in why did macbeth macduff's luaconf.h .) Function math.mod was renamed math.fmod . Responsibility? (See compile-time option LUA_COMPAT_MOD in luaconf.h .) Functions table.foreach and table.foreachi are deprecated.

You can use a for loop with pairs or ipairs instead. There were substantial changes in day of the dead function require due to the new module system. Disney? However, the new behavior is mostly compatible with the old, but require gets the path from package.path instead of from LUA_PATH . Function collectgarbage has different arguments. Function gcinfo is Essay on First Short Story, deprecated; use collectgarbage(count) instead. The luaopen_* functions (to open libraries) cannot be called directly, like a regular C function. Responsibility? They must be called through Lua, like a Lua function.

Function lua_open was replaced by lua_newstate to allow the user to set a memory-allocation function. You can use luaL_newstate from the standard library to create a state with a standard allocation function (based on realloc ). Functions luaL_getn and The Muslim Culture, luaL_setn (from the auxiliary library) are deprecated. Disney Responsibility? Use lua_objlen instead of why did macbeth kill macduff's luaL_getn and nothing instead of luaL_setn . Function luaL_openlib was replaced by luaL_register . Function luaL_checkudata now throws an error when the given value is not a userdata of the expected type. (In Lua 5.0 it returned NULL .) Here is the disney responsibility complete syntax of Lua in extended BNF. (It does not describe operator precedences.)

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EXPOSITORY ESSAY: #8220;Atheism, Agnosticism, and Antitheism#8221; / Madison S. Hughes. It is by responsibility, our beliefs, knowledge and Essay Confession Humorous Story, values that we define ourselves, and are judged by others. Many are willing to kill, or be killed for such abstract concepts without even a rudimentary understanding of the abstraction for which they are all too willing to meet their maker. Atheism, agnosticism and antitheism are three commonly misunderstood terms that describe beliefs, knowledge and values respectively. Analytically defining each word will show a direct correlation between each term, and their respective abstract concept for which they describe.

It will prove beneficial to any readers future conversations, correspondence, or consternations concerning atheism, agnosticism, and antitheism. Disney Responsibility. Atheism is Culture Essay, a term that describes one#8217;s rejection of supernatural belief. Simply put, a theist is one with a belief in a supernatural deity, or deities; while an atheist is disney social responsibility, one without a belief in a supernatural deity, or deities. The American Atheist organization founded in 1963 by Madalyn Murray O#8217;Hair, the kill, noted atheist activist, [who] as the disney social, result of her successful battle against mandatory school prayer, and Bible recitation [was responsible for on First Humorous Story their removal from public schools] defines atheism as follows (About): Atheism is the lack of belief in a deity, which implies that nothing exists, but natural phenomena (matter), that thought is responsibility, a property or function of matter, and that death irreversibly and totally terminates individual organic units. This definition means that there are no forces, phenomena, or entities which exist outside of, or apart from physical nature, or which transcend nature, or are super natural, nor can there be. Humankind is on its own. (Atheism)

When it comes to a belief in the supernatural one must either be a theist, or an atheist, for no other alternatives are available. This is not a false dilemma. One cannot kind of, sort of believe, but not really. It would be analogous to kind of, sort of being dead; it is not possible. One is either dead or alive. Likewise, one is Confession Humorous Story, either a theist or an atheist. In both cases there are no other alternatives available.

Atheism is concerned with belief. Often, because of the negative emotive connotations associated with the word atheist, people will incorrectly use the term agnostic to describe their lack of belief in an intellectually vain attempt to disney social responsibility avoid being labeled the pejoratively and socially stigmatic term atheist. It is The Muslim Culture, intellectually dishonest to do so, for agnosticism is the position of believing that knowledge of the existence or non-existence of god is impossible. . . . Disney. The agnostic holds that human knowledge is Essay Confession - A Short, limited to social responsibility the natural world, that the mind is why did kill family, incapable of knowledge of the supernatural (Agnosticism). Agnosticism is not an undecided position concerning belief between a theist, and an atheist. As previously shown theism, and atheism describe belief. One cannot use the term agnostic as a surrogate to describe ones belief. Agnosticism is concerned with knowledge. Antitheism is active opposition to theism. . . . it typically refers to direct opposition to organized religion, or to the belief in any deity (Antitheism). An antitheist values truth over unity, while it is disney social responsibility, observable that theists value unity over truth. For example, an antitheist will overtly, and The Muslim, without reservation, claim that anyone who believes in the story of a talking snake is irrational. Conversely, the theists would not concern themselves with the antitheists claimed irrationality of a talking snake so long as the unity of their cult, church, or community is maintained. Most antitheists are so because they take the view that theism is dangerous or destructive (Antitheism).

Many antitheists are strident in their opposition to disney social responsibility theism. The late Christopher Hitchens who in his 2001 book Letters to day of grave a Young Contrarian , wrote, I hold that the influence of churches, and the effect of religious belief, is positively harmful (Antitheism). Antitheists look at the negative effect of religious belief on disney, society. They believe that the influence of the churches is Confession - A Short, unnecessary for positive effects to be made in society. Secular institutions such as the disney social responsibility, Red Cross, Doctors without Borders, Planned Parenthood, Amnesty International, PlanUSA, etc. do so demonstratively with neither a need for the promise of salvation, nor the fear of damnation. Antitheism is concerned with values. The metaphysical misunderstanding of abstract concepts such as belief, knowledge and values need not continue to thrive in a culture of intolerance. A simple analytical understanding of the the dead, definitions of atheism, agnosticism, and antitheism clearly shows their respective correlation to belief, knowledge and disney social responsibility, values respectively. Atheism is concerned with belief . Agnosticism is concerned with knowledge . Antitheism is concerned with values . #8220;About.#8221; American Atheists. The Government Rome. Ed. Admin.

American Atheists, 15 Feb. 2012. Web. 18 June 2012. #8220;Agnosticism.#8221; The Skeptic#8217;s Dictionary. Ed. Robert T. Carroll. The Skeptic#8217;s Dictionary, 19 May 2012. Web. Social Responsibility. 19 June 2012. #8220;Antitheism.#8221; Wikipedia . Wikimedia Foundation, 07 June 2012.

Web. 19 June 2012. #8220;Atheism.#8221; American Atheists . Ed. Admin. Uppsala Internationalization. American Atheists, 15 Feb. 2012. Web. Disney. 18 June 2012. The Government Rome. Got it hanging on my wall. Yeah, I do. Up there with Hitch and Dawkins. Keep it up brother.

Yeah, the #8220;Afterlife#8221; vid loads now. I don#8217;t know what the hell happened. Don#8217;t care; it works now. A concise and useful summary. I would add to the theist perspective that his or her supernatural God is disney social responsibility, also personal, present, and guiding of individuals specifically and of the universe generally.

It#8217;s a proposition that cannot be proven; it has to be believed, assented to in trust that it is true. The atheist just says: #8220;I cannot assent to that, it all sounds and behaves like a social construction.#8221; The larger problem, it seems to me, is that the Christian model of Essay Tragedy Corner theism increasingly broadened its range of disney social responsibility propositions to, in actuality, become an ideology and cultural system and thus became a political entity. Antitheists realize that theism is not just a simple and benign #8220;belief#8221; in something; it is Culture Essay, a comprehensive ideological and social responsibility, political system that can be used, by politically motivated actors, to do harm to uppsala model other humans. I don#8217;t care what you believe, I #8220;believe#8221; or #8220;trust#8221; in unproven things as well. The real question is how our belief systems impacts others. Brilliant.

Very informative! Thank you IzaakMak; I am glad that you found it informative.

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How to Write Better Essays: 6 Practical Tips. The best students enjoy writing essays because theyre a chance to shine; theyre an interesting intellectual exercise in which the responsibility, writer must craft thoughtful arguments on complex topics within the confines of a prescribed and often restrictive word count. For many such students, each essay brings with it the challenge of making it that little bit better than the last one. Why Did Kill Family? The problem is that when you write essays regularly, its easy to get stuck in social, a rut of repeating the macduff's family, same formula each time particularly when you already receive good feedback from the teachers who read them. So how do you take your essays to the next level and go from great to brilliant? Here are some practical tips and techniques that will help you write consistently impressive essays. Offer to share your essays with other people and they may return the favour. Even better: start a study group.

Just as the books you read subconsciously help mould your own writing style, so reading other peoples essays can help you develop and build on your own essay-writing style. Try to disney social read a range of other essays, including those of your peers and of academics. Tragedy At Every Corner? Read essays on a wide variety of social responsibility subjects, not necessarily just those that youre studying; different disciplines might apply different kinds of Essay on First Confession - A Humorous Short Story arguments or styles, so the wider you read, the disney, more possible techniques there are for you to pick up and use in essays of of Ancient Rome your own. As you read other peoples essays, dont just take them at face value. Be critical: what do you like about them? What dont you like about them? How persuasive do you think they are? Is the disney, argument a balanced one, with points adequately supported with evidence?

Has the writer used any techniques youve not seen before? Another good source of essays is the broadsheet newspapers. Day Of The Dead Grave? Read the opinion pieces and responsibility, dissect how the writer has supported their points with evidence, and again, be critical; note where theyve left things out to try to persuade you to day of the dead a particular opinion. Essays should be balanced, so you can learn from the best of these writers and disney social responsibility, pick up some techniques to help you shape a balanced piece. 2. Build your vocabulary and of Ancient Rome, use it properly. Make use of dictionaries and disney responsibility, thesauri. A good vocabulary will allow you to express exactly what you mean, as clearly and concisely as possible. Economy with words is a characteristic of all good essays, because readers (and essay-markers) dont like having their time wasted with long, rambling points that could have been expressed in half the uppsala internationalization model, number of words. One way of ensuring that you can communicate clearly and to disney the point is through accurate and effective use of advanced vocabulary.

A good essay writer should never rest on their laurels when it comes to vocabulary; its something you should be working on continually, as there are always new words to Essay at Every learn that could help convey a point more effectively. Whats more, deploying a good vocabulary displays intelligence and allows you to be more persuasive in your essay-writing. Disney Responsibility? Here are some ways in which you can build your vocabulary: Subscribe to The Muslim a word a day email (such as this one from Merriam-Webster). Create a folder in your email account for new word emails, so that you can file each email away and disney responsibility, have them all in macbeth macduff's, one place ready to flick through and learn from in disney responsibility, an idle moment. Read widely, and refer to a dictionary for words you dont know as you go along; this way, youll learn the new word as well as seeing it in the dead grave, context so you know how to use it properly. Read different genres of fiction, and non-fiction covering a range of topics, and disney, youll have the added bonus of widening your general knowledge as well as your vocabulary. Use a thesaurus if you find yourself using the same words over and over again, add variety to your language by at Every Corner, looking up those words in a thesaurus and finding other words that mean the same thing. A word of warning: words you find in a thesaurus cant always be used interchangeably; even words with similar meanings can differ subtly in a way that makes them inappropriate in disney social, certain contexts, so find examples of a word used correctly before you use a new word for the first time. Learn prefixes, suffixes and roots it sounds boring, but this shortcut will help you learn a great many more words.

Many roots come from Latin and Greek words, such as bene in Latin, meaning good, which gives rise to words such as benefactor, benevolent and benefit. Its often possible to deduce the meaning of a new word if you know its root and read it in context. Prefixes are added to the beginning of a word to change the meaning, such as semi or ante, while suffixes are added to the end, such as -able or -ance. Start a vocabulary book you probably have one if youre learning a foreign language, so why not have one for your native language as well? Buy yourself a nice notepad and uppsala, use it to collect new words and their meanings. Disney Social Responsibility? The act of writing down the of Ancient Rome, definition will help you remember it, and you could include an example of responsibility how the word is used to increase your chances of internationalization model memorising it for use in essays. It may help to have different sections for words on particular themes; you could have a general section, and disney, then further parts of the notebook could be dedicated to words of use in Tragedy at Every Corner, history essays, science essays and so on. The aim of responsibility improving your vocabulary is to internationalization increase precision and social, reduce waffle. Put the new words youve learned to Culture good use right away, perhaps setting yourself the challenge of including a minimum number of new ones in each essay you write.

This will help consolidate your knowledge at the same time as impressing the reader. One important thing to remember, though: dont use big words just for disney responsibility the sake of it. Using a long, obscure word when a simpler one would suffice risks making you sound pompous, which may have the opposite effect to the one intended. Whats more, be wary of adding words for the sake of it; cut the waffle by kill macduff's family, reviewing each sentence and removing any words or sentences that dont add anything to social responsibility what youre saying. Ultimately, your goal should be to make your writing as clear and easy-to-understand as possible, so that it is uppsala a pleasure to read. 3. Words to disney responsibility help develop an argument.

Part of sounding intelligent in an essay is not repeating yourself; as youre writing, focus on The Muslim Culture Essay using language effectively to help build an responsibility, argument and create a sense of structure. Of Ancient Rome? To that end, avoid using the same words every time; many people overuse the word also, for example. Disney Social Responsibility? Vary your language, and Essay Tragedy at Every Corner, use words such as moreover, furthermore and however. Such words help develop your argument and make the reader feel they are being guided through the problems on a sort of journey to your conclusion. Would you be able to summarise your essay between floors? Weve probably all had it hammered into disney social responsibility us that we should write an essay plan before we start writing, but before you even do that, you need to know what the argument youre going to make actually is. Only then can you start writing the on First Confession - A Short Story, structure for an essay that builds up to social responsibility your overall conclusion.

To condense what youre trying to macbeth kill macduff's say into a short, snappy summary for you to work from, try making an Elevator Pitch style summary of what you intend to write and why readers should be interested in disney, it. The Elevator Pitch is a technique used by salespeople when condensing the arguments for buying a product into the shortest possible summary of why a customer should consider a purchase. The salesperson is told to imagine themselves in a lift; in the time it takes for day of the dead grave that lift to reach the desired floor, they should have given a compelling argument in favour of that product that would result in disney social, the customer buying it, or at least wanting to know more. Your Elevator Pitch for your essay should sell the idea of it to on First a reader, leaving them wanting to disney read the essay in Rome, question. This is social quite a tough exercise, as it forces you to be ruthlessly concise in your thinking and macbeth kill, choice of words; but you can use this summary to help you write your introduction, and social, itll help you achieve clarity in what youre trying to say.

5. Tell the reader what other people say. Be aware of who the foremost writers on a subject are, even if you decide not to reference them. For instance, anyone studying Beowulf should be aware of JRR Tolkiens essay, The Monsters and internationalization, the Critics. Weve mentioned this on a previous article on essay writing, but it seems pertinent to mention it here too. Essays are a chance for you to disney show off how widely read you are, so make sure you quote other peoples opinions, and The Government, original sources, on social responsibility what youre writing about. Rome? For example, if you were to write a history essay on early religious practices in Britain, you could quote original texts on that topic (such as Bedes Ecclesiastical History of the English People ) and disney responsibility, also mention what a range of modern scholars have to say about the of Ancient, topic. Disney? Contrasting views should be sought; its unlikely that everyone agrees on the topic, so show youve looked at Essay Tragedy at Every Corner, all the possible angles. For each of the subjects youre studying, start a page in a notebook for important people in that field, with a summary of disney social responsibility when they lived and what their views are. That way, youll have something to refer to when youre writing an essay and uppsala internationalization model, want to consult appropriate scholars or other writers whose opinions you might wish to include. Dont quote too much; mix citations with your own opinions so that it doesnt look as though you have to hide behind other peoples words.

Its fine to disagree with a scholar you quote, provided you can give evidence and responsibility, reasoning for doing so. This shows that you have thought about uppsala, it and made your own mind up, rather than blindly accepting what that scholar has said; this demonstrates strong critical reasoning skills, one of the hallmarks of brilliant students. 6. Syntax, punctuation and tone of responsibility voice. Be honest: do you find your tone of voice interesting? You may not consciously realise it when youre reading, but sophisticated sentence structures make the world of Essay on First - A Humorous difference to how intelligent you sound. Disney? As weve already said, the Confession - A Humorous Short Story, most important consideration when youre writing is making yourself easy for readers to understand; but you can still do this and utilise a range of disney social responsibility interesting syntax at the same time. Employ a variety of sentence structures, long and Tragedy at Every, short, but dont let your sentences become too long and rambling, or they become difficult to read.

Effective punctuation is social responsibility vital in conveying your arguments persuasively; the last thing a teacher or lecturer wants to read is an Essay - A Humorous Short Story, essay riddled with poor grammar. Whats more, the disney social, reader shouldnt have to read a sentence more than once to understand it. You probably already have a tone of voice you use for writing essays, but is day of the dead it interesting and engaging? Read through some of your old essays and ask yourself honestly whether you find them absorbing. If theyre not, it could well be because youve not established the right tone of voice. Essays constitute a formal, academic context, but that doesnt mean you have to be boring. A confident tone of voice will help show the reader that you know what youre talking about and reassure them that theyre in safe hands. Writing in the active rather than the disney, passive voice is a well-known trick of the trade that writers use to the dead give their writing a sense of immediacy and make it more compelling; you too can deploy this technique in social responsibility, your essays by steering clear of the passive voice (for example, rather than writing Much work is Tragedy Corner being done to, say Scholars are putting a great deal of social effort into). At Every? Over the course of an entire essay, youd be surprised what a difference this makes to disney social responsibility your tone.

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Generic Format of a Formal Proposal. Important Note : The following section describes in detail how to responsibility develop a generic proposal. It is intended for those researchers who have minimal background in proposal development or those looking for reference information about proposal writing. Please be aware that some sponsors, such as NIH, have very specific guidelines for developing and Corner submitting a proposal. In all cases individual sponsor guidelines should be followed. There are three major components to the standard research proposal.

They are the text, the budget, and social responsibility the supporting documents, referred to as the appendices, attachments or exhibits. This section outlines each piece of the proposal, and concludes with a discussion of certain variations in format required if one is seeking support for other kinds of academic programs. Most sponsoring agencies specify the format for the cover sheet, and some provide special forms to summarize basic administrative and fiscal data for the project. Generally, the principal investigator, his or her department head, and an official representing the College sign the cover sheet. In addition, the cover sheet usually includes the College's reference number for Tragedy at Every, the proposal, the name of the agency to which the proposal is being submitted, the title of the proposal, the proposed project period, the total funds requested, the social responsibility, name and address of the The Muslim Essay, College unit submitting the social responsibility, proposal, and the date submitted. Some agencies want the cover sheet to specify whether the proposal is for a new or continuing project. The cover page must be signed by an authorized administrative official from the OSP. Follow the directions for completing a cover sheet exactly. While most sponsors require applicants to fill out an official cover page for the proposal, in why did macbeth kill macduff's the absence of that cover page, applicants should include a cover letter on Dartmouth College or DHMC stationery addressed to the sponsoring organization specifying the following information: Project Title Project Summary Total Cost of Project Funds Requested from Sponsor Name, Position, Address, Phone number, E-mail, and disney responsibility FAX number of principal investigator Signature block for Principal Investigator Signature block for Sponsored Projects Administrative Official Address, Phone Number, E-mail, and Culture FAX number of Office of Sponsored Projects. Although titles should be comprehensive enough to social responsibility indicate the nature of the proposed work, they should also be brief.

One good way to cut the length of titles is to avoid words that add nothing to a reader's understanding, such as Studies on. Rome? Investigations. or Research on Some Problems in. A good title is usually a compromise between conciseness and explicitness. The title page should include not only the title of the project, but also the submission date, who the proposal is being submitted to, and the name of the institution submitting the social, proposal, i.e., Submitted to the National Endowment for the Humanities by the Trustees of Dartmouth College. Every proposal, even very brief ones, should have an why did macbeth kill macduff's family abstract. Some readers read only the abstract, and most readers rely on it to give them an initial quick overview of the proposal and later to refresh their memory of the project's main points. Agencies often use the abstract alone in their compilations of research projects funded or in disney social disseminating information about successful projects. The abstract speaks for the proposal when it is separated from it, provides the reader with a first impression of the request, and, by acting as a summary, frequently provides the reader also with his last. Thus it is the most important single element in the proposal.

To present the essential meaning of the proposal, the abstract should summarize or address all the questions identified in the Section 3.2 of this manual, with the exception of the uppsala internationalization model, cost of the project. The project cost is excluded from the abstract because the abstract is often subject to a wider public distribution than the rest of the proposal. Although it often appears at the beginning of the proposal, the abstract should be written last, as a concise summary (approximately 200 words) of the proposal. It should appear on a page by itself numbered with a small Roman numeral if the proposal has a table of contents and with an Arabic number if it does not. The convenience of the reader should be the guiding consideration in disney responsibility producing a table of contents. Uppsala? Very brief proposals with few sections ordinarily do not need a table of contents. Long and responsibility detailed proposals should list all major parts and divisions, including the abstract and Essay Tragedy significant preliminary pages.

Subdivisions usually need not be listed. Disney Social Responsibility? The table of contents may require a list of illustrations (or figures) and a list of tables. If all of these are included, they should follow the order presented in the text, and The Muslim Culture Essay each should be numbered with lower-case Roman numerals. The table of contents should be simply labeled Contents in the header of the page. The introduction to a proposal sets the tone. The researcher must appear appropriately confident, organized, and clear as to the intent of the disney social, research to Essay on First Confession - A Short Story be undertaken. The introduction should begin with a capsule statement of what is being proposed and then should proceed to introduce the subject to someone unfamiliar with the topic. Social? One cannot assume that the Corner, proposal reviewer is familiar with the topic of the proposal. Disney Responsibility? The introduction should briefly outline the Essay, goals and objectives of the social responsibility, project, how long it will take, and Tragedy at Every Corner give enough background to enable the reviewer to place this particular research problem in a context of common knowledge. The introduction should very specifically and concisely state the importance of the research being proposed.

The introduction may introduce the concept of how this project's approach and resulting work will advance the field of knowledge and responsibility prove an important contribution to other related research. It may also be helpful to state what the proposal does not expect to accomplish or address. The introduction may also specify the order and arrangement of the Essay at Every, sections included in the proposal. Goals and objectives are not the same and should be dealt with separately. The goal of the project is what one hopes to accomplish as a result of the completed project. Disney Social Responsibility? Objectives are statements of precise outcomes that can be measured in support of the project's goals. Properly written objectives should be specific, measurable, and time bound. Unless specifically requested by the sponsor, do not include milestone activities. The Dead Grave? These are more appropriate to periodical technical reports that are usually requested during the life of the sponsored research project. Ability of the Project Staff to Undertake this Project. Sponsors want assurance that the funds invested in a project will yield results.

One indicator of success is the researcher's professional reputation and past experiences in disney managing sponsored research projects. A background discussion of the on First Confession - A Humorous Short Story, researcher's own previous work, including evidence of the researcher's competence in social responsibility the field, previous related work undertaken, and how this new proposal will continue or enhance that previous work should be included as background information. Some sponsors also want to know who has funded the previous work. Uppsala Internationalization? A researcher is encouraged to discuss their own previous publications that relate to the present proposal. Description of Relevant Institutional Resources. It is useful to think of this section of the proposal as an opportunity for the researcher to assure the proposed sponsor that the responsibility, institution is solidly in support of the research proposal, has the resources to devote to the project's undertaking, and is willing to Tragedy Corner commit a portion of those resources to this project. Some administrative areas have a boiler plate already developed that outlines the institution's demonstrated competence in the pertinent research area, unique or unusual research facilities or instruments available to the project staff, and support services and staff available to assist the project. Discussions of disney social responsibility, work done by others should give the internationalization model, reviewer a clear impression of how this project will build upon responsibility what has already been done.

Additionally, a review of the literature will highlight how the project under consideration differs from other related projects. It is important to establish what is original in the project's approach, what circumstances have changed since related work was done, or what is unique about the time and place of the currently proposed research. Literature reviews should be selective and critical. Reviewers do not want to read through a voluminous working bibliography they want to know the especially pertinent works and The Government a fair evaluation of them. A list of works, neither evaluated nor studied, contributes almost nothing to the proposal.

The style of the bibliographical item itself depends on the discipline. The main consideration is consistency. Whatever style is chosen, the style should be followed scrupulously throughout the proposal. A project must always be considered as an allocation of resources toward a specified goal. Disney Responsibility? Using this definition as a framework, the project description is the heart of the proposal and is the primary concern of the technical reviewers. It should persuasively describe what is to be undertaken and how it will be accomplished. The comprehensive explanation of the proposed research is addressed not to the general reader but to other specialists in the field. Some points to consider when writing this section of the proposal: Be realistic in designing the program of work. Overly optimistic notions of what the project can accomplish in one, two, or three years or of its effects on the world will only detract from the proposal's chances of being approved. The proposal should distinguish clearly between long-range research goals and the short-range objectives for which funding is being sought.

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