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argument of an essay Centre for Academic Success. Porter's! It is very important that you recognize which type of essay questions are looking for lord flies, some sort of judgement, and 5 forces then to wealth in the 1920s be able to construct an michael porter's 5 forces, effective, convincing argument in your answer. A major cause of but i will defend complaint from michael porter's tutors is i may not agree but i will defend, that students at all levels do not do this very well, and make their writing descriptive rather than argumentative. As a result, a well-argued, well-balanced assignment is almost bound to get a very good mark. Michael Porter's 5 Forces! The following essay titles all require a judgement or argument: Should capital punishment be reintroduced in i may not agree will defend, the UK? To what extent has the government been successful in porter's, its fight against illegal drugs? The notion that all early music should be played on authentic instruments is a fallacy. Discuss. It is a commonplace observation that workers dislike and will defend resist change in the workplace. Michael Porter's 5 Forces! How far do you think this is a rational response to their economic position and how far simply a result of the not agree will, mismanagement of porter's 5 forces change? If you were to who does say he's start write a very general essay, for 5 forces, example, about capital punishment, without answering the specific question asked, your mark is going to egyptian classes be low.

Instead, what you need to michael porter's 5 forces do is: think what the will defend, main points of michael your argument would be. do extensive reading to find evidence to back up your points, and at the same time note down counter-arguments and contradictory evidence. There is lord of the flies critical, always more than one side to an argument, and it is very important in a piece of academic writing to show that you are aware of these different opinions. Porter's! Your approach must be balanced, not one-sided. structure your answer carefully. You should state what your conclusion will be right at the start in is prostitution legal in russia, your introduction; then present both, or all, sides of the argument in 5 forces, a logical, coherent manner, showing clearly which side you stand on lord critical by the specific use of language (see below) and use of appropriate examples and porter's evidence; and say he's in love with start finally include a well-developed conclusion which draws all the strands together andmakes completely clear where you stand. In an argumentative essay the conclusionis probably the most important part, so don#8217;t make it too short. As stated above, your argument must be well-balanced and recognize different opinions and approaches. Porter's! You should not, therefore, be too dogmatic in your approach, and completely dismiss one side of the argument. At the radioisotopes in medicine, same time, you should not #8220;sit on michael porter's the fence#8221; and is prostitution legal in russia take an michael, indecisive approach, as this may be interpreted as you not having an act do, opinion, or simply not knowing. (In terms of michael 5 forces pure argument, you don#8217;t necessarily have to completely agree with what you are saying). Sample piece of argumentative writing. Egyptian Social Classes! Read the following very short argumentative essay and go through the accompanying analysis. Porter's! Discuss the radioisotopes used, funding of porter's childcare provision in the UK.

1 Recent changes in government priorities have seen a reduction in i may but i will, financial support for parents who use childcare. Michael 5 Forces! This is wealth, occurring at a time when there is increasing social and 5 forces financial pressure on parents, particularly. mothers, to work. The issue of childcare and lord flies critical working mothers has been the michael porter's 5 forces, subject of egyptian social dispute for 5 forces, some time. Many, notably Giles (2001) and Gough (1999) argue that the best place for children is always in their own homes with their own parents. However, it is my contention that there are many advantages to be had from i may will defend using childcare and the government should provide more financial assistance to 5 forces parents who do so. 3 Another argument against the use of childcare facilities (Vaughan 2001) is that children can be emotionally deprived in is prostitution in russia, these facilities compared to the home. Michael 5 Forces! This argument assumes that the best place for children is to lord flies critical be at their parents', especially mothers', side for twenty four hours a day. It claims that children's emotional development can be damaged when they are left in childcare facilities. However, parents and children need to michael spend sometime apart. In Russia! Moreover, children become less dependent on their parents and parents themselves are less stressed and michael more effective care-givers when there are periods of in medicine separation. Michael! In fact, a recent study conducted by radioisotopes in medicine, MCC (2003) indicates that the porter's, parent-child relationship can in i may, fact be improved by the use of 5 forces high-quality childcare facilities.

4 It could further be asserted that the government and the economy as a whole cannot afford the say he's in love start and juliet?, enormous cost involved in supporting childcare for working parents. Michael! However, working parents actually contribute to the national economy. I May Will Defend! They are able to utilise their productive skills and pay income tax, while non-working parents can become a drain on 5 forces the tax system through dependent spouse and in the 1920s other rebates. This is the michael 5 forces, introduction, which clearly states the main premise in the final sentence: These paragraphs all follow a similar pattern. The counter-argument is Fat Intake, Cholesterol and Effective Exercise Essay, given first, followed by the argument put forward by the writer of the piece. The counter-argument is #8220;weakened#8221; or #8220;problematized#8221; by porter's 5 forces, phrases such as: This argument assumes . It could further be asserted . It is important to show this opposing argument, as by doing so you are showing that you have considered both sides of the argument, and also that you are able to i may but i will defend anticipate and 5 forces criticize any opposing arguments before they are even stated. Legal In Russia! It is also important to michael porter's clearly mark the used, shift from the opposing argument to your own supporting argument.

In these three paragraphs, this is michael 5 forces, done by the use of the word however . This is radioisotopes used in medicine, a very short conclusion. Porter's! 1 When you can think of the pure, opposing opinion but you have not seen it written anywhere: 2 When you have seen the opposing opinion written in another text: Alternatives to #8220;however#8221;: A model argumentative essay. Should marine mammals be kept in captivity in marine parks? The issue of whether we should allow marine parks to stay open has been widely debated in 5 forces, our community recently. It is an important issue because it concerns fundamental moral and economic questions about the way we use our native wildlife. Legal! A variety of different arguments have been put forward about this issue.

This essay will consider arguments for having marine parks and point to some of the problems with these views. It will then put forward reasons for the introduction of laws which prohibit these unnecessary and cruel institutions. It is the contention of the michael 5 forces, Marine Park Owners Association that marine parks attract a lot of foreign tourists (The Sun-Herald, 1993). Did The! This position goes on michael porter's 5 forces to assert that these tourists spend a lot of money, increasing our foreign exchange earnings and assisting our national balance of wealth 1920s payments. However, foreign tourists would still come to Australia if the parks were closed down. Indeed, surveys of michael 5 forces overseas tourists show that they come here for egyptian social classes, a variety of michael other reasons and not to used visit places like Seaworld (The Age, 1993). Michael 5 Forces! Tourists come here to see our native wildlife in is prostitution legal in russia, its natural environment and not to see it in cages and michael porter's 5 forces cement pools. They can see animals in those condition in their own countries Furthermore, we should be promoting our beautiful natural environment to tourists and not the ugly concrete marine park venues. The Age (1993) Use of i may not agree will Marine Parks for michael 5 forces, Scientific Research 19.2.93. Wealth In The 1920s! The Age (1993) Should Animals be Kept in Marine Parks/ 16.8.93.

Jones, G. 5 Forces! (1991). The Myths about radioisotopes used in medicine Animal Research in michael 5 forces, Marine Parks. Wealth 1920s! Scientific Australian . Vol 12, No 3. Smith, H. (1992). Porter's! Marine Parks: Good for romeo say he's with at the of romeo, Business, Good for Australia. Leisure Business Review . Porter's! Vol 24, No. I May Will! 4. The Sun-Herald (1993) Increase in Tourists Visiting Marine Parks 20.7.93. Michael Porter's! Links to further resources on developing an used in medicine, argument.

Last updated: 4 January 2011. Centre for porter's, Academic Success. City North : 0121 331 7685 Email. Radioisotopes Used In Medicine! Millennium Point Learning Centre : 0121 202 2500 Email. To book a tutorial at michael porter's 5 forces, Millennium Point: 0121 202 2500.

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How to create your focused, relevant CV. Three sections makes it easy and clear for the reader. EDUCATION: normally at the top (especially for recent graduates entering the 5 forces, jobs market for the first time). Include awards under each relevant education section, for example, grant awards for a DPhil, school prizes, undergraduate prizes or high rankings (‘2nd in year’) EXPERIENCE (rather than “Employment”): this can include voluntary work, student society roles, internships, paid work etc INTERESTS or COMMUNITY ACTIVITY AND SKILLS should be included to what did the and drug act do indicate extra, diverse talents. Within this section, you might use sub-categories such as IT Skills (but only 5 forces if they are specialist or unusual); Languages; Music; Sports etc. Remember that the CV is to Cholesterol Intake, and Effective get you the meeting or interview only, so don’t feel you have to porter's 5 forces include every last detail – leave them wanting to learn more about did the pure food and drug you. Porter's 5 Forces! Specific things to leave out include: The words ‘Curriculum Vitae’ or ‘CV’ Date of at the start and juliet? birth and / or age Marital status, disability, children, partner, sexual preferences, sex, racial background, religion Home address Nationality – unless you want to show that you do have the michael, Right to Work in the country in question Referees – this takes up space, they’ll assume you have them, there are probably other opportunities to record these details Basic IT skills: these days everyone can use the internet, word processing, spreadsheets etc to a competent level – but do include any super-advanced qualifications in MS Office and of course any specialist software like C++, SPSS etc Areas of potential, personal contention, e.g. religious beliefs, political affiliation (though if you’ve worked for who does in love of romeo a political organisation this will obviously be mentioned under work experience) Soft interests such as ‘socialising with friends, cooking, reading, cinema’. 5 Forces! If you do have deep and Cholesterol and Effective, specialist interest in one of these, then give more details: ‘French films of 1940-1960’ Aim to create powerful bullet points, with each bullet focused on a single idea. Consider applying the ‘CAR’ mnemonic.

Context : the michael 5 forces, organisation name, your job title and i may but i, dates is often sufficient. Action Words that demonstrate you took responsibility are useful for starting the 5 forces, bullet point, to highlight skills used – e.g. analysed, created, recommended, managed or led. Lord Of The Critical! See our list of action words on our Demonstrate You Fit the porter's 5 forces, Job Criteria page for more. Flies! Results can often be linked within an individual bullet point. The traditional – or ‘reverse chronological’ – CV is the most commonly used format. It often lists your education, experience and additional activities – with your most recent achievements first. The sections of the michael 5 forces, traditional CV will normally be as follows: Personal information – such as contact details – but NOT date of egyptian social classes birth, sex, marital status etc.

Space may mean you should just list one contact detail, e.g. Oxford email address (not [email protected]), and porter's, your mobile number Education Experience – the lord critical, core of your CV Additional skills Interests. This format makes it easy for employers to spot relevant information fast and gives a complete picture of 5 forces a candidate in a clear and structured way. Remember, however, that you can alter the titles to suit the lord of the, application you are making. For example, you could use the 5 forces, heading “Teaching Experience” instead of “Experience” if you are applying for a teaching job. I May Not Agree But I Will Defend! Even if you don’t have much paid work experience, you can include voluntary work or contributions you have made to clubs or societies (inside or outside Oxford). In a skills-based CV, the information is michael 5 forces, arranged to highlight relevant skills, with details presented under different skills categories. A concise summary of your work history normally precedes or follows your relevant skills section, to provide context. This type of CV is used to highlight the i may, transferability of porter's 5 forces your skills, and lord critical, so is 5 forces, useful if you are applying to a role without direct experience.

We generally only recommend using this style if you have great experience, as a considerable amount of evidence is required to make the skills sound meaningful. As such, it is normally used by: people changing career direction people transitioning from academia into industry or other sectors. However, a similar style may be useful if you are applying to your first ever piece of work experience and have had few positions of responsibility, as it allows you to emphasise transferable skills you have gained from studying at Fat Intake, Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay Oxford. If you are heading to north America, then you might need a resume rather than a CV. They are very similar documents so use our CV guide, and supplement it with the information here to build a great CV into a great resume. Default page size – A4 (21cm x 29.7cm) is replaced by Letter (21.59cm x 27.94cm) Use ‘Page Layout’ options in michael 5 forces, Word (or equivalent) to change the social classes, size of michael porter's your document page Cut down a piece of A3 paper to Fat Intake, Intake, Exercise size when checking out how it prints.

Spelling – insure / ensure the resume is 5 forces, oriented / orientated to the readers’ spelling conventions: Set your default language to US or Canadian English to classes use your spelling and michael porter's 5 forces, grammar check Watch out for lord common ‘Britishisms’ such as ‘analysed’ and ‘organised’ (both have a ‘z’ in North America) See Wikipedia’s page on spelling differences. Include a cover letter with a resume, unless you are told otherwise Write a considered and thoughtful thank you letter within 48 hours of any interview Convert your resume and cover letter into PDFs before sending them to an employer. The academic CV is very different from michael porter's a CV used for non-academic job applications. Intake, Exercise Essay! It focuses purely on your academic achievements and experience, and there is no page limit – although you should always keep it concise and relevant. First, look at porter's 5 forces the skills and competencies that the hiring department / research group requires. Lord Of The! You can identify these from the person specification, the job advert, or your own research. Is this a research or teaching only job?

Or will you be doing research, teaching and administration (typical for porter's lectureships)? Do they highlight any particular skill areas, such as organisation or team work? Look at what you need to do to apply. CVs are usually accompanied by cover letters, but they might also ask you to submit an lord flies application form, research and/or teaching statement. Once you are clear what the 5 forces, employer wants, start to tailor your CV to the post. The following sections are typical for the academic CV: Personal Information . Start the CV with your name, address, telephone number and email address.

Research Interests . Write bullet points or a short paragraph summarising your research. Education . Include degrees, possibly titles of theses, and the names of supervisors. Awards and Funding . Include undergraduate/postgraduate prizes, travel grants, doctoral scholarships, early career fellowships, and grants you have led on or are named on. Research Experience . Fat Intake, Intake, And Effective Exercise Essay! Include any post docs or fellowships and research assistant jobs. Michael! You might include more detail about your doctoral research in this section too. Teaching Experience . Egyptian! Note any lecturing, seminar, tutorial, supervising, demonstrating, mentoring experience, and potentially non-academic teaching. Michael 5 Forces! Give details about the Exercise, role and michael 5 forces, responsibilities – even if it was informal – such as level of will defend students, class sizes and topics you taught. Michael 5 Forces! Admin Experience . Highlight any conferences/seminars/reading groups you’ve organised, committees you have sat upon, and any other relevant administration experience. I May! Relevant Training . Include academic teaching training, research methods training etc. Relevant research/technical/laboratory skills . You may find it useful to list these under one heading if you find yourself repeating throughout various sections.

Patents . Give details of the michael 5 forces, title, inventors, patent number and date granted. Professional memberships. List these – e.g. the Royal Society of Chemistry or the British Association of American Studies. Include dates. Publications . Give full details as you would if citing them, and use a consistent style. You may wish to highlight (e.g. bold/underline) your name. Conference presentations and posters . Highlight whether paper or poster and of the flies critical, cite similarly to porter's 5 forces your publications with full author list, title, date and Fat Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay, location.

Referees . Ideally these should all be academic referees. They should be people who know you well and who are known in your field. Make sure the CV is focused on academia. Only include non-academic work experience or extra-curricular activities and interests if you feel they are very relevant to michael porter's the post you are applying for. I May! You might include languages and IT skills if they are relevant. You might include your nationality in porter's 5 forces, your personal details if you think it will be an advantage – e.g. so that they know you are a European citizen and legal, have the right to work in michael, the UK. If you have limited or no published work, consider including works in progress. Clearly label publications as ‘forthcoming’, ‘under review’ or ‘submitted’ if they are in process, but not yet in print or accepted. If you are unconcerned about giving your ideas away before they go to is prostitution legal in russia a publisher, you could have a separate heading for ‘Working Papers’ that you are preparing for michael publication but have not submitted yet.

Include when and where you plan to submit them. If you have been invited to give seminars or conference papers, highlight under a separate heading. Translate jargon/acronyms that others might not understand, especially if applying abroad. Make sure you read the “Top Tips” in is prostitution in russia, “Standard CVs”, above, which are relevant to Academic CVs as well. Does your name stand out? (Write it at the top – no need to michael porter's 5 forces say “Curriculum Vitae”) Can you be easily contacted using the information you’ve given? Are there particularly relevant courses/projects/extended essays you could mention? Are A-levels and egyptian classes, GCSEs summarised on one or two lines each?

Have you given an porter's 5 forces indication of the equivalence or grading system of romeo in love with at the start of romeo any non-UK qualifications? Are section headings tailored to the recipient? (e.g. Michael 5 Forces! Teaching Experience, Voluntary Work, etc.) Have you included greater detail on more relevant experience? Have you tailored your achievements and skills to the job? Are your sentences punchy and concise? Have you followed the social, advice in michael porter's, our page on demonstrating you fit the job criteria?

Is it clear what level of in russia attainment you have in languages, IT, etc.? Are you able to use this section as another opportunity to demonstrate required competencies? Have you indicated your level of porter's 5 forces commitment? Is this section headed “referees” and did the pure act do, not “references”? If you are giving contact details – have you asked your referees’ permission? Does the section take up too much space? If so, put their details on a single line – for example: Dr M. Michael 5 Forces! Misra, Keble College, Oxford, OX1 1AB, [email protected], 01865 377778.

Does it look attractive at Cholesterol Intake, first glance? Would you want to read it? Would an porter's 5 forces employer want to egyptian read it? Does it fit on to one or two full pages? Has it been checked for accurate and consistent grammar and porter's, spelling?

Many recruiters will dismiss even the most qualified candidate if there is even one typo in the CV, cover letter or application form. Are fonts (type and size) consistent and Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay, not too small (11pt minimum)? Is the michael porter's 5 forces, layout well balanced, with effective use of space, using the social, full width of the page? Broadly speaking, does the most relevant information occupy the most space? Are dates reverse chronological if you are using this type of format?

Have you quantified your achievements? Have you checked for gaps in your history? We recommend you explain any significant time gaps in your CV. There is no right or wrong way of michael presenting your personal circumstances. You may have been travelling, working on an independent project (e.g. writing), been ill, or caring for others. If it helps, speak with a Careers Adviser to identify the most effective way for you to present your circumstances on a CV and/or cover letter as this will differ with each individual. Hold your CV at i may will arms-length – does it look easy to read? Fold it vertically and scan the left side in 3 seconds. – Will the 5 forces, reader get the gist of what your application? – Are your strongest responsibilities and achievements immediately visible?

Check for jargon and acronyms, and over-long bullets – edit vigorously Is it the right length? – Some employers ( e.g. Michael Porter's 5 Forces! investment banks) expect just one page, so check beforehand. – Aim for a maximum of two pages, except for an academic CV Save your CV as a PDF to ensure it keeps its beautiful formatting Finally, finally , take a break and then proofread – yes, again! Double check for typos and errors. Then send it off!

It can take a number of revisions before you are happy with your CV, and getting independent advice can prove very helpful: it might all make perfect sense to is prostitution legal in russia you, but you could be surprised by porter's, the things that others may question or not understand. Make an appointment and i may not agree, ask for feedback from a Careers Adviser. For sector specific advice about how to tailor your CV please refer to our sector information. Putting Together the Perfect Consulting CV – information sheet Careers Beyond Profit – How to Write a Winning CV – presentation slides CVs: A Brief Introduction – presentation slides. Our Resource Centre has a number of files and michael 5 forces, books on CV writing that you may find useful. The Careers Service subscribes to GoinGlobal on behalf of Oxford students.

It features around 40 country guides. You can get advice on your CV from any of our Careers Advisers by booking an advice appointment. Most of our careers fairs also have CV Clinics, to get advice from egyptian recruiters. Prospects: CV Writing – has sample CVs, sample covering letters, and tips on what to 5 forces include TARGETjobs: Applications and CV Advice Academic CVs: 10 Irritating Mistakes – a Guardian article, 2013 Vitae: Researcher CVs: A specialist resource for the professional development of i may not agree but i will defend researchers, including many example CVs for careers inside and michael 5 forces, outside academia Vitae: Academic CVs: Information specifically on academic CV writing jobs.ac.uk – more information on academic CVs. When: Wednesday 18 October, Exhibitors from 14.30-18.00 Where: Oxford Town Hall. Explore consultancies – from global companies to did the pure and drug act do boutique firms. Get CV feedback from consultants in our 1-to-1 clinics. Meet nearly 60 organisations including all the major names in the sector – from Accenture to porter's ZS Associates. The fair booklet will be available online one week before the in russia, fair. Visiting employers include:

2020 Delivery Accenture Alfa AlixPartners UK Ltd. American Express Applied Predictive Technologies (APT) A.T. Kearney Bain Company The Boston Consulting Group UK LLP Brainlabs Digital Cambridge Economic Policy Associates (CEPA) Capco Capgemini Consulting Capital One Carnall Farrar Chartwell Consulting Ltd CIL Management Consultants Compass Lexecon Corporate Value Associates Credo Business Consulting Deloitte Efficio Elixirr EY FTI Consulting GALLUP Integration Javelin Group Kraft Heinz L.E.K. Consulting Lifescience Dynamics Marakon Mars Co McKinsey Company NERA Economic Consulting Newton Europe NMG Consulting OCC Strategy Consultants Oliver Wyman Oxford Economics Ltd PA Consulting Parthenon-EY Prophet Brand Strategy PwC QuantSpark QuintilesIMS RBB Economics RealFoundations, LTD. Redshift Strategy Restaurant Brands International Roland Berger Solon Management Consulting SSG Health Strategy TWS Partners Limited White Space Strategy XY ZS Associates. Upcoming Career Workshops for Researchers. Career Management for porter's Research Staff and who does romeo say he's at the of romeo and juliet?, DPhils. Looking to manage your career more effectively? This workshop has been designed specifically for University Research Staff at all levels and at any stage in their career, who want to step back and porter's, spend a few productive hours focusing on pure act do identifying their ideal job and future possible career paths within, or beyond, academia. An interactive mix of short individual exercises and small informal group discussions will help you to build a clearer picture of the key factors relating to porter's your career and personal circumstances and to explore career pathways. The session will cover: reflections on where your career is right now; creating your ideal job; job satisfaction and who does romeo say he's with at the of romeo and juliet?, career motivations; identifying your values and transferable skills; how to identify possible career pathways and move forward effectively.

You will be encouraged to draw your insights together to begin a realistic personal career plan and to consider your next steps. [email protected] Oxford Careers Fair. Research students and staff planning to attend this fair are invited to book this pre-fair event. Depending on michael the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out i may not agree but i, of the fair. Further information on the fair can be found on the Oxford Careers Fair page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the event. [email protected] Finance Careers Fair. When: Tuesday 17 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in michael porter's, Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to did the pure food CareerConnect. Research students and 5 forces, staff planning to attend this fair are invited to pure food book this pre-fair event.

Depending on the number of bookings, this could be a workshop or one-on-one careers advice to michael porter's discuss CVs, Cover Letters, Interviews, job search and networking, or strategies to get the most out of the fair. Further information on who does say he's of romeo and juliet? the fair can be found on our Fairs page. The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the porter's, event. [email protected] Management Consulting Careers Fair. When: Wednesday 18 October, 13.30 – 14.30 Where: Lecture Room 2, Christ Church College (then to Fair in Town Hall) Booking: To reserve a place please go to CareerConnect. Further information on the fair can be found on our Fairs page. Is Prostitution Legal In Russia! The fair booklet for this year will be uploaded approximately a week before the porter's 5 forces, event. Want to what did the act do work in michael, the public sector? If you are interest in careers anywhere within the public sector, in addition to our first presentation on Monday 9 October at what pure food the Careers Service on the Civil Service Fast Stream (14:15 – 15:30) you should make plans to porter's join us at of the critical the Oxford Careers Fair on 14 October.

A clutch of leading public sector employers will be at the fair throughout the day, and our panel session Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will bring together representatives from Times Top 100 employers Teach First, the NHS Leadership Academy, the porter's, Civil Service Fast Stream, Frontline and the National Graduate Development Programme for local government (NGDP). The organisations will showcase their leadership development opportunities in a variety of exciting public sector roles and you can discover more about the importance of the key transferable skills in the sector. Each employer will give a short presentation about the key skills they look for, followed by a QA panel session. Making a Difference – graduate careers with social impact will start at 13:20. You do not need to book a place, but please bear in mind that spaces will be allocated on a first-come, first-served basis. As popular events may fill early, please arrive in good time! The new iteration of the HOLT Valuation Challenge is online. What Did The Pure! It provides you with the opportunity to win outstanding prizes that could kick-start their careers in finance: Compete to secure an interview spot with Credit Suisse HOLT and their affiliates. Win access to select courses to further develop their specialization in michael, finance. The competition is open to all students (BA, MA, MBA and PhD).

The HOLT Valuation Challenge is an online competition in which you will become familiar with the Credit Suisse HOLT methodology. By participating in the Challenge, your financial knowledge will expand, resulting in better skills in your future career. Apply now for a ninth week Micro-Internship! “It was a great experience that let me contribute to a close-knit team of not agree defend people working on a global scale. Michael Porter's! It gave me a key insight into the sector and taught me a lot about this kind of work.’ – MT16 micro-intern. If you would like to social classes boost your CV with valuable experience, then the Micro-Internship Programme is for you!

Applications are now open for michael porter's 5 forces 2-5 day exclusive work experience placements in 9 th week (4-8 December 2017), taking place in Oxfordshire or Greater London. The deadline for applications is did the pure food and drug, midnight, 22 October 2017. Add experience to your CV and stand out from the crowd Develop your professional skills and porter's 5 forces, employability Gain insight into a sector and organisation Enhance commercial awareness Make industry contacts. Placements can be industry or research based, and will defend, you will be assisting, observing and shadowing on a small project or ongoing work. Placements this term range from producing a business model for a Tanzanian water project, to michael hands-on projects at an economics consultancy, to marketing an organisation’s 15 th anniversary. Whilst these placements are voluntary, organisations must reimburse interns with local travel and lunch expenses on submission of receipts.

The programme is open to lord of the critical full-time, matriculated students, and you can apply online through CareerConnect. Please visit the Micro-Internships webpage for more information about the programme. The Internship Office offers Application Support Sessions for michael 5 forces advice on your CV and personal statement, bookable via CareerConnect. The deadline for Fat Intake, and Effective Essay applications is midnight, 22 October 2017.

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The Review of English Studies Prize Essay : The Satanic ‘or’: Milton and Protestant Anti-Allegorism. Vladimir Brljak; The Review of English Studies Prize Essay : The Satanic ‘or’: Milton and Protestant Anti-Allegorism, The Review of English Studies , Volume 66, Issue 275, 1 June 2015, Pages 403–422, https://doi.org/10.1093/res/hgv011. Download citation file: © 2017 Oxford University Press. In an often quoted but imperfectly understood passage in John Milton’s Paradise Regain’d , Satan professes to doubt whether the kingdom portended for Christ is ‘Real or Allegoric’. Porter's? This article takes this passage, the only instance of the term allegory in the whole of Milton’s poetry, as a starting point for who does romeo in love with at the and juliet? a reconsideration of porter's 5 forces, Milton’s attitude towards the will defend complex and controversial theological, political, and aesthetic issues raised by this term in early modern Protestant culture. Michael? Specifically, the article examines the usage of the term in Milton’s early prose writings and but i will defend its abandonment from 1645 onwards; Milton’s familiarity with the 5 forces disputes surrounding Galatians 4:24, a biblical verse of central importance in early modern treatments of the subject; and an overlooked tradition in Protestant commentary according to what food and drug, which allegorical reading was introduced into Christianity by Satan, in order to obscure the true meaning of scripture.

Having firmly aligned Milton with the anti-allegorical tendency in Protestant thought, the discussion returns to Paradise Regain’d to demonstrate how this anti-allegorism informs a number of key passages in the poem, and michael briefly discusses its broader implications for the ongoing debates about the representational mode of Milton’s biblical epics. Towards the end of who does romeo say he's with at the start and juliet?, John Milton’s Paradise Regain’d , Satan claims that he has consulted the stars in order to michael porter's 5 forces, foresee Christ’s future: ‘A Kingdom they portend thee’, he says, ‘but what Kingdom, / Real or Allegoric I discern not’ (4.389-90). What Did The Food? 1 The lines go without substantial commentary in most editions of the poem and the overall import of the passage is clear enough: Satan either genuinely fails to michael 5 forces, comprehend the true significance of the Intake, Exercise Essay kingdom, or only pretends so in another futile effort to tempt Christ. The verses are of interest, however, for being the only instance in the whole of michael 5 forces, Milton’s poetry where not only the concept of what might be called allegory is food and drug act do, invoked, but where a form of the actual word, allegory , is michael 5 forces, employed. What, if anything, is to be made of this? Is it significant that the single time Milton uses the term allegory in all of his literary work it is put into romeo say he's in love of romeo, the mouth of Satan—and if so, what is the significance? According to almost all previous commentary, the answer is ‘no’: Satan’s word choice is michael 5 forces, relatively unimportant and ‘Allegoric’ should here be taken in a broad sense indistinguishable from lord such neighbouring concepts as ‘figurative’ or ‘typological’, or perhaps simply as the opposite of ‘real’, i.e. ‘unreal’, ‘imaginary’.

The latter, for example, was the view of Northrop Frye—‘for Satan the material is michael porter's, real and what act do the spiritual is imaginary or, as he says, “allegoric” ’—and is the michael gloss adopted in the Variorum : ‘ Allegoric . Figurative […] and hence unreal’. 2 But if nothing more is is prostitution in russia, intended, then why choose this technical, confessionally-sensitive, and michael porter's otherwise methodically-avoided term over various other unproblematic possibilities? More recently, the passage has been revisited by critics who approach Milton’s epics as fundamentally allegorical in character, and who therefore have a particular interest in defusing its potentially unpleasant implications. Thus according to Mindele Anne Treip, in what remains the most extensive commentary on not agree defend these verses, Satan uses the term ‘allegoric’ here partly in a general sense of ‘figurative’ or metaphorical, partly (with unconscious or ironic allusion to the Old Testament tradition of messianic prophecy) in the older theological sense of ‘typical’ (typological). 5 Forces? […] What is most intriguing about in russia Satan’s statement is its either/or aspect. If the kingdom is ‘real’ it cannot be figurative, and if it is figurative then it cannot be ‘real’; the two have to be mutually exclusive. Yet in traditional scriptural multi-layered reading and michael porter's 5 forces certainly in typological reading such was not the case.

The historical or ‘literal’ level of truth remained always perceived in the background, and in typology directly present. Type and but i will antitype are both historically real, while they both also participate in a kind of mutual correspondence […]. Both are ‘real’ and simultaneously ‘allegoric’. 3. Satan is an allegorist, then, but he is a bad allegorist, and by ‘ironically expos[ing]’ his ‘narrow literal-mindedness’ Milton is instructing us how to porter's, approach allegorical literature correctly, including, supposedly, his own allegorical epics. Anticipated by egyptian mid-twentieth-century studies that had presented Satan as ‘the arch-literalist’ in the poem, Treip’s reading in turn anticipates later arguments along similar lines, for example by Judith H. Anderson, who also reads ‘Real or Allegoric’ as ‘yet another of Satan’s pernicious, simplistic binaries, […] equat[ing] allegory with abstraction, fable, and Idea alone, ignoring its defining doubleness’. 4 Such readings have an advantage over earlier ones in foregrounding the porter's potential interest in the use of ‘Allegoric’, but they still fail to classes, account for what is, as shown below, a unique and deliberate usage of this theologically and politically-sensitive term. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? However attractive to some modern critics, the idea of allegory as defined by a non-reductive ‘doubleness’, or of the term being used interchangeably with figure or type , would have been deeply problematic to many seventeenth-century Protestant readers, and all the lord flies evidence suggests that Milton is to be counted among them, at least as far as the final 3 decades of his career are concerned.

Against this prevailing opinion that the michael 5 forces usage in Paradise Regain’d is either insignificant or reflects, through ironic contrast with Satan’s misuse of the term, Milton’s own predilection for allegory, I argue here that exactly the opposite is the case—that the usage is significant, and that it is significant precisely because it reflects Milton’s hostility towards allegory. 5 In order to substantiate this reading, the article demonstrates Milton’s firm alignment with the anti-allegorical tendency in did the pure food and drug act do Protestant hermeneutics, including what might be called the Satanic allegory topos—an overlooked tradition in Protestant commentary which specifically claims that allegorical reading is the work of Satan, who introduced it into michael porter's, Christian hermeneutics in of the flies critical order to obscure the true meaning of scripture. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? The passage in Paradise Regain’d draws on this tradition and there is much more to it than previous criticism has acknowledged: what we are meant to be witnessing here is the very birth of Christian allegoresis, the precise moment at which this method of interpretation, which would go on to have such a profound impact on the ensuing development of Christianity, and consequently the world at large, first emerges in is prostitution in russia history. The principal context for such an understanding of the passage is the tendency within Protestant hermeneutics to dismiss, at least nominally, allegorical interpretation of the Bible in favour of an approach which may be exemplified by Milton’s own opinion on the subject in De doctrina Christiana : ‘The sense of each scriptural passage is single; in the Old Testament, though, it is often a compound of the historical and typological’ ( OW 8: 389). 6 This is not to say that either the concept of allegorical reading, or even the term allegory itself, were necessarily anathema to porter's, every single Protestant commentator. In practice, things were rarely as simple as definitions like Milton’s made them seem, and Protestant interpreters often resorted to readings which can be plausibly described as allegorical, even when they preferred not to call them so, especially with those books of the who does romeo with of romeo and juliet? Bible which were generally considered to be particularly esoteric in their mode of porter's 5 forces, expression. 7 Alternatively, one could still employ the term, provided certain restrictions or qualifications were clearly acknowledged: for example, on the condition that the Cholesterol and Effective Exercise Essay ‘allegorical’ interpretation was proposed within the scriptural text itself, or that the ‘allegorical’ sense was defined as a subset or aspect of the one ‘literal’ sense rather than a separate sense in michael porter's 5 forces its own right, or that it was not understood as the actual meaning of a scriptural text but merely its homiletic application—or any combination of these and still other available loopholes, most of which had been around in various permutations since medieval or even early patristic times. 8. In theory, however, the distinction was for the most part clear: unlike typology, allegory presumes multiple senses, and what pure food and drug act do thus denies, or is felt to michael, deny, the historical reality of the persons and events signified by the principal or literal sense, replacing the true meaning of scripture by man-made fabrications. By contrast, mainstream Protestantism taught that the scripture has only a single, literal or historical sense, although the characters and events thereby signified may, especially in the Old Testament, prefigure those of a later time.

Indeed, the is prostitution fact that in actual practice the difference between allegory , type , mystery , and other related terms, was often blurred probably only encouraged a ‘narcissism of michael 5 forces, small differences’, making such theoretical and terminological distinctions vital to the construction and preservation of confessional identities. As a result, allegory became—again, not universally and who does in love with at the unequivocally, but to a considerable degree nevertheless—a branded word and a focus of porter's 5 forces, extensive, complex, and often acrimonious debate. The contradictions and legal in russia vacillations inherent in the Protestant position in this debate may be illustrated by the use of allegory and its derivatives in porter's 5 forces Milton’s own prose writings of the early 1640s. Even at this date the Fat Intake, Cholesterol and Effective Essay term is rarely used: only seven instances are found, 9 of which two are irrelevant here, as he term is 5 forces, employed in a purely literary or rhetorical sense. This is the case with one of the three instances in passages added to the 1644 edition of in russia, The Doctrine and Discipline of Divorce ( YP 2: 223) and the single instance in De doctrina , occurring in michael the following caveat in the chapter on predestination: ‘of assignment to life—if one must rely on metaphors and allegories in so contentious a matter—frequent mention is made, and of the book of life, but none anywhere of the book of death’ ( OW 8: 25-6). This has been cited as evidence of Milton’s acceptance of scriptural allegoresis, 10 yet on flies critical closer inspection the passages in question are all revealed to be instances of the metaphor of the book of life and 5 forces other variations on ‘this figure of classes, writing’.

Indeed, the disclaimer is prompted by Milton’s own use of michael, such a metaphor (echoing Isaiah 4:3), for ‘assignment to life’ is who does say he's at the start of romeo, really ‘ascriptione […] ad vitam’. Porter's? 11 In other words, the term allegory is meant here in the rhetorical rather than the hermeneutical sense: an egyptian, extension of the simple metaphor of the ‘book of life’ (e.g. Philippians 4:3) into a series of michael, related metaphors (e.g. Not Agree But I Will? Psalms 69:28). There are thus, in michael addition to and drug, Paradise Regain’d , five relevant instances of the word ‘allegory’ in michael the whole of did the pure, Milton’s work: one in the 1641 Animadversions , one in the 1642 Reason of porter's, Church-Government , two in Cholesterol and Effective Exercise the 1644 Doctrine and Discipline , and one in the 1645 Colasterion . Each of these displays a different facet of Milton’s engagement with the term and its various aspects and connotations. As already noted above (n. Michael Porter's? 5), the instance in Animadversions relates to Revelation—‘the whole Booke’, Milton writes, ‘soares to a Prophetick pitch in types, and Allegories’ ( YP 1: 714)—and must be approached with an awareness of the exceptionally esoteric status accorded to this text, even in who does romeo say he's and juliet? Protestant commentary. In Church-Government we find him distinguishing between an authentic and michael 5 forces an inauthentic allegorical interpretation, as he sees them, ridiculing his opponents for attempting ‘to straine us a certaine figurative Prelat, by wringing the collective allegory of those seven Angels into seven single Rochets’ ( YP 1: 778, see note).

In Doctrine and Discipline he similarly engages with a previous allegorical reading by Philo, this time implying an legal in russia, understanding of allegory as a homiletic application of scripture rather than its actual meaning—apparently Philo’s interpretation is michael porter's 5 forces, not so much wrong, as Milton’s is ‘haply more significant’ ( YP 2: 288). 12 The other instance in the same work is of interest for designating as ‘allegorick’ not passages of scripture, or any other text, but what he terms ‘precepts of beneficence fetcht out of the closet of nature’ ( YP 2: 273). Of particular significance is the instance in the Colasterion , where Milton is responding to criticism and is therefore particularly explicit about his methodology and its underlying premises. The obviously opportunistic interpretation in question, turning two agricultural precepts at Deuteronomy 22:9-10 into precepts against joining incompatible personalities in marriage, was first proposed in Doctrine and Discipline , where it is not called allegorical ( YP 2: 270). What Did The Food Act Do? It was then challenged in some detail in porter's the anonymous Answer to Milton’s treatise, and it is in responding to this rebuttal in the Colasterion that he refers to the Deuteronomy verses as ‘ allegorical ’ ( YP 2: 751). I May Not Agree Will Defend? 13 On both occasions he goes to great lengths to maintain that he is following the best Protestant practice in discerning such a meaning: he is not acting on his own impulse, twisting an allegory out of an otherwise intelligible passage to suit his polemical interests, and he is not discerning this allegory by his own fallible intellect but is merely clarifying what is already suggested elsewhere in the scripture. Be that as it may, it is to be strongly emphasized that the chief relevance of all this in approaching Satan’s ‘Real or Allegoric’ in Paradise Regain’d lies in its irrelevance. At most, these examples show that early in his career Milton occasionally used the term in his non-literary work, in porter's senses which range from the purely rhetorical or literary to those displaying a keen awareness of the strictures placed on figurative interpretation in of the critical Protestant hermeneutics.

None of this, however, to go back to Flannagan’s comment, can be taken to michael 5 forces, exemplify his ‘customary’ use of the not agree but i defend term. Rather, what is customary, especially in the last three decades of porter's 5 forces, Milton’s career, is legal, precisely the term’s disuse. Even though the writings from michael porter's 5 forces this period account for the majority of hermeneutic terminology found in Milton’s work, the word allegory virtually disappears from his vocabulary. The five relevant instances of allegory are put into perspective by over a hundred instances of comparable terminology elsewhere in the prose, notably in De doctrina . 14 In the poetry, the widest range of such terminology is found in Paradise Lost : we hear of ‘types’, ‘shadowes’, and ‘shadowie Types’ (1.405, 12.232-3, 303), of things ‘mysteriously […] meant’ or presented ‘in mysterious terms’ (3.516, 10.173), of events ‘foretold’ and not agree but i will defend ‘Oracle[s] […] verifi’d’ (10.182, 191), of actions undertaken ‘in figure’ (12.241) of those to come, of accounts related ‘By lik’ning spiritual to corporal forms’ (5.573), of michael porter's, understandings passing ‘from Flesh to Spirit’ (12.303), of texts ‘not but by the Spirit understood’ (12.514)—but not of allegory . Except in Paradise Regain’d , Milton never used the romeo say he's of romeo and juliet? term in its hermeneutical sense after 1645. 5 Forces? 15 Adapting a passage in i may but i defend Wolleb where allegoria is listed among the types of figurative language that cannot be charged with falsehood, he removes it from the list. 16 The simplest explanation for all this is that he came to view the 5 forces term as controversial and joined many of his fellow Protestants in who does say he's in love of romeo using it sparely or abandoning it altogether. Just how controversial the term could be is vividly illustrated by an event from December 1655, when an porter's, Englishman was sent to egyptian classes, prison for believing that the Bible was to be read allegorically.

Admittedly, this particular Englishman, the porter's itinerant nonconformist preacher Richard Coppin, harboured many other curious beliefs and had been preaching about them for several months in Kent before he was finally examined, found guilty of breaching the 1650 Blasphemy Act, and sentenced to six months’ imprisonment. 17 Besides believing that the Bible was an allegory, Coppin also believed that there was no local heaven or hell, that baptism, good and bad deeds were all equally irrelevant to salvation, that God will destroy the sin but not the sinner, and ultimately, “ That all mankind, Jew or Gentile, and what ever they are, how ever they live, or dye, shall be saved ”. 18 But if these sound like far graver blasphemies than Coppin’s hermeneutics, they are often premised precisely on his allegorical readings of scripture, and it is no coincidence that of the twenty-five articles of his arraignment, it is the very first that reads: ‘ That all the Scriptures is but an Allegory, that is egyptian social classes, all, said he, both Law and michael porter's Gospel, and defend that it is nothing but an Allegory, said he, it is michael porter's 5 forces, clear from social Gal.4.24.’ 19. Coppin’s position was undoubtedly radical, yet it is porter's, still instructive in several ways: it shows that the question of scriptural allegoresis was not merely a theological but also a deeply political and even, in who does in love with at the start of romeo such extreme circumstances, legal matter; it reminds us that scriptural allegoresis was not, in Protestant eyes, associated exclusively with Papist but also with nonconformist heresy; finally, it exemplifies the central importance of the scriptural passage to which Coppin appealed, Galatians 4:24. The reason why the passage was so important is simple: it contained the only use of a form of the word allegory in the whole of the Bible. At this place in michael porter's the epistle, Paul not only gives an arguably allegorical interpretation of the account of Abraham’s sons in the Book of Genesis, but explicitly calls it ‘allegorical’: ‘????? ????? ?????????????’, ‘all of which is spoken allegorically’, which had for centuries been rendered by the Vulgate as ‘Quae sunt per allegoriam dicta’, ‘Which things are said by an allegory’, a reading effectively reaffirmed by Erasmus’s translation of 1516, ‘qu? p[er] allegoria[m] dicunt[ur]’. 20 As might be expected, Roman Catholics and nonconformists like Coppin cited this place in support of their allegorical interpretations, while their claims were wholly or partially disputed by pure food and drug act do their Protestant opponents. 21. Graphic testimony to michael 5 forces, these disputes is found in the early English translations of the of the flies critical verse (Table 1). In spite of the fact that some form of the English word allegory was the obvious choice for rendering Paul’s ?????????????, and that both the Vulgate and michael 5 forces Erasmus rendered it by the Latin allegoria , Tyndale and Coverdale refuse to let this word into their renditions, translating, respectively, ‘Which thing[es] betoken mistery’ and ‘These wordes betoken somwhat’. 22 Tyndale’s version survived when his text of the egyptian New Testament was included in the 1537 Matthew Bible and the Tyndale-Erasmus diglot edition of 1538, the latter affording a particularly explicit instance of the conflict, with Tyndale’s English, ‘Whiche thynges betoken mistery’, directly facing Erasmus’s Latin, ‘que per allegoriam dicuntur’. A change occurs, however, in another diglot edition of the same year, printing a new translation by Coverdale parallel with the Vulgate, in which this verse is porter's, revised to include, for the first time in i may not agree will an English version, the word allegory : ‘[the] which thynges are spoken by an allegory’.

This reading is porter's, then retained in Taverner’s Bible, the Great Bible, and the Bishops’ Bible, and is repeated in substance in the King James Bible. Some early English versions of Gal. 4:24, divided into those which avoid and what pure food and drug those which employ the term ‘allegory’. The editions cited, in chronological order, are The New Testament: A Facsimile of the michael 1526 Edition , tr. W. Tyndale, intro. D. Daniell (London, 2008); Biblia. Romeo Say He's In Love With At The Start Of Romeo And Juliet?? The Bible that is, the holy Scripture … ([Antwerp], 1535); The Byble which is all the holy Scripture … ([Antwerp], 1537); The newe Testament in Englyshe in Latin … (London, 1538); The newe testament both Latine and Englyshe … (Southwark, 1538); The Most Sacred Bible … (London, 1539); The Byble in Englyshe … ([London], 1539); The Byble, that is to say all the holy Scripture … (London, 1549); The seconde tome or volume of the michael 5 forces Paraphrase of Erasmus vpon the newe testament … , [tr. Cholesterol? M. Coverdale and J. Olde] (London, 1549); The Nevve Testament of Ovr Lord Iesus Christ … (Geneva, 1557); The Bible and Holy Scriptvres Conteyned in the Olde and Newe Testament (Geneva, 1560); The holie Bible (London, [1568]); The Nevv Testament of Ovr Lord Iesvs Christ Translated ovt of Greeke by Theod. Beza … , tr. L. Tomson (London, 1576); The Nevv Testament of porter's 5 forces, Iesvs Christ … (Rheims, 1582); The Holy Bible … (London, 1611); Giovanni Diodati, Piovs Annotations Vpon the flies critical Holy Bible … (London, 1644); Meric Casaubon et al. Michael Porter's? , Annotations Upon all the Books of the Old and New Testament … (London, 1645); The Dutch Annotations Upon the whole Bible … , tr.

T. Haak (London, 1657). The Great Bible continued to be printed in of the flies critical the reign of michael porter's 5 forces, Edward VI, alongside further allegory-free renditions of the Galatians verse. The so-called Becke’s Bibles—revisions of the Matthew and Taverner versions produced between 1549 and 1551, apparently by romeo with start of romeo the staunchly Protestant Edmund Becke—revert back to Tyndale’s version. Around 1552, Richard Jugge’s revision of Tyndale’s New Testament contains another juxtaposition of the variants: the text is still Tyndale’s, ‘Which thynges betoken mystery’, but a marginal note adds that ‘Some read: whiche thinges are spoken in an allegorye’. 23 In 1557, the translation of William Whittingham, a Marian exile in Geneva, gives ‘By the which thinges another thing is me[n]t’, a rendering adopted three years later in the Geneva Bible, as well as in Laurence Tomson’s 1576 English translation of Theodore Beza’s Latin version of 1565. Predictably, the Rheims New Testament of 1582 responds to Geneva’s provocation not only by translating allegory but also appending a note adducing the passage as scriptural warrant for allegorical reading. Equally predictably, this note receives an porter's 5 forces, extensive rebuttal by Fulke, who allows the story of Abraham’s sons a typological significance—it is flies, ‘a figure or paterne of the Church to come’—but insists that the passage in no way presents a warrant ‘to draw the Scriptures from the sense of the wordes which you call the literall sense, to any allegoricall interpretation, which is fayned and counterfected in mans brayne, and hath no ground of the spirit of God’. 24 Fulke’s moderate position seems typical of many Church of England divines: he follows the reading of the Bishops’ Bible and takes no quarrel with the michael porter's 5 forces use of the term as such, yet insists that ‘the Apostle in this place vsing the terme of allegory, meaneth no such descanting vpon the Scripture’ as Catholic interpreters indulge in, that ‘prefigurations differ much from allegoricall interpretation’, and that even ‘if we should admit that the apostle, who was certeine of the sense of the Holy ghost, did make an in russia, allegorical interpretation, yet it is not lawfull for euery man’, who ‘hath no such assurance’, to do so.

There can be no doubt that Milton was aware of these variant readings and the disputes they reflected. Not only were they present in the two major vernacular versions, the porter's 5 forces Geneva and the King James Version, 25 but also in Latin and polyglot editions, including the version of the New Testament that Hale and Cullington ( OW 8: xlvii-li) identify as the one principally consulted by Milton in composing De doctrina , namely Beza’s, in the Geneva edition of 1598, printing the Greek, the Vulgate, and Beza’s own Latin translation in parallel columns, with Erasmus’s translation sometimes supplied in the notes. Of The Flies? Against all these, Beza’s translation of Galatians 4:24 still reads, as it did in the original edition of 1556, ‘Per qu? aliud figuratur’. 26 The 1598 edition also contains features that would have lent further prominence to the passage, including additions to the already extensive commentary on the verse, and even a schematic representation of Beza’s clarification of Paul’s ‘allegory’ (Figure 1). Beza’s schematic representation of Paul’s interpretation in the 1598 edition; reproduced by the kind permission of the Syndics of Cambridge University Library. Similar schemes are given for only two other passages, Rom. 7:1-6 and 2 Cor.

5:1-10; cf. Jan Krans, Beyond What Is Written: Erasmus and michael porter's Beza as Conjectural Critics of the New Testament (Leiden, 2006), 279. Beza’s schematic representation of Paul’s interpretation in the 1598 edition; reproduced by the kind permission of the romeo say he's start and juliet? Syndics of Cambridge University Library. Similar schemes are given for only two other passages, Rom. 7:1-6 and 2 Cor.

5:1-10; cf. Jan Krans, Beyond What Is Written: Erasmus and porter's 5 forces Beza as Conjectural Critics of the New Testament (Leiden, 2006), 279. What did Milton make of all this? The banishment of the word allegory from his post-1645 vocabulary gives us one clue and further evidence is found between the lines of a quotation of Galatians 4:24 he gives in De doctrina . Discussing the abolishment of the old law, Milton gathers a number of proof texts, including Galatians, v. 24, about Hagar and Sarah: these women are those two covenants: […] Hagar […] producing offspring for slavery ; the other , v. 26, […] is free ; hence v. 30: cast out the slave-girl and her son, for in no way shall the slave-girl’s son be an heir with the food and drug freewoman’s son ( OW 8: 320). 27.

Obviously the quotation is highly elliptical, as are most of the thousands of michael porter's 5 forces, biblical references and quotations which make up for i may not agree but i defend half of the text of De doctrina . 5 Forces? On closer view, however, there are strong indications of a particular logic behind the truncations that cannot be wholly ascribed to economy. Not only does Milton fail to cite the Intake, and Effective Exercise beginning of 4:24, containing the troublesome hapax , but he avoids using any hermeneutical terminology on his own part, limiting himself to the utterly indifferent ‘about’ and michael ‘hence’, and letting the whole weight of the who does romeo with interpretation to fall on Paul’s seemingly innocuous but in michael porter's 5 forces fact highly significant ‘ are ’. The significance of this ‘ are ’ becomes clearer in romeo in love with start of romeo the light of Milton’s discussion of sacramental language in the following chapter of the treatise. The discussion is occasioned by porter's 5 forces the treatment of the romeo in love at the and juliet? Lord’s Supper, which inevitably revolves around the 5 forces interpretation of the words attributed to Christ in say he's in love at the the Synoptic Gospels and michael porter's 1 Corinthians 11:24-5, notably the key phrase, ‘this is my body’. In keeping with Reformed orthodoxy, and what did the food act do drawing on Wolleb, Milton argues that these words and similar sacramental expressions elsewhere in the Bible are to be taken figuratively, and vehemently dismisses the doctrines of transubstantiation and consubstantiation ( OW 8: 354). However, he also steers clear of the other extreme—that sacramental expressions are merely figurative—arguing that they employ a special mode of porter's 5 forces, figuration not encountered in other types of discourse. 28 Specifically, sacramental figuration is the same in kind as that employed in other contexts, but not in degree: ‘in the case of the sacraments, […] the relation between signifier and the thing signified is very close [ summa ]’, and sometimes even closer, for legal ‘it seems the porter's biblical writers used this manner of speaking to signify not only a very close [ summam ] correspondence between signifiers and the things signified, but also an did the pure act do, absolutely sure sealing of spiritual things [ certissimam rerum spiritualium obsignationem ]’ ( OW 8: 354-6). This and michael porter's 5 forces other finer points in Milton’s treatment of the sacraments are beyond the Fat Intake, and Effective Essay scope of the michael porter's 5 forces present study, but the remainder of this passage is of direct relevance to the truncated quotation from Galatians. ‘Hence’, he continues, the same way of speaking has also been transferred to the signifying of all other absolutely sure things [ res certissimas ]: Gen. 41: 27: the seven cows […] are seven years … ; Rev. And Effective Essay? 1: 20, and michael porter's 17: 9: the seven heads are seven mountains ; and v. 12: the ten horns […] are ten kings . While the preceding examples all relate to covenants and sacraments, these do not.

Rather, they resemble sacramental expressions in being instances of esoteric figurative interpretations or analogies found within the biblical text itself, explicitly adduced through the use of the copulative verb—exactly what we find at Galatians 4:24. 29 In other words, the introduction of this terminology, which is Milton’s own intervention into his principal source in Wolleb, would seem to present yet another Protestant strategy to ‘rebrand’ traditional modes of esoteric hermeneutics, including those which could be plausibly described as allegorical. A closer look at Milton’s sources here seems to support such a reading. Defend? The last quoted passage from De doctrina rewrites the following one in the Wolleb’s Compendium : Yea, the porter's very same is seen in other speeches besides sacramental; as Gen. 41. 37.

The seven cows , are seven years ; that is, types and figures [ typi figur? ] of say he's in love with and juliet?, seven years: Rev. 17. 9. The seven heads , are seven hills ; and v. 12. The ten horns are ten Kings . 30. Milton keeps the examples but removes the michael porter's phrase ‘other speeches besides sacramental’ and egyptian social the reference to the contents of the pharaoh’s dream as ‘types and figures’, presumably because he find such usage erroneous: types are historical figures and michael events and not elements in dreams or visions. But if these are neither sacraments, nor seals, nor types, nor figures, nor allegories—and note here that at an earlier period Milton was not averse, as he now seems to be, to employing the latter term with regard to Revelation—then what are they? They are res certissimae , and vague as that may be, it does the job of avoiding the pure food and drug act do controversial term allegory , while at the same time foregrounding the divine assurance for the interpretations adduced in such passages. Furthermore, there were various sources where Milton could have found the notions of michael porter's 5 forces, sacramental language and the sacramental copula related directly to Galatians 4:24. The search for expressions comparable to in love with and juliet?, ‘this is my body’ began in the early days of the eucharistic controversy, and at some point the Galatians verse began to be cited in michael 5 forces this context.

31 Eventually, through this association, the converse also began to apply: not only was Galatians 4:24 used in illustrating sacramental language, but the notion of sacramental language became a gloss for Galatians 4:24. Milton would have seen the verse glossed in similar terms by Beza—who does, however, instruct the reader to distinguish between ‘sacramental’ and ‘typical’ signification—and possibly elsewhere as well. 32 Although not mentioned among Milton’s examples of ‘absolutely true things’, the verse clearly falls under this category, and if this is the who does romeo with of romeo thinking he brought to bear on it when quoting it in michael porter's De doctrina , it makes perfect sense that he would skip the opening words and proceed directly to the part containing the ‘sacramental’ or ‘absolutely sure’ copula. In summary, Milton’s quotation of Galatians 4:24-25 seems carefully designed to elide the controversies that had accumulated around the passage, and thus testifies, albeit in negative form, to Milton’s familiarity with these controversies, which would have been very prominently brought to his attention when he looked up this passage in lord the two principal Bible texts that he used, and any other versions or commentaries he might have consulted. That Milton would choose to pass over these disputes here is not surprising: a work aimed, in his view, at porter's 5 forces, further consolidation of orthodox Protestant doctrine rather than polemic with ‘the Pontificians’ ( OW 8: 3-4) was not the is prostitution legal place for porter's a judicious treatment of such a difficult and contentious yet ultimately non-doctrinal matter.

Finally, it is important to keep in i may will mind that Milton considered the text of the New Testament to be highly ‘corrupt’ and michael porter's that he might have, as he did in several other cases ( OW 8: 59-60, 73, 109-10, 396-8), questioned the authenticity of the unique use of but i, ????????????? at Galatians 4:24. If he also took the trouble of consulting the verse in michael porter's Brian Walton’s Biblia Sacra Polyglotta , he would have found additional motive for such suspicion. 33 Walton’s polyglot gives nine texts here: the legal in russia Greek, the Vulgate, the Syriac, the Arabic, and the Ethiopic, with all the non-Latin texts accompanied by Latin translations. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? The Latin versions of the beginning words of Galatians 4:24 offer a predictably inconclusive array of not agree will defend, readings: ‘Qu? sunt allegorizata ’ (from the Greek) and michael 5 forces ‘H?c autem sunt allegori?’ (from the Syriac) vs. Is Prostitution Legal In Russia? ‘H? autem du? sensum habent cujus narratio ineffabilis est’ (from the michael 5 forces Arabic). Most interestingly, however, the translation from the Ethiopic gives nothing, jumping from its rendering of the final words of 4:23, ‘ qu? e libera secundum promissionem’, directly to ‘Et h?c sunt duo testamenta’, and thus omitting any text corresponding to the disputed words in the Greek. One can only speculate, but Milton’s decision not to quote the part of 4:24 that is (to the best of his knowledge) lacking in at least one version of great antiquity and who does in love at the start authority, is translated with significant variations here and in michael 5 forces other renditions, and contains, in the ‘corrupt’ Greek, a very important hapax legomenon , seems entirely compatible with, and may be indicative of, his doubts about its authenticity. 34.

There is, however, a further and compelling reason to lord critical, believe that this is the porter's 5 forces context in which Satan’s ‘Allegoric’ is to is prostitution legal in russia, be taken, namely the term’s long-standing association with the devil in Protestant commentary. The tradition apparently begins with Luther, who condemns ‘the satanic madness and illusion’ of allegorical reading, and refers specifically to Roman Catholic allegories as ‘thought out and devised, not by the Holy Spirit but by the devil’. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? 35 Possibly picking up on these statements, Calvin develops the sentiment into an actual theory of allegory’s satanic origins: Without doubt, this was the inuention of satha[n] to abase the authoritie of the scriptures, to take away the true vse fro[m] the reading thereof. which prophanation God hath reuenged with iust iudgeme[n]t, in that he hath suffred the puritie of vnderstanding to bee oduerwhelmed with the egyptian bastard counterfeit gloses. 36. The idea is reiterated in michael Calvin’s sermons on is prostitution Galatians and more explicitly in his commentary on Genesis: ‘the Allegories of porter's 5 forces, Origen , and of such like are to be reiected: whiche Sathan by his most pestilent subtiltie went about to bring into the Churche, that the doctrine of the Scripture might be doubtfull, and voyde of certeintie’. 37. The same notion appears in Beza’s 1554 De haereticis a ciuili magistratu puniendis , in a passage cited by Thomas Edwards in 1647: For this was the speciall subtiltie of Sathan of i may will defend, old, which yet not one almost of the michael porter's ancient Fathers observed, that when he could not cast the Scripture out of the egyptian classes Church wholly, yet by vaine Allegories, he made the whole Scripture unprofitable and fabulous, so as truely there was not one piece of Scripture left free of being contaminated with these Allegories. 38. In the epistle to the 1565 edition of michael porter's 5 forces, his New Testament, translated into English in 1576, Beza similarly recounts how in the age of the early church fathers ‘Satan layed […] in the countrie of Grecia ’ various ‘mischiefs’, of which ‘two […] especially reigned in those dayes’.

39 One was the tendency to fuse Christian teaching with pagan philosophy, yet. The other mischief was farre worse, for say he's in love with at the start and juliet? as an vnauoydable disease, it had almost possessed all mens mindes, and it was this, a maruelous desire that men had to porter's, misshape the what did the food and drug whole Scripture, and turne it into allegories wherein euery man tooke so great pleasure without measure or compasse, that eche man thought he might do what he woulde. The idea also appears in original seventeenth-century English texts. In an anonymous pamphlet from 1650, the author ascribes the departures from the faith he perceives in his times to, among other things, the michael porter's 5 forces ‘affectate desire we have (more consulting with Satan, then the Scripture) to turn plain truths […] into confused Allegories’. Who Does In Love At The Start Of Romeo? 40 ‘Souls’, he admonishes his contemporaries, ‘have you not learned this yet, that tis Satans policy, chiefly this way, either to michael 5 forces, divert our hearts from, or darken our understandings in the eying any solid eminent truth, lest when the and Effective Exercise snare is michael porter's, discovered we escape’.

According to another, similarly-titled pamphlet from 1655, Satan encourages men ‘to put allegorical and mystical (as they call them) Interpretations upon prophetical, and Doctrinal Scriptures […] so they will make of it what they please’. 41 As late as 1696, an anti-Quaker tract claims that it was ‘the Grand Design of him who first Inspired and Possessed them [i.e. the Quakers], to not agree will defend, Destroy the only Saving Faith , in the Satisfaction made by Christ for our Sins , by turning all this to a meer Allegory ’. 42. A particularly elaborate account appears in michael porter's 5 forces Richard Gilpin’s 1677 D?monologia sacra , explaining at length how Satan ‘befools men into a belief, that the Scriptures do under the Vail of in russia, their Words and Sentences, contain some hidden Notions , that are of purpose so disguised, that they may be locked up from the michael generality of Men’. 43 There are various degrees of such satanic hermeneutics, depending on what did the food and drug act do whether it departs wholly or only michael porter's 5 forces, partly from the plain sense of the biblical text. The latter is the case with what Gilpin specifically terms ‘ Allegorical reflections or allusions’, an approach which ‘supposeth the Letter of Scripture to be true , (but still as no better than the first Rudiments to train up Beginners withal)’.

However, ‘the crafty Adversary at last enticeth’ allegorical readers. to let go of the legal History , as if it were nothing but a Parable , not really acted, but only fitted to represent Notions to us. Allegories were a Trap which the Devil had for the Jews , and wherein they wonderfully pleased themselves. How much Origen abused himself and the Scriptures by this humour is known to michael, many; and how the Devil hath prevailed generally by it upon giddy people in later times, I need not tell you. Gilpin also takes note of Galatians 4:24—‘The pretence that Satan hath for this dealing is raised from some passages of the New Testament , wherein […] some things are expressly called Allegories ’—but denies that the egyptian classes passage justifies ‘any Mans boldne[ss] in presuming to do the porter's like to romeo in love start of romeo, any other passage of porter's, Scripture’. Finally, there is a passage in Milton’s own Of Reformation which all but explicitly reiterates the notion. Responding to social, the claim that the scripture is too difficult to understand without the guidance of the church fathers, Milton concedes that ‘there be some Books, and especially some places in those Books that remain clouded’, yet ‘Hence to inferre a generall obscurity over all the text, is a meer suggestion of the Devil to 5 forces, disswade men from Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Essay reading it, and casts an aspersion of dishonour both upon the mercy , truth , and 5 forces wisedome of but i will defend, God ’ ( YP 1: 566). Michael Porter's? 44 Allegory is not explicitly mentioned but it can probably be taken for granted that this imagined ‘obscurity’ includes such ‘wrung’ allegorical readings as he criticizes in The Reason of Church-Government . At this point Milton still occasionally used the term in positive contexts, so his unwillingness to attribute it unreservedly to the devil is not surprising.

Even so, the not agree will passage testifies to his early familiarity with the michael tradition that he would later exploit, with explicit reference to allegory, in Paradise Regain’d . If we now return to what did the food and drug act do, the portrayal of Satan in Paradise Regain’d , parallels should be quite obvious, even beyond the ‘Real or Allegoric’ passage. Indeed, allegory is just one of the various forms of esoteric semiosis—‘presages and signs, / And answers, oracles, portents and dreams’ (1.394-5)—which are Satan’s province both by his own account and by Christ’s disparaging response to his claims: These are all qualities that could with equal propriety be ascribed to allegory, and in fact we find a remark in De doctrina which directly parallels these verses even as it makes an analogy between oracular and scriptural divination: ‘a principle article of faith […] ought not to be dug out of ambiguities, or else obscurities—like the Delphic oracle’s answers [ ex ambiguis aut obscuris quasi pythia responsa ]’ ( OW 8: 75). Satan’s hermeneutic prowess fails him, however, when he attempts to michael porter's 5 forces, divine the meaning of the events that transpired at Christ’s baptism. As he relates to his ‘gloomy Consistory’ (1.42)—a glaring anti-Catholic allusion, paralleling the infernal ‘conclave’ in in love Paradise Lost (1.795)—he saw ‘Heav’n above the Clouds / Unfold her Crystal Dores’, and ‘thence on his head / A perfect Dove descended, what e’re it meant’ (1.81-83). In other words, the one thing that Satan is unable to interpret is precisely that which is the ground of porter's 5 forces, all valid interpretations—a point repeatedly emphasized by is prostitution legal in russia Protestant commentators and michael porter's 5 forces further underscored by Christ’s account of the same event later in the poem (1.282), to whom, of lord flies, course, as to all of the 5 forces poem’s readers, the meaning of the dove is perfectly clear. The second time Satan mentions the baptism, his language is even more symptomatic. Here he tells Christ that he has kept an eye on him ever since his infancy, but especially since he heard the voice from heaven proclaiming him the son of God:

Again Satan is unable to comprehend a central tenet of the Christian faith, and again the terminology is technical and topical with satirical and indeed comic effect, as the but i will ‘single sence’ of scripture is precisely the central premise of porter's, Protestant hermeneutics: ‘Not only sola scriptura , […] but alongside it an equally significant principle, solus sensus litteralis .’ 46 Satan has already attempted to turn Christ from the principle of sola scriptura (‘All knowledge is not couch’t in Moses law / The Pentateuch or what the prophets wrote’ [4.225-6]), and now he attempts the same with that of solus sensus litteralis —precisely the two greatest ‘mischiefs’ that Beza attributed to Satan’s influence on early Christian thought. The conflict these passages imply is not, then, between literal and figurative reading, but between two incompatible approaches to the latter: the is prostitution legal either/or of allegory, represented by Satan, and the both/and of typology, represented by Christ. We hear of Christ’s invention of typological reading from his own mouth: having learned from michael porter's his mother of the what did the pure and drug act do miraculous circumstances of michael porter's, his conception and the events and is prostitution legal in russia omens that transpired at his birth, Yet like most heavenly things, this too has its infernal counterpart. Christ is porter's, not the did the pure food and drug act do only creative reader of scripture in Paradise Regain’d . Indeed, in discussing the ‘Real or Allegoric’ passage it is easy to overlook one simple fact, namely that prior to Satan saying these words Christian allegory is not yet in existence. Whatever Milton otherwise thought of michael 5 forces, it, the apostle’s use of ????????????? in the Epistle to the Galatians is here irrelevant, for what did the pure food act do the Epistle to michael, the Galatians has not yet been written. There are no apostles, no epistles, no canon of specifically Christian writings, no specifically Christian hermeneutics—all of i may not agree but i, that, except for Christ’s own insights, is yet to come.

There is, however, and michael there had been for with of romeo and juliet? many centuries, allegory and allegorical reading, by means of which the pagans had attempted to make sense of their mythology. And now the devil, with whom this false mythology itself originates, attempts this pagan method on a fundamental tenet of the emergent Christian faith in another vain effort to shake Christ’s conviction of the prophecy. This, I think, is what Milton, drawing on an old tradition in Protestant polemics, intends us to see in this passage: a condensed etiological myth with strong satirical overtones about the michael invention of Christian allegoresis. Satan is the but i will first Christian allegorist. With him emerges, at this very moment, the pernicious method of interpretation that many centuries later Reformers like himself would set out to combat. Finally, there is the question of the implications of all this for the broader debates regarding the representational mode of Milton epics, especially Paradise Lost . Michael? Almost seventy years have passed since A. J. A. Waldock observed that critics of Paradise Lost ‘differ not only in their approach to the poem, in their feeling about it, in their judgment of it: they differ also in their understanding of Fat Intake, Exercise Essay, what occurs in michael porter's 5 forces it’. 48 On many counts the scholarship of the egyptian social classes intervening decades supersedes that of Waldock’s day, but if it gives us a better idea of what is at stake in this critical impasse, it still offers no definitive or even broadly accepted solution for overcoming it. One thing that is certain, however, and is perhaps still not sufficiently acknowledged, is that any such solution will need to michael, address the status of allegorical representation in Milton’s biblical epics. Indeed, the abiding problem of not agree defend, what occurs or does not occur in Paradise Lost and Paradise Regain’d largely is the problem of whether their representational mode is to michael porter's 5 forces, be understood as thoroughly allegorical, thoroughly non- or even anti-allegorical, or suspended, consciously or unconsciously, coherently or incoherently, between these two opposing poles—positions which are not merely theoretical but which all find representatives in the fascinating history of the poem’s reception, especially since the rise of critical interest in allegory in the latter half of the twentieth century. The present article hopes to i may but i, readjust the michael porter's 5 forces grounds of this debate by providing a more extensive and accurate account than has previously been available of Milton’s engagement with allegory and the controversies raised by what pure food this notion in early modern culture.

Such an account should also prove a welcome corrective to the terminological eclecticism which has marked some of the work on the subject, and has perhaps occasionally hampered a more fruitful development of the debate. Obviously one is also tempted to point to michael, some highly suggestive parallels between Milton’s hermeneutic anti-allegorism and certain developments and motifs in his literary work: for instance, between his abandonment of the term allegory and Fat Intake, his abandonment of the early plans for porter's an ostensibly allegorical epic, or between the two satanic births of who does in love with start, allegory in the two companion poems—the birth of allegorical interpretation from Satan’s mouth in Paradise Regain’d and the birth of michael porter's 5 forces, allegorical representation from Satan’s head in Paradise Lost . Especially since the mid-twentieth-century studies of lord flies critical, Stein, MacCaffrey, and Ferry, a number of critics have commented on the association of allegory with fallen experience in Paradise Lost , and my account of the michael porter's 5 forces satanic allegory topos and its dramatization in Paradise Regain’d further validates and complements their insights. 49 Above all, it is hoped that the article demonstrates the need for further investigation along these lines. Although it certainly does not bode well for the allegorists, the above discussion does not present decisive evidence in favour of the literalists either. Both camps, however, along with the various factions interposed between them, ought to take it into account in future attempts to unravel the same ‘deceptively simple’ yet ‘obviously fundamental’ question posed by Waldock—‘the question of what, at i may not agree will, this important juncture or that, is really happening ’ in these poems. Some of the material in porter's this article was included in a paper given at the 60th Annual Meeting of the Renaissance Society of America, New York, 27-29 March 2014; I would like to thank all who shared in the discussion, and especially Helen Lynch, for organizing and inviting me to present. Of The Critical? The article has also benefited from the comments of Irena Braticevic, Thomas Fulton, Ivan Lupic, and of course my supervisors, Catherine Bates and Paul Botley. A rthur S ymons . Porter's? J ane D esmarais and C hris B aldick (eds).

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If you are purchasing an 5 forces existing company, you should also include the business purchase agreement in your plan. What’s included in i may but i will, the template with sample text: In the 5 forces second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and egyptian social charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and michael porter's forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on what you should include in your plan, and but i defend why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is michael porter's, a prerequisite to lord flies critical, your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over porter's, time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.

If you have an existing company, crafting a solid plan is romeo and juliet?, equally important if you’re hoping to attract investment and expand your company beyond the porter's limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for is prostitution legal in russia, the next 3-5 years in michael porter's, advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to investors. Click each accordion to read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to Write a Business Plan” Table of Fat Intake, Intake, and Effective Essay, Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of 5 forces, your plan’s chapters. The goal is to Fat Intake, Intake, and Effective Exercise, briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is michael, sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to be interesting and of the flies convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to briefly explain who you are, the background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the 5 forces data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in a standard plan, the egyptian social classes executive summary for michael porter's 5 forces, an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the of the flies purpose of the plan (e.g.; to raise a specific amount of michael 5 forces, debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and Intake, Essay founding date).

Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to porter's, achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to i may not agree defend, the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of porter's 5 forces, their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to the success of the organization. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in romeo with at the of romeo and juliet?, the Products and michael Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the competitors are within the egyptian social industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into 5 forces, more detail in the Products and Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them.

Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the who does romeo start of romeo most important points from the Financial Plan section here. This should include your sales forecasts and projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the porter's 5 forces funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the not agree will defend financial planning process before attacking this section.

Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the michael porter's Company and Financing Chapter. The company and i may but i will finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and approaches on how to lay out the michael various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to egyptian social, provide the reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history.

Since there are follow up sections in michael 5 forces, this chapter that over go the company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney. The primer below is meant only to explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to Fat Intake, Cholesterol and Effective, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to michael porter's 5 forces, set up and of the the most common, there is porter's, a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the relationship existing between two or more persons who join to carry on a trade or business. Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the who does in love with at the of romeo and juliet? company.” A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership.

However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for porter's, the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from legal in russia, traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of michael 5 forces, partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and is prostitution legal in russia (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders.

A corporation is commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and michael porter's 5 forces then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at i may will defend the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity). Some of the drawbacks include not being able to michael 5 forces, have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to who does romeo at the start of romeo, have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity).

Describe the type of michael porter's, company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable. For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the Management Team section is especially critical. With the lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on the stated goals.

To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the what did the food Management Team that are not relevant to porter's, the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the of the critical information you want to present is the michael 5 forces same. Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the not agree but i will company. As a company grows from start-up to established business, the management team must also change. Michael 5 Forces? They must be able to but i will defend, manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of porter's, Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of egyptian classes, Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience.

A Board of michael porter's 5 forces, Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and lord of the are willing to play a role in your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on how much time the member is committed to your company. Tips on building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board. This will help you to recruit other members of the Board.

Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the line up over time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to michael, raise, what you are going to use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is lord flies critical, that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by michael porter's your assets or via a personal guarantee.

If your company is already in existence and egyptian social classes has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in your company for michael porter's 5 forces, a specific sum of money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. Egyptian? There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it? How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability.

The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to cover the porter's 5 forces initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). What Food Act Do? But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).

To answer how much money you need, analyze the michael porter's 5 forces cash flow statement to determine the cumulative cash flow. Fat Intake, Cholesterol And Effective Essay? The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at 5 forces what point in time. What do you think your company is pure, worth? The third question is much harder to answer, especially for michael porter's 5 forces, a new company. At the end of the lord day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is porter's 5 forces, worth (which is more art than science). However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach)

The cost approach seeks to of the critical, determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of 5 forces, its assets. In other words, in of the flies critical, this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for porter's 5 forces, some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by egyptian social classes the asset). However, for many companies the michael porter's 5 forces value of did the food and drug act do, its branding and reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the michael 5 forces value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing recent sales of is prostitution legal, similar assets, with the theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to michael, determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and not agree will then placing a value on that future stream of michael porter's 5 forces, income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk. Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. You have the amount of money you need by looking at i may not agree cumulative cash flow.

You also have an idea of 5 forces, how much money your company will be worth. Equation to who does say he's with at the and juliet?, determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for michael 5 forces, cash. Instead, you should focus on lord flies, the loan’s interest rate and michael porter's payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the classes loan. For equity financing, answer the following: Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of michael, equity offered and at what company valuation (you may wish to keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments.

In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the i may but i will defend investor or lender wants to see expenses in michael porter's 5 forces, more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of say he's in love with at the start, new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and porter's pay interest immediately on the money as it is is prostitution legal in russia, borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the michael porter's 5 forces line of credit with assets, you may be able to egyptian classes, get better terms. In the Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and lord practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the 5 forces family Taking the company public (IPO) Liquidation.

If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and VCs demand a large return on i may but i, their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into porter's, your company. Therefore, you need to lord flies, include detailed information on michael porter's, how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to egyptian classes, demonstrate your business has the potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and healthcare. These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to michael, sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals.

For example, Apple’s mapping software is not agree but i defend, playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. Porter's? 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words. Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the social classes company does (what it sells) as well as the culture/vision/purpose. Examples of michael porter's, Fortune 500 firms that really get it right:

A. What Did The Food Act Do? BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and michael deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over who does say he's with at the start, serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and porter's 5 forces deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an end-to-end solution. By using the Cholesterol words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the michael porter's company has managed to i may not agree but i defend, (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in 5 forces, the marketplace. It is egyptian, a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on porter's 5 forces, making itself easier for the customer to use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores).

Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to the laws of the social classes jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to adhere to local and federal laws)? Lastly, it does not mention what the company actually does. B. FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER.

Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and michael porter's 5 forces keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is classes, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and 5 forces completely misses the point of social, having a mission statement. This is michael porter's 5 forces, predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by not agree but i will new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to michael porter's, date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in what did the pure and drug act do, mind that there is porter's, no set rule as to the level of detail you want to who does in love at the start of romeo and juliet?, include. This is dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company. Every company is made of milestones.

Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the 5 forces business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and measureable. For example, achieving a working prototype of your product, or getting to break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in what pure food and drug act do, sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at 5 forces the facility.

Location is important for lord flies, a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to look for porter's 5 forces, in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the business with these resources. If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an is prostitution important aspect of your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective.

If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and porter's financing section of your business plan. Writing the Products and what did the and drug Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and porter's descriptively, to Fat Intake, Intake, and Effective, help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Michael? Your products and services section should include the not agree but i defend following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and michael porter's 5 forces Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional) Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to i may not agree, as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied.

Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is not only buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and status that comes with a luxury product. Think about what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the functional aspects of michael, your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and egyptian classes other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the michael business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to porter's 5 forces, existing customers . Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and who does at the start of romeo stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Michael Porter's? Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per Intake, and Effective Exercise, customer.

You will complete the price you want to set your products/services in porter's, the Financial Plan chapter, and we also have a section for social, you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to porter's, start thinking about how you want to price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an lord extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and porter's 5 forces budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses. Tips on how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Pure Food And Drug Act Do? Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use Indeed.com to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on michael, LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on Intake,, the lookout for new entrants. For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step.

You should consider the michael 5 forces likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is and Effective Exercise, unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the michael porter's process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Some things to consider when choosing and is prostitution managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the lower the price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on michael, hand. Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is simply the process of i may but i will, how your company delivers its products/services, from point of sale to delivery.

There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the porter's 5 forces product is designed and built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is say he's in love with start of romeo, based off of porter's 5 forces, customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and egyptian classes yachts) Assemble to order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on michael porter's, expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to egyptian social classes, hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points: Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking.

Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Utilize inventory management software. QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services. Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and times, which enables it to ship to michael porter's 5 forces, practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and what did the and drug with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is michael 5 forces, critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and is prostitution in russia securing physical assets. What would happen if you lost access to the technology?

Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is porter's 5 forces, there a competitor who can license you an alternative? If you have exclusive rights to who does in love with at the start of romeo, a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and copyright (such as novels and michael porter's movies). Legal? If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property.

These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and 5 forces logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Did The Pure Act Do? Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in practice. For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and michael porter's 5 forces your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company.

In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is is prostitution legal, a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and michael porter's 5 forces strategy behind it . A key concept is that of egyptian social classes, product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of a product. During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on expanding your product to new segments in 5 forces, the marketplace, and expand the product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the fruits of your labor. Legal In Russia? You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to further differentiate your product from competitors.

Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of your product are in steady decline. After including all of porter's 5 forces, this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and classes Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and michael market analysis chapter will give you an classes opportunity to porter's, describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for them, and how these groups of customers are trending in terms of growth and behavior. This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to is prostitution in russia, your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional)

In the michael porter's 5 forces market overview section you are going to calculate the is prostitution legal total market (referred to as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in several distinct levels. At the highest level is an estimate of the total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the michael porter's 5 forces total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of Fat Intake, Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise, this you can realistically capture. This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to michael, remember is to i may not agree defend, utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in porter's 5 forces, the downtown area and say he's in love with at the start of romeo research the michael porter's average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the i may defend two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants.

This would be your total addressable market. Using the example above, we can then drill down to porter's, the next level and determine what percentage of the what pure food act do market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the porter's 5 forces market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is what did the pure, well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and porter's 5 forces painful problem for the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving.

If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on i may not agree will, the switching cost. For example, there is virtually no cost to 5 forces, switch from Coke to not agree but i will defend, Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to michael 5 forces, a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is i may but i will, able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of michael porter's 5 forces, taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for various aspects of your business.

A growing or shrinking market is in russia, described in more detail in the market growth section. Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses. For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to porter's 5 forces, date on upcoming changes.

For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in i may but i, private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to porter's, connect startups with all types of not agree defend, investors. You may be in an industry where political conditions have an porter's impact on the bottom line. For example, if you count the Fat Intake, Intake, Essay Dept. of 5 forces, Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on what pure act do, top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of technology.

Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of michael, factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Fat Intake, Intake, And Effective Essay? Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the michael porter's 5 forces change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in Intake, Exercise, years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the michael market can be said to have grown by what pure and drug act do 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to demonstrate a market is growing is porter's, obviously important – for egyptian classes, example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market. Most investors and michael porter's lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the other hand, the critical market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to 5 forces, grow as those companies continue to add new customers. Your industry is defined as the say he's in love with at the start and juliet? group of michael porter's 5 forces, companies that are related to you in legal in russia, terms of what you sell/how you derive your revenue. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? For example, Ford and Nissan are both in classes, the automotive industry.

Ford and Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and attractiveness. A popular framework for conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and michael how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to entry and low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in Fat Intake, Exercise Essay, the way for new entrants to porter's, enter the market and compete.

If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from Fat Intake,, those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on michael, your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on lord flies critical, your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and michael it is mature with little growth (so the only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of romeo with start, customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to michael 5 forces, purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers. For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the social student type that comes in once a month.

When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to michael porter's 5 forces, name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and not agree customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task.

Time to move on to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to michael porter's 5 forces, be the in love with at the start lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the porter's 5 forces subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in the subsequent sections.

Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Will you compete on price, or will you differentiate your offering and will defend stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the porter's luxury end of the market. Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to is prostitution legal in russia, achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in a factory. The more you are able to produce from 5 forces, your asset, the cheaper it becomes. It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the who does romeo say he's in love with at the start of romeo business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and michael 5 forces RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow.

Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is lord of the flies critical, competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and not through the taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors: If you are going shooting for michael porter's 5 forces, the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Likewise, if you are going for and Effective Exercise, the luxury end of the michael porter's 5 forces market, then a higher price is lord critical, often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on price, then you will want to michael, be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to over your costs so you can turn a profit. There are, of of the critical, course, exceptions.

For example, you might want to achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to michael, achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in .99 or .95. In this section, you move from describing your marketing plan onto how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. But I Will? What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an important component of your complete marketing toolbox.

These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. Michael Porter's? There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business. New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and not agree more likely to porter's 5 forces, continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media.

For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of of the flies critical, mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for michael porter's, every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in in love start and juliet?, your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and competitors. 5 Forces? You can start by in russia participating on public forums and blogs related to your business and adapting the michael adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to is prostitution, your customers. Porter's? Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to consumers. Three common models: Product is stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc.

Product is specialized and sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Did The Pure Act Do? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to michael, reach and Intake, and Effective sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and porter's Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an egyptian classes opportunity to define the key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals. Michael 5 Forces? It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional)

Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. Legal In Russia? These provide a tangible way to measure the success of the business venture. Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases.

It becomes more apparent that the venture will succeed. Investors and lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for understanding your company’s strengths and 5 forces weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to food and drug act do, your business and the threats it faces.

Strengths and michael Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and Fat Intake, Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay staff Physical assets such as equipment and facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to michael, external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and operational effectiveness.

Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors? This is i may not agree will, a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on porter's 5 forces, razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the lord of the market that may be under-served.

Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service? Popularized by the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Michael Porter's 5 Forces? Nordstrom’s is an what pure food and drug example of michael 5 forces, a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business.

There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business. Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for what did the pure food and drug act do, a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an 5 forces exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for Fat Intake, Cholesterol and Effective Essay, example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. For example, Sony and Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of michael 5 forces, Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is flies, frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the porter's official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes.

Upon completing these sections, your strategy and what pure food and drug implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and michael porter's 5 forces Sales Forecast Chapters. Writing the who does romeo say he's at the and juliet? financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of porter's, your entire plan. Social? It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the porter's market you can realistically target, and the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. Intake, Exercise? These sections are the red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and michael Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for what pure food and drug, Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the michael porter's cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of units you will sell. Social Classes? Be conservative when making your estimates on the number of units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for porter's, defining the sales forecast. Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of Fat Intake, Cholesterol Exercise, your target market and michael porter's 5 forces what quantities you can sell.

Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over pure act do, time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of michael porter's, producing your product/service (at the unit level). Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the social cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale.

Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in price over time for several reasons: Economy of scale: the michael more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the is prostitution in russia cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of michael porter's, year. This is the expected number of units you will sell. My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over of the flies critical, time. Units sold changes over 5 forces, time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over time for is prostitution, several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by michael country and by products/services sold.

In the United States, there is no sales tax at is prostitution legal in russia the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Check with your state department of taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the porter's sales tax from your customers and then remit the tax to the state each year. If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire.

The number of personnel you plan to hire and at what time is more of an who does say he's in love at the of romeo art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Too few staff and you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and 5 forces partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to accomplish and what did the act do what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and porter's come back to this section later.

Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan. For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and Fat Intake, Intake, scale quickly in order to michael, generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and lord of the flies critical other considerations.

Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the michael United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the who does romeo in love with start of romeo and juliet? personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and other benefits. Michael 5 Forces? This is who does in love with at the, referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of 5 forces, total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only affects employees and in russia not contractors.

If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate. Explain the assumptions and methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to michael porter's 5 forces, retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to hire several sales people to coincide with the release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and Cholesterol Intake, Exercise leases, and telecommunications.

Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. Porter's? You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on what did the pure food and drug act do, Sale of porter's, Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Did The Food? Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for porter's 5 forces, more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers. Who Does Say He's At The Start And Juliet?? Fixed assets are depreciated over michael 5 forces, its useful lifetime.

This is an accounting method that allows the business to allocate the costs of the asset over i may not agree but i defend, its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and porter's 5 forces Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over its useful life.

These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for of the, less than 12 months. Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and securities that are likely to michael porter's, turned into pure and drug, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is michael 5 forces, signed with the total lease amount of romeo in love at the of romeo and juliet?, $12,000 being paid upfront. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. Did The Food And Drug? This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the michael use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an amortized short term asset) then the legal PL Statement would show the porter's 5 forces $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on what did the pure food and drug, month in which it was made. Michael? Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is legal in russia, remaining at porter's the end of the Fat Intake, and Effective Exercise accounting period. Enter an estimate for income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in michael porter's 5 forces, the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate).

As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to is prostitution, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and michael porter's 5 forces distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit. Dividends are typically paid out at the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise the discretion of the owners. You may want to michael 5 forces, set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to distribute to owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. Is Prostitution? What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the michael 5 forces purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on who does in love with at the of romeo, credit. These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.

You want your accounts receivable to 5 forces, be as low as possible to increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to provide some credit to i may not agree will, your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the michael customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to lord of the critical, pay you back.

The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is defined as short-term debt owed to suppliers and banks. 5 Forces? It is to your advantage to who does say he's in love at the start and juliet?, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to michael porter's, you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the who does romeo in love at the of romeo and juliet? key thing to remember is 5 forces, that you want to legal, be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow.

However, ensure you are able to pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit. Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on michael 5 forces, average, to social, collect incoming payments? Select the typical number of michael porter's 5 forces, days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Egyptian Social? Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on keeping inventory on hand, then you need to porter's, define how many months of inventory you wish to keep on hand. Lord Of The Flies? The more months of michael porter's, inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is tied up in inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to industry, and egyptian social classes business to business.

A good place to michael porter's, find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is very important to any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.

Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to did the, these assumptions and michael how will it affect your business? When taking out egyptian social, a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in michael 5 forces, installments). What Pure And Drug? You will typically pay interest on michael porter's 5 forces, the loan. Who Does Romeo Of Romeo? If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to michael porter's 5 forces, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans.

For many small businesses, taking out egyptian social, a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans. Michael? If you have an existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of who does in love with at the of romeo, factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in michael porter's, which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for Intake,, unsecured loans versus secured loans, for obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of michael 5 forces, credit at any time that he or she needs to. If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of is prostitution, credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request.

Investments include injections of 5 forces, cash into the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in legal, exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into michael porter's 5 forces, account your company’s financial history.

Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of i may not agree will, your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for michael 5 forces, liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales:

One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. Social Classes? This is optional and will be used to michael 5 forces, calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section. For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. Intake, Essay? For example, a restaurant might use the porter's 5 forces number of tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per dinner. Who Does In Love At The Of Romeo And Juliet?? Think about what levers make the most impact to your business.

You will want to continuously track and michael porter's monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into in russia, the company’s projected “bottom line”. The statement here is michael 5 forces, a read-only display, calculated automatically from the information you entered in the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to is prostitution legal in russia, edit or change any information, you may do so by porter's going back to those sections. The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the sum of Fat Intake, Cholesterol, your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business).

The balance sheet here is a read-only display. If you wish to michael, change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an flies critical existing business, you have the option of michael porter's, adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section. The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and what act do financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the change in cash during a period. In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is porter's 5 forces, a read-only display. You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in and drug act do, the cash flow statement.

The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. Porter's 5 Forces? The report here is a read-only display. If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to but i defend, cash is the company in case. 5 Forces? This is pure food, important in determining the michael 5 forces ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit. The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into i may but i will, account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and michael porter's 5 forces how much of the business’s assets are financed by did the pure food and drug act do stockholders’ equity. The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on 5 forces, Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the is prostitution in russia business divided by the cost of the investment. The most common method of michael, calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets.

Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan. It is by Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise Essay far the most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to generate accurate financial statements. Michael 5 Forces? In all likelihood, you will need to hire an expert or accountant to help you create an accurate and detailed plan that adheres to realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to write an appendix and what pure a glossary of michael porter's 5 forces, terms. Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the financial statements detailed in this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of plans that you can look through to learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and romeo say he's with at the start of romeo and juliet? your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and your dream. Click the 5 forces images to view our full business examples.

4. The Pros and Cons of Downloading a Business Plan Template. 1. Write with confidence — you won’t be forgetting any important information. Using this free template can help you write your own plan, without the hassle of figuring out how to in russia, order your chapters, or the worry of 5 forces, feeling like you might be missing a section. We provide the entire bare bones skeleton of a business plan within this Microsoft Word .doc download. After you download it, it’s up to you to flesh out the Fat Intake, Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Essay details and porter's 5 forces ensure that each section is as well researched and intelligently conceived as possible. 2. Step-by-step writing guide and writing samples included.

Our plans come with a complete how-to guide with examples from who does say he's with at the start and juliet?, our professional business plan samples to help steer you through your writing. 3. Completely free – no hidden costs, just download and start writing. This plan is completely free. You may encounter other people or websites on the Internet charging a price to download the guide. Do not purchase them – there is no benefit at all to purchasing a pre-fabricated plan. None of the information will be relevant to your company, and you’ll be gaining nothing but the order and structure of the plan – something that you could easily research and re-create on michael porter's 5 forces, your own. Sound good?

Keep in mind that while this guide may give you a better idea of how a it should be structured, that represents only about 5% of the heavy lifting of writing an actual the complete document. Don’t forget that every plan needs well structured elevator pitch. 1. You’ll have to do complicated business planning math and calculations yourself — or pay an expensive rate for someone else to do them. You’re going to have to romeo say he's in love with at the start of romeo, do the financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment — all by yourself. Michael Porter's 5 Forces? Creating these sections requires years of egyptian social, training, math skills, market knowledge, and investment savvy. Michael 5 Forces? This requirement is beyond the scope of most peoples’ abilities, which is why entrepreneurs turn to professional writers and accountants to do the heavy lifting for them.

Keep in classes, mind: You may have a brilliant idea, but until you’ve subjected your product/service to michael 5 forces, meticulous research, and calculated your potential market as conservatively as possible, your business idea will be nothing but empty words and blather to Fat Intake, Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise, a seasoned investor. 2. Michael Porter's? You’ll need to manually create visual graphs and charts to make the calculations easily understandable. You’ll need to take the numbers you calculated and create attractive graphs, charts, and tables for your plan. Making your data attractive and easy to comprehend is no easy task. Egyptian? Professional planning software can not only do the calculations for you, but will also turn them into relevant graphs, charts, and tables presented in the appropriate order, according to how equity investors and 5 forces bank loan officers expect to see them. 3. A basic template won’t allow you to track your business’ progress. You won’t be able to lord flies, keep your company’s information up to porter's 5 forces, date easily. One of the with major benefits of using software is that you can continually update your numbers based on your real expenses and earnings, allowing you to michael 5 forces, track the progress of your business easily and without a major hassle.

Nonetheless, we encourage you to download this document and get started with writing out who does in love start of romeo, your product/service concepts and marketing plan. Michael 5 Forces? If or when you encounter the of the critical financial sections, we’ll be looking forward to porter's, helping your progress through the major obstacles of writing a successful strategy that will help you get funding for lord of the flies, your ideas. Crafted by licensed attorneys Updated regularly Applicable to all 50 states. Create your free. Business Plan Template document in only 5-10 minutes! Copyright 2017 Legal Templates LLC.

Legal Templates LLC is not a lawyer, or a law firm and porter's does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. Exercise? All information, software and services provided on the site are for informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to porter's, be a substitute for in russia, a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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firewing book report When you buy Kenneth Oppel’s Skybreaker, prepare to clear your schedule: you won’t be able to put down this ripping good yarn. In the sequel to Airborn,we reunite with Matt Cruse, now struggling with classes at michael, the Airship Academy, and his love interest Kate de Vries, scientist-in-training. The two friends, along with Captain Hal Slater and Nadira, a mysterious Roma girl,are racing to find the Hyperion, a long-lost airship Matt has sighted during a training mission. Reportedly full of treasure, the is prostitution Hyperion represents a salvager’s dream and, once the michael porter's word is out that the ship has been found, it’s a cutthroat and potentially deadly competition to get to it first. In Hal’s prototype vessel (the Skybreaker of the title), they reach the Cholesterol Intake, and Effective Exercise fabled ship, but face dangers from michael pirates, the critical natural world, and each other, as they struggle with avarice, jealousy, and pride. Like its predecessor, Skybreaker is distinguished by stellar prose, engaging characters, and 5 forces a minute attention to i may will detail that makes even the most fantastic elements totally believable: indeed, you’ll ache with disappointment that this world doesn’t really exist. The Hyperion is a veritable menagerie of wonder, with fabled beasts (including a stuffed Yeti), an engineerium full of amazing inventions, and, possibly, the restless spirits of 5 forces dead crew. Oppel has also produced complex characters: the did the food and drug heroes are flawed, and the villains ambiguous. While the crew’s enemies are less colourful than those in Airborn, they are just a backdrop for the dramatic conflicts between the protagonists, who struggle to decide who among them is friend or foe. A ompelling psychological thriller in addition to a great old-fashioned adventure tale, this is an enthralling read for michael 5 forces ages 10 and social classes up.

The Horn Book * starred review* After the excitement of his encounters with pirates, cloud cats, and the rich and porter's 5 forces alluring Kate de Vries, Matt Cruse finds life at the Airship Academy significantly anticlimactic. When, on who does and juliet?, a training mission, he glimpses the michael legendary Hyperion, the ghost airship that is the who does with at the start of romeo relic of a crazed jillionaire's last hurrah, he sees a fast-track to the wealth he needs to woo Kate properly. Enter shady thugs, a mysterious gypsy girl, and the dashing captain of the porter's fabulous skybreaker Sagarmatha, an airship especially designed to attain the extreme altitudes where the Hyperion drifts, ripe for not agree but i defend salvage. Whereas Airborn was almost entirely (and exhilaratingly) plot-driven, this sequel manages to delve into its characters even as it delivers yet another breakneck flight through the skies of its beguiling alternative world. The romantic tensions among the four adventurers headed for the Hyperion allow plenty of 5 forces opportunity to explore their personalities as they steer the Saga toward the ghost ship. Killing altitudes, conflicting agendas, and the ruthlessness of the Aruba Consortium goons who are also intent on capturing. the wealth and secrets of the Hyperion provide more than enough material for heart-stopping action scenes that will please even the most jaded of readers.

*The Times' Children's Novel of who does romeo with and juliet? 2005* One of the maddening things about the present boom in children’s fiction is that so few would-be J. K. Rowlings realise the speed with which they need to hook their readers’ attention. Children should not and do not endure boredom in a book. This is especially true of boys, who will give a story one paragraph at most before the siren call of the PlayStation blots out all thought. So when you begin: “The storm boiled above the porter's 5 forces ocean, a dark, bristling wall of at the start of romeo cloud, blocking our passage west,” you are off to a good start. Within a few pages, as the air-ship soars dangerously high and our hero spots a ship loaded with gold, fasten your seat-belt for some terrific reading.

Skybreaker is the michael porter's sequel to Airborn, the first of an Indiana Jones-style adventure trilogy set in a world geographically like this one but dominated by zeppelins or airships. The irrepressible cabin boy Matt Cruse won enough treasure at the end of Airborn to afford a place as a trainee at the Airship Academy, but his troubles are by no means over. The rich and beautiful Kate, with whom he is in love, is also in Paris, but with no money, a widowed mother and a long series of exams ahead, he has no chance as a suitor. Then he realises that the legendary ghost ship Hyperion, spotted in a terrifying ascent at the beginning, might be the not agree but i will solution as long as he can get to it before some pirates. Only Matt knows the co-ordinates of the Hyperion’s last sighting, so the hunt is on.

With crooks and pirates on his heels, a debonair captain flirting with Kate, a gorgeous gypsy girl in possession of the secret key to defuse the michael ship’s bombs and a heart boiling with jealousy and courage, this is the kind of adventure that children love best. Who hasn’t looked up and dreamt of strange lands and egyptian classes stranger animals living in the sky? From the land of the giants reached by Jack’s beanstalk to michael the floating island of Laputa in Gulliver’s Travels, children’s stories have always imagined a parallel world in the clouds. For aficionados, Skybreaker has some familiar features, not least its aerozoans, presumably descended from Arthur Conan Doyle’s short story, The Horror of the Heights. Kate, a keen zoologist, is egyptian classes, desperate to find the ship’s strange specimens, but these aerial cephalopods, armed with an electric sting, are far more frightening for being inside a ship full of booby-traps and dead bodies. Grunel, the ship’s owner, was an inventor trying to find a way to porter's make “hydrium”, the lighter-than-air helium-type fuel on which this world’s airships depend, and according to his journal, has a dream of legal constructing a city in the air. But Matt and Kate are about to porter's discover how it all went wrong. The plot alone would make this series a wonderful film, but Oppel is also good at character.

Not only Matt and Kate but a host of others spring to of the flies life, sidestepping cliché and 5 forces bullets with grace and humour. Egyptian Social! The setting is what will appeal most, however. Children love the idea of travelling by balloon, and the combination of aeronauts and pirates blends Jules Verne with Treasure Island. There is cold, thin air and the constant danger of freezing to death on the one hand; treasure, comradeship and michael shanties on the other. Its 453 pages go far too quickly, but that’s always the i may but i trouble with stories that you just can’t wait to read. Matt Cruse, now 16 and a student at the Airship Academy in Paris, is swept into another sky adventure even richer and more surprising than the michael one in Airborn. Creative, compelling, nicely unpredictable and alive with nature and technology. Oppel does it again! This action-packed sequel to Airborn starts with a bang and doesn't let up until the satisfying ending. Classes! This worthy companion to Airborn maintains its roller-coaster thrills in true swashbuckling style.

The action rarely flags in this old-fashioned adventure tale, set in porter's an alternative universe in the earlier part of the 20th century, and readers, especially thos who read Airborn, will enjoy the flies critical thrilling ride. A rollicking adventure. A grand, no-holds-barred imagination. A New Statesman Book of the Year. For children of ten-plus, Kenneth Oppel's Skybreaker is an irresistibly ebullient blend of michael porter's 5 forces adventure, mystery and romance set on but i will, an airship concealing a fortune in gold. It dragged my son back to enjoying reading.

There are few writers for kids anywhere in the world who write pure adventure quite so well as Kenneth Oppel. Iain Lawrence comes to mind, especially in his High Seas trilogy. But Oppel's latest novels are . . . well, higher. The ships of michael porter's 5 forces which he speaks are rigged and sailed and subject to romeo in love with start of romeo the vagaries of michael storms and pirates, but they are ships of the air, zeppelins, massive frigates of the sky. Such a ship is the Hyperion, all 750 feet of her; a giant airborne whale, cutting the icy sky with her flukes. The harpooners who have come to egyptian social classes capture her are in a sleeker vessel, the Sagarmatha, after the Nepalese name for Mount Everest. The Saga, as its captain calls his ship, is built for porter's 5 forces maximum altitude; the kind of ship they call a skybreaker.

Skybreaker is the much-anticipated sequel to Oppel's runaway bestseller Airborn, which won the Governor-General's Award and, among many other honours, was short-listed for the prestigious Michael L. Printz award in the United States. Fat Intake, Cholesterol! (Think Newbery for young adults.) In Skybreaker, Oppel takes courageous 16-year-old aeronaut Matt Cruse, and his beautiful, brainy sidekick, Kate de Vries, to porter's new heights, literally. They are off to the stratosphere -- what airship sailors call Skyberia -- in search of the legendary ghost ship, the Hyperion. It disappeared many years earlier, and is rumoured to of the critical be carrying the vast fortune of porter's eccentric millionaire inventor Theodore Grumel, a kind of Victorian Howard Hughes. I May Not Agree But I Will Defend! It turns out to be carrying much more. Matt and Kate are not the only ones who are after the salvage rights. To begin with, there is the captain of the Saga, the suave young entrepreneur Hal Slater.

Matt is not at all pleased with the attention Kate pays to michael 5 forces this arrogant rogue. Egyptian Social Classes! To avoid a Luke-Leia-Han kind of love triangle, Oppel introduces a fourth adventurer, the michael 5 forces bold and lord of the critical alluring Gypsy girl Nadira. The temperature may be dropping outside the ship, as it climbs to 20,000 feet above the michael porter's 5 forces Antarctic, but things certainly are heating up on defend, board. In truth, the porter's 5 forces romance is of the Indiana Jones variety; it never gets in the way of the story. And what a story it is, with plenty of derring-do, plot turns galore and villains of the nastiest kind. Allusions to the movies are hard to avoid.

Oppel trained as a screenwriter and brings to i may will defend his novels a filmic sense of michael pace and panorama, and what did the pure food and drug fantastic proportion. He just seems to have a larger budget for special effects than the porter's average writer. The snappy dialogue owes something to did the food act do the movies, as well, and the editing is as taut as a bowline in a fresh breeze. He lavishes attention on technical description, but with an unwavering sense of the attention span of his audience. And finally, Oppel must be recognized as the grand master of the michael porter's action sequence, doing with words and egyptian syntax what Lucas and Spielberg do with actors and props. Airborn has been optioned; it will one day, undoubtedly, be a film, and one might expect the same fate for Skybreaker. It's got movie written all over it. While Airborn was both a big seller and 5 forces a critical success, there was the who does in love of romeo odd reviewer who acknowledged Oppel's appeal to what Douglas Rushkoff calls the screenager as a kind of backhanded compliment, as if to suggest that the work was not somehow literary enough. He is not a literary stylist, but rather a master yarn spinner. His writing is lively and vividly detailed, but never so as to distract you from the michael plot unwinding deliciously before your eyes. And I have to think that to accuse Oppel of not being sufficiently literary or reflective is to ignore a tradition at least as old as Jules Verne or H. G. Wells, on one hand, and of C. S. Is Prostitution Legal! Forester or Patrick O'Brian on the other.

The Matt Cruse novels are a pastiche of science fiction and high-seas adventure, and michael porter's 5 forces of something still more venerable. They are romances in the tradition of Sir Walter Scott. They are stories of lofty ideals told at and Effective Essay, a lofty altitude. Michael 5 Forces! Skybreaker is a boy's dream of valour, of defiance in the face of evil, of doing the decent thing. Are they then boy's books? Most assuredly, yes. Lord Of The Flies! But not exclusively so. Kate and Nadira are high-spirited, capable, brave and resourceful. Kate is michael, used to getting her way; Nadira is used to taking it. Neither of is prostitution legal them is a hand-wringer.

I'd like to think that girls will be attracted to Skybreaker in the same way they have flocked to porter's Harry Potter. But that not withstanding, this is a boy's book; the pure food act do hero's journey, as Joseph Campbell would have it, is complete with the requisite call to adventure and bringing home a boon to his community. And Matt Cruse is a most worthy hero: practical, not foolhardy, emotionally insecure but stalwart in the face of adversity. I remember meeting Oppel just after he had written Silverwing. While I congratulated him heartily on michael porter's 5 forces, it, I recall rolling my eyes when he mentioned there was to be a sequel. The Silverwing trilogy turned out to be wonderfully satisfying in every way -- truly a saga. So I find myself, eight years later, in the unusual position of actually hoping there might be yet a third Matt Cruse adventure. I have a feeling many thousands of kids will be hoping along with me. -- Tim Wynne-Jones. In this breathtaking sequel to the Governor General's Award-winning fantasy novel Airborn, 16-year-old Matt Cruse flies higher than he ever dreamed.

The former Aurora cabin boy, now a student at the prestigious Paris Airship Academy, is on a two-week training tour with a run-down cargo airship when his captain sights a legendary ghost ship. Matt recklessly heads skyward in pursuit--only to risk sacrificing his entire crew to did the food altitude sickness. Michael 5 Forces! The Hyperion, lost in egyptian social classes a storm in the dawn of the aviation age and buoyed high above the clouds for 40 years, is rumoured to 5 forces hold great wealth, and Intake, and Effective Matt is suddenly the only person on earth who knows her coordinates. Soon, he and his upper-class sweetheart, Kate de Vries, are embarked on a dangerous aerial treasure hunt, along with Hal, the conceited pilot of a sleek, new altitude-friendly airship, and a mysterious gypsy girl named Nadira, who claims to have the 5 forces key to the Hyperion's booby-trapped treasure troves. Drawing on the myths of Icarus and Prometheus, as well as classic sea adventures like 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea and The Poseidon Adventure, Skybreaker combines an action-packed thriller with a sensitive exploration of the limits of human ambition. Matt's jealousy of the self-made Hal (who he suspects has designs on Kate) and his own furtive attraction to Nadira heighten the emotional tension and raw suspense of the in love with at the visceral scenes aboard the michael Hyperion, an ice-entombed version of the what did the and drug act do Titanic.

With pirates, sky monsters, and disturbed spirits, not to mention enough bizarre flying machines to michael porter's fill an aviation museum (even a bat-copter for Silverwing fans), Skybreaker confirms Kenneth Oppel's reputation as Canada's leading fantasy author for children and young adults. Oppel outdoes himself every time, developing a complex world with a rich and enticing atmosphere, creating a fast-paced plot of action and adventure, and scripting quirky and eclectic characters, all factors that make Skybreaker a worthy sequel to Airborn.