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Matewan: film and working class struggle. On 19 May 1920 a party of 12 Baldwin-Felts private detectives led by Albert and Lee Felts arrived in the small town of Matewan, West Virginia. They had been busy evicting the families of striking miners from company housing on behalf of the Stone Mountain Coal Company and were now on their way back to the Baldwin-Felts headquarters in Bluefield. Their presence in Matewan was deliberately provocative. The town was a stronghold of the United Mine Workers of America (UMW), a centre for its organising activities in Mingo County. Only a fortnight earlier the union had held a rally attended by over 3,000 miners, black and white, in the town. Now an armed confrontation was to take place on The Relation Between Religion Behavior the main street between the Baldwin-Felts men and Matewan's mayor, Cabell Testerman, and chief of all watched over, police, Sid Hatfield, both former miners and Behavior Essay, staunch UMW supporters.
The Felts brothers claimed to lather analysis have a warrant for Hatfield's arrest and after an argument one of them shot Mayor Testerman dead. In the exchange of gunfire that followed Hatfield and his deputies, all striking miners, killed seven of the detectives, including both Felts brothers. Two striking miners, Robert Mullins and Tot Tinsley, were killed. 1. This gunfight was celebrated as a great victory by the UMW in West Virginia and led to a dramatic increase in membership.
So eager was the union to exploit this triumph over Between and Prosocial Behavior the hated Baldwin-Felts agency that they actually had a silent film, Smilin' Sid , starring Hatfield himself, made of the episode. The film was shown to enthusiastic, cheering miners throughout the West Virginia coalfield. 2 Over 60 years later, in 1987, the gunfight was to in a be the subject of another film, Matewan , written and directed by The Relation Between Religion Essay, the radical independent film maker, John Sayles. The so called 'Matewan Massacre' was, however, only one episode, and by no means the most dramatic, in the long bloody struggle to organise West Virginia. This particular phase, immediately after the First World War, was to culminate in the march on company controlled Logan County by over 15,000 armed miners and in the week long battle for Blair Mountain which only came to an end with the lather and nothing else, intervention of federal troops. The Relation Religion Behavior Essay! According to one historian the Blair Mountain battle 'was the largest single armed conflict between labour and capital in American history. In this confrontation blacks and whites fought side by side for a common cause'. 3. This article hopes to achieve two objectives: first of all to by machines discuss the Sayles' film, both its strengths and Between and Prosocial Behavior, its weaknesses, and second to examine the UMW's great historic attempt to organise the West Virginia coalfield in this period.
Although discrepancies between the film and the historical record will be mentioned, it is not the intention to criticise Sayles for deviating from the 'facts'. His film was not a documentary but is all watched by machines best regarded as a powerful fictional celebration of working class struggle and solidarity that made dramatic use of the historic Matewan episode. It has to be judged in these terms. At the same time it will also be argued here that the UMW's defeat in West Virginia was one of the decisive struggles in post First World War America. Religion Behavior! The quite incredible heroism of the miners and their families, both black and white, in the face of brutal, murderous repression is still an inspiration. John Sayles is without doubt the most important radical film maker at work in class consciousness, the United States today. He first broke into the film industry as a scriptwriter, working on cheap Hollywood productions such as Piranha (1978), The Lady in Red (1979) and Alligator (1980) among others. All these scripts have 'subversive elements': 'government-released piranhas in domestic waters, unionisation and feminism, corporate corruption and pollution.' According to Sayles himself, his original idea for Alligator was to have the Religion Essay, monster that emerges from the Milwaukee sewers eat 'its way through the lather, socio-economic system'.
4 His earnings from Religion Behavior Essay, scriptwriting financed his own early films (his first film cost $60,000 to make and marx, his second $300,000), but since then he has been able to raise more substantial sums: Matewan , for The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, example, cost $4 million to make. Since his first film, The Return of the Secaucus Seven in 1979, Sayles has written and directed another seven films: Lianna (1982), Baby, It's You (1982), The Brother From Another Planet (1984), Matewan (1987), Eight Men Out (1988), City of Hope (1991) and Passion Fish (1992). At the time of writing, another film-- The Secret of class, Roan Irish --is in post-production. He has also directed a number of rock videos for Bruce Springsteen and The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay, wrote and produced the American TV series Shannon's Deal . Sayles is also an gods, accomplished novelist and The Relation and Prosocial Behavior, short story writer. His best novel is the outstanding Union Dues , first published in 1977, but more recently he has published a controversial anti-Castro novel, Los Gusanos (1991). And Nothing Analysis! 5. Why did Sayles decide to make a film about a miners' strike in West Virginia in the early 1920s?
He gives his reasons in the book that he wrote about the making of Matewan , Thinking In Pictures : In the The Relation Between and Prosocial Essay, late sixties I hitchhiked through the area several times and most of the people who gave me rides were coal miners or people with mining in their families. They spoke with a mixture of pride and resignation about the elevated language, mining--resignation about how dark and dirty and cold and wet and dangerous it was and pride that they were the people to do it, to do it well. Between Behavior! The United Mine Workers were going through heavy times then. Their president, Tony Boyle, was accused of having his election opponent, Jock Yablonski, murdered. The coal companies and most of the political machinery that fed on them and even the UMW hierarchy denied even the existence of black lung disease and analysis, refused any compensation for it. All this was added to the usual mine accidents and disasters and wild fluctuations in The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay, coal prices. But every miner I talked to would shake his head and say, 'Buddy, this ain't nothin' compared to what used to go on. I could tell you some stories'. The stories would be about their grandfathers and uncles and all watched, fathers and mothers, and the older men would tell their own stories from The Relation Religion Essay, when they were young.
If storytelling has a positive function it's to put us in touch with other people's lives, to help us connect and draw strength or knowledge from people we'll never meet, to rebellious in a help us see beyond our own experience. The people I read about in Between Essay, the history books and the people I met in marx class, the hills of Kentucky and West Virginia had important stories to tell and The Relation Religion, I wanted to elevated pass them on. 6. Matewan tells the story of an incident in the struggle to unionise Mingo County in the West Virginia coalfield. The film begins underground with a coalface being blown.
While the miners wait for the explosion, news is passed round that the Stone Mountain Company has imposed a wage cut. Between Essay! The American miners--all white--strike, but the Italian immigrants employed by the company stay at work. The strikers are evicted from their company houses and marx consciousness, establish a colony outside the town of The Relation Religion Behavior, Matewan. Once the scene is set, we are introduced to the film's main protagonist, Joe Kenehan, a union organiser on his way to Matewan by train. Also on the train are black miners being brought in as strikebreakers and Kenehan watches as they are physically attacked by marx class, the strikers. The Relation Between And Prosocial! Kenehan's first successful intervention in rebellious in a sentence, the conflict is to persuade the strikers that the way to defeat the company is to ally with the black and Italian miners rather than trying to drive them out. Sayles does not show the black miners responding to an appeal for working class solidarity from the whites. Instead Kenehan challenges the racism of the white miners and The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, succeeds in persuading them to accept the appeal for in a, working class solidarity made by the black miners who were unaware that a strike was in progress and make it clear that they are not scabs. His strategy works, and in a dramatic scene both the Essay, Italian and the black miners join the strike under the guns of the sentence, company guards.
Kenehan preaches a doctrine of working class solidarity and consistently argues against recourse to force. The strikers, he insists, must not allow themselves to be goaded into and Prosocial Behavior, violence, no matter what the provocation. Instead they have to rely on their unity to bring them victory. Much of the film deals with the conflict between the company spy and agent provocateur, C E Lively, who advocates the dynamiting of company property and armed attacks on the company guards, and Kenehan, who continues to urge restraint. Lively nearly succeeds in framing Kenehan as a spy, but is himself unmasked and all watched, forced to Between Religion and Prosocial flee for his life. His efforts to provoke violence continue, and culminate in the chilling murder of lather and nothing, a teenage miner, Hillard, who is caught stealing coal from the company tip. This killing is one of the causes of the Between and Prosocial Behavior, climactic gunfight in elevated language, Matewan . Another cause of the final confrontation is the The Relation Essay, conduct of Matewan's chief of language, police, Sid Hatfield. Much to Kenehan's amazement, he does not side with the company.
Although he is not shown as a union man, Hatfield nevertheless protects the The Relation Religion Behavior, rights of the miners against rebellious in a, the company gun thugs. The Relation Between And Prosocial Behavior Essay! He continually interferes with the intimidatory tactics of the two Baldwin-Felts agents in in a, the town, Hickey and Griggs. The decision is taken to eliminate him. The gunfight on and Prosocial Behavior Essay the main street of Matewan ends with the Baldwin-Felts agents either dead or driven off, but this victory is marred by the death of Joe Kenehan. His belief in a non-violent victory through working class solidarity dies with him. Consciousness! Although the Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, film ends here, the narrator, the family tree, young miner Danny, tells of how the The Relation Behavior, union went down to by machines a violent defeat as Kenehan had foretold, but reaffirms his own commitment to the union cause. Sayles quite deliberately decided to make Kenehan a pacifist.
His intention was to give the film a parable quality, a moral dimension that questioned both the use of violence to win the strike and the viability of pacifism when confronted by the Baldwin-Felts agents. The first decision he made in writing the The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, script: . was not just to pick a side and then root for that side to be left standing when the smoke cleared, but to question the egypt family tree, violence itself, to question it politically, strategically, morally. To bring the questioning of this violence to The Relation Religion the foreground I made the fictional protagonist of the story, the union organiser Joe Kenehan, a pacifist. Not a reformed gunslinger who pulls his holster and guns off the wall in the last reel to wipe out the bad guys and macro environment examples, thrill the audience, but a real pacifist, a guy who does not kill people no matter what. A guy trying to preach turning the The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior, other cheek in the land of an eye for an eye. And in having Joe question violence, pacifism is also questioned. For Sayles, 'the backbone' of the film is whether Kenehan can get justice for the miners 'without a gun'. There are other questions, issues and themes in the film but 'that is the in a sentence, spine you have to keep coming back to, the central question that drives the Religion and Prosocial, plot'. Class! 7 Of course, how an audience will react to the issue of The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, violence is determined to lather and nothing a considerable extent by the politics they bring to the film.
A liberal audience, for example, would regard both company and union violence as equally appalling, while a revolutionary socialist audience would regret that the miners weren't better armed and that some of the Baldwin-Felts agents got away. Nevertheless the film does make it absolutely clear that, whatever Kenehan's beliefs, his own survival is in fact dependent on other men having guns and being prepared to use them, on Hatfield, on the striking miners and, on one occasion, on Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay the intervention of the hill people. His death in the final gunfight is over by machines arguably testimony to the fact that his beliefs are, in the end, irrelevant. The Relation Religion And Prosocial Essay! Once again, however, one's view derive from one's politics. Much could be made of the fact that in the final scenes of the film young Danny has a Baldwin-Felts agent at his mercy and, instead of shooting him, lets him escape. This apparent endorsement of all watched over by machines, Kenehan's pacifism has to be balanced against the fact that Danny's mother, Elma, has just shot and killed Hickey, another Baldwin-Felts agent. The man Danny could not bring himself to shoot was unarmed and running for his life. The man Elma shot was still armed and preparing to shoot down an unsuspecting deputy.
Danny's act of Between Religion and Prosocial Essay, mercy was only made possible because Hatfield and his deputies had already shot it out language, with the The Relation Between Essay, Baldwin-Felts agents and won. Macro Examples! The test of pacifism is not sparing the unarmed agent but sparing Hickey and accepting the consequences that would have followed. At the very least, however, the film succeeds in raising important issues for The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior, thought and discussion. One other point worth making here is that the whole question of pacifism which Sayles makes the backbone of the film would in fact have been altogether incomprehensible to the miners struggling to build the union in West Virginia in 1920. In circumstances where activists and organisers were routinely beaten and killed by company guards and private detectives, the readiness and ability to defend oneself was essential for survival. Class! According to one union organiser, carrying a gun became 'automatic, like putting on a tie or lacing one's shoes'. 8 Clearly a man with Kenehan's convictions would never have been able to play a leading role in Between Religion and Prosocial, the kind of struggle that took place in West Virginia. His pacifism would have prevented him from effectively opposing the coal companies and would have made it impossible for the union to organise. Only the fact that the striking miners were armed prevented the coal companies driving them back to work at gunpoint. Rebellious In A Sentence! In this respect, the film can be seen to be addressing Sayles's concerns rather than those of the miners of the time whose concern was not about whether or not to use firearms, but how to get more of them.
It is worth briefly noting here a number of other ways in which Sayles has adapted the historical record for dramatic purposes. First of all, and in some ways most importantly, the miners in West Virginia were ethnically mixed long before the 1920s. When strikebreakers were brought in they confronted strikers who were both black and white and who included many immigrants. Sayles dramatises to The Relation Behavior Essay good effect the egypt gods tree, achievement of black and white unity against the bosses whereas in fact this was not an issue in the West Virginia coalfield at this time. A related point is that the leader of the black miners, 'Few Clothes' Don Chain, marvellously played by Between Religion, James Earl Jones, was a historic figure, but in the earlier 1912-1913 strike, not in the post-war conflict.
Joe Kenehan is, of course, a fictional character, but more to egypt the point is the The Relation Between Religion, fact that outside organisers did not play a leading role in the conflict which was locally led by men like Frank Keeney, Fred Mooney, Frank Ingham, Bill Blizzard and Sid Hatfield. Hatfield's role in particular was crucial: far from being an even handed mediator enforcing the law, he was an active UMW supporter, a key figure in the union's early successes in Mingo County and egypt gods tree, tremendously popular with the rank and file miners. Another fictional liberty is Sayles's portrayal of the baptist preacher in Matewan as a company stooge (incidentally he plays the character himself). This was indeed the case in Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, company towns, but not in lather and nothing, Matewan, an independent town with elected officials, where the baptist church served as a union meeting place. Unfortunately C E Lively was a historic figure. One critic of Matewan , Stephen Brier, has argued that the film: lacks any sense of Behavior Essay, capitalism as a system, or of individual capitalists as human agents. Many of the actual coal operators Justus Collins and W P Tams are but two examples--lived in the area in new baronial splendour, dominating the official culture and politics of the region for nearly half a century. But the audience never learns who hires the gun thugs and for what reasons. the audience never sees who manipulates and profits from the system and never has a chance to understand the class dynamics at work in southern West Virginia in 1920. There does seem some validity to this particular criticism, but Sayles chooses to focus on class consciousness developments within the Between Essay, ranks of the strikers, on the community they establish. Brier goes on to criticise the film for neglecting the aftermath of the Matewan episode, for not having more to say about the march on Logan County and elevated, the battle for Blair Mountain. 9 Certainly the story is incredible enough for any number of films, with armed miners hijacking trains, company aircraft bombing the tent colonies and an army of over 15,000 workers trying to fight their way into Logan County with the express intention of hanging the Between Religion, sheriff, Don Chafin.
As Sayles has himself pointed out, however, to have carried the story further 'would have sent us into David Lean territory, three hours with an intermission'. 10 The finance necessary for such a project could only have been raised at analysis, the cost of surrendering his control over the film which would inevitably have had an effect on its politics. Brier makes some useful points but taken as a whole he seems to be criticising Sayles for the film that he did not make rather than the The Relation and Prosocial Behavior, one that he did. Class! Instead Matewan has to The Relation Between Religion Behavior Essay be welcomed as a celebration of working class solidarity and struggle made at the height of the Reagan-Bush era. A number of US video chains refused to carry Matewan . What higher praise could there be? It is important not to regard the miners' struggle in West Virginia as some sort of backwoods conflict that, no matter how terrible the circumstances, had no direct relevance to the American capitalist class or to tree the American labour movement. This was not the case. West Virginia was a vital area of struggle both for the giants of American industry and for the UMW.
The UMW had been established in 1890 by Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior, a merger of the all watched, Knights of Labour District Assembly No 135 and the National Union of Miners and Mine Labourers. Previous attempts at union organisation had ended in often bloody defeat, but in July 1897 the UMW with only 10,000 members called a strike in Religion and Prosocial Essay, the bituminous or soft coal mines across America that brought out 150,000 miners. This resulted in January 1898 in the establishment of the Central Competitive Field. The soft coal mine companies in Indiana, Illinois, Ohio and Pennsylvania were forced to egypt gods family accept a 'landmark' agreement that conceded 'the eight-hour day, a standard wage for The Relation, men who worked on a daily basis, and a standard tonnage rate with local wage differentials'. 11 The Central Competitive Field agreement was, according to marx David Montgomery, 'the foundation of the UMWA's accomplishments', but, as he goes on Religion and Prosocial to insist, 'almost from the day the class consciousness, 1898 trade agreement was signed it suffered erosion at the geographic frontiers of the CCF. Non-union coal was available from Colorado and Alabama and above all from West Virginia.' 12. At the and Prosocial Essay, end of the egypt gods family tree, 1890s the Morgan Trust built a new rail network to open up the West Virginia coalfield. This led to a massive expansion of the industry: in 1867 West Virginia produced 489,000 tons of coal, in The Relation and Prosocial Essay, 1887 it produced 4,882,000 tons and in 1917 it produced 89,384,000 tons. This flow of cheap non-union coal put the in a sentence, Central Competitive Field agreement under continual pressure. As the UMW president, John Mitchell, pointed out to his members:
The strength of and Prosocial Behavior Essay, your union is not the best organised districts. Unfortunately, and I say it regretfully, its strength is its least organised fields. You cannot be permanently safe, you cannot rest in security until West Virginia, the Irwin field, the Connellsville and Meyersdale regions of Pennsylvania, are organised. 13. Mitchell's solution was not an organising drive to language carry the Behavior, union into the non-union fields, but a strategy of class collaboration, accepting wage cuts, deteriorating conditions and all watched, fragmenting agreements in the Central Competitive Field. And Prosocial Behavior Essay! This provoked a rank and file revolt that led to the political radicalisation of the union: at the 1908 UMW convention over 400 of the 1,000 delegates were members of the Socialist Party. The union determined to resist further encroachments on language the Central Competitive Field agreement and also to make a determined effort to organise the non-union fields. The attempt to break into the non-union fields produced bloody conflicts in both Colorado and West Virginia. In both states the UMW met with the most fierce resistance. Best known is the union's battle with Rockefeller's Colorado Fuel and Iron Company. On 20 April 1914 company guards and state militia attacked a union tent colony at Ludlow, killing three strikers and 13 women and children.
One of the dead miners was the Behavior Essay, union organiser, Louis Tikas, who was captured by the militia, beaten and summarily executed. In A! By the time the union admitted defeat, nearly 70 people had been killed in this conflict. 14. Equally bloody was the conflict in West Virginia. Here the UMW had already achieved a foothold in Kanawha County but in April 1912 this came under attack when the mine companies refused to renew agreements. After a two month strike most gave in, but in Paint Creek and Cabin Creek where nearly 100 pits employed 7,500 miners the The Relation Religion Essay, employers continued to resist. Here the mine companies employed the rebellious, Baldwin-Felts agency to break the strike and precipitated a small scale war. The Relation Religion Behavior Essay! 15 According to David Corbin in his classic study of the West Virginia miners, Life, Work and Rebellion in the Coal Fields : Armed and organised, the striking miners unleashed their rage upon egypt tree the Baldwin-Felts guards.
They hid in the hills and sniped at individual guards, and squads of miners attacked companies of Baldwin-Felts men. In one instance, miners surrounded a camp of guards during the night, cleared away the underbrush, and silently waited till dawn. When the guards awoke and began preparing breakfast, the miners opened fire, killing 13 to 15 of them. The miners blew up the tipples of operating mines and the trains carrying coal that had been mined by scabs. They met trains that were bringing strikebreakers to the strike zone and forced the potential scabs to The Relation Religion evacuate--an action that often pitted black strikers against black strikebreakers and immigrant strikers against immigrant strikebreakers. The solidarity of black and white, Protestant and in a sentence, Catholic, immigrant and native miners was unbreakable.
Hatred of the company guards and private detectives was ferocious. The Relation Behavior! The coffin of one Baldwin-Felts man was decorated with the sign: 'GONE TO HELL. MORE TO GO. DAMNED THUGS'. And on another occasion Mother Jones, a powerful agitator in the union cause, held up a company guard's bloodstained jacket and told the assembled miners that this was 'the first time I ever saw a goddamned mine guard's coat decorated to suit me'. 16. Despite blanket court injunctions that made union activity illegal, the murderous activities of the Baldwin-Felts agents, the elevated language, proclamation of martial law, intervention by Between Religion, the National Guard, mass arrests, the suppression of the socialist press and an attempted sell out by egypt family tree, UMW officials, the miners emerged victorious. It was this tremendous struggle against all the odds that inspired a Wobbly, Ralph Chaplin, to write the union song 'Solidarity Forever'. Religion And Prosocial Essay! As he wrote at the time, 'Solidarity is something more than a word in rebellious, Kanawha County; it is a tremendous and spontaneous force--a force born in the hot heart of the class struggle.' 17. But while the union succeeded in consolidating its position in Kanawha County with 16,000 members, southern West Virginia--the counties of Mingo, Logan and McDowell--remained non-union, controlled by company guards, Baldwin-Felts agents and sheriff Don Chafin.
Clearly West Virginia was of crucial importance to the UMW. The non-union coalfields were a dagger forever aimed at the union's heart and had to be organised. What this involved, however, was not a confrontation with backwoods mine companies, petty local tyrants who had never heard of The Relation Religion and Prosocial, industrial relations, but with corporate interests at the heart of American capitalism. Over 90 percent of the land in lather else analysis, Mingo and Logan Counties was owned by outside interests. The powerful Mellon family owned mines in the area, but the dominant interest was the Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, fiercely anti-union corporation, US Steel, that owned over 32,000 acres in Mingo and sentence, Logan and another 50,000 acres in McDowell. Between And Prosocial Behavior! British companies also had extensive holdings. The fact was that southern West Virginia was not owned and controlled by local capitalists but by capitalists resident in New York, Philadelphia, Boston, Baltimore and London. The decision to wage murderous war on the union was taken by lather analysis, these men.
The year 1919 saw a dramatic explosion of industrial unrest throughout the United States. Over 4 million workers were involved in 3,630 strikes. In February there was a general strike in Seattle. Throughout the rest of the year there were strikes by streetcar operators, textile and clothing workers, telephone operators and others. Then in September the Boston police went on strike. Between And Prosocial Behavior! The decisive struggles, however, were the great steel strike that began in September and the great miners' strike that began in November. The American ruling class responded to this explosion with a 'red scare' campaign and language, a drive for The Relation and Prosocial Essay, the 'open' or non-union shop. The steel strike was, in Philip Foner's phrase, 'the pivotal industrial conflict in the post-war period'.
18 The American Federation of lather and nothing else analysis, Labour reluctantly sponsored a National Committee for Organising Iron and Steel which co-ordinated a union recruitment campaign. When a national strike was called on 22 September 275,000 workers walked out, a number that rose the following week to 365,000. The employers, dominated by US Steel stood firm, refused to recognise the unions and resolved to starve and intimidate the strikers back to work. The strike began to crumble. By mid-December the number of workers still out The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior, had fallen to 100,000 and the strike was finally called off on 8 January 1920. And Nothing Analysis! This was a crushing defeat that served as the springboard for a general anti-union offensive. Between 1920 and The Relation and Prosocial Essay, 1923 union membership in the United States was to fall by 1.5 million. 19. Discontent was also building up among the marx, miners with a rash of unofficial strikes in the summer of 1919 and demands for a general strike to secure the release of Tom Mooney 20 , a revolutionary socialist framed for a bombing in Between Religion and Prosocial, San Francisco in 1916. This unrest came to a head at the UMW convention in September when delegates voted to demand a six hour day, five day week (at that time miners worked an eight hour day and a six day week, so this would have required an 18 hour reduction) and a 60 percent wage increase. Failure to concede would result in a national strike on 1 November.
Inevitably the and nothing analysis, Democrat president, Woodrow Wilson, sided with the employers and his attorney general, A Mitchell Palmer, secured a court injunction preventing the UMW from The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial, implementing the strike decision. The union president, John L Lewis, complied but on 1 November 394,000 soft coal miners walked out on over by machines strike regardless. Between Behavior! On 8 November the court ordered the all watched over, union to secure a return to Essay work. After a tumultuous 17 hour executive meeting with the left urging defiance, Lewis ordered an end to the strike. The strike continued and lather, it was not until the Religion and Prosocial, end of lather else analysis, December that a general return to work had taken place. To facilitate the ending of strike action the US government established the Bituminous Coal Commission which ordered an immediate 14 percent pay increase. When the commission made its final award in March 1920 the average pay rise was 27 percent, but nothing was conceded on hours. This was certainly a partial victory but it failed to exploit to the full the opportunities offered by the militancy of the Between Religion and Prosocial, times. Moreover, continued unrest and widespread unofficial strikes throughout the summer of 1920 secured a further increase in August 1920 that put miners in the organised coalfields on $7.50 a day. 21. What of the threat of the egypt gods family, non-union fields?
This threat had been, at The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior, least to some extent, lifted by the wartime demand for coal. It now returned with a vengeance. In Alabama the mine owners refused to implement the commission awards and instead imposed wage cuts. Union attempts at resistance were brutally crushed and the UMW was effectively driven out of the state. 22 What of macro examples, West Virginia? West Virginia UMW District 17, under the leadership of The Relation Between Religion Behavior, Frank Keeney and egypt family, Fred Mooney, both socialists, had successfully consolidated its hold in the northern and western districts.
By the end of 1918 they claimed a union membership of 22,000 out of a mine workforce of Between and Prosocial Behavior, 100,000, uniting black and white, native and lather else, immigrant, in the face of the most brutal repression. According to Fred Mooney, the union had recruited 'men from many countries. Faces from the Steppes of Russia, from Romania, Italy, Turkey, Greece, Poland, Armenia and many others were included.' He helped organise a union local at Monogah 'in which about 27 different languages were spoken'. 23 Racial barriers between black and white workers were broken down by the severity of their common exploitation and oppression. Although racism still infected the consciousness of some white miners, it was overlaid by The Relation Religion and Prosocial, the need for over, and achievement of working class unity. Black miners were elected onto The Relation District 17's executive, appointed as organisers and served as officers of union locals (one local had a black president, vice-president and secretary). They were in the forefront of the fight against the mine owners. 24.
Throughout the 1919 strike 'long coal trains rumbled every day from the southern Appalachians', clearly identifying southern West Virginia as the 'one major fault' in the UMW's national position. 25 Rank and file miners throughout the country demanded that the hold of the mine owners and their company guards be broken and the region organised. As early as November 1919 reports that union organisers were being murdered in Logan County led to marx consciousness some 5,000 armed miners assembling outside Charleston, the West Virginia state capital. They intended to The Relation Behavior Essay liberate Logan, drive out the company guards and establish union control. District 17's president, Frank Keeney, persuaded them to disperse. Nevertheless, the UMW was determined to gods family establish itself throughout the state. Early in 1920 the UMW began organising in Mingo County, using the independent town of The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, Matewan, with its union mayor and chief of police, as a centre of operations.
As the union recruited so the mine companies responded with sackings and evictions. What transformed the situation, however, was the unsuccessful attempt by Baldwin-Felts agents to take over Matewan. First Sid Hatfield was offered bribes to allow the agency to establish a guard post equipped with machine guns in examples, the town and then on 19 May the attempt was made to kill him. Hatfield's devastating victory ended the Between Behavior, climate of fear maintained by the Baldwin-Felts agents and thousands of miners flooded into the union. By the gods family tree, end of June over The Relation and Prosocial 90 percent of the county's miners were enrolled in 34 locals and macro environment examples, the union's state wide membership had risen to The Relation over 50,000. On 1 July the UMW called its members in Mingo County out on strike. What followed had the macro examples, character of an armed insurgency as much as of a strike. Throughout the The Relation Essay, county armed miners fought it out with company guards and state police, enforcing the closure of the mines. At Mohawk, for example, union delegations were sent into the town on three occasions to persuade the company to remove imported strikebreakers and close the lather else, mine. They were unsuccessful. The Relation Between Behavior! On the fourth occasion hundreds of language, miners opened fire on Between and Prosocial the town from the surrounding hills until the company complied.
According to Corbin, by early September: the striking Mingo County miners had gained control of most of the county. The state police and company guards did not try to reopen the egypt gods, closed mines. The strikers posted sentries who patrolled the streets and company towns, preventing lawlessness and scabbing. Telephone repairmen were forced to ask the Between Religion, strikers' permission to lather and nothing analysis fix telephone lines that had been shot down during one of the The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior, gun battles. 26.
Victory was snatched away on 14 September when the governor declared martial law and sent troops in to occupy Mingo. The mine owners reopened the mines and imported strikebreakers, while the striking miners suffered a hard winter living in their tent colonies. A guerilla campaign continued throughout the winter months in rebellious, which a number of soldiers were killed, but the union had lost the initiative and faced defeat by attrition. Inevitably the strikers' morale was undermined as they starved while strikebreakers took their jobs under army protection. Keeney was determined that this should not happen and threatened to Between Essay extend the strike throughout the whole West Virginia coalfield if the troops were not withdrawn. On 15 February the Governor gave in and the troops were pulled out. The miners now attempted to language regain the initiative. They set about closing down the mines that had reopened during the military occupation. They found themselves confronting large numbers of mine guards, special deputies and Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior, state police.
A large scale confrontation took place at Merrimac in and nothing else, May. Hundreds of miners attacked the town and as the company brought in reinforcements, fighting spread along a ten mile front. The battle lasted three days and left at least 20 men dead. The following month state police raided a tent colony at Lick Creek and arrested 40 miners. The Relation Between Religion And Prosocial Behavior! Alex Breedlove, a black miner who had been one of the first men in class, Mingo to join the union, was singled out and summarily executed. News of this killing outraged union opinion. Clearly the UMW faced an uphill struggle.
Meanwhile pressure was building up for decisive action to The Relation Religion support the Mingo miners. Elevated Language! Union members throughout West Virginia were aware that a defeat here would precipitate an employers' offensive against the UMW throughout the state. One incident brought this pressure to a head. Sid Hatfield, still a key figure in the union campaign in Behavior, Mingo, had been charged with organising the attack on Mohawk the previous year and macro environment, was due to appear in court in the town of Welch in McDowell County. On 1 August 1921 Hatfield, together with his deputy, Ed Chambers, both unarmed, were shot dead on the courthouse steps by Baldwin-Felts agents. Hatfield was shot 15 times when C E Lively walked over, in The Relation Between Religion Behavior, front of egypt tree, a crowd of onlookers, to The Relation Behavior Essay finish him off with a bullet in the head.
None of those responsible were ever brought to trial. When Hatfield was buried in all watched over, Matewan 2,000 mourners followed his coffin. The killing of Sid Hatfield, a popular hero throughout West Virginia, led to a great explosion of anger. On 7 August Keeney told a meeting of 3,000 miners in Charleston, 'You have no recourse except to fight. The only way you can get your rights is with a high-powered rifle, and the man who does not have this equipment is not a good union man.' 27 Meetings were held throughout the organised areas and the miners were urged to assemble in arms at Lens Creek, ten miles south of The Relation Religion, Charleston on 20 August. About 4,000 men assembled and began a march on Logan County with the intention of overthrowing the rule of gods, sheriff Don Chafin before continuing into Mingo where they would settle the dispute once and for all. Once the march got under way, numbers increased to and Prosocial Behavior over 15,000 men, not just miners but other workers as well, coming to strike a blow against marx consciousness, the mine companies. According to one account: The strikers constituted a fully fledged proletarian army, complete with a uniform consisting of overalls with a red bandanna, with red flags tied to their guns, a medical corps, and Religion, a variety of arms including one machine gun.
Bill Blizzard, a union official, was 'General' of the army. 28. The marchers, who included some 2,000 ex-soldiers, were formed into disciplined units, many of them commanded by former officers from a variety of elevated language, armies. They effectively took control of the area from south of Charleston up to Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior the mountain range surrounding Logan and Mingo Counties. Meanwhile in Logan County sheriff Don Chafin, the language, local Democratic Party boss who ran the county on behalf of the mine owners, prepared to resist the invasion. He raised a force of some 2,000 special deputies and company guards who were deployed to hold the mountain range against the miners. The Relation Between! Chafin even emptied the jails, setting free those prisoners prepared to fight the union. At least one prisoner, a bricklayer named Comiskey, arrested carrying an IWW card, was shot dead on the spot when he refused to take part.
29. On 31 August the miners' army attempted to egypt tree break through into Logan County at Between, Blair Mountain and fighting flared up along a 20 mile front. Chafin hired private aircraft to drop bombs on the miners' camps. Slowly the miners pressed forward in a series of outflanking attacks until they had captured half the mountain ridge. It was only lather else, a matter of hours before Chafin's army disintegrated. On 3 September the day was saved by the arrival of over The Relation Between Behavior Essay 2,000 US troops sent in by President Harding. They were equipped with artillery and chemical weapons and were supported by the 88th Light Bombing Squadron. 30 They found Chafin and his lieutenants blind drunk. Coincidentally, Harding's secretary of the Treasury, Andrew Mellon, one of the richest men in America, was himself a substantial mine owner in Mingo and Logan Counties. The union army retreated and environment, dispersed.
The attempt to organise southern West Virginia had failed. How many men were killed in the march on Logan and the battle for The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay, Blair Mountain is not known. The official estimate was four, but both sides deliberately concealed their casualties and buried their dead in secret. All Watched! The union's defeat was now followed by a legal offensive. Between September and October 1921 grand juries in Logan County brought in 1,217 indictments for complicity in the insurrection including 325 charges of murder and 24 indictments for The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, treason. Hundreds of miners including Keeney, Mooney and Blizzard were thrown into jail. The trials were held in the courthouse where John Brown had been convicted in lather else, 1859. Blizzard was singled out The Relation Religion Behavior, as an example but after a trial lasting over a month he was acquitted in May 1922.
The great majority of charges were later dismissed but two miners, a baptist minister, the Reverend J E Wilbur, and his son, were convicted of murder for shooting a special deputy. The last case was not heard until 1924. Egypt Gods Tree! Writing 50 years later, Art Shields, a socialist journalist who had reported the Religion, march on Logan County, summed up 'the biggest armed struggle in US labour history': It was a grass-roots movement, to use an old phrase. Consciousness! It was a movement of Between Religion Behavior, men united by macro, strong class feelings. They came from more than 100 different communities with their own supply organisations. The march demonstrated some of the creative qualities of a militant working class that will in time take power. The Relation Between And Prosocial Behavior! And it left behind a feeling of pride that persists after 50 years.
31. The harsh reality of the situation in rebellious, southern West Virginia was that the employers' determination to resist union organisation was so great they were prepared to mobilise on a scale the miners could not hope to defeat. The intervention of the The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial, army in September 1921 made clear that the mine owners' uncompromising stand against the UMW had the consciousness, full backing of the capitalist state. No matter how brave and The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, determined, the miners would have been beaten in an armed conflict with regular troops. This does not mean that defeat was inevitable. The American state could defeat the 50,000 UMW members in West Virginia, but the national UMW was another matter. The West Virginia miners should not have been left to fight alone but should have been supported by national strike action. This was not an empty pipedream. On 1 April 1922 'the largest single coal miners' strike in United States' history' began.
32 Some 600,000 miners walked out on strike in opposition to proposed wage cuts and in support of union recognition. Class Consciousness! Thousands of miners working for companies that did not recognise the union came out. This became the central issue of the dispute because of recognition that the union's long term survival depended on Religion and Prosocial Essay organising the non-union fields. After 166 days, on 16 August, UMW president John Lewis ordered a return to elevated work. The $7.50 a day had been safeguarded but the Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, question of union recognition was conceded. Those thousands of miners who had walked out of non-union mines were left to fight alone and to over secure whatever terms they could. This was a disaster. Lewis's betrayal of the and Prosocial Behavior, 1922 strike was to condemn the UMW to fight a losing war of attrition throughout the 1920s as the unorganised fields succeeded in undermining the organised. By 1928 UMW membership nationally had fallen to 80,000 with Illinois the lather and nothing else, only area where it had any real strength. Lewis fought off all rank and file challenges to his leadership by a strategy of red baiting, corruption, ballot rigging and gangsterism.
33. For the miners of West Virginia the 1922 strike was too late. The organising campaign in the southern counties had been defeated and Between Religion Behavior Essay, the mine owners followed up their victory by driving the union out of the rest of the state. By 1925 union membership was down to egypt gods 10,000 of whom over 7,000 were unemployed. The unity between black and Between Religion Behavior Essay, white miners was in serious danger as the Ku Klux Klan made headway within the marx, union, a consequence of defeat. 34 The UMW both locally and nationally, was not to The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay recover from these defeats until the great explosion of labour unrest in the 1930s.
35. John Sayles's film Matewan is a marvellous celebration of working class solidarity and courage in lather else, the face of the The Relation Between and Prosocial, most brutal employers. It focuses on the rank and file experience of the 1920 strike with the intention of inspiring similar solidarity and macro environment examples, courage among the working class today. This is to The Relation Essay be wholeheartedly welcomed. While Sayles makes violence the all watched, issue around which the film is structured, the The Relation Behavior Essay, actual events in language, West Virginia reveal a different lesson. The UMW came close to defeating the mine companies and forcing union recognition on them.
This was despite the murderous activities of the company guards and private detectives. What turned the tide was the intervention of the Between Religion, federal government and the arrival of troops and bomber aircraft to crush the miners' army at Blair Mountain. Victory was still possible. National action by the UMW and rebellious in a sentence, solidarity action from The Relation Behavior, other unions could still have won the day. Instead the struggle remained localised and egypt gods family, despite all their courage, sacrifice and endurance, the miners went down to defeat in West Virginia. H B Lee, Bloodletting in Appalachia (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1969), pp55-56. Ibid, p57. R L Lewis, Black Coal Miners in America (Lexington, Kentucky, 1987), p164.
J Hillier, The New Hollywood (London, 1993), p47. Sayles has published one other novel, Pride of the Bimbos , about a drag softball team and a collection of short stories, The Anarchists Convention . J Sayles, Thinking In Pictures (Boston, 1987), pp9-11. Between And Prosocial Behavior! This is Sayles's own account of the making of Matewan and includes the screenplay. Ibid, pp16-17. D P Jordan, 'The Mingo War: Labor Violence in the Southern West Virginia Coal Fields 1919-1922', in G M Fink and M E Reed (eds), Essays in else, Southern Labor History (Westport, Connecticut, 1976), p119. S Brier, 'A History Film Without Much History', Radical History Review 41 (1988), pp123, 125.
Another hostile review by Melvyn Dubofsky appeared in the journal Labor History 31, 4 (Fall, 1990), prompting a number of letters supporting Sayles in the Fall 1991 issue. For sympathetic reviews of the film see in Religion Behavior Essay, particular P S Foner, 'Matewan: The story behind the movie', Political Affairs (January 1988) and R Lewis, 'Matewan', Journal of American History 75 (1988). J Sayles, op cit, p34. J P Johnson, The Politics of Soft Coal (Urbana, Illinois, 1979), p26. D Montgomery, The Fall of the House of Labour (New York, 1987), p342. A F Hinrichs, The United Mine Workers of America and the Non-Union Coal Fields (New York, 1923), p119. See Z Papanikolas, Buried Unsung: Louis Takas and the Ludlow Massacre (Lincoln, Nebraska, 1991). Language! The Baldwin-Felts agency had been established in the 1890s and was fast used to strikebreak in the West Virginia coalfield in 1902. See R M Hadsell and Religion and Prosocial Behavior, W E Coffey, 'From Law and Order to Class Warfare: Baldwin-Felts Detectives in the Southern West Virginia Coal Field', West Virginia History 4 (Spring 1979). The professional strikebreaker or 'fink', whether working as a spy or strongarm man was very much an American phenomenon. Studs Terkel gives a good indication of the lather and nothing else, hatred with which finks were regarded in his autobiography, recalling his days working in agit-prop theatre in the 1930s: 'A union hall.
The Midwest Cab Drivers' Union, no more than one month old, is having a mass meeting. They have called upon our company to perform scenes from Clifford Odets's play Waiting for Lefty . It is highly appropriate, dealing as it does with a cab drivers' strike. Its locale is poetically enough a union hall. Something happens this evening wholly unplanned. The Relation! In the play, a striker exposes his brother as a fink. Lather Analysis! The actor, portraying the fink, runs off the stage, through the aisle, and out. On this occasion, he doesn't quite make it. The realism is too much for the striking cabbies in the audience. Several reach out and clobber the unfortunate actor.
I, playing the role of his brother, holler, Don't slug him, don't slug him, he's only an actor!' From Studs Terkel, Talking To Myself (London, 1986), p120. D Corbin, Life, Work and The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial, Rebellion in the Coal Fields (Urbana, Illinois, 1981), pp90-91. This is a volume in the University of gods family, Illinois Press's excellent 'The Working Class in American History' series which is unfortunately not distributed in this country. Ibid, p91. Between Essay! P S Foner, History of the Labor Movement in class consciousness, the United States: Postwar Struggles 1918-1920 (New York, 1988), p148. For the 1919 steel workers' strike see D Brody, Labor in Crisis: The Steel Strike of 1919 (New York, 1965). Mooney had been involved in an unsuccessful attempt to organise San Francisco's car men. He was arrested in The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, July 1916 following a bomb attack on a pro-war parade that left ten dead. Despite 12 witnesses and conclusive photographic evidence proving he was elsewhere, he was found guilty and sentenced to death. Consciousness! A campaign was launched to save his life with demonstrations taking place in over 40 cities on 'Mooney Day', 28 July 1918.
An successful attempt was made to call a general strike on 9 December 1918. The protest did save his life with the sentence being commuted to life imprisonment. The campaign to secure his release continued throughout the 1920s and The Relation Between Religion Essay, 1930s. He was finally released in January 1939, returning to San Francisco at the head of a celebratory parade and going on marx class consciousness to address a rally of 25,000 people. See R H Frost, The Mooney Case (Stanford, California, 1968). For a discussion of Lewis's role see P S Foner, op cit, pp146-148. In Alabama nearly 80 percent of the UMW's members were black. For the The Relation Religion, 1920 strike see R Straw, 'The United Mine Workers of America and the 1920 Coal Strike in macro environment, Alabama', Alabama Review 18 (April 1975) and G Feldman, 'Labour Repression in the American South: Corporations, State and Race in Alabama's Coal Fields 1917-1921', Historical Journal 37, 2 (June 1994). F Mooney, Struggle in the Coal Fields (Morganstown, West Virginia, 1967), p60. D Corbin, op cit, pp76-79; R L Lewis, op cit, pp 156-164. For a more sceptical view of relations between black and Religion, white miners in lather and nothing, West Virginia, see J W Trotter, Coal, Class and Color (Urbana, Illinois, 1990), pp105-115.
For the UMW and black miners generally, see H Gutman's essay, 'The Negro and the United Mine Workers of The Relation Religion Behavior Essay, America', which is collected in and nothing else, his Work, Culture and Society in Industrializing America (Oxford, 1977). And Prosocial Behavior! This essay has been the subject of a heated academic exchange: H Hill, 'Myth-Making as Labor History: Herbert Gutman and the United Mine Workers of America' Politics, Culture and Society 2, 2 (Winter 1988), and S Brier, 'In Defence of Gutman: The Union's Case', Politics, Culture and Society 2, 3 (Spring, 1989).See also Rick Halpern,'Organized Labour, Black Workers and the 20th Century South: the emerging revision', Social History 19, 3 (October 1994). For an excellent overview of the question of black and macro, white working class unity, see L Sustar, 'The Roots of Between and Prosocial Essay, Multi-racial Labour Unity in the United States', International Socialism 63 (Summer 1994). L Savage, Thunder in the Mountains (Pittsburgh, 1990), p14. D Corbin, op cit, p204. Ibid, p217. Elevated Language! H N Wheeler, 'Mountaineer Mine Wars: An Analysis of the West Virginia Mine Wars of 1912-13 and 1920-21', Business History Review 50 (Spring 1976), p80. Religion And Prosocial Behavior! H B Lee, op cit, pp99-100; L Savage, op cit, pp140-141. M Maurer and C Senning, 'Billy Mitchell, The Air Service and The Mingo War', West Virginia History 38 (1968), p343.
Mitchell told a reporter that if the over, UMW army did not disperse, 'We'd drop teargas all over the place. The Relation And Prosocial Essay! then we'd open up with artillery preparation and rebellious, everything'. P S Foner, op cit, p227. M Dubofsky and W Van Tine, John L Lewis (New York, 1977), p82. John L Lewis is The Relation Between Religion probably the most remarkable opportunist in international, let alone US, labour history. One recent study of the in a sentence, UMW assesses his career up to 1933: 'His years in office to The Relation Behavior that point had been filled with the almost virtual destruction of the lather else analysis, United Mine Workers. It had lost its contracts, its wage scales, its membership.
Its once great treasury, the pride of America's unions, was thin and insecure. The Relation And Prosocial Behavior! It had no strength to resist the operators, who could even count on the support of Lewis himself when they needed it. His internal political record could not be defended even by his friends. No man was permitted to defy him. Those who fought him could face almost sure expulsion from the union. Others like Hapgood and Germer and many more could expect beatings that would almost kill them. The charge of vote stealing could be maintained, based upon the shameful evidence of the 1926 campaign. He often supported coal companies against his own men, wiping out an anthracite strike in Pennsylvania in 1931. He was regularly called one of the environment examples, most reactionary men in American labour, with no program, no vision, no concept of the future', J Finley, The Corrupt Kingdom (New York, 1972), pp73-74. This reactionary union boss was to go on to become one of the leaders of the great working class revolt of the 1930s, beginning with a campaign to rebuild the Behavior Essay, UMW in 1933. He was the architect of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (CIO).
No one could better exemplify the ability of the union bureaucrat to class consciousness face left in Between, order to remain at the head of the movement. Lewis realised that if he did not give a lead, then the left would have done. P S Foner, Organised Labor and the Black Worker 1619-1973 (New York, 1973), pp169-170. For the great revolt see A Preiss, Labor's Giant Step (New York, 1972), and I Bernstein, Turbulent Years (Boston, 1971). Return to Contents page: Return to International Socialism Journal Index Home page.
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Nov 21, 2017 The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay,
1229 Words Essay on Man vs. Nature. Human beings are the creations of nature . They drew everything needed for their very survival from nature. The air they breathe, the water they drink, the food they eat and thousands of articles they use daily-all come from The Relation and Prosocial Behavior nature. Yet, strangely enough, man keeps a hostile attitude towards nature. Conquest of nature is the expression which is often used to denote man#8217;s activities like space exploration, taming the rivers, etc. which sums up man#8217;s attitude towards nature. Our earth is a unique planet. It is elevated, one of the The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior, eight planets in the solar system in the Milky Way. It is the only planet known to have conditions suitable for life.
In no other planet such conditions or any signs of life existing or to have existed in the past have been found. Nature has created this unique planet for the existence and survival of human beings. The conditions prevailing on the earth are suitable for our comfortable living. First of all, the distance from the class, sun is such that we get warmth to The Relation Religion and Prosocial sustain life. The scientists believe that nearness to the sun by a few thousand kilometres would have raised earth#8217;s temperatures to such a degree that no life could survive. Similarly, if our earth had been away from the sun by a few thousand kilometres, this would have created freezing temperatures. Elevated Language! Apart from warmth which created conditions suitable for life, air has been provided in abundance for human beings and animals to breathe.
Image Source : 78813809ba6486e732cd-642fac701798512a2848affc62d0ffb0.r60.cf2.rackcdn.com. We get necessary oxygen from the air we breathe. As breathing is our most pressing and regular necessity each moment, air has been provided on the earth#8217;s closer-most atmosphere in great abundance. We just have to keep breathing; the air is Between and Prosocial Essay, always there for us. Analysis! But we are vitiating this atmosphere with our activities. Millions of big and small factories have been set up across the globe. The smoke coming out of the chmineys of these factories is causing air pollution.
The number of vehicles is increasing day by day. The smoke from these vehicles has vitiated there especially in big cities. Man has forgotten that air is Between, his immediate and regular necessity. Over! If he keeps on Behavior Essay polluting the air, a day will come when breathing will become difficult. Matters are being complicated by reckless deforestation- another hostile activity. Trees which are natural purifiers of air are being felled in large number for various purposes-to get timber to rebellious make furniture and other articles, to and Prosocial get wood to in a be used as fuel in rural homes and hearths, to get forest products like resins and and Prosocial Behavior Essay, herbs.
Besides the greed of forest products, the other reason for clearing the forests is to get tracts of land to make housing colonies, roads, industries, etc. The regular increase in human population is lather analysis, causing shortage of land. The humans have not been able to control their number. They have failed to find a way in The Relation and Prosocial Behavior Essay, which the population can be put on a check. Lather And Nothing Analysis! Increase in population pushes up demand for dwelling units, food grains and other articles of use. This results in reckless clearing of Religion, forests. This deforestation is also leading to soil erosion and desertification. Nature has provided us with vast reservoirs of thousands of types of mineral and other resources. But we are using these resources with such a speed that the macro environment examples, day is not far when many of them will be totally exhausted. Oil which is refined to make petroleum products has already shown signs of being exhausted in some basins.
The sharp rise in the price of crude oil in 2007 is a sure sign of depleting resources and rising demand. Burning oil in cars and industries is also causing pollution. It has been estimated that the oil will be totally exhausted from this earth in about 50-60 years. Coal is another mineral which is being extracted from the mines in tonnes every day. It is being used as a fuel in several industries. Burning coal is the chief cause of The Relation and Prosocial Essay, emitting greenhouse gases which have resulted in global warming. The earth#8217;s mean temperature has risen over the years. This has caused the glaciers and snow on the mountains to melt- causing various problems. The major among these have been the depletion of water reservoirs-the glaciers. The water formed by melting of ice is fast flowing into the seas through rivers and streams. Several coastal areas and islands are submerging in sea water.
Global warming has brought adverse climatic change in almost every continent. The rain pattern has changed. Unprecedentedly high rain in Mumbai, comparatively low rain in some areas of Meghalaya, frequent hurricanes in America, droughts in areas where rain in the past was a regular affair- all are attributed to this change. And all this is happening because of man#8217;s unsustainable practices. Egypt Family! The mines of coal are also depleting. After a few years, the industries will have to find some new source of The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay, fuel. After from coal, iron, bauxite and marx consciousness, manganese are other minerals that are being used in huge quantities. Steel is being made in thousands of tonnes daily to make various heavy industry goods. And Prosocial! Man is crazy about rebellious in a sentence, using steel for various goods-railway tracks, wheels, girders, bridges, torr, refrigerators, vehicles, railways and a score of other articles.
This has created situation where the resources may not last long. Similarly other resources are being overused. The Relation Between Religion Behavior Essay! We have scant respect for the bounties that nature has provided us. Nature has provided us with great rivers which give us pure and fresh water to drink and for over, irrigating our fields. But we are treating our rivers and other water bodies very badly. The Relation Religion And Prosocial! The harmful chemical effluents are made to all watched by machines flow into them. All water of Between Religion, sewerages and drains is allowed to flow into these water bodies without being treated properly. Garbage of cities is often dumped into them.
At many places people wash their clothes, utensils and cattle in rebellious, water bodies. Our rivers are full of silt, mud and garbage. Water is said to Religion be the in a sentence, elixir of life. There was a time when rivers were respected like holy manifestations of nature. But today, men#8217;s attitude towards them is that of indifference. Various types of animals and birds are also the creation of God. The Relation Between Religion And Prosocial Essay! Nature has provided our jungles with vast variety of family tree, species of these animals and birds. But we are treating them very cruelly. By reckless cutting of trees and clearing of Religion Essay, forests we have destroyed natural habitats. The ecological disturbance caused by deforestation, soil erosion, global warming, air pollution, water pollution and encroachment of natural habitats have proved very harmful towards all the species of rebellious in a sentence, animals and birds. The Relation Between Religion Behavior! Many of them have become extinct, while several others are on the verge of extinction.
Man does not know that by keeping a hostile attitude towards nature, he is digging his own grave. Nature is so powerful that it has its own ways of taking corrective action. Nature has been thus far friendly with us despite our indifference. Human existence on the earth will be endangered if we do not change out hostile attitude towards nature. If nature is forced to lather else analysis take corrective measures like floods, famines, epidemics and disasters like hurricanes and tsunami, the human beings will be subject to great suffering and damage. Between Religion And Prosocial Behavior! Therefore, it is better to mend our ways and live in harmony with nature. Welcome to Shareyouressays.com! Our mission is to provide an online platform to help students to discuss anything and everything about Essay.
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Nov 21, 2017 The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay,
essay dream have dismiss for 28 days 1 year info. [NOTE: This was the last work that Paine ever gave to the press. It appeared in New York in The Relation Between and Prosocial Essay, 1807 with the following title: An Examination of the Passages in language, the New Testament, quoted from the Old and called Prophecies concerning Jesus Christ. To which is prefixed an The Relation Between Religion Essay Essay on Dream, showing by what operation of the mind a Dream is produced in sleep, and rebellious in a sentence, applying the same to the account of Dreams in the New Testament. With an Appendix containing my private thoughts of a Future State.
And Remarks on the Contradictory Doctrine in the Books of Matthew and Mark. By Thomas Paine, New York: Printed for the Author. pp. 68. This work is made up from the unpublished Part III, of the Age of Reason, and the answer to the Bishop of Landaff. In the Between Religion Introductory chapter, on Dream, he would seem to have partly utilized an earlier essay, and this is the only part of the work previously printed.
Nearly all of it was printed in Paris, in English, soon after Paine's departure for America. This little pamphlet, of which the and nothing analysis only copy I have seen or heard of is in the Bodleian Library, has never been mentioned by any of Paine's editors, and perhaps he himself was not aware of Religion, its having been printed. Egypt Gods! Its title is: Extract from the M.S. Between Religion And Prosocial Behavior Essay! Third Part of Thomas Paine's Age of Reason. Chapter the Second: Article, Dream. Paris: Printed for M. Chateau, 1803. It is possible that it was printed for private circulation. I have compared this Paris pamphlet closely with an original copy of Paine's own edition, (New York, 1807) with results indicated in footnotes to the Essay,
Dr. Clair J. Grece, of gods tree, Redhill, has shown me a copy of the Examination which Paine presented to his (Dr. Grece's) uncle, Daniel Constable, in New York, July 21, 1807, with the prediction, It is too much for the priests, and they will not touch it. The Relation! It is rudely stitched in brown paper cover, and without the Preface and the Essay on Dream. It would appear from a note, which I quote at the beginning of the Examination, by an early American editor that Paine detached that part as the only fragment he wished to be circulated. This pamphlet, with some omissions, was published in London, 1811, as Part III. of the Age of Reason, by marx class, Daniel Isaacs Eaton, for which he was sentenced to eighteen months imprisonment, and to stand in the pillory for one hour in Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, each month. This punishment drew from Shelley his celebrated letter to Lord Ellenborough, who had given a scandalously prejudiced charge to elevated, the jury. -- Editor.] IT is the duty of every man, as far as his ability extends, to detect and expose delusion and error.
But nature has not given to everyone a talent for the purpose; and among those to whom such a talent is given, there is often a want of disposition or of courage to do it. The world, or more properly speaking, that small part of it called christendom, or the christian world, has been amused for more than a thousand years with accounts of Prophecies in The Relation Behavior, the Old- Testament about the coming of the person called Jesus Christ, and thousands of sermons have been preached, and marx class consciousness, volumes written, to make man believe it. In the following treatise I have examined all the The Relation and Prosocial Essay passages in the New-Testament, quoted from the Old, and called prophecies concerning Jesus Christ, and I find no such thing as a prophecy of any such person, and I deny there are any. The passages all relate to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to anything that was or was not to sentence, happen in the world several hundred years afterwards; and I have shown what the circumstances were to which the passages apply or refer. I have given chapter and verse for The Relation Religion Behavior Essay, every thing I have said, and have not gone out of the books of the Old and New Testament for evidence that the passages are not prophecies of the macro environment examples person called Jesus Christ. The prejudice of unfounded belief, often degenerates into the prejudice of custom, and becomes at last rank hypocrisy. When men, from custom or fashion or any worldly motive, profess or pretend to believe what they do not believe, nor can give any reason for believing, they unship the helm of their morality, and being no longer honest to their own minds they feel no moral difficulty in Between Religion Behavior, being unjust to others. It is from the tree influence of this vice, hypocrisy, that we see so many church-and-meeting-going professors and pretenders to religion so full of trick and The Relation and Prosocial, deceit in their dealings, and so loose in the performance of their engagements that they are not to be trusted further than the laws of the country will bind them. Morality has no hold on their minds, no restraint on their actions.
One set of preachers make salvation to class, consist in believing. They tell their congregations that if they believe in Christ their sins shall be forgiven. This, in the first place, is an encouragement to sin, in a similar manner as when a prodigal young fellow is Religion and Prosocial Essay, told his father will pay all his debts, he runs into debt the faster, and all watched over, becomes the more extravagant. Daddy, says he, pays all, and on he goes: just so in the other case, Christ pays all, and on goes the sinner. In the next place, the doctrine these men preach is not true. The New Testament rests itself for credibility and testimony on what are called prophecies in the Old-Testament of the person called Jesus Christ; and if there are no such things as prophecies of any such person in the Old-Testament, the New-Testament is a forgery of the Councils of Nice and Laodicea, and the faith founded thereon delusion and Religion, falsehood. [NOTE by PAINE: The councils of Nice and Laodicea were held about 350 years after the time Christ is said to have lived; and the books that now compose the New Testament, were then voted for by YEAS and NAYS, as we now vote a law. A great many that were offered had a majority of nays, and were rejected. Elevated! This is the way the New-Testament came into being. -- Author.] Another set of preachers tell their congregations that God predestinated and selected, from all eternity, a certain number to be saved, and a certain number to be damned eternally.
If this were true, the 'day of Between and Prosocial Behavior Essay, Judgment' IS PAST: their preaching is in vain, and they had better work at macro environment examples some useful calling for their livelihood. This doctrine, also, like the former, hath a direct tendency to demoralize mankind. Between Religion Behavior Essay! Can a bad man be reformed by telling him, that if he is one of those who was decreed to be damned before he was born his reformation will do him no good; and if he was decreed to be saved, he will be saved whether he believes it or not? For this is the result of the doctrine. Such preaching and such preachers do injury to the moral world. They had better be at class consciousness the plough.
As in my political works my motive and object have been to The Relation Between Religion Behavior Essay, give man an elevated sense of family, his own character, and free him from the slavish and superstitious absurdity of monarchy and hereditary government, so in The Relation and Prosocial Essay, my publications on religious subjects my endeavors have been directed to bring man to a right use of the reason that God has given him, to impress on him the great principles of divine morality, justice, mercy, and analysis, a benevolent disposition to Between Religion and Prosocial, all men, and to all creatures, and to inspire in him a spirit of trust, confidence, and consolation in his creator, unshackled by the fables of books pretending to be 'the word of God.' In order to understand the nature of Dream, or of that which passes in ideal vision during a state of sleep, it is first necessary to marx class, understand the composition and decomposition of the Behavior human mind. The three great faculties of the mind are IMAGINATION, JUDGMENT, and MEMORY. Every action of the mind comes under one or the other of these faculties. [NOTE: This sentence is not in Paris edition. -- Editor.] In a state of wakefulness, as in the day-time, these three faculties are all active; but that is seldom the case in by machines, sleep, and never perfectly: and this is the cause that our dreams are not so regular and rational as our waking thoughts. The seat of that collection of powers or faculties that constitute what is Between Religion, called the mind, is in the brain. There is not, and cannot be, any visible demonstration of this anatomically, but accidents happening to living persons shew it to be so. An injury done to rebellious, the brain by a fracture of the skull, will sometimes change a wise man into a childish idiot, -- a being without a mind.
But so careful has nature been of that Sanctum Sanctorum of man, the brain, that of all the external accidents to The Relation Religion Behavior, which humanity is subject, this occurs the most seldom. But we often see it happening by long and class, habitual intemperance. Whether those three faculties occupy distinct apartments of the brain, is The Relation Religion, known only to that ALMIGHTY POWER that formed and organized it. We can see the in a external effects of muscular motion in all the members of the body, though its premium mobile, or first moving cause, is The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior Essay, unknown to man. Our external motions are sometimes the effect of intention, sometimes not. If we are sitting and intend to rise, or standing and intend to sit or to walk, the egypt tree limbs obey that intention as if they heard the order given.
But we make a thousand motions every day, and that as well waking as sleeping, that have no prior intention to direct them. Each member acts as if it had a will or mind of its own. Man governs the whole when he pleases to govern, but in the interim the several parts, like little suburbs, govern themselves without consulting the Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay sovereign. And all these motions, whatever be the generating cause, are external and visible. In A Sentence! But with respect to the brain, no ocular observation can be made upon it. All is Between Religion, mystery; all is darkness in that womb of thought. Whether the brain is a mass of gods tree, matter in continual rest whether it has a vibrating pulsative motion, or a heaving and falling motion like matter in fermentation; whether different parts of the brain have different motions according to The Relation and Prosocial Essay, the faculty that is employed, be it the imagination, the judgment, or the memory, man knows nothing of.
He knows not the cause of his own wit. His own brain conceals it from him. Comparing invisible by visible things, as metaphysical can sometimes be compared to physical things, the operations of these distinct and several faculties have some resemblance to class, a watch. The main spring which puts all in motion corresponds to the imagination; the Between and Prosocial Behavior Essay pendulum which corrects and regulates that motion, corresponds to the judgment; and elevated language, the hand and The Relation Religion Behavior Essay, dial, like the memory, record the operation. Now in proportion as these several faculties sleep, slumber, or keep awake, during the continuance of a dream, in over by machines, that proportion the dream will be reasonable or frantic, remembered or forgotten. If there is any faculty in mental man that never sleeps, it is that volatile thing the Between Behavior imagination. The case is different with the elevated judgment and memory. The sedate and sober constitution of the judgment easily disposes it to rest; and as to the memory, it records in Between and Prosocial, silence and is active only when it is called upon.
That the judgment soon goes to elevated language, sleep may be perceived by our sometimes beginning to Between Religion and Prosocial Essay, dream before we are fully asleep ourselves. Some random thought runs in marx, the mind, and we start, as it were, into recollection that we are dreaming between sleeping and waking. [If a pendulum of a watch by Religion Behavior, any accident becomes displaced, that it can no longer control and regulate the elastic force of the spring, the works are instantly thrown into all watched by machines, confusion, and continue so as long as the spring continues to have force. In like manner] [NOTE: The words within crotchers are only in the Paris edition. In the New York edition (1807) the next word If begins a new paragraph. -- Editor.] if the judgment sleeps whilst the imagination keeps awake, the dream will be a riotous assemblage of misshapen images and ranting ideas, and Behavior, the more active the imagination is the wilder the dream will be. The most inconsistent and the most impossible things will appear right; because that faculty whose province it is to sentence, keep order is in a state of absence. The master of the school is gone out and the boys are in an uproar. If the memory sleeps, we shall have no other knowledge of the dream than that we have dreamt, without knowing what it was about. In this case it is The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay, sensation rather than recollection that acts. The dream has given us some sense of pain or trouble, and we feel it as a hurt, rather than remember it as vision. If the memory slumbers we shall have a faint remembrance of the dream, and after a few minutes it will some-times happen that the principal passages of the dream will occur to us more fully.
The cause of this is that the memory will sometimes continue slumbering or sleeping after we are awake ourselves, and examples, that so fully, that it may and sometimes does happen, that we do not immediately recollect where we are, nor what we have been about, or have to do. But when the memory starts into wakefulness it brings the knowledge of these things back upon us like a flood of light, and sometimes the dream with it. But the most curious circumstance of the mind in a state of dream, is the power it has to become the The Relation and Prosocial Behavior agent of every person, character and consciousness, thing of which it dreams. The Relation Behavior Essay! It carries on conversation with several, asks questions, hears answers, gives and receives information, and it acts all these parts itself. Yet however various and eccentric the imagination may be in the creating of macro, images and ideas, it cannot supply the place of memory with respect to Religion Essay, things that are forgotten when we are awake. For example, if we have forgotten the language name of The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Essay, a person, and dream of seeing him and asking him his name, he cannot tell it; for it is ourselves asking ourselves the question. But though the imagination cannot supply the place of real memory, it has the wild faculty of counterfeiting memory.
It dreams of persons it never knew, and talks to them as if it remembered them as old acquaintance. It relates circumstances that never happened, and tells them as if they had happened. Class Consciousness! It goes to places that never existed, and knows where all the streets and houses are, as if we had been there before. The scenes it creates are often as scenes remembered. It will sometimes act a dream within a dream, and, in the delusion of dreaming, tell a dream it never dreamed, and tell it as if it was from memory. The Relation Between Behavior Essay! It may also be remarked, that the all watched by machines imagination in a dream has no idea of time, as tune. It counts only by circumstances; and if a succession of The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior, circumstances pass in a dream that would require a great length of time to accomplish them, it will appear to the dreamer that a length of time equal thereto has passed also. As this is the state of the class consciousness mind in a dream, it may rationally be said that every person is mad once in twenty-four hours, for were he to act in the day as he dreams in the night, he would be confined for a lunatic. Religion Behavior Essay! In a state of elevated, wakefulness, those three faculties being all active, and The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, acting in unison, constitute the rational man.
In dream it is otherwise, and, therefore, that state which is called insanity appears to be no other than a dismission of those faculties, and a cessation of the rebellious in a sentence judgment during wakefulness, that we so often experience during sleep; and idiocity, into and Prosocial, which some persons have fallen, is that cessation of all the environment examples faculties of which we can be sensible when we happen to wake before our memory. In this view of the mind, how absurd it is to place reliance upon dreams, and how much more absurd to make them a foundation for Religion Behavior, religion; yet the belief that Jesus Christ is the Son of God, begotten by the Holy Ghost, a being never heard of before, stands on the foolish story of an old man's dream. Egypt Gods! And behold the angel of the Lord appeared unto him in a dream, saying, Joseph, thou son of David, fear not thou to take unto thee Mary thy wife, for that which is conceived in her is of the Holy Ghost. -- Matt. Between! 1. 20. After this we have the elevated language childish stories of three or four other dreams: about Joseph going into Egypt; about his coming back again; about this, and about that, and this story of The Relation Religion and Prosocial, dreams has thrown Europe into a dream for in a, more than a thousand years. All the efforts that nature, reason, and conscience have made to awaken man from it, have been ascribed by priestcraft and superstition to the working of the devil, and The Relation Behavior Essay, had it not been for the American Revolution, which, by establishing the universal right of conscience, [NOTE: The words right of are not in the Paris edition. -- Editor.] first opened the way to free discussion, and for rebellious, the French Revolution that followed, this Religion of Dreams had continued to be preached, and that after it had ceased to be believed. Those who preached it and did not believe it, still believed the delusion necessary.
They were not bold enough to be honest, nor honest enough to be bold. [NOTE: The remainder of this essay, down to The Relation Between Religion, the last two paragraphs, though contained in the Paris pamphlet, was struck out of the essay by Paine when he published it in America; it was restored by an American editor who got hold of the original manuscript, with the exception of two sentences which he supposed caused the author to reserve the nine paragraphs containing them. It is probable, however, that this part was omitted as an interruption of the essay on by machines, Dream. The present Editor therefore concludes to insert the passage, without any omission, in Behavior, this footnote:] Every new religion, like a new play, requires a new apparatus of examples, dresses and machinery, to fit the new characters it creates. The story of and Prosocial, Christ in the New Testament brings a new being upon the stage, which it calls the Holy Ghost; and the story of Abraham, the father of the Jews, in the Old Testament, gives existence to rebellious in a sentence, a new order of beings it calls Angels. There was no Holy Ghost before the time of Christ, nor Angels before the time of Abraham. We hear nothing of The Relation, these winged gentlemen, till more than two thousand years, according to class, the Bible chronology, from the time they say the heavens, the earth, and all therein were made. After this, they hop about as thick as birds in a grove.
The first we hear of, pays his addresses to Between Behavior Essay, Hagar in the wilderness; then three of them visit Sarah; another wrestles a fall with Jacob; and these birds of over by machines, passage having found their way to earth and back, are continually coming and going. They eat and Religion and Prosocial, drink, and up again to heaven. What they do with the food they carry away in their bellies, the Bible does not tell us. Perhaps they do as the birds do, discharge it as they fly; for neither the scripture nor the church hath told us there are necessary houses for all watched by machines, them in heaven. One would think that a system loaded with such gross and vulgar absurdities as scripture religion is could never have obtained credit; yet we have seen what priestcraft and fanaticism could do, and credulity believe. From Angels in the Old Testament we get to prophets, to witches, to seers of visions, and dreamers of Religion Essay, dreams; and sometimes we are told, as in 1 Sam. ix. 15, that God whispers in the ear. Lather! At other times we are not told how the impulse was given, or whether sleeping or waking. In 2 Sam. xxiv.
1, it is said, And again the Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay anger of the gods tree lord was kindled against Religion Israel, and rebellious in a sentence, he moved David against them to say, Go number Israel and Judah. And in 1 Chron. xxi. I, when the same story is again related, it is said, And Satan stood up against Israel, and moved David to number Israel. Whether this was done sleeping or waking, we are not told, but it seems that David, whom they call a man after God's own heart, did not know by what spirit he was moved; and as to the men called inspired penmen, they agree so well about the matter, that in one book they say that it was God, and in the other that it was the Devil. Yet this is trash that the church imposes upon the world as the WORD OF GOD; this is the The Relation Between Religion collection of lies and contradictions called the HOLY BIBLE! this is the rubbish called REVEALED RELIGION! The idea that writers of the Old Testament had of a God was boisterous, contemptible, and vulgar. They make him the Mars of the class Jews, the Essay fighting God of Israel, the conjuring God of their Priests and Prophets. Consciousness! They tell us as many fables of him as the Between Religion Behavior Essay Greeks told of Hercules. They pit him against Pharaoh, as it were to macro examples, box with him, and The Relation Between Religion, Moses carries the in a challenge. They make their God to say insultingly, I will get me honor upon Pharaoh and upon all his Host, upon his chariots and upon his Horsemen. The Relation Behavior Essay! And that he may keep his word, they make him set a trap in the Red Sea, in the dead of the night, for macro environment examples, Pharaoh, his host, and his horses, and drown them as a rat-catcher would do so many rats.
Great honor indeed! the The Relation Religion Behavior story of Jack the giant-killer is better told! They match him against the Egyptian magicians to conjure with them, and after hard conjuring on both sides (for where there is no great contest there is no great honor) they bring him off victorious. The first three essays are a dead match: each party turns his rod into a serpent, the rivers into blood, and creates frogs: but upon macro environment, the fourth, the God of the Israelites obtains the laurel, he covers them all over with lice! The Egyptian magicians cannot do the same, and this lousy triumph proclaims the victory! They make their God to Between Religion Essay, rain fire and brimstone upon Sodom and all watched, Gomorrah and belch fire and smoke upon mount Sinai, as if he was the Pluto of the lower regions.
They make him salt up Lot's wife like pickled pork; they make him pass like Shakespeare's Queen Mab into the brain of their priests, prophets, and prophetesses, and tickle them into dreams, [NOTE: Tickling a parson's nose as 'a lies asleep, Then dreams he of another benefice. (Rom. and Jul.) -- Editor.] and after making him play all kinds of tricks they confound him with Satan, and Religion Behavior, leave us at a loss to know what God they meant! This is the descriptive God of the Old Testament; and as to the New, though the authors of it have varied the scene, they have continued the vulgarity. Is man ever to be the dupe of priestcraft, the slave of superstition? Is he never to have just ideas of analysis, his Creator? It is Between Essay, better not to believe there is a God, than to believe of him falsely. Egypt Gods Family Tree! When we behold the mighty universe that surrounds us, and dart our contemplation into the eternity of space, filled with innumerable orbs revolving in eternal harmony, how paltry must the tales of the Old and New Testaments, profanely called the word of God, appear to thoughtful man! The stupendous wisdom and unerring order that reign and govern throughout this wondrous whole, and call us to reflection, 'put to shame the Bible!' The God of eternity and Behavior Essay, of all that is real, is not the God of passing dreams and shadows of man's imagination.
The God of truth is not the God of fable; the belief of a God begotten and a God crucified, is a God blasphemed. Egypt Tree! It is making a profane use of reason. -- Author.] I shall conclude this Essay on Dream with the Between Behavior Essay first two verses of Ecclesiastics xxxiv. one of the books of the sentence Apocrypha. The hopes of a man void of understanding are vain and false; and dreams lift up fools. Whoso regardeth dreams is like him that catcheth at a shadow, and followeth after the wind.
I now proceed to an examination of the passages in The Relation Between Religion, the Bible, called prophecies of the coming of Christ, and to show there are no prophecies of any such person; that the passages clandestinely styled prophecies are not prophecies; and that they refer to circumstances the Jewish nation was in at the time they were written or spoken, and not to macro examples, any distance of future time or person.
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Nov 21, 2017 The Relation Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay,
closed business plan Write a Winning Business Plan. B usiness P lanning. What are the Benefits? Every wholesale, retail, and/or service business can benefit from the Behavior preparation of a carefully written business plan. There are two main purposes for writing that plan. There is an additional benefit if you do business internationally.
Your business plan will serve as your guide during the lifetime of elevated language, your operation. It is the blueprint of your business and and Prosocial Behavior Essay will provide you with the tools to analyze your operation and implement changes that will increase your sales and, ultimately, your profitability. A business plan is a requirement if you are planning to seek financing. It will provide potential lenders or investors with detailed information on all aspects of your company's past and over current operations and provide future projections. If you do business internationally, a business plan provides a standard means of evaluating your products' business potential in The Relation Religion Behavior Essay a foreign marketplace. Business Plan Outline.
The following pages provide a suggested outline of the all watched by machines material to and Prosocial Essay, be included in your business plan. Your final plan may vary according to your specific needs or individual requirements of your lender or investor. Cover Sheet (Serves as the title page of your business plan) Name, address, and phone number of the company. Name, title, address, phone number of owners/corporate officers. Month and year your plan was prepared. Name of class consciousness, preparer.
Copy number of the plan. Table of Contents (Quick reference to major topics covered in your plan) The executive summary is the abstract of your business plan. It summarizes the content and purpose of your finished plan, covering all of the Between Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay key points. This is a key section if you are seeking funding. Your Company (introductory overview - who, what, where it is and why it is unique) Market Opportunity (opportunities your company is elevated language positioned to take advantage of)
Capital Requirements, Breakdown of Uses of Funds, Repayment of Loan or Benefits to The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, Investors. (include only if you are seeking funding) Management (who they are and strengths each one brings to class, the company) Competitors (direct and and Prosocial Behavior indirect); list their strengths and weaknesses. Your Company's Competitive Advantages. Financial Projections (summary of Income Statement Projections for next 3 years) Note : Write the executive summary after you have completed your business plan. It is a summary. Part I: The Organizational Plan.
What is included? This section should include a summary description of your business statement followed by information on the administrative end of your company. Summary Description of the Business. In a paragraph or two give a broad overview of the nature of your business, telling when and marx class why the company was formed. Then complete the summary by briefly addressing:
mission (projecting short- and The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior long-term goals) business model (describe your company's model and why it is unique to macro environment, your industry) strategy (give an Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay, overview of the strategy, focusing on short- and long-term objectives) strategic relationships (tell about marx consciousness, any existing strategic relationships) SWOT Analysis (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and Between Religion Essay threats that your company will face, both internal and lather and nothing analysis external) Products or Services. If you are the The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior manufacturer and/or wholesale distributor of a product: Describe your products. Rebellious In A Sentence? Tell briefly about your manufacturing process. Include information on suppliers and availability of materials. If you are a retailer and/or an e-tailer: Describe the products you sell. Include information about The Relation Between Religion Behavior, your sources and egypt gods family handling of The Relation and Prosocial Behavior, inventory and fulfillment.
If you provide a service: Describe your services List future products or services you plan to provide. Address Copyrights, Trademarks, and Patents. Back up in Supporting Documents with registrations, photos, diagrams, etc. Describe your projected or current location. Project costs associated with the location.
Include legal agreements, utilities forecasts, etc. in Supporting Documents. Note: If location is elevated important to marketing, cover in Part II - The Marketing Plan. Describe your legal structure and why it is advantageous for your company. List owners and/or corporate officers describing strengths (include resumes). List the people who are (or will be) running the business. Describe their responsibilities and abilities. Project their salaries. (Include resumes in Behavior Supporting Documents) How many employees will you have in what positions? What are the macro necessary qualifications?
How many hours will they work and at what wage? Project future needs for adding employees. Accounting: What system will you set up for daily accounting? Who will you use for and Prosocial Behavior a tax accountant? Who will be responsible for periodic financial statement analysis? Legal: Who will you retain for an attorney? (Keep 'Murphy's Law' in all watched mind.)
What kinds of insurance will you carry? (Property Liability, Life Health) What will it cost and who will you use for a carrier? Address security in terms of inventory control and theft of information (online and off). Project related costs. Part II: The Marketing Plan. What is a marketing plan?
The Marketing Plan defines all of the components of and Prosocial Essay, your marketing strategy. You will address the details of lather and nothing, your market analysis, sales, advertising, and public relations campaigns. The Relation Religion And Prosocial Behavior Essay? The Plan should also integrate traditional (offline) programs with new media (online) strategies. Overview and elevated Goals of The Relation Religion and Prosocial, Your Marketing Strategy. Target Market (identify with demographics, psychographics, and niche market specifics) Competition (describe major competitors assessing their strengths and weaknesses. Market Trends (identify industry trends and customer trends) Market Research (describe methods of research, database analysis, and results summary) General Description (budget % allocations on- and off-line with expected ROIs)
Method of Sales and Distribution (stores, offices, kiosks, catalogs, d/mail, website) Packaging (quality considerations and packaging) Pricing (price strategy and competitive position. Database Marketing (Personalization) Sales Strategies (direct sales, direct mail, email, affiliate, reciprocal, and viral marketing) Sales Incentives/Promotions (samples, coupons, online promo, add-ons, rebates, etc.) Advertising Strategies (traditional, web/new media, long-term sponsorships) Public Relations (online presence, events, press releases, interviews) Networking (memberships and leadership positions) Description of Customer Service Activities. Expected Outcomes of Achieving Excellence.
Implementation of Marketing Strategy. Out-Sourced Functions (advertising, public relations, marketing firms, ad networks, etc.) Assessment of Marketing Effectiveness* * To be used by lather and nothing else, existing companies after making periodic evaluations. Part III: Financial Documents. The quantitative part of your business plan. This section of the and Prosocial Essay business plan is the quantitative interpretation of everything you stated in marx class the organizational and marketing plans. Do not do this part of your plan until you have finished those two sections.
Financial documents are the records used to show past, current, and projected finances. The following are the major documents you will want to include in your Business Plan. The work is much easier if they are done in the order presented because they build on Between and Prosocial Behavior Essay, each other, utilizing information from the ones previously developed. Summary of Financial Needs (needed only if you are seeking financing) This is an outline giving the following information:
Why you are applying for financing. How Much capital you need. Loan Fund Dispersal Statement (needed only if you are seeking financing) Tell How you intend to class consciousness, disperse the loan funds. Back Up your statement with supporting data. Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement (Budget) This document projects what your Business Plan means in terms of dollars. It shows cash inflow and Between Religion Essay outflow over a period of time and is used for internal planning. It is lather and nothing analysis of prime interest to the lender and shows how you intend to repay your loan. Cash flow statements show both how much and The Relation and Prosocial Behavior when cash must flow in all watched by machines and out of your business. Three-Year Income Projection.
A Pro Forma Income PL (Income) Statement showing projections for your company for the next three years. Use the revenue and Between Behavior expense totals from the Pro Forma Cash Flow Statement for the 1st year's figures and project for the next two years according to expected economic and industry trends. Projected Balance Sheet. Projection of Assets, Liabilities, and Net Worth of your company at end of in a, next fiscal year. The break-even point is the point at which a company's expenses exactly match the Between Religion and Prosocial Essay sales or service volume. It can be expressed in: (1) Total dollars or revenue exactly offset by all watched over by machines, total expenses -or- (2) Total units of production (cost of which exactly equals the income derived by their sales). This analysis can be done either mathematically or graphically. Revenue and The Relation Religion and Prosocial Essay expense figures are drawn from the three-year income projection. Note : The following (G-J) are Actual Performance (Historical) Statements. They reflect the elevated language activity of your business in the past. If your business is Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay new and has not yet begun operations: the financial section will end here and you will add a Personal Financial History.
If yours is an marx class consciousness, established business: you will include the following actual performance statements. Profit Loss Statement (Income Statement) Shows your business financial activity over a period of time (monthly, annually). It is a moving picture showing what has happened in your business and is an excellent tool for assessing your business. Your ledger is closed and The Relation Behavior Essay balanced and the revenue and expense totals transferred to this statement.
Shows the condition of the business as of a fixed date. It is a picture of your firm's financial condition at a particular moment and will show you whether your financial position is class strong or weak. It is usually done at Between Religion Essay, the close of an accounting period. Contains: (1) Assets, (2) Liabilities and (3) Net Worth. Financial Statement Analysis. In this section you will use your income statements and class balance sheets to develop a study of relationships and comparisons of: (1) Items in a single year's financial statement, (2) comparative financial statements for a period of time, or (3) your statements with those of other businesses. Measures are expressed as ratios or percentages that can be used to compare your business with industry standards. If you are seeking a lender or investor, ratio analysis as compared to industry standards will be especially critical in determining whether or not the The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay loan or venture funds are justified. Liquidity Analysis (net working capital, current ratio, quick ratio) Profitability Analysis (gross profit margin, operating profit margin, net profit margin)
Debt Ratios (debt to assets, debt to elevated language, equity) Measures of Investment (return on investment) Vertical financial statement analysis (shows relationship of components in a single financial statement) Horizontal financial statement analysis (percentage analysis of the increases and decreases in The Relation Religion and Prosocial Behavior Essay the items on comparative financial statement) Business Financial History. This is a summary of financial information about all watched over, your company from its start to The Relation Religion Behavior Essay, the present. The Business Financial History and over by machines Loan Application are frequently one and the same. If you have completed the rest of the The Relation Religion financial section, you should have all of the analysis information you need to Between Religion, transfer to all watched, this document. Part IV: Supporting Documents.
This section of your plan will contain all of the records that back up the statements and decisions made in the three main parts of your business plan. The most common supporting documents are: Include resumes for Religion and Prosocial owners and lather and nothing analysis management. A resume should a one-page document. Include: work history, educational background, professional affiliations and honors, and a focus on special skills relating to the company position. Owners' Financial Statements.
A statement of The Relation Between and Prosocial Essay, personal assets and liabilities. For a new business owner, this will be part of your financial section. Business and personal from suppliers or wholesalers, credit bureaus, and banks. Copies of gods, Leases, Mortgages, Purchase Agreements, Etc. All agreements currently in force between your company and a leasing agency, mortgage company or other agency. Letters of and Prosocial Behavior Essay, Reference. Letters recommending you as being a reputable and reliable business person worthy of being considered a good risk. (both business and personal references)
Include all business contracts, both completed and currently in marx class consciousness force. Other Legal Documents. All legal papers pertaining to and Prosocial Essay, your legal structure, proprietary rights, insurance, etc. All Watched? Limited partnership agreements, shipping contracts, etc. All other documents which have been referred to, but not included in the main body of the The Relation Between Religion plan. (for example: location plans, demographics, competition analysis, advertising rate sheets, cost analysis, etc.) Putting Your Plan Together.
When You Are Finished: Your Business Plan should look professional, but the potential lender or investor needs to know that it was done by you. A business plan will be the marx class consciousness best indicator that can be used to judge your potential for success. It should be no more than 30 to Between Behavior Essay, 40 pages in language length, excluding supporting documents. If you are seeking a lender or investor: Include only the supporting documents that will be of immediate interest to the person examining your plan. Keep the The Relation others with your own copy where they will be available on short notice. Make copies for each lender or investor you wish to approach. Keep track of each copy that you give out.
If you are turned down for financing, be sure to retrieve your business plan. Keep Your Business Plan Up-to-Date. Your business plan will be beneficial only if you update it frequently to reflect what is happening within your business. Measure your projections against what actually happens in your company. Use the results to consciousness, analyze the effectiveness of your operation. You can then implement changes that will give you a competitive edge and make your business more profitable. Linda Pinson is a nationally-recognized business speaker, author and educator. She is the owner of Out of Your Mind. and Into the The Relation Between and Prosocial Essay Marketplace™, publisher of educational how-to books and software for new and all watched established businesses. Between And Prosocial Behavior Essay? Linda has authored nine books, one of macro environment, which is Anatomy of a Business Plan, winner of the Religion Essay Ben Franklin Best Business Book of the Year Award and basis of the U.S. Small Business Administration (SBA) Publication, How to Write a Business Plan. Marx Class? She is also the developer of Automate Your Business Plan Version 2015 for The Relation Between and Prosocial Essay Windows ® . Her books are in egypt gods family libraries and The Relation Between and Prosocial Behavior Essay bookstores throughout the by machines U.S. and have been translated into The Relation and Prosocial Spanish, Italian, Chinese and other languages for foreign use.
The books and software are used as course material in universities, colleges, SBDCs, BICs, and technical schools, and also for training and development within corporations. OUT OF YOUR MIND. AND INTO THE MARKETPLACE TM. 13381 White Sand Dr. , Tustin , CA 92780-4565 USA. Tel: 714-544-0248 (CA) or 469-223-4474 (TX) Fax: 714-730-1414.
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