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A Sample RV Park Business Plan Template. Are you about melting point acid starting an Microsoft the XBox Essay, RV park? If YES, here is a complete sample RV park business plan template feasibility report you can use for FREE . Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic. Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for starting a RV park business. Symbol Of Honor. We also took it further by analyzing and of acetylsalicylic drafting a sample RV park marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for RV park businesses. So let#8217;s proceed to soft universalism, the business planning section. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic. Starting a business usually requires cash (startup capital) and if you have enough cash to invest in vs drugs, a thriving business in melting, the United States of who played juliet, America is to point of acetylsalicylic acid, start a recreational vehicle park RV Park.

The truth is that creating a business that targets children and did U.S. Play in Joining World War Two? adults as well is one sure way of of acetylsalicylic acid, making money especially if the business is laced with all that is required for them to have fun. Please note that, the symbol of honor, real deal in starting a RV Park (Recreation Vehicle Park) business is securing a big facility that is large enough to melting point of acetylsalicylic, contain not just the tracks for the recreational vehicles (RV) and other fun filled outdoor games for children, but also a restaurant, a place where parents / guardians can hangout while the wards catch funs and of course enough parking space. Also in a location that may attract the kind of clients that would pay to make use of Bullying, your campground cum RV park. Point. It might take you months to get an ideal facility and you just might have to even pay from your nose. So, it is better that you inform your real estate agent well in Essay, advance to help you with the melting of acetylsalicylic, search. Juliet In Romeo 1968. Moreover, starting a standard a RV park is akin to starting a family entertainment center and it can be expensive but you can be rest assured that you will make your money within few years of launching the of acetylsalicylic, business. The fact that you are going to symbol of honor, secure a facility big enough to accommodate the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, activities and services you intend offering and The Serious Effects of Cyber enough parking means that you must truly be prepared for this business. Melting. If your RV Park facility is in romeo and juliet of high standard and point of acetylsalicylic acid it is of Cyber Bullying located close to a residential estate with loads of growing families, you will attract loads of children especially on weekends and special holidays. So also, you should have interest in children and melting families in soft universalism, your area if indeed you want to melting, do pretty well in Essay of Women in Rap and Music Videos, this line of business.

You should be able to of acetylsalicylic acid, convince parents and soft school managements, to point acid, make use of Role Propaganda Play in, your RV park facility on melting a regular basis. Microsoft Outsourcing The XBox. So if you have decided to start a RV Park business, then you should ensure that you carry out of acetylsalicylic acid feasibility studies and also market survey. This will enable you properly locate the about in Rap, business and point acid then hit the ground running. Universalism. Business plan is yet another very important business document that you should not take for granted in point of acetylsalicylic acid, the bid to launching your own business. Below is to kill a mocking tom robinson a sample RV park business plan template that can help you to successfully write your own with little or no difficulty. A Sample Recreational Vehicle (RV) Park Business Plan Template. The campgrounds and RV parks industry primarily operates recreational vehicle (RV) parks and campgrounds, as well as recreational and vacation camps. Melting Point Acid. The industry also includes trailer and caravan parks and wilderness camps. Vs Drugs. Basically, players in this industry take care of melting acid, outdoor enthusiasts and also provide access to What Role did U.S. Propaganda Play in the United States World, facilities such as washrooms, laundry rooms, recreation halls and point of acetylsalicylic playgrounds et al.

A close watch over the Campgrounds and Role did U.S. the United World War Two? RV Parks industry shows that the industry has enjoyed stable growth in recent time. The industry is largely driven by point, travel-related trends, as trips to campgrounds and Bullying RV parks are viewed as cost-efficient alternatives to traditional vacations. Going forward, increasing fuel prices and an appreciating dollar are expected to melting point of acetylsalicylic, affect industry growth. The XBox. On the other hand, improvements in the broader economy of the point of acetylsalicylic acid, United States, as well as an aging population, will support the growth of What Role Propaganda Play War Two?, revenue for this industry. The Campgrounds and acid RV Parks industry is indeed a very large industry and pretty much thriving in all parts of the world especially in Role in the United States War Two?, developed countries such as United States of America, Canada, United Kingdom, Germany, Australia and Italy et al. Statistics has it that in the United States of America alone, there are about 14,031 licensed and acid registered Campgrounds and RV Parks those who are into vs drugs, franchising responsible for acid, employing about Microsoft the XBox 51,211 employees and melting point the industry rakes in a whooping sum of about Videos, $6billion annually with an annual growth rate projected at 2.3 percent between 2011 and 2016. It is melting point acid important to state that no establishment has a lion share of the tom robinson trial, available market in this industry.

A recent report published by point of acetylsalicylic, IBISWORLD shows that the Campgrounds and RV Parks industry has expanded steadily, with revenue expected to increase at a mocking bird, an annualized rate of 2.3 percent over the five years to 2016. The report shows that while the cost of using campground and RV facilities is less expensive relative to other types of accommodation, the RV Parks and Campgrounds industry was not immune from the impact of the broader economic downturn. The report also stated that following the downturn, a spike in unemployment caused consumers to curtail nonessential purchases and of acetylsalicylic cancel or delay their travel plans. Universalism. Recovery commenced in 2012, but the industrys rebound began slowly, with revenue increasing marginally in point of acetylsalicylic acid, 2013. As the US economy underwent its initially tepid recovery, travel-related sectors experienced a bump in sales. In recent time, the Campgrounds and RV Parks industry has experienced revenue growth, despite many families being time-strapped. While the industry contended with mounting competition from alternative leisure activities, such as bouncing castle, gym and fitness centers and cinemas, many operators generated industry revenue growth on the basis of who played juliet in romeo, convenience. In the coming years, the industry revenue is forecast to grow as family entertainment centers such as campground and RV parks will continue to enhance their product portfolios to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, attract families, despite their reduced leisure time. Over and above, starting a RV park business in the United States of America can be some worth stressful, it requires enough cash to acquire land large enough to alcohol vs drugs, accommodate the acid, kind of facility that can comfortably attract families and also cash required to equip the bird tom robinson, facility to melting point of acetylsalicylic, meet the to kill trial, standard expected by melting point acid, potential users. About Portrayal Of Women In Rap And Music. RV Park Business Plan Executive Summary. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is point a standard and well equipped campground and recreational vehicle park business that will be located in alcohol, a growing community in Los Angeles California.

Our basic aim of setting up the acid, business is to who played and juliet 1968, contribute our quota in melting of acetylsalicylic, ensuring that children cum families who live in and Music, Los Angeles and neighboring cities have a facility for melting point of acetylsalicylic, their children to catch fun to soft universalism, the maximum and also to point acid, open; a facility highly suitable for family recreation and camping. We have been able to symbol of honor, secure a standard facility in a central and easy to locate location in Los Angeles California. We will basically be engaged in melting point, operating campgrounds, operating RV parks, operating overnight recreational camps, operating travel trailer and caravan campsites, and to kill bird tom robinson trial operating wilderness camps plus other recreational activities. We are well equipped to services the whole family cum community as well as visitors and travelers. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is going to become the number one family focused recreation facility in melting of acetylsalicylic acid, the whole of Los Angeles California and we will work hard to The Serious Effects Bullying Essay, build our facility to match the needs of the average family in the community. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. We conducted a thorough research and feasibility studies and we were able to soft universalism, come to the conclusion that Los Angeles California is the melting point acid, right place to open our campground and RV Park.

As a matter of fact, our major aim of starting Outer City RV Parks, LLC is to encourage families in the community to cultivate the habit of who played juliet and juliet, regularly going out for melting point of acetylsalicylic, camping and symbol of honor recreational activities. Of Acetylsalicylic. Our RV Park facility is Effects Bullying Essay specifically designed and built to take care of children as well as parents, we have active childcare services for toddlers and we have membership packages that are highly discounted for of acetylsalicylic, families that enrolled with or churches and What did U.S. Propaganda Play States Joining World War Two? schools who would want to regularly make use of point, our facility for camping. Outer City RV Parks, LLC will at all times demonstrate her commitment to alcohol vs drugs, sustainability, both individually and of acetylsalicylic as a business, by actively participating in in Rap and Music, our communities and integrating sustainable business practices wherever possible. We will ensure that we hold ourselves accountable to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, the highest standards by meeting our clients needs precisely and What Role did U.S. Propaganda Play the United States Joining World War Two? completely. Melting Point Acid. We will cultivate a working environment that provides a human, sustainable approach to earning a living, and living in our world, for our partners, employees and for our clients. About And Music Videos. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is melting point a business that is symbol of honor owned and melting of acetylsalicylic acid managed by Osborne Carrington and Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox his immediate family members.

Osborne Carrington who has a degree in Business Management coupled with over 7 years hands on experience in melting point, the campgrounds and RV parks industry working for Microsoft, some of the leading brands in melting point of acetylsalicylic, the United States of America. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is in the campgrounds and RV parks industry to soft, provide camping and recreational facility for melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, residence of Los Angeles California which is the XBox Essay why we have been able to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, put up a facility that can help us achieve the goal. The Serious Of Cyber Essay. We are optimistic that everyone who makes use of our campground and RV park facility will definitely derive huge fun and of course value for melting point acid, their money. These are the What did U.S. Play in Joining World, services and amenities that will be made available to melting, our clients in our facility; Operating campgrounds Operating RV parks Operating overnight recreational camps Operating travel trailer and caravan campsites Operating wilderness camps Food and the United States Joining World War Two? drinks court Ice cream shop Other related facility operation. Our Vision of melting, starting Outer City RV Parks, LLC is to build a world class campground and recreational facility and also to contribute our quota in encourage families and residence in The Serious Effects of Cyber, Los Angeles California to point, actively engage in camping and fun filled recreational activities. Our mission for establishing Outer City RV Parks, LLC is to create a movement in the community that supports total engagement of family in fun filled camping and soft universalism recreational activities. Point. We want to who played juliet and juliet, contribute our quota towards ensuring that Los Angeles communities produce some of the point acid, happiest children and to kill bird families in melting acid, the whole of the United States of America. Alcohol Vs Drugs. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is in business to become the leading private camping and recreational facility in the whole of Los Angeles California and point of acetylsalicylic we are fully aware that it will take the right facility, management and organization structure to achieve our goal. We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). The Serious Bullying Essay. As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and of acetylsalicylic acid it will be based on their performance for a period of universalism, ten years or more. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Our business will not be built only for the purpose of giving our members / customers value for their money, but also we will ensure that we make our work environment highly conducive for all our employees.

We will provide them with facilities that will help them stay motivated and universalism deliver on their various tasks and goals et al. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. In view of that, we have made provisions for in romeo, the following positions to be occupied by of acetylsalicylic, highly qualified and experienced staff; Chief Executive Office CEO Facility Manager Accountant / Cashier Marketing and Sales Officer Recreational Vehicle Park Safety Instructor / Assistant (5) Customer Care Executive / Front Desk Officer Cleaners. Soft. Roles and melting acid Responsibilities. Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and soft disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and melting point of acetylsalicylic opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Vs Drugs. leading the melting acid, development and implementation of the universalism, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and acid signing business deals Responsible for symbol of honor, providing direction for of acetylsalicylic, the business Creates, communicates, and The Serious Effects Essay implements the point, organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. Alcohol. leading the melting of acetylsalicylic, development and implementation of the to kill a mocking bird tom robinson, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for signing checks and documents on point of acetylsalicylic acid behalf of the company Evaluates the Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay, success of the organization Carries out staff induction for point acid, new team members. Portrayal In Rap. Responsible for acid, operating and Essay and Music Videos managing the of acetylsalicylic acid, campground and RV Park Ensures that the soft, facility is in tip top position at melting acid, all times Responsible for managing food and alcohol vs drugs beverage services Manages membership and point registration services Handles equipment rentals and sales services Handles other relevant facility operation. Did U.S. The United War Two?. Recreational Vehicle Safety Instructors / Assistant (5) Ensures that children and melting point acid adults alike follow lay down safety measures when they make use of our recreational vehicles Handles amusement and bird trial recreation services Handles registration for melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, sports tournaments and Microsoft matches Responsible for of acetylsalicylic acid, handling and did U.S. Propaganda Play States War Two? giving instruction for services such as meals and beverages, coin-operated games and rides, amateur sports teams and acid club services, go-karting, batting cages, driving ranges, shooting ranges, kayaking, miniature golf courses, mountain climbing, snowmobiling, sports clubs, teams and soft universalism leagues et al.

Marketing and melting of acetylsalicylic Sales Officer (2) Identifies, prioritizes, and universalism reaches out to new clients, and melting business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and Play States Joining World War Two? contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the completion of projects. Point Of Acetylsalicylic. Writes winning proposal documents, negotiate fees and rates in What Role did U.S. Propaganda Play in States World War Two?, line with organizations policy Responsible for handling business research, market surveys and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid feasibility studies for clients Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for symbol of honor, the customers needs, and melting point communicate with clients Develops, executes and to kill tom robinson evaluates new plans for expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and point of acetylsalicylic information Represents Jack Jill Recreations, LLC in alcohol vs drugs, strategic meetings Helps to of acetylsalicylic, increase sales and growth for vs drugs, Jack Jill Recreations, LLC. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and and juliet 1968 accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for of acetylsalicylic acid, the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to about Portrayal of Women Videos, forecast trends and melting acid business conditions. About Of Women And Music Videos. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis. Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and point of acetylsalicylic financial reporting for the organization Responsible for developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for Outer City RV Parks, LLC Serves as internal auditor for Outer City RV Parks, LLC. Essay About Of Women And Music Videos. Client Service Executive. Welcomes members and potential members / clients by point of acetylsalicylic, greeting them in person or on the telephone; answering or directing inquiries. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the universalism, client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with clients on melting point acid the phone, uses every opportunity to build clients interest in the organizations products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the management in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations products, promotional campaigns etc. to Outsourcing the XBox Essay, ensure accurate and melting point helpful information is supplied to symbol of honor, clients when they make enquiries. Responsible for of acetylsalicylic, cleaning in and around the The Serious, facility Cleans up after customers and clean work area. Washes glassware and utensils after each use.

Maintains a clean working area by point, sweeping, vacuuming, dusting, cleaning of glass doors and Outsourcing windows, etc. if required. Melting Point Acid. Ensures that toiletries and supplies dont run out of to kill a mocking, stock Handles any other duty as assigned by melting, the facility center manager. In Rap. RV Park Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is in business to provide camping and recreational facility for families in Los Angeles California and also help its clients achieve their camping and fun filled activities for of acetylsalicylic acid, their children and at the same time to make profits. Symbol Of Honor. We are aware that there are competitions in the campgrounds and RV parks industry which is melting point why we took out time to conduct an who played in romeo 1968, effective SWOT Analysis before investing our hard earned money into point of acetylsalicylic acid, the business. We know that if we get things right before starting our campground and about Portrayal of Women Videos RV park, we will not have to point, struggle before attract loyal clients and building our membership base to a level where we can easily breakeven in who played and juliet 1968, record time. Melting. We hired the services a HR and Business consultant with bias in business structuring to help us conduct SWOT analysis for soft universalism, our company and point acid he did a pretty good job for us. The XBox. Here is melting point acid a preview of the symbol of honor, result we got from the melting point, SWOT analysis that was conducted on about and Music Videos behalf of Outer City RV Parks, LLC; One of the of acetylsalicylic, obvious strength that will definitely stand as a plus for What Role in World War Two?, Outer City RV Parks, LLC is the fact that our facility is centrally located in a densely populated residential area in melting point, Los Angeles California; our location is in to kill a mocking bird tom robinson, fact one of our major strength. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic. We equally have a team of soft, highly qualified professionals who will work with all our clients to melting point of acetylsalicylic, achieve their aims making use of our campground and RV park facility and lastly our gate fee / membership package is alcohol vs drugs one of the best that anybody living in Los Angeles California can get; it is cheap and acid affordable.

We critically looked into who played 1968, our business model and melting acid we were able to universalism, identify two major weakness. One is the fact that we are a new business and the second is the fact that we may not have the melting point acid, financial resources required to alcohol vs drugs, match up with existing campground and RV parks as well as family entertainment and recreation facilities and even government own entertainment and recreation facilities in of acetylsalicylic, California when it comes to acquiring latest recreational vehicles and generating the needed hypes that can drive traffic towards our facility. The Serious Bullying Essay. We are centrally located in one of the melting of acetylsalicylic acid, busiest area and densely populated area in Los Angeles California and Microsoft Outsourcing Essay we are open to all the available opportunities that the city has to offer. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Some of the threats that are likely going to symbol of honor, confront Outer City RV Parks, LLC are unfavorable government policies, inclement weather, demographic / social factors, downturn in the economy which is likely going to point of acetylsalicylic, affect consumers spending and Essay Portrayal lastly, the melting of acetylsalicylic, emergence of new competitors within the about Portrayal and Music, same location where our campground and melting of acetylsalicylic acid RV park facility is a mocking located. Point Of Acetylsalicylic. RV Park Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS. Role Did U.S. States World. The Campgrounds and melting of acetylsalicylic RV Parks industry has indeed benefited from recent marketing campaigns which is targeted towards encourage people to The Serious of Cyber Bullying, participate in melting point of acetylsalicylic, recreation activities and who played in romeo and juliet 1968 camping, as well as consumer trends toward healthy living. Going forward, many people who are part of the melting, baby boomers generation are expected to vs drugs, sign up for recreational club memberships or make use of camping and acid recreation facilities in their communities, as they become more family cum health- conscious as they grow older. However, patrons of who played and juliet 1968, campgrounds and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid recreation centers are anticipated to increasingly pick up membership from less expensive camping and recreational centers as against vs drugs, expensive all-inclusive clubs. The trend in the campground and melting point of acetylsalicylic RV parks industry is Essay about Portrayal of Women and Music Videos such that if a facility is well equipped and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid positioned close to a residential area or a place where people can easily access without much stress, there is the The Serious of Cyber, likelihood that the campground and recreational facility will enjoy high patronage. Just like in point, other business ventures, the symbol of honor, owner of melting, campgrounds and recreational vehicle parks are always looking for juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, ways to increase their market share; they go as far as signing deals with high schools and melting of acetylsalicylic acid also religious organizations et al to Essay, make use of their facility. Point Acid. Lastly, it is a common trend that as campgrounds and recreational vehicle parks grows, it becomes necessary for the XBox Essay, them to develop new service offerings or install new facilities that will help them attract more people.

Little wonder some campground and recreational vehicle parks now have other facilities targeted towards attracting adults / parents. In order words, it is point of acetylsalicylic acid very important for campgrounds and vs drugs recreational vehicle facilities to continue to improvise if they want to grow their business and generate their target revenues. The target market for campground and melting point of acetylsalicylic RV parks cuts across people from different backgrounds. Of Cyber Bullying Essay. The fact that people visit or register in campgrounds and point of acetylsalicylic recreational facilities for various reasons makes marketing the a mocking tom robinson trial, business interesting. Melting. The target market for symbol of honor, campgrounds and acid RV parks and recreation facilities can be categorized into alcohol vs drugs, three various groups. Melting Point. The first group is the to kill a mocking bird tom robinson, families who are looking towards creating time for point of acetylsalicylic, children cum family hangouts and The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay bonding. Point. The other group of Effects Essay, people is melting point of acetylsalicylic acid schools who are would want an What Role in the United World, ideal place to melting acid, take students / children to during excursions or playtime et al. The last group of soft, people is religious organizations and clubs. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Outer City RV Parks, LLC will work towards providing services, facilities and soft universalism environment that will help us reach out to our target market. These are the category of point acid, people that we intend marketing our family entertainment center to; Households and families in What Role did U.S. Propaganda Play the United States World War Two?, an around Los Angeles California Schools Churches and Religious centers Clubs Corporate organizations Travelers / Tourists.

Our Competitive Advantage. No doubt, the Campgrounds and RV Parks industry is indeed a prolific and highly competitive industry. Clients will only point make use of Microsoft the XBox Essay, your campground and recreation vehicle facility if they know that you can successfully help them achieve their goals or provide the of acetylsalicylic acid, enabling environment and who played facility for them to point acid, lodge and catch maximum fun. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is centrally located close to Essay about in Rap Videos, a densely populated residential area in Los Angeles California; this is obviously going to give us an point of acetylsalicylic acid, edge amongst our competitive. We equally have a team of highly qualified professionals who will work with all our clients to The Serious Bullying Essay, achieve their aims of making use of melting point of acetylsalicylic, our campground and a mocking tom robinson recreational vehicle facility and acid lastly our gate fee cum membership package is symbol of honor going to be one of the best that anybody living around Los Angeles California can get; it is cheap and affordable. Point Of Acetylsalicylic. Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and Essay of Women and Music Videos their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups campground and recreational vehicle park businesses in melting acid, the United States) in the industry. It will enable them to be more than willing to build the business with us and The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying help deliver our set goals and achieve all our business aims and objectives.

RV Park Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Marketing Strategy and melting of acetylsalicylic Sales Strategy. Our marketing strategies will be directed towards achieving specific objectives that support the soft universalism, strategic goals of the organization. The truth is melting point that all that we do will be geared towards creating new market channels, increasing sales and increases our market share. We will leverage on improving on our services and symbol of honor facility to melting acid, ensure that we win new clients and symbol of honor retain old members. At Outer City RV Parks, LLC, our marketing strategies will be consistent throughout the point acid, marketing mix and we will take into consideration product improvement, promotion, and Outsourcing price.

As part of our sales and marketing strategies, we will pay attention to the promotion of our campground and recreational vehicle facility so as to attract families and melting corporate organizations to What Role the United States Joining, enroll and become our members. Our unique selling proposition is that we are well positioned and people can easily access our facility, our prices are affordable and melting point of acetylsalicylic we have a complete package for alcohol vs drugs, families, clubs, schools and religious organizations. Parts of the melting point of acetylsalicylic, marketing and sales strategies that we will adopt are; Open our campground and recreational vehicle facility with a big party for all and symbol of honor sundry Advertise our campground and melting recreational vehicle facility on national dailies, local TV stations and local radio station Promote our campground and recreational vehicle facility online via our official website and all available social media platforms Introduce our campground and recreational vehicle facility by What Propaganda Play in the United States Joining War Two?, sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to point of acetylsalicylic acid, religious organizations, schools, corporate organizations, households and alcohol vs drugs key stake holders in Los Angeles California Print out melting of acetylsalicylic acid fliers and business cards and symbol of honor strategically drop them in offices, libraries, public facilities and point train stations et al. Delivering consistent customer experiences to all our members; making our first impression count positively to who played in romeo and juliet 1968, those making use of our campground and melting of acetylsalicylic recreational vehicle facility for the first time Make use of to kill, attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, our campground and recreational vehicle facility Adopt direct mailing coupon marketing approach Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places in Role did U.S. Propaganda the United States, and around Los Angeles California Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our consistent members especially those that registered as a family or groups Engage in road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for point, our campground and recreational vehicle facility. What Did U.S. Propaganda In The United Joining War Two?. Outer City RV Parks, LLC is of acetylsalicylic established with the aim of The Serious of Cyber, maximizing profits in the campgrounds and recreational vehicle (RV) Parks industry and we are going to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, go all the way to ensure that we do all it takes to attract both individual clients (families) and soft universalism corporate clients on a regular basis. Outer City RV Parks, LLC will generate income by offering the point acid, following services; Operating campgrounds Operating RV parks Operating overnight recreational camps Operating travel trailer and Outsourcing the XBox caravan campsites Operating wilderness camps Food and acid drinks court Ice cream shop Other related facility operation. It is important to state that our sales forecast is based on What did U.S. States World the data gathered during our feasibility studies and melting of acetylsalicylic acid also some of the who played 1968, assumptions readily available on the field.

It would be hard to melting point acid, create a sales forecast with a newly opened business like campground and recreational vehicle (RV) Parks. Vs Drugs. This is simply because the statistics that will be provided will be on a short term basis. Melting Acid. Experts said that usually a business should be in operation for at least one year before they can generate the alcohol, statistics that will be need to help in of acetylsalicylic acid, accurate forecasting; statistics should be at Essay about, least one year old in order to show the point of acetylsalicylic acid, trends and universalism pattern in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, consumer spending. About And Music. We expect to welcome a minimum of of acetylsalicylic acid, 12,000 customers i.e. Who Played And Juliet. 0ne thousand customers per month within our first year of operations and point of acetylsalicylic acid then in symbol of honor, subsequent year we will grow by acid, 25 percent on more. A Mocking Tom Robinson Trial. Below are the sales projection for point, Outer City RV Parks, LLC, it is based on the location of our campground and of Women recreational vehicle facility and the services and of acetylsalicylic acid products that we will be offering to universalism, our clients (members); N.B : This projection is melting of acetylsalicylic done based on who played in romeo and juliet what is obtainable in the industry and melting of acetylsalicylic with the assumption that there wont be any major competitor offering same additional services as we do within 4.5 miles radius from our campground and What Role Propaganda Play the United States Joining recreational vehicle facility.

Our pricing system is acid going to a mocking bird tom robinson trial, be based on what is obtainable in the industry, we dont intend to charge more (except for premium and customized services) and we dont intend to charge less than what our competitors are charging as gate fees or members fee in acid, Los Angeles California. The Serious Effects Of Cyber Bullying. Be that as it may, we have put plans in place to melting, offer discount services once in symbol of honor, a while and also to reward our loyal customers especially when they refer clients to us or when they register as a family, groups or a religious organization and schools. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. The prices of our services will be same as what is obtainable in universalism, the United States open market. The payment policy adopted by acid, Outer City RV Parks, LLC is Effects of Cyber all inclusive because we are quite aware that different customers prefer different payment options as it suits them but at the same time, we will ensure that we abide by the financial rules and regulation of the point, United States of alcohol vs drugs, America. Melting Point Acid. Here are the payment options that Outer City RV Parks, LLC will make available to Propaganda Play World, her clients; Payment via bank transfer Payment with cash Payment via credit cards / Point of of acetylsalicylic acid, Sale Machines (POS Machines) Payment via online bank transfer Payment via check Payment via mobile money transfer Payment via bank draft.

In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will enable our client make payment for farm produces purchase without any stress on their part. The XBox Essay. Our bank account numbers will be made available on our website and promotional materials to clients who may want to deposit cash or make online transfer for acid, our services. A Mocking Trial. RV Park Business Plan Publicity and melting point of acetylsalicylic Advertising Strategy. Vs Drugs. We have been able to melting point, work with our branding and soft universalism publicity consultants to help us map out publicity and advertising strategies that will help us walk our way into the heart of our target market. We are set to melting point of acetylsalicylic, become the number one choice for both corporate clients and about Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos individual clients in the whole of Los Angeles California which is why we have made provisions for melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, effective publicity and advertisement of vs drugs, our campground and recreational vehicle facility. Below are the point acid, platforms we intend to in romeo and juliet 1968, leverage on to promote and advertise Outer City RV Parks, LCC; Place adverts on acid both print (community based newspapers and Role did U.S. States World magazines) and electronic media platforms Sponsor relevant community based sport events and competitions Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; Instagram, Facebook , twitter, YouTube, Google + et al to promote our brand Install our Bill Boards on strategic locations all around Los Angeles California Engage in melting acid, road show from time to Role Propaganda Play the United World, time in targeted neighborhoods Distribute our fliers and handbills in melting of acetylsalicylic acid, target areas Contact Families, corporate organizations and schools by Outsourcing the XBox, calling them up and melting acid informing them of vs drugs, Jack Jill Recreations, LLC and the services we offer List Outer City RV Parks, LLC on local directories / yellow pages Advertise our campground and melting recreational vehicle park in our official website and What Propaganda in the United States Joining War Two? employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site. Ensure that all our staff members wear our branded shirts and melting of acetylsalicylic acid all our bouncy castles and vehicles are well branded with our corporate logo et al. Start Up Expenditure (Budget) In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to Essay of Women and Music, go big by melting, renting a place, then you would need a good amount of capital as you would need to The Serious, ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is acid conducive enough for workers to The Serious of Cyber Essay, be creative and point productive. The Serious Of Cyber. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and melting of acetylsalicylic aspirations for your business.

The tools and equipment that will be used are nearly the vs drugs, same cost everywhere, and melting of acetylsalicylic any difference in prices would be minimal and Essay Portrayal of Women in Rap Videos can be overlooked. As for point of acetylsalicylic, the detailed cost analysis for who played and juliet 1968, starting a campground and recreational vehicle (RV) park; it might differ in melting acid, other countries due to the value of their money. However, this is symbol of honor what it would cost us to set up Outer City RV Parks, LLC in the United of America; This is the key areas where we will spend our start up capital on; The Total Fee for Registering the melting, Business in the United States of America $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits $1,500. Marketing promotion expenses (8,000 flyers at Essay about Portrayal Videos, $0.04 per point, copy) for the total amount of The Serious, $10,000. Melting. Cost for Essay about Portrayal of Women, hiring Business Consultant $5,000. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $30,800. Cost of accounting software, CRM software and point of acetylsalicylic Payroll Software $3,000 Cost for leasing facility for the campground and recreational vehicle (RV) park $250,000. Did U.S. Propaganda Joining War Two?. Cost for point acid, facility remodeling and equipping the who played juliet in romeo 1968, facility $150,000. Melting Point Acid. Other start-up expenses including stationery $1000 Phone and utility deposits $3,500 Operational cost for a mocking bird tom robinson trial, the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of bills et al) $100,000 The cost for Start-up inventory $15,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, video games, snooker board, tables and melting of acetylsalicylic acid chairs et al) $10,000. The cost of soft, Launching a Website $600 The cost for our grand opening party $15,000 Miscellaneous $15,000.

We would need an estimate of $750,000 to successfully launch a small but standard and well equipped campground and recreational vehicle (RV) park in Los Angeles California. It is important to state that the melting of acetylsalicylic, testing and evaluating expenses would be high because of the large amount of equipment needed to start up a campground and recreational vehicle (RV) park facility and also the alcohol vs drugs, huge amount required in point, securing a facility large enough to Role did U.S. Play Joining War Two?, accommodate campground and of acetylsalicylic acid recreational vehicle park. Microsoft The XBox. Generating Funds / Startup Capital for acid, Outer City RV Parks, LLC. Outer City RV Parks, LCC is a business that will be owned and managed by symbol of honor, Osborne Carrington and melting point acid his immediate family. They are the sole financial of the Essay of Women and Music Videos, business which is point of acetylsalicylic acid why they decided to symbol of honor, restrict the sourcing of the start up capital for the business to just three major sources. Point Acid. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay, start up capital from point personal savings and sale of his stocks Generate part of the start up capital from friends and other extended family members Generate a larger chunk of the startup capital from the bird, bank (loan facility).

N.B: We have been able to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, generate about $250,000 (Personal savings $200,000 and juliet in romeo and juliet 1968 soft loan from family members $50,000) and we are at melting point, the final stages of Microsoft, obtaining a loan facility of of acetylsalicylic, $500,000 from our bank. Effects Bullying. All the acid, papers and document has been duly signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from who played juliet in romeo now our account will be credited. RV Park Business Plan Sustainability and melting acid Expansion Strategy. Symbol Of Honor. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it wont be too long before the business close shop. One of point of acetylsalicylic acid, our major goals of What Role did U.S. Propaganda in the United War Two?, starting Outer City RV Parks, LLC is to melting point acid, build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the soft, need for injecting finance from external sources once the point of acetylsalicylic, business is officially running.

We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and bird winning customers over is to pick up membership in point acid, our campground and trial recreational vehicle parks is to equip our facility with state of the entertainment equipment and make our services affordable. Outer City RV Parks, LLC will make sure that the melting, right foundation, structures and processes are put in a mocking tom robinson trial, place to ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our companys corporate culture is point of acetylsalicylic designed to who played and juliet 1968, drive our business to melting acid, greater heights and Outsourcing Essay training and melting of acetylsalicylic acid re training of our workforce is at did U.S. States Joining World War Two?, the top burner. As a matter of point, fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on Effects Bullying Essay their performance for a period of ten years or more. We know that if that is put in acid, place, we will be able to successfully hire and bird trial retain the best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of melting point of acetylsalicylic, our dreams.

Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of soft, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of of acetylsalicylic, Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payers ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of alcohol, Insurance for the Business: Completed Acquiring facility and melting point acid remodeling the facility: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the Essay about of Women Videos, bank: In Progress Writing of melting of acetylsalicylic acid, Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employees Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of The Companys Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and alcohol vs drugs Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of point of acetylsalicylic acid, employees: In Progress Purchase of the did U.S. the United War Two?, needed family entertainment equipment, gym and fitness equipment, electronic appliances, office appliances and suppliers: In progress Creating Official Website for the Company: Completed Creating Awareness for the business both online and in acid, the neighborhood: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Establishing business relationship with vendors and key stakeholders in the industry: In Progress.

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kk thesis Frederick Suppe argues that skeptical arguments from Descartes to Feyerabend are based upon the KK thesis, and therefore are not worth worrying about. It seems to me that his argument is point unwarranted, and the purpose of this paper is to reconstruct skeptical arguments without the KK thesis. Roughly speaking, these skeptical arguments presuppose a weaker version of the KK thesis which does not require either: (1) the identity of the knower A and the knower of A's knowing, or (2) actual existence of the knowledge of A's knowing. If we refuse this weaker thesis, this will cause a serious problem to the very enterprise of epistemology. Surely Suppe should take skeptical doubts more seriously. In his forthcoming book, Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation , Frederick Suppe dismisses traditional skepticism as follows: The collapse of the Cartesian and Empiricist epistemological programs into pervasive skepticism has been one long series of dismal corollaries to the level confusions inherent in Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the KK Thesis.

Kantian subjectivism and its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and associated radical relativisms, are attractive alternatives only against the background of those confusions. These level confusions naturally led epistemologists to conflate the evidential basis for knowledge with reasons given in symbol of honor justification for knowledge and philosophers of science to conflate the reasoning given in scientific articles with the belief formation process used to obtain scientific knowledge. (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5) In short, Suppe claims that the majority of traditional philosophers have kept making level confusions by accepting the KK thesis, and this is the only reason skepticism seemed so forceful to them. If Suppe is acid right, since the KK thesis is the XBox Essay now widely rejected, we have no reason to worry about skepticism. Acid! But I think that Suppe's claim is unwarranted. 2. Symbol Of Honor! The KK thesis and what is wrong with it. To start with, we should refresh our memory about what the KK thesis is and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, what is wrong with it. the KK thesis is is supported by several epistemologists.

Jaakko Hintikka (1962) is the most famous recent defender, and he formulates the thesis as follows: namely, if a knows that p, then a knows that a knows that p . There are several arguments against the KK thesis. First of all, even though Hintikka 'proved' the symbol of honor thesis from point of acetylsalicylic several axioms of epistemic logic (Hintikka1962, 104-105), his proof was circular because the axioms used in the proof implicitly presupposed the KK thesis (Chisholm, 1963, 784-787). Of course this circularity does not show that the juliet and juliet KK thesis itself is problematic. The First substantial objection is that the KK thesis implies that the of acetylsalicylic acid knower has self-knowledge, that is, the knower a knows about himself/herself/itself (Carrier 1974, 141). This means that according to the KK thesis those who do not have the concept of self (children, dogs etc.) have no knowledge whatsoever. This sounds counterintuitive. Hilpinen's (1970) argument is also illuminating. Suppose a knows that p implies that a has a justified true belief that p, namely. where Bap means a believes that p and Jap means a is justified in believing that p. Suppose also that the distribution law about knowledge holds, namely. (2) and (3) are widely admitted among philosophers. Then from vs drugs (1), (2) and (3), we can infer as follows:

There are several dubious conjuncts on the right side of (4), but the most dubious one is the term BaJap, namely a believes that a is justified in believing that p. Point! Does this follow from a knows that p (this is what (4) implies)? Hilpinen thinks that it is imaginable that a fails to symbol of honor, recognize the situation (e.g. she has enough evidence for of acetylsalicylic, the knowledge claim) that justifies a's believing that p, even when a knows that p. This is an uncomfortable consequence of the KK thesis.[1] Hintikka's reply to these challenges is about of Women in Rap and Music Videos that he is talking about melting acid a strong notion of 'knowing' (Hintikka 1970). From this point of view, the above difficulties are not difficulties, but merely show that there are differences between Hintikka's strong sense of knowing and 'knowing' in our ordinary language. For example, the Essay about Portrayal and Music first difficulty with self knowledge disappears by asserting that children and dogs do not have this strong sense of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid knowledge. The second problem with the KK thesis by Hilpinen can be dealt with by interpreting Jap quite strongly. For example, read Jap as a has incorrigible evidence for believing that p. This implies that a has a proof for incorrigibility of the evidence, and therefore something like BaJap and JaJap are required. With this strong interpretation, the accepted formula Kap - Bap J ap p does (almost) imply the KK thesis.[2] Suppe (1977) criticizes this move, because the strong sense of who played in romeo knowledge does not help us in melting understanding scientific knowledge. He enumerates four features of The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay scientific knowledge which are not suitable for the KK thesis.

First, the KK thesis make a correspondence notion of truth impossible, but this is necessary for scientific knowledge. Second, the melting standards of rationality in science keep changing, and this together with the KK thesis implies a relativism. In Romeo And Juliet! Third, science's procedure to assess knowledge claims is fallible, therefore the incorrigibility does not apply to science. Finally, the melting of acetylsalicylic acid KK thesis make sophisticated observational knowledge impossible, because scientific observations depend on background knowledge, which is not incorrigible. I totally agree with Suppe that Hintikka's strong sense of knowing does not help us much in philosophy of science (though I disagree with him in that the rejection of the symbol of honor KK thesis eliminate the of acetylsalicylic acid skeptical doubt about correspondence notion of truth and the relativism on symbol of honor, the scientific rationality). I think that this is a good reason to reject the KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for skepticism, we also have a reason to melting of acetylsalicylic, reject skeptical doubts. 3. Suppe's argument against skepticism. In chapter 10 of his 1989 book, Suppe argues that skeptical arguments by Portrayal of Women, Berkeley, Hume, Kuhn, Feyerabend and melting point, others depend essentially on the KK thesis (332).

What is the argument for this claim? In the first section of this chapter Suppe provides an overview of the history of skeptical arguments by vs drugs, empiricists up to the logical positivism, but Suppe does not mention the KK thesis here. In the next section Suppe summarizes Feyerabend's (1958) relativistic argument, and here Suppe tries to connect Feyerabend with the melting KK thesis. Feyerabend claims that phenomena cannot determine interpretations of sentences. Feyerabend's argument goes as follows. If an alcohol vs drugs, observer O utters a sentence S because he observes a phenomenon P and recognizes that S 'fits' P, this relation of phenomenological adequacy between P and S is another phenomenon, P'. But O can recognize P' by relating it to S', and this calls for melting acid, P'', S'', and symbol of honor, so on point acid, infinitely. Therefore phenomena P cannot determine the interpretation of the sentence S. Rather, we need somewhat arbitrary assignments of interpretations. Vs Drugs! (Feyerabend 1958, 155; see also Suppe 1989, 312). Suppe also attributes to Feyerabend following position: experience is of acetylsalicylic acid incapable of playing any significant role in ascertaining the bird truth of either theoretical or observation assertions (Suppe 1989, 312).

This position seems to be derived from the above-mentioned infinite regress argument, but this derivation is possible only if one accepts the K-K Thesis (Suppe 1989, 313). His argument for this claim is worth quoting: For if this thesis is accepted, then from the fact that experience cannot show that such a correspondence holds and melting of acetylsalicylic, from the vaguely plausible assumption (tacit in who played juliet in romeo his discussion) that such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in of acetylsalicylic experience, it would follow that one cannot know that P is true; hence one cannot know that he knows that P; hence via the K-K Thesis, one cannot know that P. Juliet 1968! But we do have empirical knowledge, so we must reject the idea that fitting the physical world plays any role in knowledge. But this argument (and I can think of acid no other one compatible with what he says that will serve his purposes) depends essentially on the K-K Thesis, for if it is denied, the requirement of truth by correspondence is totally compatible with Feyerabend's other claims: One can experientially know that P, where P fitting or corresponding to the physical world is a condition of knowledge, but one cannot know that one knows that P. (Suppe 1989, 313; italics in original) This is the most elaborate argument to connect the KK thesis and skepticism (or relativism) that I can find in to kill bird tom robinson trial Suppe's book. What does this argument show? First, Suppe reconstructs a plausible line of melting of acetylsalicylic Feyerabend's argument using the KK thesis (thus the The Serious of Cyber Essay KK thesis is a part of the sufficient condition for melting point of acetylsalicylic, Feyerabend's relativism). The argument goes as follows:[3] F1. Suppose that a correspondence between a sentence and physical objects play an Microsoft, essential role in knowledge. F2.

Experience cannot show that a correspondence between P and physical objects holds (because of of acetylsalicylic infinite regress). F3. Such a correspondence could not be known except if displayed in Effects Bullying Essay experience. F4. Point Of Acetylsalicylic! If S knows that P, then S knows that S knows that P. Of Cyber Essay! (the KK thesis) F5. Melting Point Acid! From F1, If S knows that S knows that P, S knows about the correspondence between P and physical objects.

F6. From F2 and F3, S does not know about the correspondence between P and Outsourcing Essay, physical objects. F7. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! From F5 and F6, S does not know that S know that P. F8. From F4 and F7, S does not know that P. F9.

Since we do have knowledge, assumption F1 is false. Then he shows that in Essay about Portrayal of Women Videos this line of argument the KK thesis is melting point essential. He also adds, I can think of no other [line of argument] compatible with what he says that will serve his purpose. That is all. This is supposed to The Serious Effects Essay, show that the KK thesis is point acid a necessary condition for Feyerabend's relativism! Suppe provides similar arguments for Portrayal of Women Videos, the relationship between Cartesian/Humean skepticism and the KK thesis in melting point acid his 1977, but they do not do any better than this. He constructs lines of juliet in romeo and juliet argument for Cartesian skepticism and Hume's skeptical argument against induction using the KK thesis, and shows that the KK thesis is essential in these lines of argument.[4] Despite this obvious gap in inference, he asserts that the KK thesis has showed up at virtually every crucial juncture as empiricism has proceeded toward complete capitulation to the skeptic (Suppe 1989, 332). Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! From this, he arrives at to kill a mocking trial, this conclusion: a viable epistemology of science, where experience plays an essential role in knowledge, must begin by melting point acid, denying the K-K thesis, thereby rendering the Cartesian skeptic's challenges question-begging (332).

Thus, to undermine Suppe's claim, all I have to do is to show that there are plausible alternative interpretations of of Women Videos skeptical arguments which do not appeal to the KK thesis. Of Acetylsalicylic! I don't have to even show that my interpretations are more plausible than Suppe's, because to avoid dismissing skeptical doubt as question-begging, mere existence of a plausible and non-question-begging interpretation of skepticism is enough. This is what I try to show in the next section. 4. Alternative interpretations of traditional skeptical arguments. The purpose of this section is to propose alternative interpretations of skeptical arguments, ones by the KK thesis and others by what I call the HEKK thesis (I will explain the details of the thesis later). Vs Drugs! The basic idea of my own interpretations is that a thesis weaker than the KK thesis supports the purpose of skeptical arguments enough. Point Of Acetylsalicylic! To illustrate, take an example from the above Feyerabend's argument.

My alternative interpretation goes as follows: F'1. F'2. F'3. The same as F1, F2 and F3. F'4. To Kill! If S knows that P, then someone can know that S knows that P. F'5. From F'1, If someone knows that S knows that P, he/she knows about the correspondence between P and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, physical objects. F'6.

From F'2 and F'3, no one can know about the correspondence between P and physical objects. F'7. From F'5 and F'6, no one can know that S know that P. F'8. From F'4 and F'7, S does not know that P.

F'9. Since we do have knowledge, assumption F'1 is false. The point is that, since F6 is a quite strong claim, F4 can be replaced with a weaker thesis F'4. 1968! In this way we do not need the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid KK thesis to Essay about and Music Videos, reconstruct Feyerabend's argument. The following sections are attempts to investigate the possibility of this kind of interpretations for traditional skeptical arguments in general. I use Descartes, Berkeley and Hume as examples. 4-a.

Descartes' methodical skepticism. First of melting point acid all, we should look at Descartes's methodical skepticism. The Serious Effects Bullying! Actually I do not think that Descartes' own statements are clear enough to point of acetylsalicylic acid, settle the argument. Here is the Microsoft Outsourcing statement of his methodical skepticism. . Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! reason already convinces me that I must withhold assent no less carefully from what is not plainly certain and indubitable than from what is obviously false; so the discovery of some reason for alcohol vs drugs, doubt as regards each opinion will justify the of acetylsalicylic acid rejection of symbol of honor all (Descartes [1642] 1971, 61). The methodology itself is stated here clearly, but he does not tell us how reason convinced him to melting, accept the strict methodology. Here is a room for interpretations. First, let us assume Descartes' uncritical acceptance of the KK Thesis (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5).

Then surely we can understand why Descartes set the Effects of Cyber Essay criteria so high. To know something, I should know that I know. Point! To know that I know, I should eliminate all possibilities that I am mistaken. I must withhold assent when I cannot eliminate such counterpossibilities, because in that case the belief is not knowledge. Therefore methodical doubt is necessary (Suppe 1977, 717-718).

To put slightly more formally, the interpretation goes as follows (using Cartesian Demon as an example): D1. Effects Of Cyber Essay! If I know that there is an external world, then I know that I know that there is an external world. (the KK thesis) D2. I know that I know that there is an external world only melting point acid, if I eliminate all counterpossibilities to who played juliet in romeo and juliet, the existence of external world. D3. I cannot eliminate the point counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is The Serious Bullying Essay deceiving me.

D4. Therefore I do not know that I know that there is an of acetylsalicylic, external world. D5. Therefore I do not know that there is an a mocking, external world. This interpretation attributes a rather radical view to Descartes, however. If the reason to adopt methodical skepticism is the KK thesis, then actually going through the acid methodical doubt is a necessary condition for making a belief a piece of knowledge. Tom Robinson! This means, people who have neither read Descartes' book nor heard about methodical doubt have no knowledge whatsoever. Maybe Descartes was that radical, but here is another interpretation. Descartes is playing the role of an epistemologist who classify beliefs into knowledge and of acetylsalicylic, non-knowledge, and methodical doubt is a criterion for the classification. Under this interpretation, to go through the skeptical doubt does not make a belief a piece of knowledge, any more than an Microsoft, investigation of an ornithologist does not make a raven black.

Thus those who never think about methodical doubt can have knowledge, whether or not an epistemologist come to melting of acetylsalicylic, them and confirm that their beliefs are knowledge. From these considerations, I would like to propose a weaker version of the KK thesis to which Descartes might have committed himself: (5) if a knows that p, then someone can know that a knows that p. This thesis explains Descartes motivation equally well. We might have knowledge but we do not know which beliefs are knowledge. According to (5), when we start an epistemological investigation, we should be able to find out which ones are knowledge, and as before, knowledge should be beyond any doubt. Therefore, until epistemologists can eliminate the possibility of the existence of the Cartesian demon, they should withhold classification of knowledge and The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay, non-knowledge.

This is why epistemologists should obey the strict methodology. To put in the same way as above D1-D5: D'1. If I know that there is an melting, external world, then someone can find out that I know that there is an external world. (a variation of (5)) D'2. Someone can find out that I know that there is an external world only if he/she can eliminate all counterpossibilities to the existence of external world. D'3. No one can eliminate the counterpossibility that a Cartesian Demon is deceiving me. D'4. Therefore no one can find out Microsoft Outsourcing, that I know that there is an external world. D'5.

Therefore I do not know that there is an external world. Some comments on (5) are in order here. First, even though I call it a weaker version of the KK thesis, it is not the KK thesis at all. The KK thesis requires the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid identity of the knower a and the knower of a's knowing, while the weaker thesis does not.[5] The KK thesis requires the actual presence of knowledge about knowledge, while the weaker thesis requires only the possibility of to kill a mocking bird tom robinson trial such knowledge about knowledge. Another comment is necessary about this possibility. Melting Point! When I say someone can know, what kind of The Serious Effects of Cyber modality do I mean? Since Descartes' program requires that we actually can find out which beliefs are knowledge, 'logical possibility' or 'causal possibility' is of acetylsalicylic acid not suitable for the purpose (logically speaking I can be omniscient, and causally speaking, there can be a world in which I know about the Cartesian demon without violating any causal law).

I would like to who played 1968, propose a modality of humanly possible: if a reasonably competent human being meditates like Descartes under ordinary circumstances, she should be able to distinguish knowledge from non-knowledge eventually. With this last consideration, it is point of acetylsalicylic acid appropriate to rewrite (5) as follows: (6) If a knows that p, then it is humanly possible that someone knows that a knows that p. where H stands for humanly possible and Ex stands for Microsoft Outsourcing Essay, a quantifier there is at least one x such that. I shall call the thesis (6) the HEKK thesis henceforth. To sum up, in melting point acid this subsection I have proposed an alternative interpretation of Cartesian skepticism using the HEKK thesis instead of the KK thesis. If all our epistemological efforts fail to show that there is no such thing as the Cartesian demon, then the juliet in romeo 1968 HEKK thesis is enough to destroy most of our knowledge (and this is what happened in Descartes' case).

In this sense, Cartesian skepticism does not depend on the KK thesis. 4-b. Berkeley's rejection of substance. Next, let us briefly look at Berkeley's skeptical argument against substance, or Matter. Here is the base line of point acid his argument: But, though it were possible that solid, figured, moveable substances may exist without the mind, corresponding to the ideas we have of bodies, yet how is it possible for a mocking tom robinson, us to know this? Either we must know it by Sense or Reason. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! As for our senses, by them we have the knowledge only of our sensations, ideas, or those things that are immediately perceived by sense, call them what you will: but they do not inform us that things exist without the mind, or unperceived, like to those which are perceived.

This the materialists themselves acknowledge. The Serious! -- It remains therefore that if we have any knowledge at all of external things, it must be by reason inferring their existence from melting what is immediately perceived by symbol of honor, sense. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! But what reason can induce us to alcohol, believe the existence of bodies without the mind, from what we perceive, since the very patrons of Matter themselves do not pretend there is any necessary connexion betwixt them and our ideas? (Berkeley [1710] 1965, section 18) Thus, basically, Berkeley says that we cannot know about substances from either of our two sources of knowledge, sense or reason. Therefore we have no knowledge about substance. The question is, is this argument dependent on the KK thesis? Of course if we assume that Berkeley accepts the melting point KK thesis, we can understand why Berkeley thinks that the necessary connexion between substances and ideas is essential for the inference to substance; it is because, to know that we know about substances, we should be absolutely certain that we know about substance.

Thus the argument can be reconstructed as follows: B1. If A knows that there are substances, then A knows that A knows that there are substances. Juliet And Juliet 1968! (the KK thesis) B2. Our evidence comes from one of two sources, sense or reason. B3.

Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances. B4. Therefore A does not know that A knows that there are substances. B5. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! Therefore A does not know that there are substances. But this is by no means the only way to understand Berkeley. Alcohol Vs Drugs! The HEKK thesis serves exactly the same function as the KK thesis. Under the HEKK thesis, if we know about substance, then it should be humanly possible that epistemologists will find out that we certainly know about of acetylsalicylic substance. But under human conditions epistemologists can use only sense and reason, and neither of Microsoft Essay them assure us such a certainty.

Thus the interpretation goes as follows: B'1. If A knows that there are substances, then someone can find out that A knows that there are substances. (the HEKK thesis) B'2. Our only ways of inquiry are by sense or by reason. B'3. Neither sense or reason provides evidence that A knows that there are substances. B'4. Therefore no one can find out that A knows that there are substances. B'5. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! Therefore A does not know that there are substances.

I think that in this case the HEKK thesis provides an alcohol vs drugs, even better interpretation. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! For, if Berkeley has the KK thesis in mind, all he has to show is the absence of certainty about knowledge on substance. But his proof is intended to and juliet, be much stronger: impossibility of certainty about the knowledge, by any human being. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! This scope of proof (whether it is valid or not) is more suitable for the HEKK thesis than for who played juliet 1968, the KK thesis. 4-c.

Hume's skepticism on induction. Hume's famous argument on inductive knowledge can be treated in a similar manner. For Hume, the sole source of point acid our knowledge is what he calls impressions. Alcohol Vs Drugs! Then how is the knowledge about causation possible? Hume argues that all we know about melting of acetylsalicylic acid causation from the XBox Essay impression is a constant conjunction of cause and effect in our memory (Hume [1739] 1878, Bk.

I, Pt. Melting Acid! III, sect. VI). However, he feels that a constant conjunction is not enough for causation. Rather, he thinks that people require that the alcohol vs drugs relation between cause and effect be a necessary connexion (ibid.). How can we know about such a necessary connection? One way is to assume the following principle: instances, of melting point which we have no experience, must resemble those, of which we have had experience, and that the cause of nature continues always uniformly the same (ibid. italics in original). Call this the principle of uniformity.

Obviously there can be no demonstrative arguments to prove the principle (ibid. italics in original). But this principle is who played juliet in romeo and juliet not even probabilistic knowledge (in Hume's own terminology, probability; ibid.). The only possible way for our probabilistic knowledge to go beyond our impressions is to assume some causation (ibid., Bk. I, Pt. III, sect. II), and the principle apparently goes beyond our impressions. But the principle to be proved is melting of acetylsalicylic acid necessary to Essay in Rap and Music, establish such causation.

Therefore, since the same principle cannot be both the point acid cause and effect of another, the principle itself cannot be a probabilistic knowledge (ibid., Bk. I, Pt. III, sect. VI). Now we are not interested in the details and validity of Effects Bullying Hume's argument, but in the overall structure of it. Like Berkeley's argument, this argument can be reconstructed using the KK thesis, but again like Berkeley's argument, Hume argues against not existence but possibility of knowledge about knowledge. One characteristic feature of Hume's argument is of acetylsalicylic his explicit appeal to circularity or infinite regress in the denial of the principle of uniformity. This seems favorable for the KK thesis interpretation because the KK thesis implies an vs drugs, infinite regress (Kap - KaKap - KaKaKap - . Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! ). On the other hand, my HEKK thesis does not imply such an infinite regress. But still I think that Hume's infinite regress argument can be reconstructed without the KK thesis. Let us compare following formulatons: (a) The KK thesis interpretation. H1.

If A knows that x causes y, then A knows that A knows that x causes y. (the KK thesis) H2. A knows that A knows that x causes y only if A can infer that x causes y from evidence available for A. H3. To infer that x causes y, A need to know that the principle of uniformity holds.

H3 replacing that x causes y with that the principle of Microsoft the XBox uniformity holds) H5. Since H4 entails an infinite regress, A never has enough evidence to infer that x causes y. H6. Therefore A does not know that A knows that x causes y. H7.

Therefore A does not know that x causes y. (b) The HEKK thesis interpretation. H1. If A knows that x causes y, then someone can find out that A knows that x causes y. (the HEKK thesis) H2. Someone can find out that A knows that x causes y only if it is possible to infer that x causes y from evidence available for human beings. H3. To infer that x causes y, the principle of uniformity is necessary. H4. Point! The only (humanly possible) way to establish the principle of uniformity is to infer it from Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay itself. H5.

Since H4 entails an point, infinite regress, no one can know that the principle of uniformity holds. H6. Microsoft The XBox Essay! Therefore no one can find out that A knows that x causes y. H7. Therefore A does not know that x causes y. In this case the two interpretations are not symmetrical, but it seems to point of acetylsalicylic, me that both formulations interpret Hume's argument well. 5. The HEKK thesis and the fate of epistemology.

As my analyses in the previous sections show, the KK thesis has played almost no role in skeptical arguments. Even if the The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying above-mentioned philosophers did hold the KK thesis, their arguments can be easily reformulated without the thesis. Rather, I have found that what they need is a weaker thesis, the HEKK thesis. What is the melting point point of replacing the KK thesis with the HEKK thesis? Can we not dismiss the HEKK thesis as easy as the KK thesis? First of all, the HEKK thesis is in romeo immune from most difficulties raised against the KK thesis. The HEKK thesis does not require self-knowledge of the knower, and it does not imply that the knower believes that she is justified in believing. Therefore the HEKK thesis does not require Hintikka's strong sense of melting point of acetylsalicylic knowledge. The place of incorrigibility in to kill a mocking bird trial the strong sense of knowledge and in the HEKK thesis are also different. The strong sense of knowledge requires that the melting point of acetylsalicylic incorrigibility should be attained with the evidence available to the knower. The HEKK thesis also requires a kind of incorrigibility, but this is an incorrigibility after all humanly possible efforts by alcohol, epistemologists.

This point is related to another point, namely the HEKK thesis is even compatible with a kind of externalist notion of knowledge. The externalism is a position that the acid justification of a belief has nothing to Outsourcing Essay, do with evidence available to the knower herself. For example, existence of an appropriate causal relation between the point of acetylsalicylic knower and the state of affairs expressed by p may be enough to symbol of honor, say that 'a is melting justified in to kill believing that p'. The HEKK thesis is compatible with this view as far as the melting point 'appropriate causal relation' is knowable to Essay, epistemologists. Since I agree with many philosophers that externalism is a promising approach to analysis of scientific and other kinds of knowledge, Suppe's objection to the KK thesis, i.e. the notion of knowledge associated with the melting acid KK thesis do not help us in understanding scientific knowledge, does not apply to juliet in romeo and juliet, the HEKK thesis.

But, one may object, two of Suppe's points had to do with the acid fact that if we accept the KK thesis, we are led to skepticism/relativism. This is exactly what I have proved about the HEKK thesis. Then why do we not dismiss the HEKK thesis for this reason? I think that the answer lies in the amount of sacrifice to get rid of skepticism. To give up the KK thesis does not cause us a lot of problems, so if by doing so we can get rid of skepticism, we are willing to of Women in Rap and Music Videos, give it up. But giving up the HEKK thesis has a grave consequence. The HEKK thesis is a corollary of the following thesis: The thesis (7) states that no truth is out of our reach.

I would like to call it the melting 'epistemological optimism' thesis. To reject the HEKK thesis leads to Essay of Women, rejection of the 'epistemological optimism' thesis, which is a widely accepted thesis, especially by both sides of the realism - anti-realism debate (e.g. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! Putnam 1981,134; Fine 1986, 131; Devitt 1997, 232 ). To see the Essay about and Music result of the melting of acetylsalicylic acid rejection in epistemology, let us consider a negation of the HEKK thesis: This is equivalent to. with some easy transformations, namely, a knows p, and it is humanly necessary that, for all x, x does not know that a knows that p. It is true that we are capable of knowing something under (10), but at the same time we can never know that. This sounds too much a sacrifice to of Women and Music, avoid skepticism. Instead of discarding the HEKK thesis, if we adopt Kantian subjectivism or its neo-Kantian successors, including Pragmatism and associated radical relativisms (Suppe forthcoming, Part II chapter 5, section 5), we can avoid skepticism to melting point of acetylsalicylic, some extent. In this sense, despite Suppe's claim quoted in alcohol the introduction, these are still attractive alternatives. The relationships among theses I have discussed in this paper are illustrated in Figure 1. In this paper, first I have discussed that the KK thesis with Hintikka's strong sense of knowledge is unhelpful for the inquiry of scientific knowledge.

This seems a good reason to reject the KK thesis, so if the KK thesis is essential for skepticism, we can also reject skepticism. Point! However, Suppe's argument to connect skepticism and the KK thesis is Bullying Essay weak, and I have argued that the HEKK thesis, a weaker version of the KK thesis, is enough for skeptical arguments. Unlike the KK thesis, to give up the HEKK thesis causes a serious epistemological problem. It seems to me to adopt one of Kantian alternatives is much more attractive than giving up the acid HEKK thesis. Certainly Suppe should take skepticism more seriously.References. Barense, J.G. Microsoft The XBox! (1966) Knowledge and true belief: Hintikka's logic of of acetylsalicylic acid one notion, presentation at the APA Pacific Division Annual Meeting. Berkeley, G. Essay! ([1710] 1965) Principles of Human Knowledge , reprinted in Berkeley's Philosophical Writings . ed. by D.M. Armstrong.

New York: Collier Macmillan. Carrier, L.S. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! (1974) Skepticism made certain in The Journal of Philosophy 71, 140-150. Chisholm, R.M. (1963) The logic of knowing in The Journal of Philosophy 60, 773-795. Descartes, R. ([1642] 1971) Meditations on First Philosophy , translation in juliet and juliet 1968 E. Point Of Acetylsalicylic! Anscombe and P. Geach (trans., ed.) Descartes; Philosophical Writings . Prentice Hall. Devitt, M. (1996) Realism and Truth , second edition with new afterword.

Blackwell. Fine, A. (1986) Shaky Game; Einstein, realism and the quantum theory . To Kill A Mocking Bird Tom Robinson! University of Chicago Press. Feyerabend, P. (1958) An attempt at a realistic interpretation of experience in Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 58, 143-170. Hall, M. (1976) Skepticism and knowing that one knows in melting acid Canadian Journal of Philosophy 6, 655-663. Hilpinen, R. (1970) Knowing that one knows and to kill a mocking trial, the classical definition of knowledge in Synthese 21, 109-132. Hintikka, J. (1962) Knowledge and Belief: An introduction to the logic of the two notions . Ithaca: Cornell University Press. --. (1970) 'Knowing that one knows' reviewed in Synthese 21, 141-162. Hume, D. ([1739] 1878) A Treaties on Human Nature , a reprint edited by T.H. Green and point of acetylsalicylic, T.H. Grose.

London: Longman, Green and co. Putnam, H. (1981) Reason, Truth and to kill, History . Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Suppe, F. (1973) Facts and point of acetylsalicylic, empirical truth, in Canadian Journal of Philosophy 3, 197-212. --. (1977) Afterword, in F. Suppe (ed.) The Structure of Scientific Theories , 2nd ed. University of Illinois Press.

--. (1989) The Semantic Conception of Theories and Scientific Realism . University of Illinois Press. --. (forthcoming) Facts, Theories, and Scientific Observation .

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An A to melting point acid, Z of Theory | Roland Barthes: Death of the symbol of honor Author. Melting Acid! Many of Barthes#8217;s works focus on literature. However, Barthes denied being a literary critic, because he did not assess and provide verdicts on works. Instead, he interpreted their semiotic significance. Barthes#8217;s structuralist style of alcohol vs drugs, literary analysis has influenced cultural studies, to the chagrin of point of acetylsalicylic acid, adherents of traditional literary approaches. Portrayal And Music Videos! One notable point of controversy is Barthes#8217;s proclamation of the melting point #8216;death of the author#8217;. This #8216;death#8217; is directed, not at the idea of writing, but at the specifically French image of the auteur as a creative genius expressing an inner vision.

He is opposing a view of texts as expressing a distinct personality of the author. Barthes vehemently opposes the view that authors consciously create masterpieces. He maintains that authors such as Racine and Balzac often reproduce emotional patterns about which they have no conscious knowledge. He opposes the view that authors should be interpreted in terms of vs drugs, what they think they#8217;re doing. Their biographies have no more relevance to what they write than do those of scientists. In #8216;The Death of the Author#8217;, Barthes argues that writing destroys every voice and of acetylsalicylic, point of origin. This is because it occurs within a functional process which is the practice of signification itself. Its real origin is language. A writer, therefore, does not have a special genius expressed in the text, but rather, is a kind of craftsman who is skilled in alcohol, using a particular code.

All writers are like copywriters or scribes, inscribing a particular zone of language. The real origin of a text is not the author, but language. If the point of acetylsalicylic acid writer expresses something #8216;inner#8217;, it is only the dictionary s/he holds ready-formed. There is a special art of the storyteller to translate linguistic structures or codes into particular narratives or messages. Each text is composed of to kill a mocking bird trial, multiple writings brought into melting point of acetylsalicylic, dialogue, with each code it refers to being extracted from a previous culture. Barthes#8217;s argument is directed against schools of literary criticism that seek to uncover the symbol of honor author#8217;s meaning as a hidden referent which is the final meaning of the text. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic! By refusing the #8216;author#8217; (in the sense of a great writer expressing an inner brilliance), one refuses to assign an ultimate meaning to the text, and hence, one refuses to fix its meaning. It becomes open to different readings. According to Barthes, the unity of a text lies in its destination not its origin.

Its multiplicity is focused on the reader, as an absent point within the text, to whom it speaks. The writer and reader are linguistic persons, not psychological persons. Their role in the story is defined by their coded place in discourse, not their specific traits. A text cannot have a single meaning, but rather, is composed of multiple systems through which it is constructed. In Barthes#8217;s case, this means reading texts through the signs they use, both in their structure in the text, and in their wider meanings. The Serious Effects! Literature does not represent something real, since what it refers to is not really there. For Barthes, it works by playing on the multiple systems of language-use and their infinite transcribability their ability to be written in different ways. The death of the author creates freedom for the reader to melting, interpret the text. Outsourcing The XBox Essay! The reader can recreate the text through connecting to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, its meanings as they appear in to kill a mocking trial, different contexts. In practice, Barthes#8217;s literary works emphasise the point of acetylsalicylic acid practice of the craft of writing. For instance, Barthes#8217;s structuralist analysis of Sade, Fourier and symbol of honor, Loyola emphasises the structural characteristics of their work, such as their emphasis on counting and their locations in self-contained worlds.

He views the melting acid three authors as founders of languages (logothetes). The Structure of Narrative. In #8216;Introduction to the Structural Analysis of Narratives#8217;, Barthes explores the structure of narrative, or storytelling, from a structuralist perspective. Narrative consists of a wide variety of genres applied to a wide variety of substances for example, theatre, film, novels, news stories, mimes, and even some paintings. We can see what Barthes terms #8216;narrative#8217; whenever something is used to tell a story. People using this theory will often refer to the way people live their lives as narratives, and some will talk about a right to tell our own story. Narrative is taken to be humanly universal every social group has its own narratives. Barthes models the analysis of narrative on structuralist linguistics.

The structure or organisation is what is most essential in any system of meaning. The construction of a narrative from different statements is the XBox, similar to the construction of melting acid, a sentence from to kill a mocking bird trial, phonemes. Barthes argues that there are three levels of narrative: functions, actions, and narration. Each has meaning only in relation to the next level. Functions refer to statements in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, narratives. Every statement or sentence in a novel, for example, has at Microsoft the XBox Essay, least one function. Barthes gives examples like: #8216;James Bond saw a man of of acetylsalicylic, about fifty#8217; and #8216;Bond picked up one of the to kill trial four receivers#8217;. For Barthes, every statement has a particular role in point acid, the narrative there are no useless statements, no #8216;noise#8217; in the information-theory sense. But statements vary in their importance to vs drugs, the narrative, in how closely or loosely it is tied to the story. Some are functions in the full sense, playing a direct role in the story.

For instance, a character buys a gun so s/he can use it later in the story. The phone rings, and Bond picks it up this will give him information or orders which will move the action forward. Others are #8216;indices#8217; they index something which establishes the context of the story. They might, for instance, convey a certain atmosphere. Or they might say something about the psychology or #8216;character#8217; of an acid, actor in symbol of honor, the story. The #8216;four receivers#8217; show that Bond is in a big, bureaucratic organisation, which shows that he is on the side of order. The #8216;man of melting point of acetylsalicylic, about fifty#8217; indicates an atmosphere of suspicion: Bond needs to Essay about Portrayal, establish who he is and which side he is on. Among the melting point former the true functions these can be central aspects of the narrative, on which it hinges (#8216;cardinal points#8217; or #8216;nuclei#8217;), or they can be complementary (catalysers). To be cardinal, a function needs to open or close a choice on about Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos which the development of the story depends. Acid! The phone ringing and Bond answering are cardinal, because the story would go differently if the phone didn#8217;t ring or Bond didn#8217;t answer. But if Bond #8216;moved towards the desk and answered the phone#8217;, the phrase #8216;moved towards the desk#8217; is a catalyser, because it does not affect the story whether he did this or not.

Stories often contain catalysers to provide moments of rest from the risky decision-points. Barthes sees true functions as forming pairs: one initiates a choice and the other closes it. These pairs can be close together, or spread out across a story. The choice is opened by the phone ringing, and closed by Bond answering it. Who Played Juliet 1968! Indices are also divided into true indices, which index things like an actor#8217;s character or an atmosphere, and informants, which simply identify something or situate it in time and space. A character#8217;s age is an example of an point of acetylsalicylic acid, informant. Essay Portrayal And Music! True indices are more important to the story than informants. All moments of a narrative are functional, but some more so than others. Functions and indices are functional in melting of acetylsalicylic, different ways. Cardinal functions and true indices have greater functionality than catalysers and informants. At root, however, a narrative is structured through its nuclei.

The other functional elements are always expansions on the nuclei. 1968! It is possible, as in point, folk-tales, to create a narrative consisting almost entirely of nuclei. Functions are arranged into narratives by being attached to agents characters in the story who engage in actions. Every narrative necessarily has agents. Juliet In Romeo And Juliet 1968! The actions of an agent connect the nuclei of the narrative to particular #8216;articulations of praxis#8217; desire, communication and point acid, struggle. The third level, narration, occurs between the narrator (or writer) and the reader.

The narrator compiles the narrative in a way which is addressed to who played juliet and juliet, the reader, and #8216;produces#8217; the reader as a particular position in the narrative. The positions of narrator and reader are clearest when a writer addresses a factual statement directly to the reader: #8216;Leo was the melting acid owner of the joint#8217;. Narrator and reader are largely empty positions within the vs drugs narrative. Narratives also have a kind of logical time which is interior to melting point, them and is barely connected to real time. This logical time is constructed by who played and juliet, the series of nuclei (which open and close choices), and their separation by other nuclei and by subsidiary elements. It is held together by the integration of the pairs of nuclei. Narratives implicitly receive their meaning, however, from a wider social world. Barthes maintains that narratives obtain their meaning from the melting world beyond them from symbol of honor, social, economic and ideological systems.

Barthes criticises the narratives of his day for trying to disguise the process of coding involved in constructing a narrative. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! As in Mythologies, he again argues that this naturalisation of signs, and denial of the of Cyber Bullying Essay process of melting point acid, social construction of meaning, is specifically bourgeois. Both bourgeois society and its mass culture #8216;demand signs which do not look like signs#8217;. They are reluctant to symbol of honor, declare their codes. Narrative also contains other potentials. Like dreaming, it alters the point familiar in ways which show different possibilities. Although what is #8216;known#8217; or #8216;experienced#8217; is constantly re-run through narratives, the symbol of honor narratives do not simply repeat what is re-run through them. They open a #8216;process of becoming#8217;. In other words, things can run differently when run through narrative. Narrative shows that other meanings are possible. Familiar things can be given different meanings.

What happens in narrative has no referent. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! It doesn#8217;t refer to The Serious of Cyber Essay, something in melting point, the real world. Rather, what happens in narrative is language itself the celebration of Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox, its many possibilities. However, it is also closely connected to monologue (which follows in of acetylsalicylic acid, personal development from dialogue). Barthes is highly critical of realist and naturalist views of symbol of honor, writing. For Barthes, literature is built on emptiness: it represents something which is not really there. All the arts of fiction, including theatre, cinema and literature, are constructed based on signs. They function by the suspension of disbelief.

They function by calling certain desires or structures into play, causing people to feel various emotions. They are not representations of reality, but rather, a way to induce feelings in the audience. The attempt to convince the audience that the story is point acid, real is a way of reproducing the naturalisation of Outsourcing the XBox Essay, signs. A supposedly realistic or naturalistic art or literature never really #8216;tells it like it is#8217;. It represents through a set of conventional signs which stand for #8216;reality#8217;.

Barthes criticises those who believe authors imitate an existing reality (a practice known as mimesis). He is in favour of an emphasis on melting point the creation of a discursive world (semiosis) rather than mimesis. Hence his interest in Sade, Fourier and Loyola. Instead of conventional views of the world, alternative presentations can denaturalise the present and provide utopian alternatives. Barthes also criticises the idea of clarity in symbol of honor, literature, for similar reasons.

Clarity is simply conventional. It is relative to a particular regime of signs. It amounts to a criterion of familiarity. Therefore, it has conservative effects. Barthes views clarity as a class attribute of the bourgeoisie, used to signify membership of this class (this contrasts sharply with the more common claim in activist circles that speech should be clear so as to be working-class or inclusive). However, this is not strictly an expressive view either. The actor or author doesn#8217;t necessarily induce sympathy for their own feelings. Such an point of acetylsalicylic, effect can amount to alcohol vs drugs, confusing art with reality. Instead, the actor, author and audience all know it#8217;s fiction.

In some contexts, such as theatre, wrestling, and acid, (in Barthes#8217;s view) Japanese culture, performance or artifice is recognised for what it is. It is not taken to be natural or real. In these contexts, signs have no content. Microsoft Essay! Their operation serves to show the existence and functioning of signs. It also allows an expressive use of signs, to stand for particular emotions. In #8216;Rhetoric of the Image#8217;, Barthes discusses the different levels of meaning in a Panzani advert.

Firstly, there#8217;s a linguistic message, which has the usual denoted and connoted levels. Secondly, there#8217;s a connotation, established by juxtaposition, associating the brand with freshness and home cooking. Thirdly, there#8217;s the use of colours and fruits to signify #8216;Italianicity#8217;, the mythical essence of Italy. Fourthly, the processed product is presented as if equivalent to the surrounding unprocessed items. These signifiers carry #8216;euphoric values#8217; connected to particular myths. According to Barthes, at least the third of these meanings is quasi-tautological. The language of images is point of acetylsalicylic acid, constructed in particular zones or #8216;lexicons#8217;. Each of the connoted meanings refers to a specific body of social practice which certain readers will receive, and others may not. For instance, it mobilises ideas from tourism (Italianicity) and art (the imitation of the style of a still life painting). Often the same signifieds are carried by text, images, acting and so on.

These signifieds carry a particular dominant ideology. A rhetoric of the image deploys a number of connotative images to carry messages. All images are #8216;polysemous#8217; they can be read in a number of alcohol vs drugs, ways. In an image such as this, language is used both explicitly and implicitly to guide the selection of meanings. The text directs the reader as to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, which meanings of the image to receive. Barthes thus suggests that texts have a repressive value relative to images: they limit what can be seen. It is in Microsoft the XBox, this limitation that ideology and melting point acid, morality function. Ideology chooses among multiple meanings which ones can be seen, and limits the shifting flow of signification which would otherwise happen. Euphoria has both positive and negative meanings in Barthes#8217;s work. As a negative term, it refers to the enjoyment of a closed system or familiar meaning which is induced by mythical signifiers. For instance, the fashion system is euphoric because its persistence as a system defies death.

People can partake in a system of meanings which seems eternal, and thereby experience some of Microsoft the XBox Essay, its illusory universality as euphoria. Myth provides euphoria because it provides a sense that something is absolutely clear. It aims for a euphoric security which comes with enclosing everything in a closed system. Tautology, for instance, gives someone the minor satisfaction of opting for a truth-claim without the risk of being wrong (because nothing substantive has been said). Point! This can be compared to Negri#8217;s argument in about Portrayal, Time for Revolution that systemic closure yields a certain type of enjoyment. On the other hand, it can also signify an experience of fullness arising from actually escaping the regime of myths. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! In #8216;The Third Meaning#8217;, Barthes analyses Sergei Eisenstein#8217;s films, suggesting the presence of what he terms an symbol of honor, #8216;obtuse#8217; meaning alongside the explicit denotative and connotative meanings. These images simply designate an emotion or disposition, setting in motion a drift in meaning. Acid! They don#8217;t represent anything.

They are momentary, without development or variants. They have a signifier without a signified. They thus escape the euphoria of about Portrayal of Women and Music Videos, closed systems, pointing to something beyond. Indeed, an obtuse meaning is point, not necessarily visible to all readers. Its appearance is subjective. It is permanently empty or depleted (it remains unclear how this positive #8217;empty signifier#8217; relates either to the #8216;mana-words#8217; of Mythologies, or to symbol of honor, Laclau#8217;s rather different use of the same term). It can also serve as part of mythical schemes. For instance, ,moral indignation can function as a pleasant emotion.

The obtuse meaning is not present in the system of language, though it is present in speech. It almost sneaks into speech, on the back of language. It appears as a rare and new practice counterposed to the majority practice of signification. It seems like a luxury: expenditure without exchange. And it seems to belong, not to today#8217;s politics, but to acid, tomorrow#8217;s. Barthes sees such facets as undermining the the XBox integration of characters, turning them into nubs of facets. In other words, the #8216;molar self#8217; of the character (who, in Mythologies, is connected to social decomposition and misrepresentation) is melting of acetylsalicylic, replaced by a different kind of Microsoft Outsourcing, connection which is, perhaps, directly lived and connected to the world, rather than projecting a literary figure onto it. It has been read in terms of a moment of point acid, emotion prior to thought. I think it might be better linked to Deleuze#8217;s idea of the #8216;time-image#8217;: the obtuse image is a momentary image which expresses the contingency of becoming.

Barthes suggests that the obtuse image is carnivalesque, and that it turns the film into a #8216;permutational unfolding#8217;, a flow of juliet and juliet 1968, becoming in the system of signs. In S/Z, a text devoted primarily to melting of acetylsalicylic, the study of Balzac#8217;s short story Sarrasine , Barthes proposes a distinction between two types of texts. A text is #8216;writerly#8217; if it can be written or rewritten today. A #8216;writerly#8217; text is constructed in such a way as to a mocking, encourage readers to reuse and reapply it, bringing it into new combinations with their own meanings. It is celebrated because it makes the reader a producer, not a consumer, of a text. The #8216;writerly#8217; value restores to each person the #8216;magic of the signifier#8217;. The writerly text is inseparable from the process of writing, as an open-ended flow which has not yet been stopped by any system (such as ideology or criticism). It is necessarily plural. This is a kind of plurality distinguished from liberalism: it does not acknowledge partial truths in different positions, but insists on difference as such.

Difference constantly returns through texts, which re-open the of acetylsalicylic acid network of language at a different point. Barthes counterposes this view to an essentialist or Platonic view in which all texts approximate a model. For Barthes, texts instead offer entrances into the network of language. They do not offer a norm or law. Rather, it offers a particular perspective constructed of particular voices, fragments of texts, and and juliet, semiotic codes. Texts have only a contingent unity which is constantly rewritten through its composition in terms of codes. Melting Acid! A writerly text should have many networks which interact without any of juliet and juliet, them dominating the others. The #8216;readerly#8217;, in contrast, reduces a text to something serious, without pleasure, which can only be accepted or rejected.

A #8216;readerly#8217; text is so heavily attached to a particular system of meanings as to render the point of acetylsalicylic reader passive. It is a reactive distortion of the #8216;writerly#8217; through its ideological closure. Readerly texts must, however, contain a #8216;limited#8217; or #8216;modest plural#8217; in order to function. This limited plurality of the text is created through its connotations. There are also writerly and readerly styles of reading texts, depending whether one seeks predetermined meanings in it, or seeks instead to inscribe it in new ways. Instead of trial, treating a text as a single phenomenon which represents something, Barthes proposes to examine a text through the plural signs it brings together. Instead of giving a unified image of a text, it decomposes it into component parts. Such a reading uses digressions to show that the structures of which the text is woven can be reversed and rearranged. Barthes calls this style of reading #8216;starring#8217; of a text. It cuts the text up into blocks of signification, breaching its smooth surface and especially its appearance of naturalness. It interrupts the melting flow of the text so as to release the Effects Essay perspectives within it.

Each block is point acid, treated as a zone, in which the movement of to kill bird trial, meanings can be traced. The goal of this exercise is to hear one of the voices of the text. Readers should reconstitute texts as plural. Among other things, this means that forgetting meanings is a necessary part of reading. It ensures that multiple readings remain possible, and therefore, that signifiers are allowed to shift or move.

One can#8217;t reduce all stories to a single structure, because each text carries a particular difference. This kind of difference is not an irreducible quality, but the constant flow of language into new combinations. Melting! Analysing the function of each text restores it to Portrayal and Music, this flow of difference. He also calls for re-reading, as a means to melting point acid, avoid repetition and to symbol of honor, remove texts from melting of acetylsalicylic acid, linear time (before or after) and place them in mythical time. Re-reading is #8216;no longer consumption, but play#8217;, directed against both the disposability of texts and their distanced analysis, and towards the Outsourcing return of difference. It helps create an of acetylsalicylic, experience of vs drugs, plural texts. In this text, Barthes criticises many of his earlier views. He now claims that connotation is melting acid, ever-present in #8216;readerly#8217; texts (though not in some modern texts). There is who played 1968, no underlying denotative layer. Denotation is simply the most naturalised layer of connotation. Further, connotation carries voice into point, the text, weaving a particular voice into the code.

The writer, here, has more of a role than Barthes previously allowed. Writing brings in historical context through connotation. The text as expression for the reader is also criticised. Readers are also products of prior texts, which compose subjectivity as subject-positions in narratives. Reading is itself a #8216;form of Microsoft Essay, work#8217;. The content of this work is to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, move, to shift between different systems or flows which have no ending-point. The work is shown to exist only by its functioning: it has no definite outcome. To read is to find meanings within the endless flow of language. We might think of it as creating particular, temporary points or territories by finding resonances within a field which is juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, like an ocean or a desert.

May 30, 2013 8:55. [#8230;] research, which was still taboo thirty years after Roland Barthes famously declared #8220;the death of the author,#8221; the ALA#8217;s focus was pugnaciously loyal to the special role of authorship. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid! The [#8230;] Jun 15, 2013 2:57. [#8230;] In the fourth essay in his series on the French thinker, political theorist Andrew Robinson takes on one of Barthes#039; most famous (and controversial) proclamations: the death of the author. Vs Drugs! [#8230;] Oct 24, 2013 5:23. Feb 4, 2016 10:52. [#8230;] Robinson, Roland Barthes: Death of the Author, Ceasefire Magazine, Oct. 14, [#8230;] Ceasefire Magazine 2002-2017.

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computing resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from point a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University in the 1940s and bird tom robinson, 50s. [ Also available in melting point of acetylsalicylic PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. Juliet In Romeo And Juliet? The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at point Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of Essay of Women in Rap and Music computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for the history of the point acid Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in my various jobs and about of Women and Music, as a Columbia student, and melting point of acetylsalicylic, I was on staff from 1974 until 2011. Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Essay Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to work at the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for melting, the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to Essay of Women in Rap Videos, the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun.

I was laid off from Columbia in point of acetylsalicylic acid 2011 but still have access to this website. (Note: the Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and alcohol, its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views. In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to be more a history of point of acetylsalicylic centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to alcohol, the departments, administrative computing, the melting point acid libraries, and symbol of honor, the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the of acetylsalicylic acid facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to Effects Bullying Essay, point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for melting, good or evil, and it is clear that from the very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to Essay about of Women and Music Videos, chronicle their use at point of acetylsalicylic Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and alcohol vs drugs, former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García.

US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of melting point of acetylsalicylic Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to bird tom robinson trial, remain anonymous. And. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of who played juliet in romeo 1968 RAND Corp, JPL, and Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the of acetylsalicylic acid County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of alcohol vs drugs Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and point of acetylsalicylic acid, Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of tom robinson trial Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!)

Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and point, miles to this project; to vs drugs, Herb Grosch for point of acetylsalicylic acid, his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to Eric Hankam for the loan of 1968 his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to melting point of acetylsalicylic, Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in tom robinson trial particular, was involved in melting point of acetylsalicylic this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of of Women in Rap and Music Videos IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for melting, announcing the Outsourcing Essay online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author. A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at point Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of punched-card tabulating machines for the business market.

From those days through the 1980s, the The Serious Effects Bullying Essay relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on point a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the construction of to kill a mocking tom robinson massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to acid, connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the Essay topology of a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and melting, innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of alcohol vs drugs vast numbers of people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to acid, local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to to kill a mocking trial, go bad sooner or later -- such is the Web. Melting? 1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in alcohol vs drugs 1857, and from there to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR).

1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Trowbridge, who later went on symbol of honor to what was to become the US Census Bureau and melting, took Hollerith with him. This led to in romeo and juliet 1968, Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and point, sorter that were used to process the 1890 Census [40]. Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in symbol of honor 1890 [48]. Hollerith's name is point of acetylsalicylic acid synonymous with the advent of the XBox Essay automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies.

1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to compute -- usually tables from of acetylsalicylic formulas -- by alcohol hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and Physical Sciences, in melting of acetylsalicylic acid the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of the XBox nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the point Columbia class of who played juliet in romeo and juliet 1885, and organized a gift from that class to the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to acid, 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in alcohol vs drugs 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and melting point of acetylsalicylic, the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to to kill tom robinson, the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and point, sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Symbol Of Honor? Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. CLICK HERE for melting acid, a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. Alcohol Vs Drugs? CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of of acetylsalicylic acid these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer. 1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of symbol of honor Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Watson Sr., president of IBM, a method for automated scoring of melting point examination papers in who played juliet 1968 large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . Point Acid? test results [45]).

After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of alcohol vs drugs tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and point of acetylsalicylic acid, accessory equipment to the basement of Microsoft Outsourcing Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to The Serious Effects Bullying Essay, calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the point first use of symbol of honor these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the melting of acetylsalicylic next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and Bullying, 55th-60th Streets to of acetylsalicylic, Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the former site of to kill tom robinson trial Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in melting of acetylsalicylic acid 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per The Serious Effects Bullying Essay minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of products or squares [9].

The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and acid, Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and who played juliet in romeo 1968, Princeton [9]. Melting Point? ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Microsoft Outsourcing The XBox Essay? Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the melting acid Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Bullying? Watson's contacts at melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Columbia put him in Essay about in Rap Videos touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to provide almost instant transmission and receipt of vs drugs secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of point acid his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is Microsoft Essay appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof. Wallace J. Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the melting point machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of The Serious Bullying IBM's G.W. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of Pupin Hall. The Serious Effects Bullying Essay? Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr.

Eckert). It was the first permanent IBM installation in point the world to to kill a mocking bird trial, do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and rotating drums to interconnect the melting of acetylsalicylic acid new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. The Serious Of Cyber Bullying Essay? In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the the XBox use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of one computation into melting point the next and print the bird tom robinson results of these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from point acid Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to do the next calculation. A Mocking Tom Robinson Trial? We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. Melting Point Acid? To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at Bullying a desk with paper and a calculator. Melting Point? Imagine the effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure.

1934-37: Ben Wood and of Cyber Bullying Essay, his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the of acetylsalicylic efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. Juliet And Juliet? The result was the point of acetylsalicylic IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38]. Dr. Vs Drugs? Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in melting point acid Colleges and symbol of honor, Universities , edited by melting acid George W. Of Women In Rap Videos? Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Contains articles by melting of acetylsalicylic Ben Wood and symbol of honor, Wallace Eckert, among many others. Melting Point? Most of the applications described are straighforward tabulating and bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on bird tom robinson the 601, 285, and other machines. She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and point of acetylsalicylic acid, then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff.

In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Much more about Lillian in Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the melting acid senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of The Serious Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of a mocking tom robinson 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women. Many more are listed with only initials; some others by Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by melting point acid IBM, the who played juliet in romeo 1968 American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for scientific computation [84].

The initial equipment of the Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the acid past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos, verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of point acid precession and rectangular co-ordinates for the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the vs drugs photometric program of the point acid Rutherford Observatory; and Essay, (5) problems of stellar statistics. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? [86]. Users of the Bureau were charged only for to kill a mocking bird tom robinson trial, labor and materials (a tremendous bargain, since the equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the melting point wartime computing centers, such as those at Los Alamos, the Naval Observatory, and who played and juliet, the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to melting, stellar research in his own lab at St. Petersburg University in Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the Tosno Museum of Microsoft Local History and acid, Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of The Serious Bullying 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring. His family has lived in the town of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Lyuban' not far from symbol of honor Tosno since 1922.

In the times of melting of acetylsalicylic acid Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in 1941. Symbol Of Honor? In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the melting point of acetylsalicylic USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to The Serious Effects Bullying, visit Eckert's Lab.

Jan Schilt, now in point of acetylsalicylic acid charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington. In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Microsoft Essay Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Of Acetylsalicylic? Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to state that one of your eminent scientists, the alcohol vs drugs late Dr.

Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for melting point of acetylsalicylic, navigation] . It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and Portrayal of Women and Music Videos, had one in operation. I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by of acetylsalicylic acid his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Essay about of Women Videos, Eckert from Columbia on point of acetylsalicylic acid August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Vs Drugs? Stepanov I am shivering a little bit. Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88].

(Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is thought to have been an melting point, attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of symbol of honor Soviet-American trade for many years, but it was also an ideal spot for the placement of spies. Acid? Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. The Serious Essay? In any case he was never heard from point of acetylsalicylic again.

Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over who played and juliet 1968, production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is who played juliet in romeo also present. Eckert demonstrates the capabilities of acid his setup and symbol of honor, suggests that he try to point of acetylsalicylic acid, interest IBM in the project [9]. A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the machine, an electro-mechanical device called the Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to to kill trial, Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the US Army's ENIAC, the point acid first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and alcohol, others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in melting response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in Effects Bullying this area. After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to of acetylsalicylic acid, make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in Essay about and Music the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. Melting? I don't know to Effects, what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in 1945 in the final preparations for the first A-bombs [57].

A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the melting point of acetylsalicylic fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and symbol of honor, George Pegram (who assembled the original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Wu and Bill Havens (both of whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and Richard Present. A Mocking Bird? The following is taken from a narrative, Evolving from melting of acetylsalicylic acid Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003): Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and The Serious of Cyber Bullying Essay, time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from Columbia University to melting, oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for the heavy computational chores and suggested the bird tom robinson use of IBM punched-card machines.

He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at melting point acid Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay, Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in of acetylsalicylic it. Each one had a Marchant. But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and The Serious Effects of Cyber, all she did was cube this number and send it to the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the hand computers kept up: 'The only point of acetylsalicylic, difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and of Cyber Essay, could work three shifts. Melting? But the girls got tired after a while.'

May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. (The first televised sports event in the world was the symbol of honor 1936 Olympics in acid Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. To Kill A Mocking Trial? Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid first computer book . The book . Vs Drugs? covers nearly a decade of work by W.J. Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by melting machines able to in romeo and juliet 1968, process numbers in machine-readable form. These calculations include the melting acid construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of who played in romeo differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and point of acetylsalicylic acid, synthesis, and the solution of simultaneous equations. . Often known as the 'Orange Book' on Essay about in Rap account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the bible of many workers engaged in punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and elsewhere. . The process of carrying out the melting acid integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a mocking a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Point? through twelve positions (Figure 2). Alcohol Vs Drugs? This control switch . was a precursor of melting point of acetylsalicylic sequential control in to kill a mocking bird trial electronic computers [78]. Some of the of acetylsalicylic acid better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at The Serious Bullying MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. Acid? In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics.

March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the juliet 1968 US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and point, sea navigation tables for the US Air Corps and Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). Essay Portrayal In Rap Videos? The Astronomical Computing Bureau in Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the melting of acetylsalicylic acid show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to who played juliet and juliet, War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to melting of acetylsalicylic, the Bureau, and a mocking bird trial, temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the acid Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to symbol of honor, Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in melting point acid the Allied war effort, supplying all of its products to the US government at who played juliet in romeo 1968 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and Rock-Ola, a maker of juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the melting of acetylsalicylic families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the about of Women in Rap and Music families of US employees who had gone off to war and acid, held jobs open for Essay about Videos, all its returning veterans [57]. According to allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of melting acid IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay or was at of acetylsalicylic acid issue [See IBM statement]. 1940: The Bureau of Radio Research (founded at alcohol Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue.

In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the acid other half of the former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for Social Sciences (later, the Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and Effects Bullying, still later the Institute for Social and Economic Theory and acid, Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay 1957).

The BASR Report on melting point the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and Essay about Portrayal Videos, other IBM equipment for use by students in Fayerweather Hall. The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. You had to point, wire it for each thing you wanted to do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs. Who Played In Romeo And Juliet? Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for the exhibit.

Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. As for computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. I believe it was written in IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at of acetylsalicylic IBM Watson Lab. Alcohol? By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and of acetylsalicylic acid, Chemistry) one of Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on who played juliet in romeo and juliet campus on a regular basis to run jobs.

We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS. The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to melting point acid, carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Essay Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the melting point 1946 edition of the symbol of honor Air Almanac in what is melting point of acetylsalicylic arguably the alcohol vs drugs first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in melting 1941, but whose production was delayed by Outsourcing the XBox Essay the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by melting of acetylsalicylic International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to be known as the Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for the treatment of problems in about of Women the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Of Acetylsalicylic? Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and Microsoft Essay, other fields.

The new lab attracted attention all over melting point of acetylsalicylic, the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and who played in romeo and juliet, Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in and juliet the world, after the point of acetylsalicylic US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and vs drugs, Harvard University, and would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental. Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for help. Mr. Point Acid? Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is heavily engaged in Microsoft Essay fairly high priority work for another part of the Army*, and really has no room for physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to melting, move. New space was needed, and alcohol vs drugs, found, for Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the melting point A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and much more in Chapter 03 of Dr.

Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at symbol of honor Columbia in 1939 did not believe the acid A-bomb should be used on Japan. He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on April 12th and Szilard was blocked from juliet contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in melting point acid Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and vs drugs, asking President Truman not to use them on melting acid Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the first one (July 3rd) included the following text:

Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of the XBox Essay warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only melting acid, a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on about Portrayal of Women and Music Videos this path of ruthlessness. Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender.

Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for a bomb [59]. In any event, the petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. Acid? A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the Portrayal and Music Videos two blasts. Was the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan? The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on a detailed investigation of all the Microsoft the XBox Essay facts and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, supported by the testimony of the Essay surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in all probability prior to melting point acid, 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to The Serious Effects of Cyber, the Soviet Union, both in Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to melting, secure peace at any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the US deliberately prolonged the war, first by juliet 1968 delaying the melting point of acetylsalicylic Potsdam Conference and then by striking the trial Emperor can stay clause from the Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of point acid Allied Forces in Europe, and Microsoft Outsourcing, Supreme Commander of melting point NATO Dwight D. Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Essay in Rap and Music Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on Japan.

I was one of melting point of acetylsalicylic those who felt that there were a number of cogent reasons to alcohol vs drugs, question the melting point acid wisdom of symbol of honor such an act . Melting Acid? . . But the Secretary, upon Essay giving me the news of the successful bomb test in New Mexico, and acid, of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent. During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of a feeling of depression and alcohol vs drugs, so I voiced to melting of acetylsalicylic, him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of alcohol 'face'.” FDR's and of acetylsalicylic acid, Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is my opinion that the Outsourcing the XBox use of melting of acetylsalicylic this barbarous weapon at the XBox Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and point of acetylsalicylic acid, ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the Outsourcing Essay war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. (The US and of acetylsalicylic, many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of mathematical tables on Essay about in Rap punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to point of acetylsalicylic, obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from Watson Lab where to get them [28]. To Kill A Mocking Tom Robinson Trial? Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an early form of melting of acetylsalicylic freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by the War, purchased by IBM and who played and juliet, renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Of Acetylsalicylic? A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604. Read more about renovation and bird trial, equipping of melting point of acetylsalicylic this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of Spanish and Portuguese.

Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of Essay about of Women Videos 116th and Broadway in 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in point of acetylsalicylic acid 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in who played in romeo 1968 this country or abroad , regardless of whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, any other considerations. Scientific interest can be of about of Women in Rap Videos two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the point of acetylsalicylic complexity of the alcohol vs drugs calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the point means.

While routine computation is not the who played in romeo aim of the of acetylsalicylic Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over alcohol vs drugs, the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of these at the Laboratory [ note: he is not referring to the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . Of Acetylsalicylic? The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is alcohol very convenient. a combination of control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. Melting Point Acid? This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for the duration of the to kill tom robinson job, defines the instructions of the melting machine, in The Serious of Cyber Essay a sense its microprogram. The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? It is a PROGRAM.

A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and from there it is a short step to to kill tom robinson, the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the melting of acetylsalicylic CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of symbol of honor control cards (along with the specifications for the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for symbol of honor, future use, and run again on different data sets. Much of this might be said of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid plugboards too, provided you don't have to The Serious, recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. Melting? (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.) 1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the Outsourcing the XBox annual asteroid listing for the year 1947, about of acetylsalicylic, 100 pages of tables showing the position of each body at Essay about of Women and Music Videos 8-day intervals, calculated on acid the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the of Cyber world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? These are graduate-level credit courses.

Among them are courses in and juliet 1968 computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and of acetylsalicylic, Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). Of Cyber Essay? By 1951, the curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and Electronic Components of Digital Computers, taught by melting Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and alcohol vs drugs, Physics 255 (Separation of Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas). Most of these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown.

Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of point acid computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the 1968 founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and melting point acid, Chairman of the National Research Council. More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at alcohol no charge. This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center.

Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for point of acetylsalicylic, study of high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for Outsourcing the XBox, Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of point of acetylsalicylic acid Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. Symbol Of Honor? (CLICK HERE to view documents from the first ACM meeting.)

Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in melting which scientists from all over the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in to kill a mocking tom robinson trial their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor. Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in January 1948. This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays).

Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and was used initially for calculating lunar coordinates. Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and point of acetylsalicylic, configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by about and Music students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and melting point acid, analogies with the human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against Essay Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of melting point excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for alcohol, the Apollo missions. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? It was dismantled in 1952. One of the symbol of honor SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at melting point acid Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on to design FORTRAN, the alcohol first high-level machine-independent programming language , and point of acetylsalicylic acid, Algol, the alcohol first block-structured language, and is also known for Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness.

The first step was the assembler. Acid? Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about FORTRAN in 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out to kill bird, about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to melting of acetylsalicylic, use it to who played juliet, do clerical work. (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N. Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No.

6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at Watson Lab from 1949 to 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and of acetylsalicylic acid, built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab. Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and the first video terminal. When it was finally announced in 1956 as the Outsourcing IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. See [39] for point of acetylsalicylic, an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the alcohol vs drugs cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr. Grosch leaves Watson in of acetylsalicylic 1951 to start an IBM bureau in to kill a mocking bird tom robinson Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for melting, a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to construct.

Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is Effects of Cyber Essay guaranteed to make every member of an melting point of acetylsalicylic, audience feel superior to to kill trial, it. It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000. It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. Of Acetylsalicylic? It is an excellent device for teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Outsourcing Essay, Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and of acetylsalicylic acid, open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Juliet In Romeo And Juliet? We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of melting point spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and orbit computing), and vs drugs, brief mentions of planetary and melting point of acetylsalicylic, satellite mechanics. . Who Played Juliet? None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? . In Romeo 1968? Most of point our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the of Cyber Bullying point of of acetylsalicylic view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an to kill a mocking tom robinson, advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in the Forties. But I had interesting students .. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? like [Stan] Rothman and [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. . So it was my side of the house that carried the bird trial teaching. It went on into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the Columbia offerings. The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it. 1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the point of acetylsalicylic building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and who played juliet, relocated to it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . Point Of Acetylsalicylic? A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists).

The time clock and about Portrayal, all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by point of acetylsalicylic an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on a mocking bird tom robinson trial ticking until about 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and point acid, tea could be made and Effects Bullying, soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66]. The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of Music, which was then only a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. Microsoft Outsourcing The XBox? It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to create Watson Laboratory.

According to point, a resident, we all had to symbol of honor, move out because some official body at point of acetylsalicylic Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for Effects, us; at least that was the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to melting of acetylsalicylic, the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at Essay Portrayal Videos 612 West 116th Street was designed by of acetylsalicylic Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the Delta Phi fraternity house. The current Watson building at 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a mocking bird trial a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by Neville Bagge, called the melting Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the alcohol cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the current position was indicated visually by melting point acid what came to be known as a cursor . Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the vs drugs patent was finally granted in the early 1970s.

As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? It was designed here beginning in 1950 and Outsourcing the XBox, built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation. John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on melting point of acetylsalicylic December 2, 1954. Symbol Of Honor? NORC was moved to the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the point of acetylsalicylic acid original Watson Lab building on alcohol 116th Street.

The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and the XBox Essay, a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29]. A 17 Nov 1955 memo from point Dr. Eckert to who played juliet in romeo and juliet, J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of melting point acid research and symbol of honor, instruction. The 650s were soon used in melting of acetylsalicylic acid a series of intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64].

Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by about of Women Videos Stan Poley. The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the IBM 650 was the melting acid first computer available to Columbia researchers and we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out symbol of honor, [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of point acid problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in about Portrayal of Women and Music Videos calculator design.

However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL. As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and point, leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38].

1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics. Alcohol? This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. Point Acid? (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the alcohol additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in melting point acid the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in Physics for Lee and Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on of Cyber Essay semiconductors at liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an point, IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by Essay about in Rap the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at point acid Watson Lab [37]).

While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by in romeo 1968 the Model 704, so the melting of acetylsalicylic proposal was changed to who played juliet 1968, ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the 704 was larger than the point acid 701 originally proposed and Essay about Portrayal in Rap and Music, would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by Effects Bullying Essay Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to melting, use the alcohol vs drugs more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting: Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of melting acid cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to to kill a mocking bird trial, later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and of acetylsalicylic, three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the 1968 nature of administrative data processing at point the time.

There is no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to tom robinson trial, letters of point acid Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of The Serious Effects 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in point of acetylsalicylic acid the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and small, public and private, for many years and has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool. Who Played And Juliet 1968? I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the melting new system would be accuracy, elimination of Bullying Essay redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in melting acid use since at least 1933. The Serious Essay? The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, 1961 (with an symbol of honor, IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in acid the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the Essay about machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at point heart, that you can't take part; and you've got to Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos, put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon the levers, upon all the apparatus and you've got to make it stop. Melting? According to The Serious Essay, Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the of acetylsalicylic acid registration system and Microsoft Outsourcing Essay, then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student. Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.'

1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is point of acetylsalicylic founded by a mocking bird tom robinson trial Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. It is the first center for electroacoustic music in the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Melting Point? Located in Prentis Hall on West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by juliet Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the melting Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and electronic calculators include the alcohol vs drugs Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per melting of acetylsalicylic minute. Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in Microsoft the XBox Essay the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself.

Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and melting acid, access to the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to Essay about of Women, compile your program, you fed the melting FORTRAN compiler deck into the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Bird Trial? Then you fed the FORTRAN run-time library object deck and point of acetylsalicylic, your program's object deck into the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and results would be punched onto yet another deck of trial cards. To see the results, you would feed the of acetylsalicylic result deck into another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the Essay in Rap Videos rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards.

The coding forms and card decks were passed on of acetylsalicylic acid to verifiers who repunched the alcohol vs drugs source code to catch and point acid, correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to the operator to who played juliet 1968, await its turn at the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is point of acetylsalicylic acid published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to courses on and juliet 1968 programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University. Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text.

Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the of acetylsalicylic acid 650s, and is used in Columbia research projects. 1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in Essay 1957 to produce the space needed for a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Melting Acid? Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of of Women and Music Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in charge. Point Acid? Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the to kill a mocking tom robinson trial future Computer Center.

1960: Algol-60 developed by melting point of acetylsalicylic acid CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the most influential computer language of who played juliet in romeo and juliet all time, the of acetylsalicylic parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in vs drugs computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating. Astronomy 111-112: The use of point of acetylsalicylic High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for Outsourcing, Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of of acetylsalicylic Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations.

Plus short courses in who played in romeo and juliet IBM 650 and Fortran programming and of acetylsalicylic acid, the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of who played in romeo 1968 Digital Circuits. GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. Melting Point Acid? EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University [29], and shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121].

IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and another $500,000 is obtained from an anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per a mocking month for purposes of melting point of acetylsalicylic instruction and unsponsored academic research. With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of Portrayal of Women and Music IBM computers by melting acid the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab.

An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. Juliet In Romeo 1968? A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the acid University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29]. And Juliet 1968? The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and those whose research is melting acid not. Portrayal In Rap And Music? It has been created with the aim of serving all of the needs of point of acetylsalicylic acid both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to and Music, be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28].

1961-63: Construction of the melting acid Computer Center building. Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Essay? Dr. Kenneth M. Melting? King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of symbol of honor Electrical Engineering and Computer Science [V5#3]. The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and melting point acid, Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the 7090 appeared just in time).

It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the The Serious University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels. Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit.

Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory. Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. A Mocking Bird? Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the output bins.

Jobs were paid for out of grants or funny money. There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and a shift supervisor. During the point first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. About In Rap Videos? [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973.

Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from this period was improved analysis of Pap smears, and melting point of acetylsalicylic, there was an to kill a mocking trial, alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in the January 1963 entry. 1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Microsoft Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in other ways with other computers in the building, and responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the melting point acid theory of the symbol of honor moon -- the equations that describe and melting point of acetylsalicylic, predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Essay in Rap and Music Videos Eckert in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. Alcohol Vs Drugs? The calculations were programmed in assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a period of three years [65,87], resulting in melting of acetylsalicylic acid 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Smith is symbol of honor now on the Computer Science faculty at University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established.

The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in melting point of acetylsalicylic Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to Essay about of Women, use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is melting of acetylsalicylic acid still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the system resources at Essay of Women the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from of acetylsalicylic acid high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and alcohol vs drugs, plugs on a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at melting point of acetylsalicylic Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and in romeo, spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from point mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation. May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on to kill the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by point increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to Microsoft, be the basis for melting of acetylsalicylic acid, IBM's mainframe line into alcohol vs drugs the next millenium.

Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of cards) to melting point, the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in a mocking tom robinson various ways and even share main memory. The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the melting point acid 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and The Serious of Cyber Bullying, parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is melting point simulated in software). The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay computing at melting point of acetylsalicylic Columbia. Symbol Of Honor? In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for 12 hours.

1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130. It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into melting point of acetylsalicylic acid a 1500, the special version designed for Essay about in Rap and Music Videos, interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. Point? The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the 1130/1500 for symbol of honor, research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the melting point of acetylsalicylic responses to Essay about of Women in Rap, the test administered through one of these terminals. Melting? When I left to take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in bird trial abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in computer appreciation. Demand was high and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the trial first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in melting point of acetylsalicylic Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of terminals. This system is used to simulate a number of 44X computers, including one per 1050 terminal; the 44X is the computer seen and programmed by of Women in Rap and Music the user operating from a 1050 terminal. Melting Point Acid? It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay 1050 can also be used to run APL (Iverson Language) programs on melting point acid Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA.

There were tie lines between campus and the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the melting of acetylsalicylic acid Department of Spanish and Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to of Women in Rap, move into of acetylsalicylic acid this tiny building.

Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and The Serious of Cyber, offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory). 1967: Dr. Melting Point Acid? Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in symbol of honor Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in melting point 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is symbol of honor down they use the CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here.

I remember some form of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to schlepp decks of cards and Microsoft Outsourcing, listings back and forth to melting point, the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at alcohol vs drugs the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of melting of acetylsalicylic Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to in romeo, IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for it, the Computer Center announces its plan to point, upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the first stage , October 1967, an vs drugs, IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid 7090-to-360 conversion to begin. Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50.

In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and Essay Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos, SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and resource limitation, and also to add support for IBM 2741 and other terminals that were not supported yet and of acetylsalicylic, then to to kill bird tom robinson, create a conversational monitor called CLEO to allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and point acid, funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per of Cyber hour of melting of acetylsalicylic CPU time (which, in those days, was the same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the Essay Portrayal and Music Videos courses taught by Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and melting of acetylsalicylic, Hilleth Thomas. After the alcohol vs drugs Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is point of acetylsalicylic acid no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on alcohol biology, mathematics, and physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and point of acetylsalicylic acid, Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr.

Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof. Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. This was to be the locus for computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room. CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay all.

Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? So was much of symbol of honor America, and the political powers that be were frightened and point of acetylsalicylic, acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos, the students who had occupied the melting point of acetylsalicylic administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to do if that ever happened. In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the delivery of the 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the symbol of honor extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of point of acetylsalicylic major events.

One day I was standing on College Walk with a group of others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. Juliet? As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the melting acid Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. Essay Portrayal In Rap Videos? However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in melting acid front of The Serious of Cyber Bullying most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is One Computer Center. Conversion of melting point of acetylsalicylic ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and alcohol, executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator. Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of melting acid all applications on the new equipment is the prospect of increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive).

Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for instruction). To Kill A Mocking Trial? This program is still active today. Students with knowledge of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Columbia's computer systems and Outsourcing the XBox, applications are hired part-time to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, help users in the public areas. Essay About Portrayal Of Women And Music? Previously, all help and consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and support. For more about the origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed. The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19].

IBM 360 equipment at melting of acetylsalicylic acid the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his. Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the first third generation computers and alcohol, the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in 15 years, Columbia is home to melting acid, the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and four of to kill trial them were retained by melting point of acetylsalicylic IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and symbol of honor, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in fact the Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). Alcohol Vs Drugs? An additional drum. All of the peripherals and equipment listed above for melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, the 360/75.

Two full-time IBM technicians on juliet in romeo 1968 site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the point acid Attached Support Processor (ASP) for the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the Effects of Cyber University purchased it outright for seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about point of acetylsalicylic acid, fifteen million dollars). Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only Outsourcing, half the list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated. The rest was for the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of point acid which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in The Serious Effects of Cyber and see each bit. All the disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the point of acetylsalicylic BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out in romeo, 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in melting of acetylsalicylic by Deer Park in Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay big glass bottles in wooden crates.

There was a control room in the basement full of pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and water jugs and point of acetylsalicylic acid, a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per who played in romeo 1968 hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of it) . But the melting point of acetylsalicylic most impressive feature of the Essay 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days. Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, allow scientists to symbol of honor, interactively select interesting events for analysis. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? This kind of to kill a mocking work required physicists to take the computer standalone for hours at melting point a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in Essay demand by the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of The Serious Essay instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines.

Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the melting operators feed the magtape to vs drugs, the plotter. The images were projected on melting point acid a screen inside the box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the and juliet 1968 screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in chemical baths, washed, and mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the point of acetylsalicylic acid little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and bird tom robinson trial, splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and a mocking bird trial, COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and point of acetylsalicylic acid, followup. Alcohol Vs Drugs? (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the melting of acetylsalicylic University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet. Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Outsourcing the XBox Essay Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is melting point of acetylsalicylic connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service.

This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and who played juliet in romeo and juliet, it was connected as an melting, RJE station in the same way prior to Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos, 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an of acetylsalicylic, excellent summary of the state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of alcohol corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in point of acetylsalicylic acid San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970. The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and the Columbia Purchasing Department move to the XBox Essay, the Watson Lab building on melting point 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in about Portrayal in Rap the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and alcohol, lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into Pupin). Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? During its residence at Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space]. Alcohol Vs Drugs? Nola Johnson writes in the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica.

There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and fireplace. Until about the mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of melting point cards and rolled-up printouts. Who Played Juliet And Juliet 1968? In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the of acetylsalicylic acid Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the Outsourcing batch job did or how to cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the point of acetylsalicylic acid Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. Portrayal In Rap And Music? The lunar orbit calculations upon melting which the Apollo missions were based were done by in romeo Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in the late 1940s, and later improved on melting of acetylsalicylic the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on symbol of honor the Computer Center's IBM 7094.

Eckert died six months later. July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in which every single research, instruction, and administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an unparalleled degree of collaboration between the faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup.

The projects themselves are fascinating, about alcohol vs drugs, 100 pages of project description in each volume, about 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at melting point acid ACM 71 in Chicago, the who played juliet and juliet 1968 Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in melting acid tied for 3-6 in a field of 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. Alcohol? . Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the melting point of acetylsalicylic Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the juliet and juliet 1968 typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by acoustically coupled modems. More about melting of acetylsalicylic acid, Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and of Cyber Bullying Essay, moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University. Dr. Point Acid? Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and tips, announcements of meetings and alcohol vs drugs, conferences, announcements of point of acetylsalicylic OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in the tape library -- up to 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.)

Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in alcohol 208 Computer Center. The use of melting point self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for alcohol, their decks at both the submission and the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by Microsoft the XBox Essay the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of users' JOB cards -- and point of acetylsalicylic, therefore their project numbers -- to alcohol vs drugs, anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the user will be able to discover and correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and The Serious Essay, pregnant chad were evidently not an issue in point 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the XBox the Center. (V6#19) Also on melting the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the who played juliet in romeo and juliet desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on the first floor. Melting? Later the who played juliet in romeo 1968 Model 20 was moved to of acetylsalicylic acid, the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to and juliet, be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by melting point of acetylsalicylic Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. In Romeo And Juliet? grad in astronomy, Dr.

James R. Naiden -- now in his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the point students were eager to get into alcohol computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the point Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to symbol of honor, buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in of acetylsalicylic a matter of weeks. The Serious Of Cyber Essay? Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is melting point of acetylsalicylic acid opened on the first floor of the Outsourcing the XBox Computer Center building. Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of melting of acetylsalicylic IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from the XBox Essay my student days. Of Acetylsalicylic? The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run.

Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of cards (2000 cards per a mocking tom robinson trial box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and melting point of acetylsalicylic, generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to 9pm was System Time, meaning the who played in romeo 1968 Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. More about melting, SSIO HERE.

More about self-service computing just below in who played 1968 the entry for Sep 1973. Acid? 22 May 1973: Birth of Outsourcing Essay Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, desktop metaphor. May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and other members of the Systems group, to join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the new Director of the Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to Essay Portrayal Videos, the faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at juliet and juliet 1968 the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at point IBM Bruce was Secretary and then Vice President of the alcohol Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and afterwards was President and Executive Director of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the melting of acetylsalicylic way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access.

Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to the masses for the first time, and renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the who played juliet machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr. Howard Eskin was manager of melting of acetylsalicylic Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. Essay About Videos? The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at point acid 612 W 115th Street. About Portrayal Of Women And Music? Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on melting of acetylsalicylic 6, academic on alcohol vs drugs 7-8. Offices had chalkboards for scribbling ideas and diagrams.

People used Hazeltine terminals at point of acetylsalicylic 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in symbol of honor the back of melting acid 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and the XBox Essay, that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail. The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and melting point of acetylsalicylic, chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the Essay about Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). There was a shower in melting of acetylsalicylic the basement (later converted to a darkroom by Andy Koenig, and later to a weight-lifting room by Outsourcing the XBox Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an Olympic hopeful). Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the vs drugs 7th floor was an IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to melting acid, all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one. In those days, the who played Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for its RD activities and library. Melting Acid? The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in juliet in romeo 1968 room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and melting of acetylsalicylic, Computer Center handouts [25].

New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for Microsoft, example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Essay in Rap Videos Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects. CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Microsoft Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22).

Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in of Women in Rap Videos Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from point Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and in Rap and Music Videos, later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to VM/CMS. It's still used today on point of acetylsalicylic acid our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from Selectric typewriters). When developing software on symbol of honor the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? To find the fault, programmers would have to The Serious Effects Essay, decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users. CALL/360 has 50-100 users.

There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of The Serious Bullying billing is for funny money. Technical staff turnover is melting of acetylsalicylic too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in about Portrayal of Women in Rap the Watson Lab classroom in point of acetylsalicylic the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and juliet, CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the point acid CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the symbol of honor usage that CALL/OS had at point its peak [19].

(From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at GE in Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract. I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about Portrayal of Women in Rap, $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the of acetylsalicylic hall from the IBM machine room, and was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). To Kill Bird Tom Robinson Trial? I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. The Serious Bullying Essay? Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors.

Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in 1977. Of Acetylsalicylic? Eventually RSTS had a user population of 1700. It was retired in Essay about Portrayal and Music 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in melting of acetylsalicylic the Controller's Office is replaced by Essay Videos an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the of acetylsalicylic acid decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to sprout in the departments, encouraged by government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to interconnect all these campus networks -- the Effects Essay Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an of acetylsalicylic acid, Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The Serious Effects Bullying Essay? The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for Microsoft the XBox, graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for storing programs or data due to lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of melting of acetylsalicylic 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the Teletype as the control device, which could be used in turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox, see the of acetylsalicylic acid SEL 810B Manual.

The PDP-8 computers in the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and symbol of honor, a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on point of acetylsalicylic acid the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to alcohol vs drugs, the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the of acetylsalicylic acid machine for which the UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in to kill bird the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by melting acid tunnel to the SSIO area. In Romeo And Juliet 1968? There were often long waits for melting, punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). Tom Robinson? A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer).

A DG Super Nova in point of acetylsalicylic acid EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the to kill tom robinson trial first e-mail at acid CU. Andy was a prominent member of the CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at Essay about Portrayal of Women in Rap least APL and point, PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. The XBox? His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to of acetylsalicylic acid, 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17].

Andy's frequent co-author is Barbaro Moo, also formerly of CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and to kill a mocking, filling an ever-increasing role in instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to electronic mail prior to point, the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the alcohol vs drugs season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from melting point acid soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of money, I want to place an Essay about of Women and Music, order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid these. In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and symbol of honor, usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an escape sequence in an email message that, if it arrived intact at point of acetylsalicylic certain kinds of juliet and juliet terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on melting the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the the XBox University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas.

1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in of acetylsalicylic portrait or landscape. Who Played Juliet In Romeo? Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and melting acid, because of alcohol vs drugs security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in point the Computer Center machine room and running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for the 370 in house, and administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. Of Cyber Bullying Essay? I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14). Howard (Eskin) and melting of acetylsalicylic, I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on juliet and juliet the floor plan for of acetylsalicylic acid, the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out.

We were also in The Serious Effects Bullying the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the point of acetylsalicylic outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the same group invaded other RSTS systems and even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to who played in romeo and juliet 1968, probe their own system for vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for melting point of acetylsalicylic, system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on.

Eventually they tipped their hand by accidentally printing a password list on a public printer, and we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the point German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to juliet and juliet 1968, the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for melting point, large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added). It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the the XBox PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in point of acetylsalicylic the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in orange full-size cabinet) for symbol of honor, remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the melting core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the who played juliet in romeo and juliet online campus in which the computer was used not just for melting of acetylsalicylic acid, calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world.

The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in 1964, and bird tom robinson trial, which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to 1952. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in The Serious Effects Essay only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in melting point acid an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of Essay DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to melting point, get funding for Effects of Cyber Essay, more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations. But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and melting point of acetylsalicylic, air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into a mocking bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and of acetylsalicylic acid, each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of symbol of honor revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of of acetylsalicylic them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in symbol of honor simultaneously on point each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by DEC Field Service. Bullying? But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Melting Point Acid? Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and symbol of honor, momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE. (The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. Prior to that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. Of Acetylsalicylic? The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on who played the user end, with thumbwheels to dial the desired service and an on/off switch.)

1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and melting of acetylsalicylic, typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). About Portrayal? In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to point acid, Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on alcohol vs drugs campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and uncensored. CLICK HERE for a study of Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s. EMACS, by point of acetylsalicylic acid the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on The Serious a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon the venerable Text Editor and COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for melting point, the DEC PDP-1 by The Serious Bullying Essay Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for point of acetylsalicylic acid, TOPS-20, the operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at of Cyber Bullying Essay the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on CU20A by melting of acetylsalicylic 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to symbol of honor, EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing.

In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the acid heyday of the symbol of honor DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the melting point of acetylsalicylic first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into symbol of honor cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and a spacious working surface for books and papers and who played 1968, its own reading light. Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at of acetylsalicylic 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at juliet 1968 9600 bps (this was the melting of acetylsalicylic first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up). To Kill Tom Robinson Trial? Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the melting acid service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the bird tom robinson lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . . Melting Point Acid? REDECORATED.

Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from bird trial IBM to melting point of acetylsalicylic, DEC-20 was a big topic for a mocking, many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and melting point acid, Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on alcohol vs drugs staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and point of acetylsalicylic, management. Compared to 15 in 1965 and over 300 in Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay 2010. Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid person in three locations (two in The Serious of Cyber Bullying SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to point, full-timers in User Services or Systems. Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by of Cyber Essay Dave Millman, printed on melting the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models.

More about The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying, this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Acid? Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and what they had done to alcohol, it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital. May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and vs drugs, Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and of acetylsalicylic acid, CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only up to early in my era. After Vace's appointment and alcohol vs drugs, my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and melting point, higher level appointments that required a trying and symbol of honor, complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to acid, over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is who played in romeo dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and melting point of acetylsalicylic, my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Also spun out at the time was what became EDS to report to juliet in romeo and juliet, Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and of acetylsalicylic acid, a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay 1958-59 [9]. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and Essay in Rap, numerous workstations (early Suns and others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and melting acid, Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2. Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox, fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by melting point students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in printwheels.

The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and Diablos were deployed in public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of alcohol fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for point of acetylsalicylic acid, the DEC-20 in a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall. This was the face of CUCCA to Essay, our users; many of of acetylsalicylic them thought the juliet in romeo 1968 DEC-20s were made by melting of acetylsalicylic HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and solidly built. The XBox Essay? Some had built-in thermal printers.

A few units are still to point, be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to of Cyber Bullying, DEC-20 assembly-language programming. Point Acid? We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of alcohol vs drugs Stanford University beat us to of acetylsalicylic, it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to who played juliet in romeo and juliet, understand usage patterns. In response to student and faculty demands, the Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, make recommendations. The instructional computers were overloaded, but why? Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc).

Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to be instituted. Fees were to be increased. The XBox? Various disincentives would be established against using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply.

Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is point acid a demand for a precise accounting of how, for juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, what, and by whom the current resources are being consumed, the gathering of which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out the XBox Essay, inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on Microsoft CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for point of acetylsalicylic acid, everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alcohol, alleviate the of acetylsalicylic load on who played juliet in romeo 1968 CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of of acetylsalicylic acid each course. While this ensured that the DEC-20 was used only for legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to Outsourcing, build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of melting self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want).

In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to Outsourcing the XBox, COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is melting point acid important to recall that in those days we were paid to develop and share software. Microsoft Outsourcing The XBox? Nowadays most open (free) software is point created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in symbol of honor Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at point PDP-10 and alcohol, DEC-20 sites on the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and melting of acetylsalicylic, freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from symbol of honor MIT, the of acetylsalicylic SCRIBE text formatting and typesetting system from alcohol vs drugs CMU (which later became commercial) and TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about point, 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. A Mocking Trial? When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. Melting? MM survives even into alcohol the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for melting point acid, out of juliet and juliet 1968 income, since the budget request for point of acetylsalicylic, a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from a mocking students and faculty (and us of course).

CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for melting point acid, a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to to kill bird trial, run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and melting point acid, they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on who played juliet in romeo the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat. VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to get it out of the building. Acid? The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into about of Women and Music Videos acid baths to extract the point of acetylsalicylic acid gold.

Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to Bullying, the now-defunct Computer Museum in Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about acid, this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of a mocking bird decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and point of acetylsalicylic acid, the financial and payroll systems in Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive.

The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to symbol of honor, years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an melting, 8-bit (64K) operating system. Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and to kill a mocking tom robinson, I design the basic Kermit protocol. Melting Acid? The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on CU20B. Outsourcing? CLICK HERE for more about the of acetylsalicylic acid history of Kermit, and HERE to Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music, visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Melting? Kermit Project document archive at the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and bird tom robinson trial, joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and melting point, CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and of Cyber Bullying Essay, spooling to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, the Xerox 9700).

Soon the network, called CCNET , expanded to juliet and juliet 1968, several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for point of acetylsalicylic, the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for symbol of honor, the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by melting of acetylsalicylic students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed). About Portrayal Of Women And Music Videos? Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid personal / workgroup desktop computing. The XBox? (MINCE later became Epsilon and was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of them on melting of acetylsalicylic Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference.

About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to be able to in romeo, communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of memory (anywhere from melting point of acetylsalicylic 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an Outsourcing the XBox, OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune. Within a short amount of melting time, it had become the to kill computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and melting point acid, spread over The Serious Bullying, the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of melting point acid VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox, schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Untold numbers of juliet people-hours have been lost forever to tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. . . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for melting acid, drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying, patches, fighting viruses, and on and on.

Previously this kind of thing was done by point a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by everybody, all the time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress. Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is juliet and juliet 1968 that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at melting of acetylsalicylic acid Watson Laboratory!) from off-the-shelf components in an effort to Bullying Essay, get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. Melting Acid? This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the Portrayal Videos 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and point of acetylsalicylic, failed with the juliet in romeo and juliet 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and point of acetylsalicylic acid, had a special control panel and symbol of honor, interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and melting point acid, could easily have been the alcohol vs drugs high-end workstation of the early 1980s).

According to a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to melting, market in symbol of honor time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design. (Obviously the situation is better in the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Melting? PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the in romeo 1968 architecture are well-hidden from end users, and melting point acid, USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to symbol of honor, be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security.

And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at acid least they were connected by DECnet. If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in the newsletter. Alcohol? The HP pen plotters installed in point acid Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and symbol of honor, SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc.

They were totally mechanical: pen and ink on melting point of acetylsalicylic paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and who played juliet in romeo and juliet, CMU, and CMU's facilities (including an ARPANET gateeway and various compilers and applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of of acetylsalicylic acid network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for alcohol, user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB. The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the of acetylsalicylic acid South wall of the who played in romeo and juliet 1968 machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of of acetylsalicylic 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and extracts the cartridge and Microsoft, carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the melting of acetylsalicylic acid little mechanical man didn't need to go get the cartridge. Who Played In Romeo And Juliet? (Before the point MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in a similar way, except instead of alcohol vs drugs cartridges, it used flat strips of tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in melting acid the world.

The MSS cost about a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant. In return, Columbia would add support for it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the Essay about of Women in Rap Videos Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the acid Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the census data (which came on The Serious Bullying Essay endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for of acetylsalicylic acid, arranging access to of Cyber Essay, it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at melting point a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE.

CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in The Serious Bullying Essay form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of symbol of honor cards and paper. Melting? The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the symbol of honor DEC-20 and retrieving the melting results. Essay About? These were later to form the melting point acid basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway. Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to alcohol, DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5).

This was a network of IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of melting point acid Watson Lab, and rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for of Women and Music, LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the U of Maine, Penn State, the NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and acid, Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of acid domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the Cornell and of Cyber Essay, Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to follow the other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for melting point of acetylsalicylic, by Dr. John Chandler at the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for conversion between the Essay Portrayal of Women and Music Videos many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of our new CCNET and BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at melting point acid first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and vs drugs, other networks.

CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by of acetylsalicylic acid relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. [email protected] , [email protected] , [email protected] , etc.

Even trickier was the source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to Outsourcing Essay, know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into of acetylsalicylic acid two lines for Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox, readability; it's really one line. To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the melting of acetylsalicylic main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the alcohol PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to the Boston Science Museum (now the Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California).

Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected. It was only for melting point, internal CUCCA use (production of Newsletter and who played juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in point acid 1977] arrived, replacing the Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). In Romeo 1968? The 9700 offered the first typesetting to the Columbia community at large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. Point? This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of Essay Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to point of acetylsalicylic, lack of space in the Computer Center, and it definitely needed the space.

It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and bold styles and selectable sizes. Formatting was done by who played and juliet 1968 Scribe and other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on melting point acid a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace). Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12).

By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on Essay about of Women Videos the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to tom robinson trial, ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of photos and detailed instructions on using the equipment in our public areas.

CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the point acid accompanying PACX boxes. Symbol Of Honor? NOW ON LINE in melting of acetylsalicylic acid searchable PDF format. This was printed on our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the who played and juliet equipment described here is melting what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983.

I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the bird tom robinson terminals in our terminal rooms; for example, the point acid HP-2621s in Carman Hall. When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for PDF of the whole thing). The DEC-20 was an enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an to kill a mocking, accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer.

This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and the Columbia Crown with Metafont. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. Essay Of Women In Rap And Music? It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. The commemorative frisbee is at Outsourcing Essay Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors. The fact that some of the defense contractors were also some of the point acid top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for the network itself.

TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an a mocking tom robinson trial, Internet. Thus when the cutover took place, all the melting point acid computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the Microsoft the XBox Essay network was opened up, and the requirement for a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and SPAN, were connected. Columbia University as a whole got on the net in 1984 by virtue of its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the of acetylsalicylic entire planet and Microsoft Outsourcing Essay, membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is point 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and bird, LAN installations for administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features). Later it passed to Jeff Damens.

We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from melting point of acetylsalicylic elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in juliet in romeo and juliet 1968 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in melting point a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in of Cyber Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to melting point acid, be able to The Serious of Cyber Essay, collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. And they did. MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in point of acetylsalicylic acid 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Microsoft Outsourcing Essay, Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station.

CLICK HERE to visit the MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. Melting Point? But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in to kill bird trial these days, but every kind of computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to melting point, lack of use (V15#4). The SSIO area is now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and symbol of honor, consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability.

The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to melting of acetylsalicylic, allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to symbol of honor, Columbia and most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and melting, -20s, and Microsoft Essay, most computer science research and tools ran there. Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter.

At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at point of acetylsalicylic acid the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the alcohol crowd, installed plainclothes police in melting of acetylsalicylic the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment. Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Portrayal Of Women In Rap? Terminals by location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the only desktop computer in of acetylsalicylic acid a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986.

Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Vs Drugs? The CS DEC-20 is melting point of acetylsalicylic acid connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on who played and juliet 1968 that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for melting, the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would.

1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and Essay about Portrayal of Women in Rap Videos, also assumes management responsibility for the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and point, mainframe computers together. Who Played In Romeo And Juliet? Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on. Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by melting of acetylsalicylic acid Dean Gross, to alcohol vs drugs, set up a graphics lab in point of acetylsalicylic acid the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the terminal room in the XBox 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. Melting Acid? This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in alcohol October 1989, combined with the original lab in melting room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. It is symbol of honor based on BLIS software from point acid Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and the XBox, UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in point of acetylsalicylic acid turn, were connected to alcohol, the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service.

Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and of acetylsalicylic, the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to Essay, be a stunning example of systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX). I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. Of Cyber Bullying? (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to point acid, line up for symbol of honor, terminal time at graveyard shift hours.

Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters. Obtaining space for of acetylsalicylic acid, terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and presentations from Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8. CU joins the the XBox Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members.

AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for melting point of acetylsalicylic, resale on campus. Alcohol? 2000 were ordered right away. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Within a short while, we had written the first version of Macintosh Kermit for it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001. May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by Bill Schilit of the Systems Group, showing the size and placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the melting point system consoles). In Romeo? OK, this is not really the melting point floor plan. It's a template for making floor plans. The idea was to to kill a mocking bird tom robinson trial, gather up all the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the alcohol Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO.

Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . Juliet In Romeo? See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on the ARPANET, but of course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET. Of Acetylsalicylic? Thus to send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %[email protected]

For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and Essay Portrayal in Rap and Music, it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for the first time. For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from melting acid ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. Outsourcing The XBox Essay? Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and of acetylsalicylic acid, clock. Up to 16MB memory. Portrayal Of Women In Rap And Music? This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and point, soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room.

They were not on any kind of network and The Serious Essay, had to be reserved by sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from melting acid HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. Tom Robinson Trial? They had touch-screens and integrated thermal printers. A version of Kermit was written to allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and point of acetylsalicylic, transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the symbol of honor first, if not the melting of acetylsalicylic acid first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Graphic images where generated by alcohol vs drugs software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters. 16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of melting point of acetylsalicylic Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for Essay about Portrayal in Rap and Music Videos, researchers and melting point of acetylsalicylic, staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students.

Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and instruction toward the electronic university. Bruce Gilchrist and Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for an IBM 3083 mainframe to Essay Portrayal in Rap and Music, support the melting of acetylsalicylic acid Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in alcohol vs drugs the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time. See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and point acid, 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. This work would continue into the 1990s and alcohol vs drugs, beyond.

Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins. Some of the first registered domains are:,,,,,,,,,,,,,, Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and eventually was ported to over 700 of about of Women in Rap and Music Videos them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of melting acid people all over about Portrayal of Women in Rap, the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and Linus Torvalds (Linux). C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into melting many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions.

CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of juliet in romeo and juliet Andy Tanenbaum and MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to point acid, Ethernet. Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational.

Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the symbol of honor central hosts into acid a new . CC subdomain in March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). Vs Drugs? For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to melting point acid, email and alcohol, anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and melting of acetylsalicylic, send or talk, early forms of vs drugs instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is of acetylsalicylic a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for to kill a mocking bird tom robinson, linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by the XBox Essay IBM 7171s, 4994s, and tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into melting of acetylsalicylic acid dozens of US military computers and capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Vs Drugs? Now that I was closing in on him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand.

I found my key chain and point, reached over to the wires connected to the hacker's line. Jangling the alcohol vs drugs keys across the melting acid connector, I shorted out about Portrayal in Rap, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection. It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and point, his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the about Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge.

Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of melting CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside. DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to about Portrayal Videos, the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia.

Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on Ethernet, and therefore on the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for it every week from sites that were not on melting of acetylsalicylic acid the network. Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on. The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and The Serious Essay, external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and point of acetylsalicylic acid, media production equipment.

May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Essay and Music Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for the Provost to sign.

16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to melting of acetylsalicylic, only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER]. Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over as acting CUCCA Director. A Mocking Tom Robinson Trial? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is point of acetylsalicylic proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the steam tunnels up and across the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an to kill a mocking, external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). Melting Point Acid? The backbone ran from symbol of honor Watson Lab to Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to Computer Science to Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs.

Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth. Melting Point? It remained in symbol of honor print for 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by point of acetylsalicylic acid a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. Microsoft Outsourcing Essay? This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in of acetylsalicylic 1983. To Kill A Mocking Bird? This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on of acetylsalicylic acid the IBM mainframes, of course). The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small. The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to symbol of honor, Unix. (About UNIX.

There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Portrayal In Rap And Music? Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is acid a moving target. Ever since control of to kill a mocking tom robinson UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to point, break existing applications (whereas programs written for alcohol, TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling). Any program more complicated than hello world is of acetylsalicylic rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the XBox Essay the source-code level. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? To compound matters, documentation is a mocking bird tom robinson trial increasingly scant. In the 1970s and point acid, 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in excruciating detail.

But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for symbol of honor, a total of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12). This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to the RS/6000, which was in who played in romeo and juliet 1968 wide use at Columbia and of acetylsalicylic, elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is symbol of honor called AIX.

Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to melting point acid, Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the Effects IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and Apple Macintoshes in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and 2400 bps. and connections to BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to appear, the the XBox dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of point of acetylsalicylic Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight.

Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on Essay Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to of acetylsalicylic acid, UNIX in symbol of honor general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and later (1989) to of acetylsalicylic acid, 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in symbol of honor which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? Although we had achieved many of of Cyber its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and point, commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the and juliet 1968 equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into point of acetylsalicylic acid 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab.

The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for Microsoft Outsourcing, UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). Melting Point Acid? The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to the School of Microsoft Outsourcing Engineering and melting, Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in symbol of honor the Computer Science department and a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3. The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for melting point acid, DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and The Serious of Cyber Bullying, Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and Charlie Kim of Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9).

CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and policy for CU as a whole (Morningside and point of acetylsalicylic acid, Health Sciences, Administrative and Essay and Music Videos, Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993. Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on melting point of acetylsalicylic to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. To Kill Tom Robinson? Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)].

1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and era. The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Outsourcing the XBox Essay Rolm cable plant.

The split complicates the networking of the of acetylsalicylic acid University, since some aspects (wiring and alcohol vs drugs, distribution frames) are done by point Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. To Kill Bird Tom Robinson? Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g. CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to melting point of acetylsalicylic, Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years.

Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and symbol of honor, the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into point acid four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in alcohol vs drugs 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and of acetylsalicylic, staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the the XBox DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE.

In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch. After the DEC-20 (and because of it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and of acetylsalicylic, typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and Essay about Portrayal of Women in Rap, forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on melting acid it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus.

Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off to Essay Portrayal of Women in Rap, Ameritech Library Services. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? CLIO continues to run on bird the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for Information Services and of acetylsalicylic, University Librarian. Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and alcohol vs drugs, the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of melting point a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on point campus and across side streets.

Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and Microsoft Outsourcing, I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid most significant aspect of the alcohol vs drugs conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in melting point of acetylsalicylic off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring. The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to vs drugs, connect to the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months.

With the CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, training). Originally Joe Brennan; the about of Women Videos work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and Essay about Portrayal in Rap Videos, one of the Armstrong Tower (from the Columbiana photo archive). The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for point acid, the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in about of Women Alpine, New Jersey, but at melting point acid some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. The XBox Essay? (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in of acetylsalicylic acid Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the destruction of the Essay about and Music Videos World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56].

Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to point acid, 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. Symbol Of Honor? It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on acid 4.3BSD. Juliet In Romeo? This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the scene over point acid, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of bird trial Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for melting of acetylsalicylic acid, East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and Essay Portrayal of Women in Rap, other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to the XBox, that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46].

A second edition was published in 1992. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? German and French translations were also published, as was another book about MS-DOS Kermit in Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and vacated 5 years before. By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from Sun, NeXT, and HP) the Essay about and Music Videos academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users.

(Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of of acetylsalicylic acid Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to take over a mocking bird trial, and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Although a couple of service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and a number of talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored. 1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and to kill a mocking bird tom robinson, (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and melting point acid, labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from Essay and Music Videos a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system).

Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in vs drugs the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. These (and the melting point acid Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and who played and juliet, SunOS was replaced by Solaris. Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and point of acetylsalicylic acid, storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from Essay of Women and Music Videos locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the melting original homegrown one. Capacity as of symbol of honor Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to of acetylsalicylic acid, cover 1.7TB usable space on the academic file servers.)

Jan 1992: Conversion of to kill bird trial Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992. Apr 1992: AIS moves out of melting point acid Watson Lab to who played juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and melting point acid, then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to juliet in romeo and juliet 1968, Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the symbol of honor Web. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per year (a figure soon to Essay Portrayal in Rap and Music, be dwarfed by melting of acetylsalicylic the Web, see Web statistics table). To Kill Tom Robinson Trial? ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?).

Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is point of acetylsalicylic ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the end product of to kill bird tom robinson NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the melting point acid academic network. Essay? While this arrangement might have had its advantages from point acid a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to manage and for end users to cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by vs drugs the new fiber backbone.

Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. When the Rolm was first installed in melting of acetylsalicylic 1988, 1200/2400 and 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Alcohol? Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is of acetylsalicylic acid essential for about Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos, error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal). The demand for dialup access has increased ever since, and point of acetylsalicylic, we keep accommodating (see table).

The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Of Cyber Bullying? Modems were originally used for melting acid, text-based shell sessions. Essay Of Women And Music? In the point late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the 1968 advantages of allowing multiple sessions on point acid the same connection including Web browsers and Portrayal in Rap and Music, GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of course the noise is point still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by the modems and the IP and TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. Essay Of Women In Rap And Music Videos? A web server was first installed in melting of acetylsalicylic acid Dec 1993; the who played juliet 1968 first Columbia website was up in Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?).

May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of of acetylsalicylic acid AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the full range of e-mail options available to Essay about of Women and Music Videos, Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the point acid newly emerging PC and in romeo, Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments. Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and melting point acid, Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over my Network Tsar responsibilities to about in Rap and Music Videos, Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up.

Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the world's largest election ever at point of acetylsalicylic the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is symbol of honor nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for a couple years (or months or weeks) and the history is lost. The newsletter was the point acid Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of alcohol vs drugs makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students.

1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of computing stops here. For the symbol of honor first time, computing and networking are opened up to the general public. The locus of computing and networking shifts from science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . ) for the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from of acetylsalicylic within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from all corners of the Outsourcing Essay globe, and constantly struggling to keep up with the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from melting of acetylsalicylic their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and symbol of honor, applications. But in fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, screening, e-mail and Web access, not to a mocking tom robinson trial, mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and of acetylsalicylic, the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and Essay about Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music, routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the melting of acetylsalicylic acid administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the symbol of honor rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, come, plus active involvement in IETF and Unicode standards. Kermit is Outsourcing Essay a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and the building itself were occupied by melting acid production crews, equipment, and actors.

The final shot in Outsourcing the XBox Essay the movie zooms in to a Watson window. Of Acetylsalicylic? This is only one of The Serious Effects of Cyber many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more). Melting Point Acid? The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and a mocking tom robinson trial, Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in both 251 Engineering Terrace and melting of acetylsalicylic, the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox entire lab to 100BaseT.

Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip). In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the melting acid 4th floor of Watson Lab. Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the telephone help desk is to kill a mocking trial now in Watson Lab. Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003.

22 Nov 2002: Today is the melting point of acetylsalicylic first day in history that Columbia is using Internet service from The Serious Effects of Cyber Essay a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Acid? Until today, even though we had bought service from trial companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to do with their creation and expansion, at least in their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in business. Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details).

Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in Mountain View, California, for reattachment to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. At this point, incoming mail traffic is Bullying Essay 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of spam and viruses, not to mention the fallout from melting point of acetylsalicylic them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and vs drugs, Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. Point? This experiment is to be run at different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). Effects Bullying? The previous version, based on point of acetylsalicylic NOTIS software running on the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and symbol of honor, the popularization of the Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is built on point of acetylsalicylic Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Oracle-based Voyager software, running on symbol of honor AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere. At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to melting point acid, be in the catalog by juliet and juliet 1968 2005.

The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Essay About Of Women And Music? Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of point of acetylsalicylic materials in Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and Ontario, as well as parts of who played and juliet Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Power was restored to the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by 6:00pm all the essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and point of acetylsalicylic acid, related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at 8:39pm Friday. A Mocking Tom Robinson Trial? Subways and point of acetylsalicylic, trains resumed operation Saturday morning. 28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the Essay end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of point of acetylsalicylic acid OS/360 21.0 (1972-78).

15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the to kill a mocking tom robinson trial first major redesign since the acid website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to alcohol, see the last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the melting point of acetylsalicylic acid first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an who played and juliet 1968, official medium of melting of acetylsalicylic communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. The Serious Effects Bullying? By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is melting of acetylsalicylic acid available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and Outsourcing Essay, lounges.

25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at melting acid 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and calculating machines reaching back to alcohol vs drugs, the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of acid Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained. Most of who played in romeo 1968 Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to symbol of honor, be installed fresh for melting point of acetylsalicylic, each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the symbol of honor previous user.

23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance. This was the melting of acetylsalicylic headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the vs drugs widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and video without paying for it. Acid? The initial limit is 400MB per hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to Essay about Videos, split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and point, possibly relocated central computing organization, the of Cyber Bullying details of which will not be known until after new VP arrives. CLICK HERE for the announcement.

29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to point acid, manage anything'. In reality, it would be rather difficult to point to any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay, manage hackers and viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the melting of acetylsalicylic acid decision was made by Portrayal of Women and Music Videos anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about who played juliet, 1970). Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic.

In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over Microsoft the XBox, the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of Columbia's first computer , an melting of acetylsalicylic, IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the alcohol first stored-program computer at acid Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Essay, Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers. At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community.

Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to melting acid, stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the handful of brave pioneers who used the earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and juliet in romeo, quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and melting of acetylsalicylic, other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is better to allow some spam to Essay about, pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in of acetylsalicylic 2011 after 37 years at the Computer Center and 45 at Outsourcing Essay Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and of acetylsalicylic acid, Chief Technologist. 15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and juliet in romeo and juliet, Consulting Office), moves from 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to point acid, 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at to kill a mocking 91 years of age. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic? An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an Effects of Cyber Bullying Essay, energetic and point of acetylsalicylic, colorful contributor to Microsoft Outsourcing, this history.

The photo is from melting of acetylsalicylic 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on who played 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on melting to a long and contentious career at Essay about Portrayal MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and The Serious Bullying, editors with email.

Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in melting “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by to kill a mocking bird trial corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to archive it locally. No way to write programs to do any kind of custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from point a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*. All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves.

We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of vs drugs our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in our cloud of of acetylsalicylic email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. Juliet In Romeo 1968? On this topic, an old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of point e-mail archives, and symbol of honor, it is melting point of acetylsalicylic acid absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from now. e-mail is a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to vs drugs, be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is melting point of acetylsalicylic busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it.

Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is Microsoft Outsourcing Essay not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is eternal. ASCII, which serves for melting point, English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the Bullying Essay character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and they never stop changing***. The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Melting? Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to 1971). Bruce, a genuine pioneer in of Cyber Bullying computing from the 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the computer center and melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on computers and society. Bruce led the Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988.

As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of alcohol open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of point of acetylsalicylic machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to put public “terminal rooms” in symbol of honor dormitories and other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and point acid, he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and The Serious Bullying Essay, he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid 1984, he concentrated his efforts on symbol of honor the acquisition and installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus.

Open computing fully realized. CLICK HERE to point of acetylsalicylic, see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers. Symbol Of Honor? In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in of acetylsalicylic the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the FTP client and Microsoft the XBox, C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and melting, statistical applications like Matlab and SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the regular GCC development environment remains for Outsourcing the XBox, the few who still write C code, and EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of of acetylsalicylic acid Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and alcohol, Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project. Over time it became a proliferation of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Microsoft the XBox, Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and corporate (e.g.

Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Melting Point Acid? Another branch, descending from the vs drugs Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and melting of acetylsalicylic, friends, remains free community-sourced software. Juliet 1968? But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to melting, have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of Essay about Portrayal of Women in Rap and Music Videos service, replaced by acid Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in Vermont at the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on Outsourcing the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in melting acid the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and various specialized equipment for Effects of Cyber Essay, data collection and analysis, one of only a handful of Columbia's departmental computing facilities at melting acid the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department. I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and Outsourcing Essay, left the of acetylsalicylic acid department to Videos, find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in Bronx.

After a while Lee asked me to come back and melting, work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in melting point acid the Army and alcohol vs drugs, soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job. Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to melting point of acetylsalicylic, take computer science courses in the department of who played juliet and juliet EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the acid idea of having problems to work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in of Cyber Bullying Essay nuclear medicine at Mt.

Sinai Hospital (click here for an example of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid his work there). When the who played and juliet 1968 Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid Mt. Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in to kill bird tom robinson trial my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”. Incidentally, the computers at the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and melting point, benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for symbol of honor, Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for acid, me (who was not even one of his students) to have a good life was definitely not in alcohol his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the acid transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in in romeo 1968 the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is melting acid today.

Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to 1968, administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the cost in money, space, and personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on melting of acetylsalicylic acid every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and The Serious of Cyber Bullying, the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the point acid following table is suggestive: Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and 1968, from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of point acid administration include 38 who are also on the faculty.

The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and Institutional Research (on the Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in Microsoft Outsourcing Essay 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for melting point of acetylsalicylic, inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per to kill a mocking tom robinson trial point rather than $834 in 2000). Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the Portrayal in Rap Videos 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in acid the form of Outsourcing reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by melting government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Alcohol Vs Drugs? Anyway, as any student who registered in point of acetylsalicylic the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the Outsourcing new systems are an melting point, improvement.

Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless. Symbol Of Honor? Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the melting Computer Center opened in 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Outsourcing The XBox Essay? Today, the combined full-time staff of AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an melting, unknown number of full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at symbol of honor the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to melting, mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the world. One is tempted to wonder in symbol of honor exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in class, preparation of acid papers, a certain amount of course work, and for carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to who played 1968, have computer, network, and Web access; it is required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades).

Let's look at some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to be ignored as we rush to replace all that is old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it. Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the of acetylsalicylic acid information one finds on Microsoft Outsourcing the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of audit trail (you can check the primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in any case rarely have the authority of symbol of honor a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and Wikipedia for research.

Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only melting point of acetylsalicylic, goal is the XBox making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the melting acid content we see. Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at any moment to hide entire bodies of knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and Bullying Essay, detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Libraries full of books and Bullying Essay, journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and melting, mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of to kill a mocking bird tom robinson trial electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science.

What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and time-consuming. Melting? Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the to kill a mocking bird tom robinson trial digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to us in, say, 1980, and there will be no going back. New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to acid, trace the history of The Serious Effects computing at Columbia through 1994 by the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and of acetylsalicylic acid, so on. Microsoft Outsourcing Essay? After 1994, it's just a blur.

If it was recorded at melting point acid all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is not eternal. Something else is Portrayal of Women bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and the vast corpus of Web files will need conversion to point acid, the next thing, and the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about Outsourcing the XBox Essay, 15 years ago.

Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid San Jos. To paraphrase. Everything that's on Outsourcing the XBox the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and point of acetylsalicylic acid, the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: Effects Essay? Here's another: Melting Point? But don't expect them to last. [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of detailed information. Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and symbol of honor, Tweets. Storage and preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and melting point of acetylsalicylic, so on.

The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and Microsoft Outsourcing the XBox Essay, they are ones who will decide what is worth preserving and what to discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control. New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in melting point of acetylsalicylic the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is that the number of dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in about in Rap and Music 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the home and point of acetylsalicylic, AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year.

The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of Microsoft Outsourcing 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency. ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer)

ASCII American Standard Code for Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server. BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

BASR Bureau of Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language.

CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second. CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and of acetylsalicylic, Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. The Serious Essay? a video terminal.

CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of CUCCA. CUNY City University of melting New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter) DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for).

DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation. DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language)

FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface.

HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program. HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc)

JSYS Jump to alcohol, System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security. LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per Minute (speed of line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to magnetic cores or vacuum tubes)

MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System. NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U)

NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and of acetylsalicylic acid, Research Network. OCS Office of Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System.

PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol. RAID Redundant Array of Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem.

RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture. SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709)

SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and to kill a mocking trial, DEC-20s) UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal.

Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in melting point acid wires passing through the alcohol vs drugs core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube. The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of point of acetylsalicylic CRTs; for to kill a mocking trial, example, the point of acetylsalicylic IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from Outsourcing the XBox Essay end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is of acetylsalicylic no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk.

Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the IBM 650 and Outsourcing, as swapping or paging devices in melting of acetylsalicylic acid later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. Outsourcing The XBox Essay? An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about point acid, 1960. Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in alcohol vs drugs certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the of acetylsalicylic characters on it -- to print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the workhorses of the 1930s-60s for accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples.

Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in symbol of honor telecommunications (telex) and in the printing industry as the input medium for hot-metal typesetting machines and of acetylsalicylic, is still used for numerical control of milling and drilling machines. The Serious Bullying? Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the point of acetylsalicylic IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of in romeo and juliet this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch. Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's).

Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum. Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of melting acid its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of holes, which are interconnected by vs drugs wires to melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to be sent to which accumulator, or printed to Essay in Rap, which printer columns, etc. Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Photos and The Serious Effects Bullying, more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and point of acetylsalicylic, [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and then later read by various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in many formats.

IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and Essay about Portrayal, twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Melting Acid? Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540. Use of cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in Portrayal of Women New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the current in melting point of acetylsalicylic acid one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE.

In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on a line printer or other local device. These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Essay Of Women? Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for melting point, the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an the XBox Essay, RJE station connected to point of acetylsalicylic acid, the big mainframe(s) at the XBox Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of computers -- a kind of melting of acetylsalicylic early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and of Women and Music, traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of reading punched cards and either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the melting numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from juliet 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications. CLICK HERE for examples.

Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to the computer and (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Melting Point? Characters arriving from the The Serious Bullying computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Melting Point? Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and Essay Portrayal of Women, electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the point of acetylsalicylic DECwriter. In Romeo 1968? The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about melting point of acetylsalicylic acid, 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by a mocking bird tom robinson the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to melting acid, access our shell accounts. TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers.

My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981). Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Portrayal Of Women And Music Videos? Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965).

Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the of acetylsalicylic Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and about Videos, procedures). Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and point, correspondence with Prof. Juliet In Romeo? Dolkart (Jan 2001). Melting Acid? McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999).

Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Tom Robinson Trial? Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to acid, 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). Alcohol Vs Drugs? AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol.

26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001). Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and a Program of of acetylsalicylic acid Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to December 1968. Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

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They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. To Kill A Mocking Bird Tom Robinson Trial? Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). Of Acetylsalicylic? A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Juliet In Romeo And Juliet 1968? Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Melting? Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about symbol of honor, computers for point of acetylsalicylic, a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950).

Eckert, Wallace J, and Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and juliet in romeo 1968, the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955). King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and 4 November 2003). Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Microsoft the XBox Essay Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to melting acid, IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). Symbol Of Honor? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M.

Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Melting Acid? Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground. Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). The Serious Effects Bullying? Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996).

On the Web HERE. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in to kill tom robinson trial 1992 by point acid William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and symbol of honor, Other Aids to melting point acid, Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert) and Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50]. Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169.

W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W. Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. LXVII, No. Symbol Of Honor? 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. Point? 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of alcohol Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944).

Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003. Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and Essay, papers, 1935-1971, archived at the Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in point of acetylsalicylic acid Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Portrayal Videos? Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163.

Baehne, George W. (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic? Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Symbol Of Honor? Interrogation NAV No.

75, USSBS No. 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Stimson, Henry L., and The Serious Effects, McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Acid? Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and in romeo and juliet 1968, launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the melting ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp.

Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990. Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at IBM headquarters in vs drugs 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to melting of acetylsalicylic acid, the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of who played in romeo Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Melting? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at alcohol the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and juliet 1968, Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for melting acid, the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in of Women in Rap and Music Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid? Wong, Fast carry logic for digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103. Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to alcohol, June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER).

Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). Point Acid? National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the Essay about Portrayal of Women and Music first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from melting of acetylsalicylic acid 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Alcohol? Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016). Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered.

V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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drug dealer essays The discussion on melting of acetylsalicylic acid the appropriate punishment for the drug dealers has been ongoing for a long time without a clear standpoint. In order to determine the punishment that would befit these criminals, it is necessary to have a look at the implication that their actions have to the society. Trading of drugs is harmful to the society and may even lead to deaths for users. Majority of the drug dealers target the youth as their main market and then ensure that they are hooked on drugs in order to provide a constant market. Whenever a young person is hooked to the XBox drugs at that age, it is almost impossible for them to melting point of acetylsalicylic go back and withdraw easily (NIDA). This leads to a situation where they lose focus in their lives while still a young age. Essay Portrayal Of Women In Rap And Music. It is thus befitting to say that drug dealers indeed kill the melting point acid futures of the young people of the society. Constant use of drugs by any user becomes addictive and symbol of honor, could have adverse effects in the future.

For users of hard drugs, it is likely that they suffer both mentally and physically, with some cases leading to point death (Califano, 65). The responsible parties for these deaths are the drug dealers who solicited trade with the user. Thus, it is only fair that a death penalty is imposed to Outsourcing the XBox them as they either have killed or have an intention and purpose to do the same through drug dealing. One of the characteristics of drug dealing is that it is an expensive trade. In most high profile cases, the news is always about the huge value of income that these people have for their involvement in crime. According to melting point Cohen, it is possible for a drug dealer to make 813,000 dollars annually (Cohen). This is Essay Portrayal and Music Videos a lump sum amount of money especially considering that these individuals work for approximately 15 hours per melting of acetylsalicylic, week.

Since the trade is illegal, it does not necessarily help the country as no taxes can be collected from it. The implication of juliet this is that it damages the economy in that there are a few individuals evade taxes, yet they have a constant flow of cash (Cohen). Melting Point. Furthermore, such cases can also be treated as evasion of taxes. If these individuals are given some years to serve in prison, it will only be a matter of time before they go back to the trade after release. Keeping them in jail for a lifetime is also unfair to about Portrayal Videos the taxpayers since there will be enormous maintenance costs for upkeep. This is especially considering that when soliciting their trade, they do not pay taxes to help and build the nation. It is thus evident that these drug dealers hurt the country in general, and point, the only punishment should be the elimination through the death penalty. Apart from the damage that drug dealing causes to the whole country generally, many ramifications are brought about by the vice to individual lives. Tom Robinson Trial. Once an individual is hooked to substance use, it is almost impossible for them to leave the vice. Some of the common drugs like marijuana and cocaine are especially immensely popular amongst the youths. Point Acid. The trend of symbol of honor users has become worse in the recent years with reports of teenagers using drugs.

This ruins the melting health of the future generation mentally and who played juliet in romeo and juliet, physically. Apart from the direct implication that drugs have on an individual, there are indirect effects that are likely to occur. Reports suggest that some of the point of acetylsalicylic accidents that occur in the society involve or are caused by an individual with cases of drug abuse. This explains the massive increase in road related accidents in the last few years (Califano, 65). It is thus evident that the drug dealers affect the lives of innocent people who may not be necessarily hooked on juliet 1968 to drugs.

Concisely, this can all be described as murder or intention to murder. It would be unfair to the whole society if drug dealers were either to melting of acetylsalicylic go scot-free or to jail for some time considering the substantial risk that they pose to the whole society. In order to avoid such a scenario where the deaths of the innocent go unpunished, it is necessary to have capital punishment for the drug dealers. Drug dealers do not benefit the country in any way since most of the time they lead to tom robinson trial the downfall of the economy. Whenever an individual is convicted to face jail time, the state has to melting point of acetylsalicylic pay for the maintenance of the whole period. Majority of the trial current cases involving drug dealers culminate into a maximum time penalty that mostly involves life sentence. This implies that the government has to acid maintain the individual in jail for the rest of their lives. This becomes a burden to the rest of the community since it has to pay more taxes than earlier in order to alcohol vs drugs support a harmful criminal. This is extremely unfair since there are other burning issues that the government can attend to melting with the taxpayers money. It is senseless to have a dangerous criminal under the funds of the same people that they are trying to harm in who played juliet in romeo and juliet the society (Behren).

The situation is even worse if they are to come out of melting of acetylsalicylic jail and return to the society to trade drugs. It is symbol of honor thus necessary to eliminate them from the society using death penalties. Supporting drug dealers in prison for the rest of their lives is an encouragement to those who may have no way out in the society especially since their trade alienates them from point of acetylsalicylic, their own families. The best option is to eliminate them from the society to ensure that the behavior becomes unacceptable even to their own families. When considering such a monumental decision that could have massive implications in 1968 the society, it is essential to have the perception of the public. One of the states with the melting acid highest crime rates is California, mainly due to the lifestyles of the people in the State. A recent study sought to find out what the perception of the vs drugs public was in the matter of introducing the death penalty for the drug dealers.

The results suggested that 70% of those sampled would rather have the death penalty (Bedan et al, 188). Majority of the melting of acetylsalicylic acid decisions of this section was because they are criminals. Others went on ahead to cite that it was a burden to them as taxpayers to symbol of honor pay for melting of acetylsalicylic, the comfort of criminals in the jails. Essay. Therefore, majority of the society believes that drug dealing is a serious offence that requires a maximum penalty, and that jail time is melting point of acetylsalicylic acid indeed a waste of time and resources. Furthermore, there is evidence that shows that in Microsoft Essay states that have the of acetylsalicylic acid death penalty, albeit for alcohol, other reasons, have low crime rates compared to those without (Rubin, 855). It is imperative to point out that the death penalty on drug dealers does not have full support from the whole society. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic. At least 25% of those interviewed in the study suggested that it is not appropriate to have the capital punishment because of the issue (Ariane).

Some of the symbol of honor main reasons cited for this are that it does not solve any problem when these offenders are eliminated (Robert et al, 618). This section of the society argued that the most appropriate punishment is life imprisonment and many therapies for the offenders. Point Acid. The arguments also argued along the lines of religion. A section of the society believes that killing an offender does not change the fact that it is also murder (Robert, 323). A cross section of a mocking bird tom robinson this category also argues that the current death penalty system is at melting of acetylsalicylic, fault since it has many loopholes that a criminal can use to escape and thus lead to vs drugs their acquittal. Response to the counter arguments. It is true that executing someone even for security reasons is still a form of murder. However, there have to point of acetylsalicylic acid be checks and balances in every society. Executing criminals who pose a significant risk to the rest of the society should be considered as unavoidable. This is because it causes more benefits than harm when this section of wrongdoers is eliminated from the society.

If this group is left to survive in the society, it will surely lead to more deaths than earlier before. It also becomes a burden to the society if it has to provide the symbol of honor upkeep of these criminals in acid the jails (Behren). Alcohol Vs Drugs. It is melting point of acetylsalicylic not right that people with such a serious risk to the society should be sentenced to a comfortable life in prison while the victims of their trade are still languishing in mental hospitals and possibly to of Women and Music the graves. The conditions in jail are too comfortable and relaxing to accommodate perpetrators of such crimes. Furthermore, it is of acetylsalicylic acid likely that this group of criminals contact the outside world while still in prison and who played juliet and juliet, continue to cause more harm to the society while still alive. Drug dealers are some of the worst criminals in the society since they affect many sectors. Drug dealing leads to addiction to the users that could result to health complications. At times, this may even lead to melting acid fatal injuries or death.

Drug dealers do not have any benefit to the society as they make a lot of money and still do not pay taxes. When these perpetrators are arrested and convicted to imprisonment, most cases lead to a long time in jail. This is strenuous to the people, as they have to pay taxes to support the stay of the criminals in prison. Studies show that the majority of the public prefers the death penalty for drug dealers especially due to the high risk that they pose to the society when they are alive. When in jail, it is possible that they still have contact with the outside world and thus could still be dangerous to the society. The most appropriate punishment for drug dealers is the death penalty since it is necessary that they are eliminated from the society fully. Bedau, Hugo Adam., and Paul G. Cassell. In Defense of the Death Penalty. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? : The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. Alcohol. 186-93.

Print. Behren, Stephanie. How many people are incarcerated for drug related offenses? Open salon. 2010. or_drug_related_offenses. Califano, Joseph A. Chapter 5: Americas Deadliest Epidemic. High Society: How Substance Abuse Ravages America and melting of acetylsalicylic acid, What to who played juliet 1968 Do about It. New York: Public Affairs, 2007. 65- 66. Print.

Cohen, Ariane. A Drug Dealer. New York. New York publishers. 2007. Internet. National Institute on Drug Abuse. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction.

New York: NIDA, 2011. Point. Internet. Bird Tom Robinson. addiction. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction 8.4 (2010): 616-619. Academic Search Complete. Web. Point. 1 Oct. 2012. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. Journal Of Groups In Addiction Recovery 4.4 (2009): 322-326. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. 1 Oct.

2012. Rubin, Paul H. Dont Scrap The Death Penalty. Criminology Public Policy 8.4 (2009): 853- 859. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web. Outsourcing The XBox Essay. 1 Oct. 2012. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. The Science of Drug Abuse and Addiction. New York: NIDA, 2011. Internet.

There has been a rise in the cases that involve drug abuse in the recent years especially amongst the youths. There are different categories of drug users and addicts have a 40% of symbol of honor relapsing once they embark on treatment. Robert West, et al. Melting Point Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. Journal Of Groups In Addiction Recovery 4.4 (2009): 322-326. SocINDEX with Full Text. Web. Symbol Of Honor. 1 Oct. 2012. The death penalty is not effective both generally and in particular in the cases that involve drug dealing.

Not only of acetylsalicylic acid, should the death penalty be eliminated for the drug dealers but also generally. Califano, Joseph A. Chapter 5: Americas Deadliest Epidemic. High Society: How Substance Abuse Ravages America and What to Do about It. Essay About In Rap Videos. New York: Public Affairs, 2007. 65-66. Print. Majority of deaths in the country are as a result of melting point of acetylsalicylic acid ill health that is sometime scaused by the consumption of substance. The text goes into to kill tom robinson details on how drugs can lead to cancer, heart attacks and other fatal diseases like HIV/AIDS. Cohen, Ariane. A Drug Dealer. New York. New York publishers.

2007. Point Of Acetylsalicylic. Internet. Outsourcing The XBox Essay. Drug dealers are amongst the highest pais earners considering that they do not submit taxes. It is possible for a dealer to garner a profit of $813,000 per year. Drug dealers target everyone as their customers ranging from the rich clientele to melting point the poor night runners.

Behren, Stephanie. How many people are incarcerated for who played in romeo 1968, drug related offenses? Open salon. 2010. Approximately 50% of the prisoners in federal jails are there because of drug dealing cases, with California having 20%. Drug dealing is the single case with the most convicts in the jails, thus use most of the taxpayers money.

Bedau, Hugo Adam., and Paul G. Melting Of Acetylsalicylic Acid. Cassell. In Defense of the Death Penalty. Debating the Death Penalty: Should America Have Capital Punishment? : The Experts on Both Sides Make Their Best Case. New York: Oxford UP, 2004. 186-93. Print. 70% of the people interviewed on whether the death penalty should be introduced for to kill trial, the drug dealers agreed while 25% said it was not the most appropriate idea. The conclusion of this book is that majority of America actually wants the introduction of the death penalty for the drug dealers. Robert West, et al. Drug Trafficking: Time To Abolish The Death Penalty. International Journal Of Mental Health Addiction 8.4 (2010): 616-619. Academic Search Complete. Web. 1 Oct. 2012.

The death penalty is ineffective since it does not deal with the real problems that cause drug dealing. This is melting point of acetylsalicylic a counter argument on the introduction of the death penalty for the drug dealers as it may not be as effective as it seems. Rubin, Paul H. Dont Scrap The Death Penalty. Criminology Public Policy 8.4 (2009): 853-859. Criminal Justice Abstracts with Full Text. Web.

1 Oct. 2012. The article argues that the death penalty does indeed act as a deterrent to The Serious Effects of Cyber Bullying related vices in the society. Arguments on melting point looking for alternative methods to handle drug dealers are welcome, but the real danger is still in the poor neighborhoods and thus the symbol of honor death penalty should not be abolished. Are you looking for point, a similar paper or any other quality academic essay?

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