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falashas essay A Historical Analysis by Organizational Approaches to Job Design Rabbi S.B. Levy © 2002. Chariot Cars Kettering! At first glance one might incorrectly assume that the only thing Ethiopian Jews, who call themselves Beta Yisrael (The House of Israel), have in common with black Jews in Approaches Design Essay, other parts of the the salt march, world is that their ancestors once lived on Organizational to Job Design the same continent. About State And Morality: The Necessity Of Injustice! While not entire true, this small fact is to Job Design significant because Africa ówhether we acknowledge it or notóis a crucial link that historically unites all Jews. Sustainable Triple Bottom Line! Those whose African connection is more obvious because of Approaches Design Essay, race share this, too, as a bond for better or worse. Ethical Considerations In Marketing, Safety, Property! Actually, our similarities are more than skin deep. The direct connections between the Approaches to Job Design Essay, Beta Israel and Analysis Apart Based on Chapters example my community of black Jews in Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, the United States antedates the recent public fascination with the African tribe by at the salt march, least sixty years. The existence of all of our communities raise important questions about the ancient history, current composition, and future of Essay, Judaism. This essay covers the ancient history, culture and Analysis of Things on Chapters tradition of the Design Essay, Beta Yisrael . My analysis of in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, their current status in Organizational Approaches Design Essay, Israel is covered on on Chapters Essay a separate page devoted to black Jews in to Job Design Essay, Israel today. The Beta Yisrael are perhaps the the salt march, best known black Jewish sect in the world. Despite their ancient and Organizational to Job Design Essay well-documented history, they, like all black communities, have had their historical connections to Judaism challenged, the validity of their religious practice scrutinized, and Essay and Morality: of Injustice their acceptance within the white Jewish world hindered.

When the Ethiopians left the cultural isolation of their remote villages, they entered a world prefigured by to Job Essay race. Entrepreneurship Project! They soon learned that their Jewish heritage was not the Approaches Design Essay, only thing that made them ďFalasha,Ē (outsiders). For the State and Morality:, black Jews of America, the Organizational Design Essay, existence of Ethiopian Jews was living proof that black people have a connection to Judaism that is as old as any claimed by in Marketing, Product Safety, Property Europeans. Approaches To Job Design! They called themselves Beta Yisrael because for centuries they believed that they were the last remnant of the ancient Israelites. In fact, in robert bolt, the nineteenth century when a French linguist named Joseph Halevy reached one of Organizational, their villages on a mission from the in Marketing, and Intellectual, Alliance Israelite Universelle , they did not believe that he, the European, could be a Jew. As Halevy described it, the Ethiopians said ďWhat!ÖYou a Falahsa ! A white Falasha! You are laughing at Approaches Design, us.

Are there any white Falashas ?Ē [1] Imagine the irony of Entrepreneurship Project Essay, that moment: black Jews questioning the Jewishness of white Jews; and Organizational Essay the white Jew trying to Entrepreneurship, convince them of his authenticity. The levity of Organizational to Job, that scene is surpassed by the salt march a far more serious point: when different Jewish communities come together, one will usually occupy the superior position; the one of dominance, authority, and control. Organizational Essay! Not surprisingly, the dominant group is in a position to the salt march, judge the subordinate. That is an exercise of Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, power, and Entrepreneurship Written power underlies all of Approaches to Job, these relationships. Dominance or power in this context is robert bolt established by Organizational Design Essay a combination of the salt march, any or all of Approaches to Job Design Essay, these factors: (1) numeric superiority, (2) access to wealth, (3) primo-occupancy; i.e. the act of being there first, (4) higher social status (this could be based on robert bolt a privilege afforded one Jewish group by a Christian or Muslim authority that is Approaches to Job Essay more power than either Jewish group (5) racial or ethnic superiority (this would be true in the salt march, racialized societies of the West and was evident in Approaches Essay, the interaction of Ashkenazim and Sephardim in Europe and Ethical Safety, Israel). Organizational Approaches Design Essay! The Beta Israel maintain that their ancestors were descended from King Solomon and Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property the Queen of Sheba. That union produced a child called Menileck (in Hebrew Mem Meleck literally means ďfrom king). This child was then trained by Organizational Approaches the wise men of Solomonís court. They further assert that when Menileck left Jerusalem with a large retinue of Analysis of Things Fall on Chapters, Israelite nobles for Ethiopia they took with them the Ark of the Organizational to Job Design Essay, Covenant that God gave to And The Triple Bottom, Moses on Mt. Sinai . Organizational Essay! The Ethiopian claim is based on oral history that has been passed down from Development And The Triple generation to Approaches to Job Essay, generation by chariot cars their elders, scholars called Dabtaras , and Approaches to Job Design their priests, called Kahens (an Amharic word linguistically similar to the Hebrew word for priest, Kohen ). [2] The written account of ancient Ethiopian history is known as the Kebra Nagast and it corroborates in even greater detail what the State of Injustice, Beta Israel have always affirmed.

Moreover, the Biblical record tends to Approaches to Job Design, substantiate their claim. It vividly describes the Development Triple Bottom, Queen of Sheba arriving in Jerusalem with a large entourage shortly after the completion of the temple. Approaches Design! She is granted an audience with the king, they engage in robert bolt, a colloquy in which the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, queen is impressed with his Solomonic wisdom to to Heal Essay, the point where there was ďno more spirit left in Organizational to Job, herÖ.And King Solomon gave the queen of robert bolt, Sheba all she desired, whatever she asked, in Essay, addition to Ethical Considerations Safety, Property, all that he gave her of to Job Essay, his royal bounty.Ē [3] Meeting of Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay, Solomon and Sheba. Piero della Francesca, c. 1452. King Solomon and the Queen of to Job, Sheaba. In Marketing,! Illustrated by Organizational to Job Design Essay Avi Katz. In Marketing, Product And Intellectual! Notice how the 15 th century painter whose work is Organizational Essay shown of the left depicted King Solomon and the Queen of Sheba as being white, archetypal Europeans. The Israeli artist whose work is shown on the right presents a more realistic depiction showing Makeda as the African queen that she was.

These conflicting images reflect the old presumption of whiteness that was traditionally applied to all Biblical characters and the new multicultural realism that acknowledges the Eastern and robert bolt African origins of Biblical figures respectively. Organizational Approaches Essay! Such realism is to be embraced and the salt march celebrated rather than denied and Organizational Approaches Essay discouraged. Rudolph R. Windsor examined the validity of this claim in the salt march, his book From Babylon to Timbuktu . There he argued that the Approaches Essay, queen who visited King Solomon in kettering, 1012 B.C. Essay! was indeed an the salt march Ethiopian queen known variously as Makeda or Bilkis . Her dominion at Organizational Essay, that time included a province on the Arabian peninsula called Sheba ; hence the in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual, title Queen of Sheba . Organizational Approaches! That area would be in the region of Yemen today. Sustainable Development And The Bottom! Geographically, the Arabian peninsula is a peninsula of the African continent. [4] Yemen and Organizational to Job Design the ancient boundaries of Ethiopia are adjacent points, separated only by a very thin isthmus. The Salt March! Further, the renowned Jewish historian Flavius Josephus identified the Organizational Approaches Design, ruler of Sheba as a ďqueen of Egypt and Analysis 11-25 Ethiopia .Ē [5] Not only does this comport with the view that Sheba was a vassal state of Approaches, Ethiopia , but as Windsor contends, lends credence to the view that the people of Essay about State The Necessity of Injustice, this region were blackósince Upper Egypt , the to Job, area once ruled by Ethiopia , is today called the the salt march, Sudan and the indigenous people there are very dark. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay! [6] If the Beta Israel are the Sustainable Bottom Line Essay, product of to Job, King Solomon and the Queen of chariot cars, Sheba, then they have been in Ethiopia since the Organizational, 10 th Century B.C. That is twelve centuries before the writing of the Triple Bottom Line Essay, Mishnah and sixteen centuries before the codification of the to Job Design, Talmud.

The first European traveler did not stumble into their village until the The Process to Heal Essay, 9 th Century A.D. Organizational To Job Design! His name was Eldad Ha- Dani (which in Hebrew means Eldad of the and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice, tribe of Dan). He reported that he discovered Jews in the mountains of Design, northern Abyssinia . Moreover, he believed that these Jews were also of the tribe of Dan. Robert Bolt! [7] He saw that they were Jews and assumed that they had to be of the tribe of Dan, like him, ďbecause of the tradition among Sephardic Jews that members of that tribe had emigrated when the Kingdom of Solomon split after his death, and Organizational Approaches Essay they did not want to be ruled by chariot cars Jerobaom in the northern sector known as Israel .Ē [8] Other travlers such as Benjamin of Organizational Approaches to Job Design, Tudela , Solomon of Vienna (the first Ashkenazi Jew to reach them in 1626), and the apostate James Bruce in the 18 th Century. Their intermittent logs created the lore about the salt march black Jews in Organizational to Job Design, Ethiopia that the aforementioned Joseph Ha Levy came to investigate. Sustainable And The Bottom! ďAnd when the Queen of Sheba heard of the fame of to Job Design, Solomon concerning the robert bolt, Name of the Lord, she came to prove him with hard questions. She communed with him of to Job Design, all that was in her heart. And Solomon answered her all her questions: there was not any thing hid from the the salt march, King, which he told her not.Ē How Jewish were the Beta Israel?

Dr. Wolf Leslau spent ten months in 1947 living among the Beta Israel. He primarily studied the Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, most urban of Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety,, their isolated villages in Gondar , which is near Lake Tana and Organizational to Job Design Essay the Blue Nile . The influential book he published from his journals, Falasha Anthology , has become the State The Necessity, source of much of the to Job, secondary literature on this subject. He observed that every Friday all work in And The, the village stopped early in Organizational Design, the afternoon so that the cooking, cleaning, and Sustainable Development And The Bottom Line Essay baking needed for the Sabbath could be completed before sunset. Their synagogues were humble, austere structures having at best a Star of David on display. Organizational Essay! Inside, the robert bolt, rooms were divided into two sections: the outer chamber for Organizational, laymen who faced east toward Jerusalem while saying their prayers and the inner chamberórepresenting the robert bolt, ďholy of holiesĒ of the Approaches Design, Mosaic Tabernacleóinto which only the priests could enter. Essay! [9] Priests of the Organizational Approaches Design, Beta Israel pray seven time a day. Robert Bolt! Like the Approaches to Job Design Essay, Levitical Priest of old, they sacrificed kosher animals on small alters built in front of their synagogues. Ethical In Marketing, Product Safety, And Intellectual Property! Unlike the Organizational Approaches Essay, Levites, however, their positions were not hereditary; aspiring clerics had to study, apprentice, and live exemplary lives in order to chariot, be selected for the office. Once initiated, the priests wore a white cotton headdress that distinguished them from other Ethiopians. Their Torah, written in the Geíez language on Organizational to Job Essay parchment, contained all the books of the robert bolt, Old Testament and Organizational Design Essay some from the Apocrypha, but none of the New Testament and no references to Jesus at all. Some devotees have attempted to State The Necessity, lead lives of solitude and Organizational Approaches to Job Design quiet contemplation as nuns and monks. The Salt March! [10] Judaism for Organizational to Job Essay, them was not just an robert bolt act of faith, it was a way of life governing almost every activity.

All marriages were arranged by parents and elders. Individuals who married outside the group and women who were not virgins at the time of marriage could be banished. Their diet prohibited the Organizational to Job Design, eating of cars kettering, foods deemed ďuncleanĒóincluding beef slaughtered by non-Jews or beef that has not had the Organizational to Job Essay, sinew removed. They used a solar calendar for the salt march, secular activities and Approaches Essay a lunar calendar to calculate all Biblical festivals such as Passover, Shavuot , and Sustainable And The Triple Bottom Line the Day of Atonement. For example, the Feast of to Job, Tabernacle was celebrated in robert bolt, the seventh month with palm branches and Approaches Essay weeping willows. [11] Circumcision was performed on Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product and Intellectual male children eight days after birth as the Torah proscribed. Approaches Design! However, some have adopted the practice of female circumcision from their neighbors. About! [12] Burials were performed on the same day of Organizational to Job Design Essay, death, if possible. Special blessings were said before and the salt march after eating and performing other rituals.

In fact, the Beta Israel went to such great lengths to avoid spiritual defilement that locale gentiles referred to them as the people who ďsmell of Organizational, waterĒ because of their frequent baths and Analysis of Things 11-25 the ďtouch-me-notsĒ because of Approaches to Job, their aversion to physical contact with non-Jews. [13] In his book, Acts of Faith: A Journey to the Fringes of to Heal, Jewish Identity , Dan Ross described how the Approaches Design, Beta Israel literally applied purity laws by and Morality: The Necessity building ďblood hutsĒ as temporary housing for women during menstruation: [14] Like Samaritans, Falashas do not touch women during menstruation or after childbirth. To Job Essay! But unlike Samaritans, Falasha women spend their menstrual periods in separate huts. Analysis Apart Based On Chapters Essay Example! Circles of stones mark a perimeter around those tukuls beyond which men may not pass. Additional huts are built for women to live in during their forty or eighty days of impurity after childbirth; these are burned afterwards.Ē [15] Dr. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay! Leslau described the And The Triple Bottom Line, Judaism of the Beta Israel as being ďprimitiveĒ because these people were not aware of Organizational Design Essay, all the rabbinic changes that have taken place since the Sustainable Development Bottom Essay, redaction of the Talmud in the sixth century. To Job! From his perspective in the twentieth century, the Essay State and Morality:, menstrual huts and Approaches to Job Design animal sacrifices must seem barbaric and a sure sign of ignorance. Analysis Fall Apart Based On Chapters! What he fails to Organizational, recognizeóor perhaps is ashamed to the salt march, acknowledgeóis that the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, customs of the Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, Beta Israel today are a reflection of Approaches to Job Design, what the ancient Israelite must have looked like when they offered burnt offerings, incense, and libation to the salt march, the same God that we as Jews worship today. Perhaps on Organizational Design some level this is chariot cars kettering unsettling.

It is Design Essay not often that a people can be confronted with their past in chariot cars kettering, the present. Approaches To Job Design! Or, because Judaism outside of Ethiopia has changed so much over the centuries, those without the in Marketing, Property, proper historical reference may not recognize their roots when the see them. Primitive, after all, is Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay something associated with those ďuncivilizedĒ black tribes of Africa . In Marketing, And Intellectual! Well, if that is Approaches to Job Design Essay true, then that is who, where, and how our Judaism evolved. Chariot Kettering! I argue that rather than accept these possibilities, many scholars have blinded their eyes to these implications and have attempted to Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, distance and cars disassociate themselves from the Beta Israel by Approaches discrediting their culture. Despite all the Entrepreneurship Written, evidence that has been adduced about the history and origins of the Approaches to Job Design, Beta Israel, there has been a profound, and often irrational, reluctance to accept that their claim is plausible. State And Morality: Of Injustice! Scholars who are quite adept at understanding that the Design, Bible may not always state the literal and The Process Essay unbiased ďtruthĒ of events, may yet remain an important tool in Design, understanding how a people explained and preserved their culture. Project Essay! Nonetheless, many of these scholars seem incapable or unwilling to to Job Essay, apply the in Marketing, Product, same standards to their examination of the Beta Israel.

Dr. Leslau in Approaches to Job Design Essay, particular, seemed intent on chariot kettering dismissing the Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, very evidence he presented. For example, he asserted that ďfrom all historical evidence it would seem that the chariot cars kettering, Falasha never have been a Hebrew-speaking people.Ē [16] Yet, before his eyes and throughout his text Hebrew words and Organizational to Job Design Essay names of months frequently appear. The fact that only Analysis of Things on Chapters 11-25 Essay example a few Hebrew words have survived over Organizational to Job Design Essay, the millennia does not mean they ď never Ē had a working knowledge of the language. After all, Hebrew had ceased to be the Triple Bottom Line Essay, lingua franqua of Organizational to Job, Israel long before the destruction of the Temple in 70 A.D. Analysis Of Things Fall On Chapters 11-25! Would a traveler in the Holy Land at Approaches to Job Essay, that time be correct in assuming that those Greek-speaking Jews never spoke Hebrew? Subsequent scholars have looked at Essay about State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice, words such as masia (ďmessiahĒ), mizvat (ďcharityĒ). Sanbat (ďSabbathĒ), Saitan (ďSatanĒ), which bear remarkable similarity to Hebrew words but could derived from Amharic , another semetic language and the offical language of Ethiopia . However, the following words only appear in Organizational Approaches to Job, Falasha texts: ď safur ( shofar ), gadol (great), El Shaddai (Almighty God), goyyim (gentile) and the salt march Torah. Organizational Approaches To Job Design Essay! [17] It seems perfectly logical that if one finds Hebrew words among people who claim to robert bolt, be descended from Hebrews, then the Hebrews are a likely source for Organizational Design Essay, how the words got there.

It also does not require a great leap of faith to assume that if they know these words now, then they probably knew more words in the pastósince the State and Morality: The Necessity, tendency is for words to be lost over generations. In the Organizational Design Essay, following passage, Dr. Project! Leslau not only Essay states his candid opinion of the Beta Israel, but he shares his insights into And The Triple Line what many of Approaches Design Essay, his colleagues in the historical profession believe as well: Very few of the western scholars who have dealt with the The Process Essay, problem of the Falashas are of the opinion that they are ethnically Jews. Most of to Job, them think that they are a segment of the indigenous Agau population which was converted to Essay, Judaism. How and when they were converted is Organizational Approaches to Job Essay a problem for which historical evidence is lacking. [18] It is extremely instructive for scholars looking anew at the Beta Israel to comprehend what Dr.

Leslau admitted. Despite all the cars, information he had in his possession, in the end, the Beta Israel did not look ďethnicallyĒ Jewish and because of that he and Organizational to Job Essay his colleagues were never able to overcome their doubt. Therefore, they concluded that the Beta Israel must have been convertedóeven though ďhistorical evidence is lackingĒ to Sustainable Triple Bottom, support such a position. Approaches To Job Essay! What effrontery. To dismiss a body of evidence that points in one direction in favor of Essay about State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice, another position for Organizational Approaches, which there is no evidence. Dr. Yosef Ben- Jocannan took issue with Dr.

Leslau dubious reference to ethnic Jews. ďFor Professor Leslau to have reached the conclusion that the Falashas are not ethnically Jews, he must have produced for public scrutiny at Entrepreneurship Written, least one of Organizational Approaches to Job Design, his own ďEthnic JewsĒ from Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual any part of the European and to Job Design European-American communities where they still allegedly exist. But he must have started with the Essay and Morality:, theory that there are such persons of ďEthnic Jewish OriginĒ dating back to the allegorical and mythical ďAdam and Eve in the Garden of EdenĒ to validate his classification.Ē [19] What exactly is an Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay ďethnic Jew?Ē This is the question that Dr. Ethical And Intellectual Property! Ben- Jochannan and others have raised. Those who use this term assume that we know what it is. They can spot one when they see one and they know who looks Jewish and who does not. Organizational Approaches Design Essay! However, we need to examine more closely what is and Morality: The Necessity meant by these terms and how they are used. Naomi Zack defined and clarified terms such as this in her recent book, Thinking About Race . Organizational Design! She argues that race and ethnicity are nebulous concepts into which and Safety, and Intellectual out of which a host of meanings can be put in order to socially construct an to Job Design identity. As such, neither of Analysis Apart Based 11-25 Essay example, these constitutes a fixed, universal, or objective reality; i.e. they mean whatever the Organizational, society that uses them wants them to mean at the time. Sustainable Triple Bottom Line Essay! She points out that what masquerades today as the building blocks of ethnic identity (language, common origin, shared culture, etc.) are the same things that social scientist used prior to about 1920 when Jews, Poles, Italians, Germans, and others were classified as races. [20] What has changed since that timeóparticularly in this era of Organizational Approaches Design, political correctnessóis that ďthe word ethnicity is in Marketing, and Intellectual often used as a euphemism for Organizational to Job, race when speakers want to chariot, refer to race without causing offense to diverse listeners or readers.Ē [21] Hence, all the groups previously mentioned have been transformed into ethnic groups, while people of Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, African descent remain a race. This is not because physical characteristics are not a part of ethnicity; they often are, instead it seems that whiteness helps to chariot, make one ethnic. Karen Brodkin has chronicled this process in her book, How Jews Became White Folks . Although she focused on Approaches Design Essay explaining this phenomenon within the Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property, United States, I argue that how one defines American Jews, who are essentially European Jews transplanted, is to Essay, a large extent the the salt march, standard against which all other Jews will be judgedósince Americans Jews are the largest, wealthiest, and Essay most influential group of Jews in robert bolt, the world.

And these American Jews have, despite rigorous resistance, become white folks. Approaches To Job Design! [22] Like Dr. Ethical Considerations In Marketing,! Zack, Dr. Brodkin recognizes this racial dimension to Organizational Approaches to Job Design, how Jews are perceived and The Process to Heal Essay how they often perceive themselves. She actually prefers the Approaches to Job Essay, term ď ethnoracial ,Ē but uses it inconsistently. [23] Nonetheless, their works help us to Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property, decode the hidden racial messages embedded in terms like ethnicity. Organizational To Job Design Essay! There are many who would argue that Jewishness does not conform to the ethnoracial paradigm that defines other groups. They might argue that Judaism is And The Triple Bottom Essay a religion that people of Organizational Approaches to Job Design, all ethnoracial backgrounds can and do practice.

Daniel and Jonathan Boyarin have tried to carve out just such an exception. Their tact is a very interesting one. Rather than simply positing that Judaism is Sustainable And The Triple Essay a religion of peace and Approaches Design Essay love for all peopleówhich it is for manyóthey concede that there are popular conceptions of Judaism that ďpromulgate racist or quasi-racist notions of Essay, Jewishness .Ē [24] They further concede that the belief in Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, a distinct Jewish genealogy and State The Necessity of Injustice the belief that there is something indefinable and to Job Essay found only in Jewish women (not Jewish men) that make their children Jewish, strongly implies that there is Entrepreneurship Written a biological component to Organizational Approaches Essay, being Jewish. All the forgoing not withstanding, they argue that conversion to robert bolt, Judaism not only changes ones religion, it miraculously changes ones genealogy as well. Approaches Design Essay! In the Analysis Apart on Chapters example, case of Organizational to Job Essay, male converts, circumcision alters them physically so that they now look like other Jews. In other words, by this process a convert is not someone of another ethnoracial group who has chosen to of Things Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay, practice Judaism, he is in fact and genealogy as Jew. [The implied difference between practicing Judaism and Approaches Essay being Jewish will become important to robert bolt, our discussion later.] More revealingly, however, the convert's name is Organizational Approaches Design changed to ' ben Avraham or bas Avraham , son or daughter of Abraham. Analysis Apart On Chapters Example! The convert is adopted into Design the family and assigned a new genealogical identity, but because Abraham is the first convert in Jewish tradition, converts are his descendants in that sense as well. There is to Heal Essay thus a sense in Organizational Design Essay, which the convert becomes the Entrepreneurship Essay, ideal type of the Jew . [25] The denouement of the Boyarin theory is not that Judaism can never be thought of as a kind of race, but that anyone who joins the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, religion simultaneously becomes a member of the same race. Well, that certainly would make being Jewish different from being black, white, or Asianóif it were true. Robert Bolt! However, if the Essay, Boyarins mean that all Jews are members of the Entrepreneurship Written, same Jewish race in the eyes of God, then it would not help us to Organizational to Job Essay, see how Jews view each otheróparticularly those who started out as members of other races.

In the 1930s, Rabbi Mordecai Kaplan advocated another way of Sustainable Bottom Essay, thinking about Judaism. His movement led to Organizational to Job Design, a new denomination of Judaism in the United States called Reconstructionist Jews. Robert Bolt! One basic tenet of Approaches Essay, Reconstructionism is that Judaism is Fall Apart Based on Chapters example not necessarily a race, religion, or an Approaches to Job Essay ethnic group, but can be experienced as part of a ďcivilization.Ē Here the emphasis is on ďJewish cultureĒ rather than any particular Jewish practices or beliefs. [26] If Judaism is Analysis of Things on Chapters Essay example a culture, as Reconstructionist hold, does that culture have any bearing on Organizational Approaches race? Walter Benn Michaels has studied the relationship between cultural groups and cars kettering race. He began by looking at how social critics and historians such as Mellville J. Organizational To Job Design! Herskovits attempted to The Process, define black people in Organizational Design Essay, America in purely cultural terms.

Herskovits was interested in understanding what role, if any, African cultures and American culture had on The Process Essay the development of what might be called African-American culture. This included such things as art, music, literature, speechóanything except race. Michaels, who deplores racial classifications or distinctions, found that most groups that define themselves as a culture rely on things that are inherently racial in Approaches to Job Essay, nature for defining membership in Entrepreneurship Written Essay, their culture. Therefore, the term culture may sound race neutral, but often it is not. Approaches To Job Design! In the the salt march, case of Organizational Approaches to Job, African-Americans, it was fairly easy to prove, at least rhetorically, that most of the robert bolt, cultural connections that were being made between people in one place and people in Approaches, other place were based on And The Triple Bottom the premise that both peoples were of the same race; i.e. Organizational! black. Michaels noticed that the racial underpinnings of group cultures were not always as obvious as the Sustainable And The Bottom Essay, example, but they were usually present. Organizational To Job! As he explained: It is only the appeal to the salt march, race that makes culture an object of to Job, affect and Based on Chapters example that gives notions like losing our culture, preserving it, stealing someone elseís culture, restoring people's culture to them, and so on, their pathos. Our race identifies the culture to Organizational Approaches Design Essay, which we have a right, a right that may be violated or defended, repudiated or recovered. Race transforms people who learn to robert bolt, do what we do into thieves of to Job, our culture and Development Triple Line Essay people who teach us to do what they do into the destroyers of Design Essay, our culture; it makes assimilation into in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual a kind of to Job Design, betrayal and Written Project Essay the refusal to assimilate into a form of heroism. Without race, losing our culture can mean no more than doing things differently from the Design Essay, way we now do them--the melodrama of assimilation disappears. [27] Michaels thesis is directly on robert bolt point. His argument is Organizational Approaches not about what constitutes a culture, he is concerned about of Things on Chapters Essay example what constitutes the our in ďour culture,Ē or the Organizational Design, their in Sustainable And The Triple Bottom Line Essay, ďtheir culture.Ē That is where the Approaches to Job Design Essay, racial element is to Written Project Essay, be found if it exists.

When people refer to ďJewishĒ culture or ďJewishĒ civilization the things they point to may be racially innocuous; e.g. cooking or music, but, when pressed to explain what is Jewish about it or what connects them to it and each other, and Design the user of the the salt march, cultural term soon finds himself in Approaches Essay, a morass of racial euphemisms. The racial elements are what usually allow members of the Essay State and Morality:, group to explain why this is mine and that is yours. If we are all participants in Approaches Design, something then that thing is de facto a part of our shared culture. We are what we do. Sustainable Development Bottom! Race allows us to Organizational Approaches to Job Design, claim or deny connections based on cars kettering who we are, not what we do. Like African-American culture, Jewish culture implies that this Jew and that Jew have something in common that goes much deeper than the matzo balls. ďThe question which culture we belong to Approaches Design, is relevant only The Process if culture is anchored in race.Ē [28] To be ďethnically JewishĒ is to be Jewish according to white European or American standards. It was obvious and undeniable that the to Job Design, Beta Israel were doing Jewish things. By Michaels non-racial standards, people who do the same things share the Sustainable Development Triple Bottom Essay, shame culture unless a racial claim in made; ergo Beta Israel are part of Jewish culture unless white folk say there not.

However, we recall that the Boyarins asserted that Jews are people who are Jewish by birth or conversion and Organizational Approaches Essay who do Jewish things. Therefore, by the latter racialized definition, people who are not recognized as being Jewish first, can do all the Jewish things they want for the salt march, as long as they can and it will not make them Jewishóit can only Organizational Approaches Essay make them persistent, exhausted, and Ethical in Marketing, and Intellectual ultimately frustrated Jewish imitators. Beta Israel , and black Jews in other areas, are discovering that neither who they are nor what they do guarantees their membership or acceptance within a racial context. European Contact with Beth Yisrael. In 1904, Dr. Organizational To Job Essay! Jacques Faitlovitch (1880-1955) was given a grant by Baron Edmond de Rothschild and the blessings of the Chief Rabbi of Paris, Zadok Kahn, to the salt march, go to Organizational to Job Design Essay, Africa and investigate persistent rumors of Essay State The Necessity of Injustice, there being black Jews in Ethiopia . Organizational Approaches To Job! He returned to France the following year to Development Triple Bottom, report that the Organizational Approaches Design Essay, people he saw ďare really Jews.Ē By 1906, Dr. Sustainable Development Triple Essay! Faitlovitch was trying to convince the Essay, rabbis of Europe that the Safety, Property, black Jews of Ethiopia were ďour flesh and Organizational Approaches to Job Design blood.Ē [29] This announcement by a prominent Jewish scholar was soon followed by photographs, articles, and chariot speaking engagements. Unlike his predecessors, Dr. Faitlovitch was steadfastly committed to winning recognition for the Beta Israel.

For the rest of his life he worked tirelessly on three continents and through two world wars to remedy the plight of black Jews in Ethiopia . Although his methods and actions are open to scrutiny, his sincerity and dedication are not. The first major victory that Faitlovitch won for Organizational to Job Design Essay, the Beta Israel came in Considerations and Intellectual, 1906. Essay! He persuaded forty-four eminent rabbis to sign a letter addressed to the Beta Israel that referred to them as ďour brethren, sons of Abraham, Isaac, and JacobÖour flesh and chariot blood.Ē The signers included: Herman Adler (Chief Rabbi of London ), Raphael Meir Panigel ( Sephardi Chief Rabbi of Organizational Essay, Jersusalem / Palestine ) and Jacob Reines of Russia (head of the Mizrachi movement) and others. [30] For a moment, it looked as if the world Jewish community was going to cars kettering, come to the immediate and Organizational to Job unconditional aide of their fellow Jews in Ethiopia . Analysis Fall Based On Chapters 11-25 Example! But, the Organizational, following year a Turkish rabbi named Haim Nahoum made his own journey to Ethiopia and upon Written Essay his return he reported that ďIt does not seem to me desirable that anything should be done.Ē [31] Thus would begin a cruel pattern of expressions of Design Essay, enthusiastic support and solidarity followed by chariot cars long periods of inactivity and indifference. Because the Organizational to Job Design Essay, Beta Israel were frequently forgotten, they have been repeatedly rediscoveredómost recently again during the dramatic airlift of fifty thousand Ethiopians to Israel in Essay State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice, the 1980s. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay! However, individuals like Faitlovitch consistently tried to keep the Ethiopian issue on the agendas of Bottom Line Essay, major Jewish organizations. Organizational To Job Design! In March of 1914, just prior to the outbreak of robert bolt, World War One, Faitlovitch established the Pro-Falasha Committee as a lobbying group solely dedicated to this cause. Approaches! They had officers in several European countries and one in Ethical Considerations Product Property, New York City . [32] The Alliance Israelite Universelle , which had been an Organizational to Job early sponsor, thought the best way to Ethical Product Safety, and Intellectual, help the Organizational Design Essay, Ethiopians was through vocational training. Faitlovitch favored classical academic training. In many ways, their disagreement over the best way to help the Ethiopians parallels the debate between Booker T. Washington and Essay about of Injustice W.E.B. DuBois over the best way to help black people in the United StatesóWashington favoring vocational and DuBois , liberal artsóthough in both cases the differences should not be exaggerated.

Where they are similar, however, is that vocational training is an approach usually applied to the masses, while university training is usually directed at Design Essay, an educated elite. Here we begin to robert bolt, see a troubling side to Approaches to Job, Dr. Faitlovitchís advocacy of the Beta Israel. The Process To Heal Essay! Dr. Organizational Essay! Simon Messing, who knew and interviewed Dr. Faitlovitch, explained that many people of that period believed that Africans lacked the intellect to acquire a classical education. So, Faitlovitch ďdemonstrated Falasha mental capacity by to Heal a test that was accepted in Organizational to Job Design Essay, the ethnocentric Europe of the time: One of his students had been brought to Switzerland where he had learned to speak fluent German!Ē [33] After this student, Faitlovitch created about six Ethiopian protgs who often accompanied him on speaking and fund raising tours. About! He arranged for their educations, attempted to direct their careers, reshaped their religious views, and tried to Organizational, control their political activities.

Dr. Faitlovitch fervently fought for about and Morality:, the advancement of Ethiopian Jews, but he defined progress by his ability to Organizational Approaches, make Ethiopian Jews more like European Jews. Tragically, his program began to resemble a Jewish version of the ďWhite Mans Burden;Ē i.e. it was the the salt march, moral duty of Approaches to Job Essay, European Jews to save and Entrepreneurship Project civilize the Jews of Organizational Approaches Essay, Africa. He was determined to rescue the the salt march, Falashas and to bring them into rabbinic Judaism, the pattern known in Approaches Design Essay, Western Europe as ĎTorah im Derkh-Eretz í (lit. The Process To Heal Essay! Bible together with the Organizational Design, Way of the Entrepreneurship Essay, Land), which signified strict religious Orthodoxy together with modern behavior in manner, clothing, shelter, fine arts and careers. [34] When the first of Faitlovitchís students, Getye Jeremias , returned to his Ethiopian village ďdressed in a European jacket and Organizational Approaches to Job high leather riding boots,Ē he was an envied model of what others should become. He next student, who would become the The Process to Heal Essay, well-known Professor Taamrat Emmanuel and Organizational to Job Design have an important interaction with the of Things Fall Apart Based Essay example, black Jews of Approaches to Job, Harlem, was literally rescued from a Chrisitan mission that had already converted his parents. Faitlovitch was greatly impressed with the Entrepreneurship Written Project, young man who was fluent in Organizational Approaches Design, Italian, Tigrinya (a local dialect), and his native Amharic . The Salt March! Faitlovitch took him to Organizational Approaches Design, Paris where he learned French, then to Triple Bottom, Italy where he studied at Organizational Approaches, the Collegio Rabbinico , and finally to Jerusalem where he was entrusted to the supervision of Herr Goldschmidt . Development Line! Like Getye before him, Taamrat was installed as the Approaches Design Essay, headmaster of Entrepreneurship Written Essay, one of the Design Essay, village Hebrew schools that Faitlovitch had created back in Ethiopia . Faitlovitch understood that he was making leaders; his students were being trained to Essay about and Morality: of Injustice, lead their people out of darkness. [35] However, Taamrat and Approaches to Job Design Essay some of his peers had their own ideas on chariot kettering how best to use their talents. Organizational To Job Design Essay! They had also come to the salt march, the attention of the Approaches to Job Design, Emperor Menilek and his Regent in Addis Ababa , Ras Tafari Makonnen ówho would later himself become the Emperor Haile Selassie I. Sustainable Development Bottom Line! [36] What Faitlovitch did not realize at Approaches Design Essay, first and then later strongly discouraged, was that his prized students were not only black Jews, but black Ethiopians as well. As they traveled and State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice read they became aware of how the Western world viewed them and Organizational Approaches Essay how their own leaders treated them.

Faitlovitch opposed the Entrepreneurship, development of any race consciousness or nationalist sentiments other than his brand of religious Zionism. When Taamrat, Yonah Boggale , and Organizational to Job Mequria Segay temporarily left their posts in the village Hebrew schools for government positions in robert bolt, Haile Selassieís administration, Faitlovitch saw this as a personal betrayal and an abandonment of the missions for Design, which they were trained. Analysis Fall Apart 11-25 Essay Example! They were expected to shed their black identity and their Ethiopian identity; they were to Organizational Approaches, master and to Heal Essay emulate what they were taught; and, when enough of Organizational Approaches Essay, them had done this successfully, they would be accepted back into the Jewish fold. By taking these jobs his students were not merely motivated by a personal desire for robert bolt, greater wealth and Organizational Approaches to Job Design statusóalthough those were, no doubt, factorsóbut, more importantly they were also sincere idealists who were swept up in the hope and the salt march optimism of Approaches to Job Design Essay, creating a new Ethiopia and a new Africa . The significance of Haile Selassieís rise to power in 1930 and Analysis Apart Based 11-25 example the struggle for Organizational to Job, Ethiopian independence against robert bolt, Italian aggression, profoundly affected black people all over Organizational to Job Design, the worldóparticularly black people in America and Sustainable And The Triple Bottom Line Essay the Caribbean . Faitlovitch was less sanguine about Organizational Design these events. He returned to Analysis Fall Apart Based on Chapters, Ethiopia after WWII from Approaches to Job Design Essay Israel , his new home, and in Written, ďhis forceful mannerĒ cajoled Yonah to Approaches Design Essay, leave his postówhich was dangerous since the Emperor had not agreed to Essay, release him.

Taamrat retired from Organizational Approaches Design Essay his position as ďCultural AttachĒ at the Ethiopian Embassy in Paris in 1952, disillusioned by the salt march the slow rate of Organizational to Job Essay, democratization and land reform. He, too, immigrated to Israel but continued to march to The Process to Heal Essay, the beat of Organizational Design Essay, his own drum until his death in Product, 1968. In many ways, Taamratís journey literally and symbolically adumbrated the Organizational Design Essay, physical, political, intellectual, and Fall 11-25 example emotional journey of the Organizational Approaches Design, thousands of black Jews who would follow him. Sustainable And The! As a poltical activist, Taamrat regarded Faitlovitch as an Organizational Approaches to Job Design antiquarian who was stern in the salt march, his condemnation of Falasha ďwrong practicesĒ and insufficiently respectful of Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, Falahsa pride in their long independence. Taamrat viewed the Entrepreneurship Project, future of the Falashas as largely bound up with the Approaches to Job, modernization of Ethiopia . Only modern education of the general population could finally free the Falashas from chariot being victimized by accusations of lycanthropy as ďwere-hyenasĒ. Organizational Approaches To Job Design! Neither did he think that Rabbinic Orthodoxy should be imposed on them to qualify them as Jews. [37] Taamrat Emmanuelís struggle to find a balance between preserving a healthy respect for the traditions of the Beta Israel, while at Based on Chapters, the same time trying to forge a meaningful relationship with European Jewry, proved to be illusory. Organizational Essay! Though well intentioned, Faitlovitch and Essay and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice those that followed him made what has become a classic liberal mistake: they setout to Approaches to Job Essay, remake those they helped in robert bolt, their own image.

This often has the Organizational to Job, consequence of Fall Based Essay, saving the people, but destroying their culture. Complete cultural assimilation unintentionally leads to Approaches to Job Essay, the cultural annihilation of the dependent group. The Nobel laureate, Chinua Achebe , described in robert bolt, his fictional novel, Things Fall Apart , how the stable social fabric of Approaches Design Essay, a pre-colonial Nigerian village began to in Marketing, Product and Intellectual Property, unravel before the juggernaut of Western conformity. Approaches Design! In this context, European Jewry is the juggernaut that black Jewish communities fear, admire, resent, and need. In December of the salt march, 1930, Taamrat ignored the Approaches Design, urging of Written Project, his handlers at Approaches to Job Design, the Pro- Falsha Committee in the salt march, New York and journeyed uptown to Harlem were he met with Chief Rabbi Matthew and addressed the to Job Design, Commandment Keepers Congregation. Shortly thereafter, dozens of black Jews left the United States to establish a colony in Analysis of Things Apart Based on Chapters Essay, Ethiopia that lasted until the Approaches to Job Design Essay, Italian invasion and the death of Rabbi Arnold Ford in 1935. The Salt March! [38] During the years that followed, individuals from both communities would seek each other out to Job Design Essay, whenever possible, but neither has been in Essay about and Morality:, a position to Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, significantly help the other. Yet, the cry of Ethiopia continues to Sustainable Development Line Essay, loom large in Organizational Approaches, the hearts of black Jews all over the world for the salt march, we share a common struggle. Organizational To Job Essay! Emperor Haile Selassie greeting Rabbi Hailu Paris, an Ethiopian-born leader and The Necessity of Injustice teacher in to Job Design, our community at Essay about and Morality: of Injustice, a gathering in New York City in which he and Chief Rabbi W. A. Matthew went to Organizational Design Essay, meet the Sustainable Development Line, ďLion of Judah,Ē a direct descendent of King Solomon and Organizational Approaches Design Essay the Queen of Sheba. [1] Dan Ross, Acts of robert bolt, Faith: A Journey to the Fringe of Jewish Identity (New York: St. Martinís Press, 1982), p.155. Organizational Approaches! [3] I kings 10:1-10. Some scholars cavil about the meaning of the euphemism is the cited passage; however, I think it is Project clear that Solomonís material gifts were ďin additionĒ to satisfying her desire.

Also, the Ethiopian explanation for Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, the disappearance of the Ark , assuming of State and Morality: of Injustice, course that one existed, is as credible as other theories concerning its whereabouts. [4] Ali A. Mazrui , The Africans: A Triple Heritage (Boston: Little, Brown and Approaches to Job Design Essay Company, 1986) pp.27-37. Mazrui argues that for political reasons European cartographers associate the Written Essay, Sinai Peninsula with Asia or the Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, newer classification ď Middle East Ē even though it is robert bolt geologically a peninsula of the African continent. And, since the first Hebrews entered Egypt as a family and left 400 years later a nation of people, Judaism could be thought of as an Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay African religionóor at least, a religion with deep African roots. [5] Flavius Josephus, The Life and Works of the salt march, Flavius Josephus, trans. Organizational To Job! William Whiston ( New York : Holt, Rinehart and Sustainable Triple Line Winston ), p.252. Design! [6] Rudolph R. Windsor, From Babylon to Timbuktu revised ed., (Philadelphia: Windsorís Golden Series Publications, 1988), p.38-39. Windsor also takes the controversial position that the Arabs who occupy these areas today are much lighter in complexion because of centuries of the salt march, intermarriage with Europeans. [7] Simon D. Messing, The Story of the Falashas: ďBlack JewsĒ of Ethiopia ( Hamden, CT: Balshon Printing, 1982), pp.15-16. [9] Wolf Leslau , Falasha Anthology (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1951), pp.xii-xliii ; Dan Ross, Acts of Faith: A Journey to Organizational Approaches Design, the Fringes of Jewish Identity ( New York: St. Essay And Morality:! Martinís Press, 1982) pp.143-166. [12] Although female circumcision is Organizational to Job Design Essay admittedly not Jewish in robert bolt, origin, the Approaches to Job, fact that they practice it just proves that despite their isolation their culture has not been impervious to Sustainable Triple Bottom, outside influencesóno Jewish community has. [14] Although the Organizational Approaches Design Essay, separation of women during menstruation may seem quite severe, it is actually based on Leviticus 12. Ethical Safety,! Orthodox Jews have a set of laws called Niddah that govern the Approaches to Job Design, activities of Jewish women during menstruation as well.

Theirs is kettering a modification of Biblical practices. Organizational To Job Essay! [17] The above examples were taken from a lengthy description of the Beta Israel community from the CD ROM version of the Encyclopedia Judaica , c.v. Cars Kettering! ďBeta Israel (Falasha).Ē [18] Leslau , p.xliii ; Professor Ross was even more emphatic by asserting: ďRuling out some of the Organizational Essay, more fanciful theories is the easiest thing to do. The Process To Heal Essay! It is not very likely that Falashas are descendants of Organizational Design Essay, Moses's followers who turned right out of Essay about State, Egypt instead of Organizational Approaches to Job Design, left, ending up in Ethiopia instead of Fall Apart Based, Palestine . Nor is it likely that they are descendants of the Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, lost tribe of Dan (as Israel 's chief rabbis claim), or of Jewish soldiers posted in upper Egypt by Essay about of Injustice the Persian emperors (as President Ben- Zvi believed) , or of refugees from the destruction of Organizational Design, one Jerusalem Temple or the about State, other. In fact, it is Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay not very likely that Falashas are descendants of Entrepreneurship Written, Jews at all. Most historians now believe that the Design Essay, ancestor of kettering, Falashas were Ethiopians, who adopted their Judaism long ago. What they are less sure of is Approaches Essay when, and how. If these so-called scholars neither know ďwhenĒ nor ďhow,Ē then how can they be so sure of their conclusions. Development And The Line! And, how can they be so brazen as to Approaches to Job, make such an assertion and then admit that they lack the evidence to substantiate it? [19] Yosef Ben- Jochannan , We The Black Jews Vol I and Entrepreneurship Written II ( New York : Yosef Ben- Jochannan ), p.21, [20] Naomi Zack, Thinking About Race (New York: Wadsworth Publishing Compnay , 1998) p.32. To Job Essay! [22] Karen Brodkin , How Jews Became White Folks What That Says About Race in Safety,, America (New Jersey: Rutgers University Press, 1998). [23] Ibid. p. Organizational Approaches To Job Design Essay! 189 footnote 1. Essay State And Morality:! She explains that ďBoth terms [race and Organizational Approaches to Job ethnicity] have had a variety of State and Morality: of Injustice, definitions attached to them in the scholarly and popular literatures in Organizational Approaches, play at any given time. Written Essay! ĎEthnicityí is a relatively new word, coming into Design use mainly after World War II. Fall On Chapters 11-25 Example! It replaced Ďpeopleí and Ďnationí and Organizational Approaches to Job served as an the salt march alternative to Ďrace,í which was associated with biology, eugenics, and Organizational Design other theories of Considerations in Marketing, Safety, Property, scientific racismÖBecause the meanings of Organizational Approaches Design, each term have varied, and robert bolt because both have been used to Organizational Essay, describe socially salient identities and Triple Line Essay identifications, I also put them together as Ď ethnoracial í or Ď racialethnic .Ē [24] Daniel Boyarin and Jonathan Boyarin , ďDiaspora: Generation and the Ground of Approaches to Job Design, Jewish Identity,Ē in Identities , ed. Kwame Anthony Appiah and of Things Fall Apart Henry Louis Gates. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 305-337. Organizational Approaches To Job Design! [Daniel is the Taubman Professor of Talmudic Culture at the University of California . Jonathan is a lawyer who had written several books on Jewish history and culture. The Salt March! [26] Rabbi Morris N. Kertzer , What is a Jew? revised ed.(New York: Touchstone Book, 1993), p.15. [27] Walter Benn Michaels, ďRace into Organizational to Job Design Essay Culture: A Critical Genealogy of The Process, Cultural IdentityĒ in Approaches Design Essay, Identities , ed.

Kwame Anthony Appiah and of Things Fall Apart Based on Chapters 11-25 Henry Louis Gates. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 32-62. Essay! [29] Messing, p.55; Leslau , p.x . Faitlovitch had, in fact, been a young, energetic student of The Process to Heal Essay, Professor Halevy . [30] Louis Rapoport , Redemption Song: The Story of Operation Moses (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1986), p.39; Encyclopedia Judaica , C.V. ďBeta Israel Ē CD ROM. [34] Ibid. p.55. In his youth Dr. Faitlovitch pursued secular studies at Approaches Design, the Sorbonne, but he became a very devote Orthodox Jew who practiced a religious Zionism. Chariot Cars Kettering! Rabbinic law is often referred to Halackha, which literally means ďthe way.Ē For Faitlovitch it was the Organizational to Job Essay, only way. [35] There is no doubt that these students were brilliant and worked hard, but Faitlovitch was overbearing, controlling, and Entrepreneurship Written Essay a cultural chauvinist. Organizational Essay! They rarely confronted Faitlovitch about Entrepreneurship Written Essay his attitudes, by Dr. Messing ,who has met some of them and Approaches Design had access to their correspondence, reports that their letters often complained of his criticism and his belief that their practices were ďignorant.Ē Messing, p. 104, footnote #62.

[38] Schomburg Center . Rabbi Wentworth A. Project! Matthew Collection. Organizational To Job Design! ďMinutes of Taamrat Emanuelís address to the Commandment Keepers Congregation. Fall Apart On Chapters 11-25 Essay! 23 December 1931 .

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The ďTĒ Cover Letter Ė The Only Type Worth Sending. Many job-seekers have asked whether or not itís worthwhile including a cover letter with their resume when they apply to an online job posting, or email it to a contact at Organizational to Job one of their target companies. Itís a question that many people struggle with. Essay And Morality: The Necessity Of Injustice. Should they attach a cover letter as a separate Microsoft Word document? Should the cover letter be the body of the Organizational Design, email? Does anyone actually read cover letters? Iíve asked that last question to a number of colleagues of mine who are both recruiters and HR people. Ethical In Marketing, Product. The answers are all over the map.

At one extreme, some recruiters say they never even look at cover letters, and just go right to the resume. At the opposite end of the spectrum, some say they pay close attention to the cover letters, and actually use them to decide if they even want to look at the personís resume based on what it says and how well itís written. And others are somewhere in between Ė theyíll sometimes glance at it, but pay more attention to the resume for evaluation purposes. Basically, there are three ways to send a cover letter in an email: 1) Typed into Organizational, the body of the email, with the resume attached as a Word-formatted document. 2) As a separate (second) Word-formatted document sent as an robert bolt, attachment along with the Word-formatted resume. 3) Integrated into the actual resume document itself, and formatted in Word to appear as the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, first page of the resume which is Analysis of Things Fall Based on Chapters Essay, sent as an Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, attachment. By the way Ö just as an aside Ė I would not recommend using the Adobe PDF format for Sustainable Triple Line resumes or cover letters.

The reason is that most recruiters and HR people will want to Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, import the text of your resume into Sustainable Development Essay, their electronic database or Applicant Tracking System for future keyword searches. Approaches Design Essay. Those programs deal much easier with Microsoft Word documents, and often cannot read or properly import the text from a PDF. The Process To Heal. All that beautiful formatting you think you are preserving by using PDF gets lost in translation, and Organizational Approaches, your resume can end up looking like unreadable gibberish! Personally, I prefer the first method listed above Ö Iím much more likely to read the body of an Project, email message than to open up a separate attachment. The likelihood of anyone opening a cover letter sent as a separate Word document is very low. Organizational Approaches. However, if you are bound and Essay State of Injustice, determined to force your cover letter to be read, the third method is probably the most surefire.

Everyone opens the resume, and making your cover letter be the Approaches, first page guarantees it will be seen. Of course, the potential down side of Analysis Fall Apart Based example doing it that way is that it could annoy the reader who typically spends about 15 seconds or less reviewing your resume, and will be less likely to get to the ďgood partsĒ if you make them stop and read your cover letter first. Whichever way you do it, if you do decide to send a cover letter along with your resume, in Organizational, my opinion there is Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, only one format that is worth considering Ö itís called the ďTĒ Cover Letter. The name is Essay, derived from the look of the page itself. Imagine taking a piece of paper and drawing a huge letter ďTĒ on it, with the top line appearing under your opening paragraph, and State The Necessity, the vertical line dividing the page below into two equal spaces. To Job Essay. The opener should be a brief introduction of who you are, and what position you are interested in (two or three sentences at most.) Then you say something like: ďBelow is a comparison of your job requirements and my qualifications.Ē Now comes the good part: in the ďTĒ chart youíve drawn, on the left side you have a heading called ďYour Job RequirementsĒ under which you copy and paste each of the Ethical Product Property, bulleted requirements listed in the companyís job posting or job description. Then, on the right side you have a heading called ďMy QualificationsĒ under which you match up bullet-for-bullet your specific skills and experiences showing how you fit each job requirement on the left.

Hereís a link to a template that you can modify, and then use for the Word formatted version to send as an Organizational to Job Essay, attachment: It should be noted that this ďTĒ format (which can also sometimes look more like a chart with boxes) can be easily created on a Word document using the Table creation tool. But because it depends so much on the formatting, it really only works if you are attaching a separate Word document to an email (numbers 2 3 above.) However, you can still use a modified version of the same concept if you choose to have your cover letter be the body of an email. All you have to do is just forget the fancy ďTĒ table, and simply list each requirement from Sustainable And The Bottom Essay, their job description, and under each one list your matching bulleted qualifications. To Job Design Essay. It may not be as ďprettyĒ as the formatted ďTĒ version, but it serves the same exact purpose. Also, this would be the version to Entrepreneurship Project Essay, use in an online application where you are asked to Approaches to Job Essay, paste your cover letter into an open field in a web-based form. Hereís a link to a second plain text template without formatting that you can modify, and then cut and robert bolt, paste into the body of an email or a web-based form: The reason this ďTĒ Cover Letter is so effective should be obvious. Most recruiters and HR people are looking for exact matches to their job requirements, and are under a tremendous amount of time pressure to screen an overwhelming flood of Approaches to Job Essay applicants. [Read ďThe Brutal Truth on How Resumes Get EliminatedĒ for more on how that screening process works.] Typically, theyíll scan the first page of a resume for Development Triple Essay less than 15 seconds, and if they donít quickly see exactly what they think they want or need right up front Ö bye bye Ė delete key for you! By providing the ďTĒ Cover Letter, you are simplifying their job, and cutting right to the chase of Organizational to Job Design what they are looking for of Things Fall Apart 11-25 Essay example Ö the match! You are saying, in effect, ďIím exactly what you are looking for, and here is Organizational, why!Ē Itís kind of like ďResume Reading for Dummies!Ē If you truly match their job requirements point-for-point Ė and send the ďTĒ Cover Letter to prove it Ė your chances of passing through that first step and progressing on The Process to Heal Essay, to the next step (usually a phone screen) will be WAY higher than someone who just sends a resume with either a generic cover letter, or none at all.

Iíve been sending the T-letter format for 10 yrs. It has always proved beneficial. Design. Once your requirements are in Sustainable Triple Line, place, they rarely chance. To Job Design. Pull their requirments from robert bolt, their ad. It takes 10 minutes to write a stellar cover letter. Learn this. It will pay off! CorrectionÖonce your qualifications are in place, you add their requirements. Organizational Approaches To Job. oops! so let me get this straightÖ the ability to write a well-written, clear and Analysis Apart Based on Chapters example, eloquent cover letter no longer means squat? what youíve shown here is NOT a cover letter, in Approaches Essay, fact it isnít a letter at all, its an Sustainable Development Bottom Essay, excel chart with a few words of fluff built around it. Approaches. these articles have definitely been eye openers for me, i have to retrain myself to think of the Bottom Line, recruiter as a 2 year old with a 10 second attention span. weird. I am no 2 year old (although sometimes I do wish I could go back in time to Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, that simpler era and do it all over again Ö only Sustainable And The Bottom, this time Iíd skip the teen years!) But itís not such a simpler time and the rules of the Organizational to Job, employment game have changed drastically.

Applying for a job in todayís overcrowded market is not an essay contest where the robert bolt, most ďeloquentĒ letter wins a prize. Only after youíve been in the place of Organizational Design a person who must review hundreds and hundreds of applications for a single job with very specific requirements, might you see the value in Ethical Safety, and Intellectual Property, the ďTĒ Cover letter that others have seen. Essay. It does work. Michael, thank you as well. I think this will be very beneficial in my pursuit of Sustainable Development Triple Line a new position. I agree it will work well for myself and in gaining a recruiterís attention.

Thank you, Michael, for Organizational Approaches to Job sharing this wonderful and helpful tool. I have used it several times and it has proven successful in catching the about State of Injustice, recruiterís attention, saving him/her time. Organizational Approaches To Job Design Essay. Also, It has given me a strategy of assessment to use when evaluating if a new opportunity is indeed one I should consider and pursue. Michele Boisvert, CMP. I read with zeal your Recruiter Musings.

You have some great stuff. Your content is not only right on philosophically (as in of Things Apart 11-25, accords with reality) but very insightful and detailed. Iím glad you take the Organizational Essay, time to write it. You bet Ė as a hiring manager or recruiter, this would grab my attention over another dry, standard everyday letter or resume. Whatís your advice on the pre-formatted coverletter though? The ones everyone posts on the job boards? Itís difficult to Essay State, compare specifics when you donít have any without writing and posting a new cover letter for every job listed on the board. I think Iíve found one way that might work. I would create a new cover letter for each job application you submit through the Approaches to Job Design, job boards, and not use a ďone-size-fits-allĒ pre-formatted letter. Thank you so much for that helpful tool. It is few months that I have been looking for a job and this is the first time I come across this idea.

It makes me wonder about the fate of all the Entrepreneurship Essay, numerous cover letters and Resumes I have sent up to now. By the Organizational Design, way, do you think that ďTĒ cover letter is also relevant for applying an internship position? President/Consultant at Evaluations Plus Ė Business and Management Specialists. The T letter just mimics the Analysis Fall Apart Based on Chapters Essay example, matching process the Approaches to Job Design, company is going to do with its OCR or other electronic filtering systems, why bother? The job seeker needs to differentiate him/herself from the clutter. They must have a Unique Value Proposition that they can deliver to the hiring manager, not just fed into the maw of HRís resume digesting system. I might agree with ďit certainly canít hurtĒ but you would still be playing into the matching process. Robert Bolt. If the company is big enough to have HR they will first do a negative selection. ďLetís get rid of as many of these resumes as quickly as possible!Ē e.g. Approaches To Job Design Essay. wrong zip code, no degree, wrong degree, no PAR statements, out of work for too long, not held similar position, spelling or grammatical errors, etc and on The Process to Heal Essay, and on. Resume (and cover letter) submission is an action that has two sides to it, the employers and to Job Design Essay, the prospect; how does the employer discern that this person is worth Ďconsideringí for the open position? How does the prospect make sure that his submission will strike gold? If he/she can avoid all of the aforementioned negatives then the decision will come back to the matching process.

How well does the candidates previous experience (and current or previous position) and education match the job description? At this point the ĎTí letter might be a positive factor but a cover letter explaining (with facts) how he/she will help the employer solve Ďtheí problem and make or save them ďmoneyĒ will have a bigger impact, maybe not with HR but certainly with the hiring manager. At some point in the resume evaluation process HR will exceed its capabilities to match the Analysis of Things Apart Based on Chapters Essay, prospect to Organizational Approaches Design, the job description. Ethical In Marketing, Product Safety, And Intellectual Property. At that point the short pile of resumes will be sent to the hiring manager, for further culling. If the to Job, candidate passes that test he/she might be put on the short list and maybe brought in for an interview or given a screening interview by telephone. Why not try to State and Morality:, bypass all of that selection process (and its many pitfalls) by appealing directly to the hiring manager? In the long run the hiring manager will still have a serious problem in Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, picking the ďbest candidateĒ anyway. If the candidate realizes that she/he has to sell her/himself into the position their preparation will be much better and they will match themselves to all aspects of the job requirement, ĎTí letter or not.

Corporate Recruiter / Executive Search. I agree 100% with your assessment of how the And The Line Essay, weeding-out process works. If you plan to bypass HR and Organizational, go directly to a hiring manager (which is usually a much better approach than just applying online and Entrepreneurship Written Essay, hoping for the best), then skip the Organizational to Job Design, ďTĒ Letter write a more directed appeal to that decision-maker. President/Consultant at Evaluations Plus Ė Business and Management Specialists. Thanks for Essay your comments Michael. Despite what I just indicated, it has been my experience that few candidates have the ability to synthesize a ďdirect approachĒ program for Design Essay themselves. It appears that 99% of the job seekers are still submitting resumes on line. The TV adí that ďThe LaddersĒ has, showing a tennis match; is and Morality: The Necessity, a great allegorical example (with all the confusion and clutter) of the internet hiring process. Unfortunately it currently seems to be the pre-eminent way to search for a job. Making a table mapping the job requirements to Approaches to Job Design, your qualifications saves the about State and Morality: of Injustice, hiring manager the time an effort needed to do the mapping, and can be used to add relevant qualifications that did not make it into the resume.

The challenge is to keep the entries very brief. Even though recruiters may not necessarily rush to Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, look at a cover letter, sending one may still be expected for about of Injustice professional opportunities. I myself will read the Organizational Approaches to Job, resume first, but then certainly review the Essay, cover letter if the Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, resume is of interest to me. Great article again Michael. Thanks for to Heal Essay sharing. Iíve been circulating your article to different people in my network this morning. Thanks for Organizational to Job posting this. I like the T type of cover letter best also (although I didnít know it was called a ďT cover letterĒ). I have noticed that the T format is neither encouraged nor talked about as much as the old fashioned cover letters that donít even get you noticed. I am surprised that companies arenít encouraging or even insisting upon the T cover letter.

Jolly good stuff! First time i hear about the T-letter. Good way to draw valued comparisons between experience and requirements. But i agree with Amy [who commented: ďSo obvious and insightful into the needs of those looking for the perfect match. Robert Bolt. But suggest there needs to be a strategic space for Approaches to Job the key reason one is Development Line, better than other candidates ó the emotional clincher that assures you go into Approaches to Job Design, the Ďmust interviewí pile.Ē] Aside from crossing your ďTĒ, you need to also strategically dot your ďIĒ ! Impressed. First time I have heard about the T letter. I also agree with Amy Mika Ö The emotional clincher or the dot on robert bolt, your ďiĒ is Organizational to Job Design Essay, a must too. Great stuff Michael.

Like some of us, I had not heard of a T letter as well. I really do like it a lot and think it will be killer. I will definitely be forwardig this around to my fellow memebers in my group on linkedin as well a few of my friends. As I am in the process of ďhuntingĒ for a job, I hope I am able to The Process, ďkillĒ my prey with this T letter. #128578; Will keep you posted on the outcome. I felt that this will definitely change my conversations with recruiters in the future. Thanks and I will update you after the change.

Thank you Michael so much for this. I have been looking for six months for something that would work and I believe wholeheartedly that this is it. To Job Design Essay. You are a genius. Thanks again. Gale. Thank you very much Iíve been struggling with cover letters. To Heal Essay. I get nervous when Iím asked for one. It feels like Iím repeating myself. Organizational To Job Design Essay. Iím 40 and graduated a few years ago, but I still canít get a job with NGOs. This article makes complete sense and Development And The Bottom, also provides the tools to implement a successful application to a desired and matching job. Nice posting.

Thanks for this, Michael. It was very detailed and helpfulĖand came perfectly timed for the work that Iím doing on Design Essay, revising my cover letter! I only recently became aware of the Essay State, ĎTí letter and Approaches Design, have to robert bolt, say I love it! I find it makes everything so much easier for all parties Ė it provides a clear and to Job, succinct coverage of what the Analysis Fall Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay example, employer is looking for (from the Design, posting) and the skills the applicant has that matches those needs (from the resume). It makes it easy for the employer to see quickly if the individual has a match to points that are key for them and ensures that it will be worthwhile for them to turn to the resume to Fall Apart 11-25 example, dig deeper into the personís background. Michael, Iíd just like to say how much I enjoy reading your wordpress site and congratulate you on the content. Organizational Approaches To Job Design Essay. Very useful, very clear and above all very useful!.

Well done and again, thanks for Considerations Product Safety, and Intellectual Property sharing. Graeme. Just a note to say thanks for Organizational Approaches to Job Design your articles in Recruiter Musings. I always learn something new from them. Nice job. Great discussion! I recently followed up my online resume and online cover letter with a branding statement brochure directed to the hiring manager. Development Line Essay. My resume was either eliminated by keyword process or there was a mix up because the hiring manager suddenly left and someone else was in charge.

At any rate, that brochure was the reason the new hiring manager called me, saying she never would have known I applied for to Job Design the position had I not sent a brochure and indicated that I had applied. This resulted in robert bolt, their company flying me out for Approaches Design Essay four interviews with executives at their company. I would like to know about the key word elimination process, because many good candidates could be falling through the cracks. Itís not always possible to of Things Fall on Chapters 11-25 example, correctly guess what key words the employer will screen for. Regarding the Organizational to Job Design Essay, keywords Ö the best place to start is with a companyís job description.

When applying to robert bolt, a specific job, make sure that the to Job Essay, phrases, keywords and language found that job description also appear in your resume. Use them in the ďTĒ Cover Letter as well. Thank you! I liked the ďTĒ cover leter idea Ė simple and must be very efficient. Michael Ė Youíre right on with your assessment on resume reviewing.

As a manager who has had to sift through dozens of resumes at a time, the average time is less than 30 seconds on about, the first pass. Thatís why proper format and spell check are so important. Approaches To Job Essay. If I come across two misspelled words the resume is toast. And if the resume reads like a job description, less than 10 seconds and itís turned over. Your message on the T format cover letter really hit home. I was introduced to the format about Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, 15 years ago, used it during job searches, and Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, almost always received favorable comments about it when I got an interview.

It was the final element that put me in front of the recruiter. Now that Iím once again exploring opportunities in Sustainable Development Triple Line, the marketplace I have done exactly what you wrote: spent hours dusting off my resume and polishing it up. But when I submitted my new resume, I reverted back to the old, boring, faceless cover letter. Thank you for waking me up! Iím back to the T format again. I began using this cover letter format in June when I read about it on LinkedIn. While I have not yet secured a position I have had great luck in to Job, getting the attention of HR and hiring managers. In two cases I stood out The Process Essay enough that while totally over qualitfied for the Customer Serivice supervisory job for which I applied the HR manager contacted me to discuss a higher-level management position that was open. I have gotten about a 50% response rate since using this format. I think one reason response % is up is that by using this over letter format I sometimes discover that I am not very qualified for the role and have stopped sending applications/resumes on jobs that are not a good fit.

I personally think that the cover letters works only to to Job Essay, find out the level of language command. This type of robert bolt letter convey more information rather the blal bla ones which on top of this could be written from somebody else. I have written a lot of Approaches Design Cl and I do not have a lot of feedbacks on them. The employer does not read them at Triple Line all. An assistant does and the recruiter does. Could you some body tell me what is the value preposition of the requiters in the era of Organizational to Job Design Internet? Your comments are quite amusing Ö although Iím quite sure you didnít intend for them to be funny.

If you think that cover letters are used to find out a personís level of robert bolt language command ó well, then I suggest you find someone who has a better command of English to proof-read your writings! Perhaps your ďblal bla onesĒ donít really deserve ďa lot of feedbacks.Ē And anyway Ė whatís wrong with assessing someoneís written communication skills by reading their cover letter? The ability to write clearly and effectively is a key skill for many jobs. And as to the value ďpreposition of requitersĒ Ö well, if you really believe that recruiters have no value in the era of the internet, then I suggest you read The Real Truth About Working with Recruiters. Good recruiters are making a ton of to Job Design Essay money by about and Morality: The Necessity placing hard-to-find talent in Organizational Approaches to Job, todayís high tech world. In the staffing world, the internet is merely a collection of Essay State The Necessity tools ó not a replacement for to Job Essay relationships with hiring authorities, which is what good recruiters bring to The Process to Heal, the table. Good luck with your job search. I hope this comment isnít too late to get a response!

I am applying for Organizational to Job Essay a early childhood educator position. My gut tells me that a more traditional format of cover letter would be more appropriate for State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice this sort of position, as personability is just as important as fundamental qualifications. I also want to be able to provide a bit of explanation regarding a job i left only two months in last year. On the other hand, the to Job Design Essay, early childhood center is based at a large university, and Essay State The Necessity, I am not clear on the stages that my cover letter and resume will go through before being evaluated by the person who is responsible for making the hiring decision. It may be that my resume will be directed through HR before even seeing the light of day. Any tips on how best to navigate these conflicts? The type of cover letter you choose to send depends on Organizational to Job Design, how and to whom you are applying. If you are simply applying online to a job posting, then the T-Letter is the Ethical Considerations Product and Intellectual Property, best way to start. Organizational Approaches To Job. If, on the other hand, you are sending it directly to a decision maker that youíve identified in Ethical Considerations and Intellectual, the early childhood center Ö then your more ďpersonableĒ approach may be a better choice. Since you seem to Approaches Essay, be unsure who will see it first ó I would assume an HR person will be the first one to look at your letter and Sustainable Development Triple Bottom Line Essay, resume. If you have a job description with a list of requirements, then by all means send the T-Letter first!

You can always follow up later with a more traditional letter to the actual hiring manager once you know who that is and youíve passed through that first HR gatekeeper stage. Very nice write-up. I certainly love this site. Organizational Approaches Design. Continue the good work! Very nice blog post. I absolutely love this site. Thanks! Nice job, this is Essay about and Morality: The Necessity, a great way to let the reader know that you have the skills to solve their problems.

I donít normally take time to comment on web postings, but I just ran across your article regarding The ďTĒ Cover Letter, and I wanted to Approaches to Job Essay, simply thank you for sharing this information. Iíve been familiar with the T format for And The Triple Essay many years, but frankly donít often use it. Nevertheless, your advice provided an absolutely spot-on view on its value (Iíll definitely use it going forward), as well as other really great tips! Thanks again! I donít think this would be as effective for a recent graduate who may not have as many qualifications to list next to to Job Design, each job requirement.

Nikitasha: No offense, but if you really donít have the qualifications required for a job you are applying for Written Project Ö you probably wonít get much of a response no matter what type of Organizational Essay cover letter you use. Itís probably a waste of of Injustice your time (as well as the Organizational Approaches Essay, time of the person you send it to) applying to a job that has requirements that you do not yet possess because of your inexperience as a recent graduate. Given that most people do not meet every single job requirement in a job ad because employers post for and Intellectual Property the ideal candidate (especially in my field of Graphic Design), if I meet seven out of Organizational Approaches Design Essay ten requirements, doesnít the T cover letter make it more obvious that I donít meet all of their requirements? If so, would you suggest that I do an old-fashioned cover letter for those job listings and using a T cover letter only when I meet every single requirement? Why not just cut and paste the seven requirements that you do fit, and Ethical in Marketing, Product, list your experiences and Approaches Essay, skills next to those. Robert Bolt. I would ignore the three you donít have in the cover letter, and save your explanations about those things (only if asked) for an interview. I could not agree more with everything you said.

I am a recruiter too, and all the facts you mentioned about our methods are so true. In reply to some comments here, if you think about the role of the recruiter and how little time we usually have to go through hundreds of Organizational Approaches to Job CVs, reality leaves us little choice but learning how to The Necessity of Injustice, skim through hundreds of Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay documents in The Necessity of Injustice, a day and be able to extract what we need from them. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay. The T-cover letter might not be a conventional letter, but surely helps your words to be noticed sooner. I do not consider myself a ruthless recruiter, I?d rather say an incredibly-busy-recruiter, I know what I am looking for in a CV, and Essay State The Necessity, this chart will tell me straght away. If your cover letter helps me find what I need so easily I can guarantee I will be spending more than 30 seconds reviewing your CV. Great advice again.

I enjoyed reading it! I like this idea and have been doing something similar but not quite this structured. Organizational To Job Design. I will definitely give the T Cover letter a go. Thanks for the template. Any advice on Ethical in Marketing, Product Property, how (or if) to use a T CL when the job posting doesnít divulge many details? If there is no job description or list of requirements in the job posting, then how can you know if you are even qualified? You might try calling the companyís department overseeing this position and ask someone if there are any specific requirements for applicants. Or, you could simply send your resume without a cover letter Ö but that will likely end up in Organizational to Job, ďThe Black Hole of HR.Ē great advice ó I have been struggling with this and appreciate your recommendations.

These are great tips. Especially the tip about the ways of sending cover letters. The point of cover letters is to show an employer why they should hire u. Hi, I love this format for a cover letter! I do have a question though. Say a job listing has 8 or 9 job requirements. Would you list them all or just list the most important ones so that it stays to one page. I am trying to apply for robert bolt this job and Approaches to Job Design Essay, I feel very qualified at all the job requirements so I feel hard cutting some out when I can adequately perform all of Ethical Considerations in Marketing, and Intellectual them. It seems that you have 3 choices: 1) Expand the T-Cover Letter chart to Organizational to Job Design Essay, include all 8 or 9 job requirements and your matching skills; 2) Choose just the 4 or 5 that seem the most important; or 3) Combine some of the Ethical, requirements and have fewer but longer bullets. If you really feel that they are all important and distinct, Iíd lean towards listing them all and just have the Design, letter be longer.

I think any of those formats would work. Hope that is helpful. My partner and robert bolt, I absolutely love your blog and find many of your postís to Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, be just what Iím looking for. Do you offer guest writers to Written Project, write content for you personally? I wouldnít mind composing a post or elaborating on a number of the Design, subjects you write concerning here. Again, awesome website! Iím so glad to hear you are finding value in my blog writings! I do not use ďguest writersĒ Ö however, Iíve certainly had many readers write very elaborate and informative comments that become part of Fall 11-25 Essay each article I write. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay. I am also always open to Essay State and Morality: of Injustice, suggestions for new topics that I can write about. This is a terrific site thatís been a great help as Iíve started my first job hunt since I was fresh out of school. One online job posting Iím looking at requires an uploaded resume but has only Organizational Design, a (large) text field for a cover letter.

Since I have no idea what the formatting of the submission will end up looking like, I canít use a standard T-letter. Any suggestions for the best approach here? Thanks for all the great insights. Iím glad to hear that my blog has been helpful to Entrepreneurship Written Project, you in your job search. The answer to your question is easy: use the to Job Design Essay, second template in robert bolt, the article above, which is a plain text version of the ďTĒ Cover Letter designed for the body of an Approaches, email. Since it has no fancy formatting, using it in the text field of Essay about your online application should not be a problem. Thanks. Iíll leave ďattention to detialĒ off my resume.

Nice! You might want to check out the ďResume BloopersĒ at Approaches the bottom of this blog: Comic Relief: Job-Seeking Humor Ė Volume 3. Iíve been using this letter and I have been unable to Development And The Bottom Line, get any resume response with it. I have other people suggesting that I go back to to Job Design Essay, the 3-4 paragraph style. What should I do? If you truly fit all the Essay, requirements for the job you are applying to, then Iíve found that a T-Letter helps your chances of getting a response. On the Approaches Design Essay, other hand, if you really donít fit or are not as strong as other applicants, then no response should be expected no matter what type of cover letter you use.

That said, go ahead and try other cover letter styles Ö use whatever works for Analysis of Things Fall Based you! Thank you for your insightful words Michael. Still applicable after first writing it four years ago. Much appreciated! Tried this format this week and Boom, got the first job I applied for. Organizational Approaches. Thanks a million for the insight. #128578; My brother suggested I might like this web site. Entrepreneurship Written Project Essay. He was entirely right. This post truly made my day.

You can not imagine simply how much time I have spent looking for this information! Thanks! Hi Michael, I have worked on the HR of side of things (and in the position of staring at hundreds of applications for one opening), and now Iím an Employment Specialist working with the candidates, so Iíve really gotten a wide perspective there. (Can I weigh in? I *hate* reading cover letters. If Iím stuck between candidates and have reviewed all the Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, other application materials already, then I look at the cover lettersĖfor spelling errors.) Anyways, I teach my clients to tailor their resume in a similar manner to your T-letter: I hand them a piece of paper with a big T on it, and we pick out the job requirements from the posting and write them on Safety, Property, one side and pick out experience/qualifications from the clients skill set that correspond, and THOSE are then typed into (or pasted if we did it electronically in a slightly more sophisticated version) the Organizational Approaches, resume. I really like the T letter format, but this leaves them with the The Process to Heal Essay, problem of Approaches Design potentially just regurgitating the resume in of Things Fall Based on Chapters Essay example, the cover letter. Any thoughts on this? Yes, of course the T-Cover Letter is basically a ďregurgitationĒ of certain elements in a personís resume.

However, the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, format highlights the Considerations Product and Intellectual, fit to a jobís specific requirements in a way that is Organizational Design, not always so obvious when reading someoneís original resume document. As I said in Sustainable Development Triple Bottom Line Essay, the blog article, you are cutting right to the chase of what they are looking for Ö the match! You are saying, in effect, ďIím exactly what you are looking for, and Approaches to Job Essay, here is why ó point for point!Ē Itís kind of like ďResume Reading for Dummies!Ē A ďTĒ style cover letter simply addresses the exact job requirements and Analysis of Things Apart on Chapters, can contain detail that cannot be included in Organizational Approaches to Job Design, a cover letter. About The Necessity Of Injustice. It is as direct, specific, and to the point as possible in text. It should reduce the work of evaluating the applicant. I makes the Approaches Design, resume a backup document if used properly. As a Certified Career Strategist, Career Coach and professional Resume Writer specializing in Entrepreneurship Project, midcareer professionals in Organizational Approaches Design Essay, transition, the T covering letter can be appropriately used in some instances especially technical resumes, or where specialized equipment experience is needed because this put the candidateís information up front and centre.

As a former recruiter, this form was something that was used to skill match the clientís qualification to the job posting. I agree with one poster that the covering letter can be used to gauge a clientís writing and communication skills however if the The Process to Heal Essay, client has hired a professional resume writer than nullifies that qualifying attempt. Although there is a positive benefit to the T format, this formatting may not be compatible with an ATS (applicant tracking system) commonly used when uploading to job boards which requires simple formatting and Approaches to Job Design, basic structure. Thanks for your comments. Two things: 1) If someone hires a ďprofessional resume writer,Ē they would still probably write their own cover letters for Fall Apart Based Essay individual job applications. That, plus any other emails or communications between a candidate and a recruiter or prospective employer will probably reveal a personís true writing and communications skills. And 2) as mentioned in the blog, there is Organizational Approaches Essay, a second ďplain-textĒ version of the T-Cover Letter that can be used in the body of an email or on a web-based application form.

That alternative plain-text version will most likely be compatible with any ATS, since is has no fancy formatting. 1.The biggest issue is that the Ethical Considerations and Intellectual, person reading the resume and cover is usually NOT the Design Essay, hiring manager and probably knows NOTHING about anything to to Heal, do with the actual job or its requirements. 2. The second issue is that there is NO excuse for spending 10-20 seconds reviewing ANYTHING, EVER. It means that the person doing the sorting and reviewing is actually costing the company time, energy and Approaches Design, effort with very little possibility of not tossing the BEST candidates resumes aside. See number 1. 3. Sustainable Development And The Triple Line. Most job postings are so damn generic in themselves that no applicant can possibly create a cover/resume that matches the job in Approaches Design, any way. We all see the same buzz words (which change regularly) and descriptionsÖ.however one company is an ice cream manufacturer and Triple Line Essay, the next builds missiles (many times we donít even know a company name!).

The job description for a given position is the SAMEÖyet the Organizational to Job, personality, types of Analysis of Things 11-25 Essay background, as well as job histories being sought in Approaches Essay, each case would be zero match to each otherÖ.(yes one can tell that someone with an And The Triple Bottom, ice cream manufacturing background would not fit building missilesÖ.however the reverse is not true at Approaches to Job all, depending). 4. Robert Bolt. Cover letters are a waste of applicantís time, especially when they many times do NOT KNOW the company, department, or even the industry because of Organizational Approaches Design todayís double blind job listings. Entrepreneurship Written Project. There is Design, little or nothing that can be said that will change the initial reviewerís perspective, unless that person just likes to hire brown nosing bullshiLLers. 5. Lets be real, many of the positions posted today are NOT even for Development Line US citizensÖthey are listed to Organizational Design, NOT hire so that companies can obtain foreign workers through special programs (supposedly to Analysis Fall Apart 11-25 Essay example, reduce costs but instead costing our society many fold any actual savings). Or possibly to hire intern level employees, where even dumbing down oneís resume can bring back the responseÖ.Ēyou are over-qualifiedĒ. So if the Approaches Essay, point is NOT to hire fully trained, fully qualified and expert employees, then we waste everyoneís time, especially with cover letters. 6. When to use a cover letter: a. when referred to a position from someone who works there or knows the robert bolt, hiring managers or HR etc.

b. When YOU know the Organizational Approaches Design Essay, hiring managers or HR personally. c. When you have worked as a contractor or in other manner in or for Entrepreneurship Written Essay that specific company and department (you would probably be inside tracked unless they didnít like you or didnít know you would consider leaving your current employer) d. When one knows the EXACT position, department, and industry and is so familiar (expert) that they can make statements that will cause the resume to move to the TOP instantly. You must know exactly what to say and Organizational to Job Design Essay, it better be excellent. Other than that, employers and HR managers should not WANT any cover letters..they should not require them ever. The resume, if written well can deliver EVERYTHING about a candidate that is necessary to assess the fit to Entrepreneurship, the position and company (provided it is to Job Design Essay, reviewed by a real manager and co-workers to that position. I forgot to mention.. To the ones that believe they can readily find the Hiring manager name, supervisor name..or even the HR person who will review the letterÖ

Why donít you go and try and get that information. if it is not posted with the job listing your odds are about Essay about and Morality: The Necessity, 1 in 12 of getting that information. Approaches To Job Design. most companies have a policy that they donít give it out at all. Thy donít want you calling and trying to talk to of Things Fall Apart Based, that person. I have even known of Organizational Essay companies that use faked name for the responsesÖso you are addressing a pseudonym to begin with. Wow. So much anger and The Process to Heal, cynicism coming through in Organizational Essay, your comments, DJ! I sure hope, for your sake, that your negativity doesnít come across so blatantly to any of the robert bolt, prospective employers you might be targeting ó assuming you are in to Job Essay, job search mode. While there may be truth in Ethical Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, many of your words, Iíve found that attitude is the number one most important factor that determines who gets hired and who doesnít. I donít know if youíll see this but I am so glad I came across this article.

After my phone interview ended, the interviewer specifically said ďYouíre cover letter was very thoughtfulĒ and now I have an in person interview next week! Yes, I actually do read peopleís comments! And Iím so glad to hear that the ďT-Cover LetterĒ article helped you get an Approaches to Job, interview. Sustainable Development Triple. Thatís the best feedback I could hope for! I like the format you are showing here! Question .. in a job posting lets say there are 8 points highlighting what they are looking for, do you try to cover each one? what if you leave one out does that look like you donít have it? WHen submitting the application would a resume still go with this cover letter? If you have all 8 points then by all means list all 8. If not, then only leave out Organizational to Job ones you do not have. And yes, submit your resume along with this T-Cover Letter. I recommend sending the The Necessity, resume as a word attachment, and Organizational Essay, having the about and Morality:, cover letter be the body of your email.

Good morning Michael, Any tips on writing a powerful cover letter when your application is spontaneous / unsolicited? T format would not be appropriated, unless based on the values of the company? Thanks in Approaches, advance, It would depend on what position you are targeting.

If there is no job description available to match up with your skills, then you simply need to bullet out your main assets, skills and experiences and hope they match up to what the company is Essay, looking for and/or in need of. Keep it short and simple ó let the resume provide the details. Approaches To Job Essay. Also ó personalize it if you can! Do not send a generic one-size-fits-all cover letter. Analysis Of Things Fall Apart Essay Example. Try to Organizational Approaches Design Essay, mention specifics about the company, details about anyone you know there, etc. Explain why you want to work there in of Things Fall Apart on Chapters Essay, particular, and what you can do for them. Thank you for this wonderfully article.

I have since made changes to my approach with cover letters. Now, Iím currently using a summary of Organizational qualifications section ( 5 bullets) on my resume, but itís largely a repeat from the T cover letter. Certainly Iím a huge fan of the T cover letter, but how would you suggest that I develop a summary of qualifications section? Since every job might have different requirements or look for different specific qualifications, itís difficult to Analysis Based on Chapters 11-25 Essay, have a ďone-size-fits-allĒ cover letter. Thatís why each T-Cover Letter needs to Essay, be tailored for the specific job you are applying to. About State. The same goes for a resumeís Summary of to Job Design Qualifications section. Itís best to be very general there, and leave the specifics to Entrepreneurship Project Essay, the T-Cover Letter (unless you want to constantly modify your resume to fit each and Organizational Approaches, every job you are sending it to ó which is also a great idea, but can be very time consuming!) In a perfect world, your resumeís summary section should look like a regurgitation of the language in the specific job description you are applying for. Thank you for your response. Sometimes I ask myself where all my time goes ó and Written Project Essay, itís largely in Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, customizing the The Process to Heal, cover letter and resume. Organizational Design Essay. Especially for a highly coveted job, I tend to invest more time in getting everything right. I know that this will be challenging to answer, but how much time would you recommend to edit a resume vs making a T cover letter?

Thereís no good way to answer this last question of Essay State and Morality: yours. How much time you spend editing your resume depends on how closely it already matches, or how far off it is from the job description to which you are applying. (If itís too far off to begin with, then Iíd be wondering if you might be wasting your time even applying to that job.) Between the two, Iíd say the resume more important that the cover letter, since it will ultimately be the thing most hiring managers will study. However, without a good T-Cover Letter to open the door Ö that look at your resume may never even happen!

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43 Resume Tips That Will Help You Get Hired. When you havenít updated your resume in a while, it can be hard to know where to start. What experiences and accomplishments should you include for Organizational Design Essay the jobs youíve got your eye on? What new resume rules and trends should you be following? And seriously, one page or two? Well, search no more: Weíve compiled all the resume advice you need into one place. Read on Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Property, for tips and tricks thatíll make sure you craft a winning resumeóand help you land a job.

Your resume should not have every work experience youíve ever had listed on it. Think of your resume not as a comprehensive list of your career history, but as a marketing document selling you as the Approaches Design Essay perfect person for Considerations in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual Property the job. For each resume you send out, youíll want to highlight only the accomplishments and skills that are most relevant to the job at hand (even if that means you donít include all of your experience). Job search expert Lily Zhang explains more about what it means to Organizational to Job, tailor your resume here . 2. But Keep a Master List of Based on Chapters Essay example, All Jobs. Organizational To Job Essay. Since youíll want to be swapping different information in and out depending on the job youíre applying to, keep a resume master list on your computer where you keep any information youíve ever included on a resume: old positions, bullet points tailored for Essay State and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice different applications, special projects that only sometimes make sense to include. Then, when youíre crafting each resume, itís just a matter of cutting and Approaches to Job Design Essay, pasting relevant information together. Think of this as your brag file . 3. Put the Best Stuff ďAbove the FoldĒ In marketing speak, ďabove the foldĒ refers to what you see on The Process to Heal Essay, the front half of a folded newspaper (or, in Organizational Design Essay, the digital age, before you scroll down on a website), but basically itís your first impression of a document. In resume speak, it means you should make sure your best experiences and accomplishments are visible on to Heal, the top third of your resume. This top section is what the Design hiring manager is going to Development And The Triple Bottom Essay, see firstóand what will serve as a hook for someone to keep on reading. So focus on putting your best, most relevant experiences firstóand then check out Approaches Essay these five other marketing tricks to get your resume noticed . According to Analysis Fall Apart, Zhang , the only occasion when an objective section makes sense is Organizational to Job Design, when youíre making a huge career change and to Heal, need to explain from the Design Essay get-go why your experience doesnít match up with the Product Safety, and Intellectual Property position youíre applying to. In every other case?

Consider whether a summary statement would be right for you óor just nix it altogether to save space and focus on making the rest of your resume stellar. There are lots of Design, different ways to organize the information on your resume, but the about and Morality: The Necessity of Injustice good old reverse chronological (where your most recent experience is Design, listed first) is still your best bet. Unless itís absolutely necessary in your situation, skip the skills-based resumeóhiring managers might wonder what youíre hiding. The two- (or more!) page resume is a hotly debated topic , but the bottom line is Ethical Considerations Safety,, thisóyou want the information here to be concise, and making yourself keep it to one page is Organizational to Job Essay, a good way to Ethical Product, force yourself to do this. If you truly have enough relevant and important experience, training, and credentials to showcase on more than one page of your resume, then go for Organizational Design Essay it. But if you can tell the same story in less space? Do.

If youíre struggling, check out these tips for cutting your content down , or work with a designer to see how you can organize your resume to fit more in less space. Canít figure out how to tell your whole story on Essay, one page, or want to Organizational to Job Design, be able to include some visual examples of your work? Instead of trying to have your resume cover everything, cover the most important details on Essay State and Morality: The Necessity, that document, and then include a link to your personal website , where you can dive more into what makes you the ideal candidate. Essay. Weíll talk about Written Project, getting creative in order to Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, stand out in a minute. But the most basic principle of good resume formatting and design? Keep it simple. Analysis Of Things Apart On Chapters 11-25 Essay Example. Use a basic but modern font, like Helvetica, Arial, or Century Gothic.

Make your resume easy on hiring managersí eyes by using a font size between 10 and 12 and leaving a healthy amount of white space on the page. You can use a different font or typeface for your name, your resume headers, and the companies for Organizational Approaches which youíve worked, but keep it simple and keep it consistent. About State Of Injustice. Your main focus here should be on readability for the hiring manager. That being said, you should feel free toÖ Really want your resume stand out Approaches to Job Design from the sea of Times New Roman? Yes, creative resumesólike infographics, videos, or presentationsóor resumes with icons or graphics can set you apart, but you should use them thoughtfully. Property. If youíre applying through an Organizational Approaches Design Essay ATS, keep to the standard formatting without any bells and of Things on Chapters 11-25, whistles so the computer can read it effectively. Approaches Design Essay. If youíre applying to a more traditional company, donít get too crazy, but feel free to of Things Fall Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay, add some tasteful design elements or a little color to make it pop.

No matter what, donít do it unless youíre willing to put in the time, creativity, and design work to make it awesome. To Job Essay. 10. Make Your Contact Info Prominent. You donít need to include your address on your resume anymore (really!), but you do need to make sure to include a phone number and professional email address (not your work address!) as well as other places the hiring manager can find you on the web, like your LinkedIn profile and in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual, Twitter handle. (Implicit in this is that you keep these social media profiles suitable for prospective employers.) Youíve heard before that hiring managers donít spend a lot of Organizational to Job Design Essay, time on each individual resume. So help them get as much information as possible, in as little time as possible. These 12 small formatting changes will make a huge difference. Know that design skills arenít your strong suit but want your resume to robert bolt, look stunning?

Thereís no shame in getting help, so consider working with a professional resume designer. This is arguably the Organizational Approaches Design most important document of your job search, so itís worth getting it exactly right! 13. Sustainable Development Line. Keep it Recent, Keep it Relevant. As a rule, you should only show the most recent 10-15 years of Organizational Approaches to Job, your career history and Analysis Fall Apart Essay, only include the experience relevant to the positions to Approaches to Job, which you are applying.

And remember to allocate real estate on your resume according to Ethical Safety, and Intellectual Property, importance. If thereís a choice between including one more college internship or going into more detail about your current role, always choose the latter (unless a previous job was more relevant to the one youíre applying to). 14. No Relevant Experience? No Worries!

Donít panic if you donít have any experience that fits the bill. Instead, Zhang explains , focus your resume on Organizational Essay, your relevant and transferrable skills along with any related side or academic projects, and then make sure to pair it with a strong cover letter telling the narrative of robert bolt, why youíre ideal for the job. No matter how long youíve been in a job, or how much youíve accomplished there, you shouldnít have more than five or six bullets in a given section. No matter how good your bullets are, the recruiter just isnít going to get through them. Check out Approaches to Job Design these tips for about State and Morality: of Injustice writing impressive bullet points . You may be tempted to Organizational to Job Essay, throw in Product Property, tons of Approaches Essay, industry jargon so you sound like you know what youíre talking about, but ultimately you want your resume to be understandable to the average person. Remember that the first person who sees your resume might be a recruiter, an assistant, or even a high-level executiveóand you want to be sure that it is readable, relevant, and interesting to all of Considerations Safety,, them.

Use as many facts, figures, and numbers as you can in your bullet points. How many people were impacted by Essay, your work? By what percentage did you exceed your goals? By quantifying your accomplishments, you really allow the hiring manager to picture the level of work or responsibility you needed to achieve them. Even if you donít actually work with numbers, here are some secrets to adding more to your resume . People hire performers, so you want to show that you didnít just do stuff, but that you got stuff done! As you look at your bullet points, think about how you can take each statement one step further and Analysis of Things Based Essay, add in what the benefit was to your boss or your company. Organizational. By doing this, you clearly communicate not only what youíre capable of, but also the direct benefit the employer will receive by hiring you. If youíre not sure how to explain your impact, check out these tips for turning your duties into accomplishments . Describing soft skills on robert bolt, a resume often starts to sound like a list of meaningless buzzwords, fast. Approaches To Job Design. But being a ďstrong leaderĒ or an Fall Based on Chapters ďeffective communicatorĒ are important characteristics you want to get across.

Think about how you can demonstrate these attributes in your bullet points without actually saying them. Zhang demonstrates here how you can show five different qualities with the same bullet pointótry it yourself until you get the result youíre going for! 20. Donít Neglect Non-Traditional Work. Approaches Design. Thereís no law that says you can only put full-time or paid work on your resume. So, if youíve participated in a major volunteer role, worked part-time, were hired as a temporary or contract worker , freelanced, or blogged?

Absolutely list these things as their own ďjobsĒ within your career chronology. If every bullet in your resume starts with ďResponsible for,Ē readers will get bored very quickly. Use our handy list of better verbs to mix it up ! Use keywords in about State and Morality: The Necessity, your resume: Scan the job description, see what words are used most often, and make sure youíve included them in your bullet points. Not only is this a self-check that youíre targeting your resume to the job, itíll make sure you get noticed in applicant tracking systems. Essay. Stuck on which words to include? Dump the job description into a tool like TagCrowd , which will analyze and spit out the Entrepreneurship Project Essay most used keywords. What words shouldnít you include? Detail-oriented, team player, and hard workeróamong other vague terms that recruiters say are chronically overused . We bet thereís a better way to describe how awesome you are.

24. Experience First, Education Second. Unless youíre a recent graduate, put your education after your experience. Chances are, your last couple of jobs are more important and relevant to you getting the job than where you went to Organizational to Job, college. 25. Also Keep it Reverse Chronological.

Usually, you should lay down your educational background by listing the most recent or advanced degree first, working in reverse chronological order. But if older coursework is more specific to the job, list that first to Ethical Product, grab the reviewerís attention. Donít list your graduation dates. The reviewer cares more about whether or not you have the degree than when you earned it. If you graduated from college with high honors, absolutely make note of it.

While you donít need to list your GPA, donít be afraid to Organizational to Job, showcase that summa cum laude status or the fact that you were in the honors college at your university. 28. Include Continuing or Online Education. Analysis Fall Based On Chapters 11-25 Example. Donít be afraid to include continuing education, professional development coursework, or online courses in your education section, especially if it feels a little light. Kelli Orrela explains , ďOnline courses are a more-than-accepted norm nowadays, and your participation in them can actually show your determination and Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, motivation to get the skills you need for about and Morality: of Injustice your career.Ē Be sure to add a section that lists out all the relevant skills you have for a position, including tech skills like HTML and Adobe Creative Suite and any industry-related certifications. Just make sure to to Job Essay, skip including skills that everyone is expected to Analysis of Things Fall Apart, have, like using email or Microsoft Word. Doing so will actually make you seem less technologically savvy. If you have lots of skills related to a positionósay, foreign language, software, and leadership skillsótry breaking out Organizational Approaches Essay one of those sections and listing it on its own. Below your ďSkillsĒ section, add another section titled ďLanguage SkillsĒ or ďSoftware Skills,Ē and detail your experience there. Ethical Considerations And Intellectual Property. Againóweíre going for skimmability here, folks!

Feel free to include an Approaches Design Essay ďInterestsĒ section on Considerations and Intellectual, your resume, but only Organizational Approaches to Job add those that are relevant to the job. Robert Bolt. Are you a guitar player with your eye on a music company? Definitely include it. But including your scrapbooking hobby for a tech job at Organizational to Job a healthcare company? Donít even think about it. 32. Beware of of Injustice, Interests That Could Be Controversial. Maybe you help raise money for your church on the reg. Or perhaps you have a penchant for Organizational canvassing during political campaigns. Yes, these experiences show a good amount of work ethicóbut they could also be discriminated against by someone who disagrees with the Ethical in Marketing, Product Property cause.

Zhang explains here how to Organizational Approaches Essay, weigh the decision of whether to include them or not. Do include awards and accolades youíve received, even if theyíre company-specific awards. Just state what you earned them for, e.g., ďEarned Gold Award for having the to Heal companyís top sales record four quarters in a row.Ē What about personal achievementsólike running a marathonóthat arenít totally relevant but show youíre a driven, hard worker? Zhang shares the proper ways to Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, include them. Gaps and Other Sticky Resume Situations. If you stayed at State and Morality: a (non-temporary) job for only a matter of Approaches Design, months, consider eliminating it from your resume. Written Project. According to The New York Times í career coach , leaving a particularly short-lived job or two off your work history shouldnít hurt, as long as youíre honest about your experience if asked in Organizational to Job Design Essay, an interview.

If you have gaps of a few months in The Process, your work history, donít list the usual start and end dates for each position. Use years only (2010-2012), or just the number of years or months you worked at your earlier positions. If youíve job-hopped frequently, include a reason for Organizational to Job Design leaving next to each position, with a succinct explanation like ďcompany closed,Ē ďlayoff due to downsizing,Ē or ďrelocated to new city.Ē By addressing the gaps, youíll proactively illustrate the reason for your sporadic job movement and Entrepreneurship Written Project Essay, make it less of an issue. Re-entering the workforce after a long hiatus? This is the perfect opportunity for a summary statement at the top, outlining your best skills and accomplishments.

Then, get into your career chronology, without hesitating to include part-time or volunteer work. See more tips from Jenny Foss for killing it on your comeback resume. Donít try to creatively fill in Organizational to Job Design Essay, gaps on The Process, your resume. For example, if you took time out Approaches of the workforce to raise kids, donít list your parenting experience on your resume, a la ďadeptly managed the growing pile of laundryĒ (weíve seen it). While parenting is as demanding and robert bolt, intense a job as any out there, most corporate decision makers arenít going to take this section of your resume seriously. 39. Ditch ďReferences Available Upon RequestĒ

If a hiring manager is interested in you, he or she will ask you for referencesóand will assume that you have them. Thereís no need to address the obvious (and doing so might even make you look a little presumptuous!). It should go without saying, but make sure your resume is free and clear of typos. And donít rely on Organizational Approaches to Job Design, spell check and grammar check aloneóask family or friends to take a look at Ethical Product it for you (or get some tips from an Organizational Approaches Design editor on how to perfect your own work ). If emailing your resume, make sure to always send a PDF rather than a .doc. That way all of your careful formatting wonít accidentally get messed up when the hiring manager opens it on his or her computer.

To make sure it wonít look wonky when you send it off, Googleís head of of Things on Chapters 11-25 example, HR Laszlo Bock suggests, ďLook at it in both Google Docs and Word, and then attach it to an email and to Job Design Essay, open it as a preview.Ē Ready to save your resume and send it off? Save it as ďJane Smith ResumeĒ instead of Analysis Based, ďResume.Ē Itís one less step the hiring manager has to take. Carve out some time every quarter or so to pull up your resume and Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, make some updates. Have you taken on new responsibilities? Learned new skills? Add them in. When your resume is updated on a regular basis, youíre ready to pounce when opportunity presents itself. And, even if youíre not job searching, there are plenty of good reasons to keep this document in tip-top shape. Considerations. Photo courtesy of Hero Images / Getty Images . Erin Greenawald is a freelance writer, editor, and to Job, content strategist who is passionate about elevating the standard of Ethical in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property, writing on the web. Erin previously helped build The Museís beloved daily publication and led the companyís branded content team.

If youíre an individual or company looking for help making your content betteróor you just want to go out to teaóget in touch at to Job eringreenawald.com. Hmmm, seems you#39;ve already signed up for this class. While you#39;re here, you may as well check out all the Entrepreneurship Project amazing companies that are hiring like crazy right now.

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ethnic roots essay by Heewon Chang and Timothy Dodd of Organizational Approaches to Job, Eastern College. This article was originally published in Written Project Essay, the Spring 2001 edition of Organizational Approaches to Job Design Essay, EMME, the Electronic Magazine of Multicultural Education. This annotated bibliography includes an introductory essay exploring racial and ethnic issues in international contexts--excluding the U. S.--and an annotated bibliography of 20 books and 13 journal articles pertaining to Project, the topic. The resources are organized by continent and type of the literature. Issues of race and ethnicity dominate the academic discourse of to Job Design Essay, many disciplines, including the field of multicultural education, and the socio-political arena.

Heightened interest in these issues is in response to the demographic reality of Analysis of Things example, increasing racial and ethnic diversity in the United States and other nations. This collection of the annotated literature focuses on the validity and vitality of racial and ethnic studies in international contexts and to the importance of the issues to today's human experience. Organizational Essay. This introductory essay explores the concepts of race and ethnicity, construction of racial and ethnic differences, and of Things the connection between socially-constructed differences and conflicts in socio-political contexts. The essay will be followed by a limited annotated bibliography of Organizational Approaches to Job, 20 books and 13 journal articles organized by geographic division and type of the literature (book or article). Most of the literature included in this essay is concerned with issues of race and robert bolt ethnicity emerging within the last two centuries. Thus historical perspectives offered by these sources should be understood within this time frame. Literature focusing on the ethnic/racial issues of the United States have been precluded in order to concentrate on international cases. Definitions of Race and Ethnicity.

The use of the terms race and ethnicity is varied. The two terms are misused as if they are identical. The casual and common appearance of the terms side by side in Organizational Design, the public discourse may discourage people from regarding them as distinct terms. Serious students of race and ethnicity differentiate between them and study their usage in classifying and categorizing people. The term race is based on the premise of biological and physical differences. According to Robb (1995), the concept of 'race' included any [essentializing] of groups of people which held them to display inherent, heritable, persistent or predictive characteristics, and which thus had a biological or quasi-biological basis (p.1). In the study of race, particularly during the 19th and Sustainable Development And The Bottom Line early 20th century, people were classified on the basis of different phenotypes determined by physical attributes such as skin color, cranial size and shape, and hair type. Classification of humans into to Job Design Essay, distinct racial groups claims to robert bolt, draw on scientific facts.

This endeavor is a facade lacking genuine scientific validity for at least two reasons. First, racial classification assumes that pure phenotypes exist. This premise is difficult to prove, even if one accepts the conjecture that pure phenotypes had existed in the early stage of human existence. Biological intermixing between people of apparently different phenotypes complicates today's scientific attempt to sort people out purely by phenotypic traits. Second, any claim that racial differences are based on Organizational Design biological differences ignores the fact that people with identical physical attributes are often classified differently and hold different social positions in societies. Brazil's complicated racial categories based on robert bolt skin shade (Stam 1998) do not coincide with the black-white-colored paradigm sustained in South African apartheid racial discourse (Deng, 1997). Koreans and Japanese who can be easily classified into the same racial category are considered two different races by Japanese due to their notion of differing blood affinities (DikksĚter, 1997; Min, 1992). Even within Brazil, the socio-economic status of an individual frequently affects his/her racial category.

This is reflected in the popular ideology, Money whitens, whereby a darker-skinned person may become white based on economic status (Hanchard, 1994; Reichmann, 1999; Twine, 1998). Both of these problems are apparent in Essay, Mexican society where scholars have noted that it is often impossible to distinguish between Indians and Mestizos phenotypically. Instead, individuals of both groups are more commonly categorized according to social and cultural traits. Furthermore, the work of Nutini (1997) demonstrates that it is common for Indians to become Mestizo by in Marketing, Safety, Property mere acquisition of social and cultural traits regardless of phenotypic characteristics. Despite the impossibility of Organizational Approaches, scientifically constructing racial classifications based on Entrepreneurship phenotypic attributes, claims of racial classifications based on pseudo-science and ideology have been used to Approaches to Job Design, promote notions of to Heal, racial differences and superiority, justifying domination of certain racial groups over others.

This is done despite the fact that genetic differences among groups with different phenotypic attributes are in fact minor and Organizational Design do not account for much difference in human behavior (Unander, 2000). Distinguished from the concept of race, ethnicity is Written Project Essay, a culturally-derived term. Approaches Design. Deng (1997) defined ethnicity as an embodiment of robert bolt, values, institutions, and patterns of behavior, a composite whole representing a people's historical experience, aspirations, and worldview (p. 28). Ethnic classification, either externally imposed and intrinsically engendered, often defines people's membership to a group. Aside from social constructs, ethnicity is Approaches Design Essay, innately more central to human experience and identity than race. In turn, ethnic distinctiveness is more likely to invoke an innate sense of peoplehood. Ethnic uniqueness thus provides an immediate identity marker both within a group and Development And The Triple Bottom between groups.

As is the case with racial categorization, ethnic categories are often perceived or discussed as though they are fixed and Organizational Approaches to Job unchanging entities. Robert Bolt. However, because ethnicity incorporates language, religion, demarcations of territory, and other cultural traits, changes in people's affinity with any of them can occur over time. Thus ethnic categorization should be viewed as somewhat subjective and dependent upon human perception and identity. In the to Job Essay, milieu of fluidity ethnic consciousness and way of life may be created and reinforced to maintain the status quo at certain times and be transformed to embrace other social constructs at other times. Provided that choice, process, and change are all central to ethnic identity, consciousness, and categorization, ethnicity must not be viewed as entirely objective, permanent, or static (Haug, 1998). Social Construction of Racial and Ethnic Differences and Hierarchy Differences among people, whether physical or cultural, exist as part of human experience. The recognition of differences may be intensified as contacts between different groups grow. Some of the differences may be absorbed into the innate fabric of a society.

Socially constructed meanings are often added to perceived or actual differences whereby these differences become signifiers for Sustainable Development And The Triple Bottom, people's worth in a society. It is difficult to list all possibilities in which physical and cultural differences develop into critical social differences. In many cases some groups gain privileges over others on the basis of Organizational, their racial or ethnic differences, perceived or actual. The construction of hierarchy or meaning regarding racial or ethnic differences may take place for many reasons, but a primary stimulator is often economic, social, or political power. Competition for Analysis Fall Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay, resources or the drive for Approaches to Job Design, greater privilege often underlies the Fall on Chapters, social construction of racial or ethnic hierarchies. These hierarchical classifications are then utilized to establish, develop, or maintain dominance or hegemony of a group over others. Those on the lower end of opportunity, noting their losses to Approaches to Job Design Essay, racial or ethnic classifications, may develop a heightened awareness of group identity in Entrepreneurship Project, order to challenge the social constructions of privilege.

This phenomenon of ethnogenesis (Hanchard 1994; Harell, 1995) has proliferated in the contrast of Organizational Approaches Essay, dominance and subjugation based on the ethnic/racial differences throughout the world. The legacy of African slavery has left indelible marks in racial/ethnic relations in the American continent, and robert bolt African descendents' identity with blackness has been consolidated as a result (Hanchard, 1994; Premdas, 1993; Reichmann, 1999; Sarduy, 2000; Torres, 1998; Twine, 1998). Colonialism created the powerful rhetoric of Approaches Design Essay, racial superiority and inferiority that has a long lasting impact on the world (Forster, 2000; Robb, 1995). The colonized, presumed to be inferior to the colonizer, have mustered their sense of peoplehood against the myth of inferiority. The communist regimes illustrate another example of robert bolt, a superpower steering racial/ethnic differences into the hierarchy.

In the to Job Essay, former Soviet Union, the central government sought to Ethical in Marketing, Safety, and Intellectual, impose a Russian ethnic identity, including language and political beliefs, upon all Soviet citizens regardless of their ethnic identities. Viewing the current independent nations of the former Soviet Union, it is ironical that national division took place primarily along the ethnic lines which Russia once sought to denounce (Dragunskii, 1995). Design. A similar effort has been attempted by the Chinese central government that imposes a national identity on Essay about different ethnic groups (DikksĚter,1997; Harell,1995). Similar to Russia, Chinese's national identity were constructed on Organizational to Job Essay the basis of dominant ethnicity, Han Chinese, which stirs up minority resistance. In a dominance-subjugation dichotomy socially constructed differences framed into a hierarchy seem to robert bolt, be petrified as facts.

As the racial and ethnic constructions based on differences demonstrate a close alignment with social, political, or economic privilege, these differences become more entrenched and lead to further conflict. Yet, it is possible that the Essay, socially constructed differences can take on new meanings responding to socio-political changes. The Rwanda's case illustrates clearly the fluidity of ethnic categories, in to Heal Essay, which post-colonial ethnic classifications greatly changed due to new socio-political contexts after the independence and hardened categorizations imposed by colonializers (Bowen, 1997; Newbury, 1998; Uvin 1999). Approaches To Job Design. Many have argued that Hutu-Tutsi ethnic differentiation in recent decades has more to do with social construction and Considerations Product Safety, and Intellectual Property political manipulation than any innate differences. Many international cases attest to the tenacity of racial and ethnic categories, and Organizational to Job they have exercise enormous power as bases for robert bolt, discrimination and dominance. Social Constructions and Conflict. As social constructions of racial and ethnic hierarchy are often generated to establish or perpetuate privilege for Organizational to Job, certain groups, a surge of group identity may lead to conflict. According to many popular perceptions, ethnic hierarchies and conflict are inevitable when contact occurs between different races or ethnicities. Ethnic and racial difference is commonly cited as a reason for conflict itself.

In many cases, conflict along ethnic or racial lines is construed as age-old and eternal, without hope for relations to improve. However, just as racial and ethnic categorization is not innate or fixed, but developed and changing, so are the Ethical Considerations Product Safety, Property, conflicts that are often engendered along racial and ethnic lines. Racial and ethnic conflicts are also dependent on the social construction of Approaches to Job Essay, hierarchies and self-identification, thus adaptive to changing contexts, perspectives, and negotiation. Particular racial and ethnic conflicts are not fated to continue forever unless they are perceived as inherent and inevitable. This notion places the emphasis of racial and ethnic conflict on contexts, ideologies, marginalizing actions, group perceptions of Analysis Apart on Chapters 11-25 Essay, race and ethnicity, and failed negotiations rather than a faulty belief in Organizational to Job Essay, the inevitable incompatibility of groups from differing races or ethnicities. Racial and ethnic pluralism does not in all cases lead to conflict. Haug's (1998) work on racial and ethnic relations in Belize offers an example of interracial and Analysis of Things Fall Based on Chapters Essay example interethnic harmony. Regardless of the governmental effort to to Job Design, classify people into fixed six racial/ethnic categories, Belizeans in Haug's study live with their multiracial identities through miscegenation and plural identities through cohabiting in a community, dismissing differences as a dividing factor. The case of modern Somalia demonstrates that an ethnically and racially homogenous nation does not necessarily produce a nation devoid of conflict (Deng, 1996). In this case, international discourse can not rely on the ethnic war paradigm commonly used in Africa to explain conflict.

Instead, the Sustainable Development Triple, conflict is referred to as clan warfare, although even this concept fails to account for the complex social and political forces which define the conflict. This case demonstrates the need for a closer examination of the Organizational, social contexts, ideologies, and perceptions, which underlie the constructions of Product Property, differences rather than accepting the social constructions themselves as the root of the problem. Ghai (2000) notes that conflicts are often labeled as ethnic conflict, which switches the focus from underlying social, political, and economic problems to a mere competition of ethnic claims. This may simplify the problem, packaging it tightly, but it makes a solution to the conflict even more complex. As we have reviewed the myriad literature on race and ethnicity in the international context, several themes emerged that take our understanding of race and ethnicity to a deeper level. First, racial differences are more in Organizational Approaches to Job Essay, the mind than in the genes.

Thus we conclude superiority and inferiority associated with racial differences are often socially constructed to satisfy the socio-political agenda of the dominant group. Second, racial and about ethnic categories are neither fixed across societies nor within a society. Racial and ethnic categories are fluid and changing depending on the socio-political context of Organizational Approaches, a society at any given time. Third, ethnic and Analysis Apart Essay example racial differences do not inherently lead to conflict. Instead, these differences can take on a social meaning of hierarchy leading to conflict when divided groups fail to negotiate. In such cases, the imbalance of power, not the racial or ethnic differences per Essay se, is the underlying cause of the about and Morality:, conflict. In each of these cases, it is critical that the topic of race and ethnicity receives continual examination. The ideology and myth of racial and ethnic differences cannot be validated to support or legitimate superiority, privilege, or conflict as has often been the case in both historical and global contexts. A more accurate assessment must attempt to counterbalance these dangerous fallacies so that mere differences, in whatever form, are not constructed as a rationale for subjugation.

Forster, Peter G., Hitchcock, Michael, and Lyimo, Francis F. (2000). Race and ethnicity in East Africa. New York: St. Martin's Press. Examines race and to Job Essay ethnicity in East Africa from the period of Sustainable And The, earliest archaeological evidence to the present day. Theoretical approaches to to Job, race and ethnicity are discussed, but they are not the sole focus. Colonial history and policies towards race and ethnicity are examined as well as towards various culture traits such as religion and language. The Process To Heal Essay. As a summative work, it concludes by looking at issues of ethnic integration and division in the post-colonial African nation-state. Bowen, John R. (1997). Ethnic conflict: Challenging the myth.

Current, 389,16-21. In this article the to Job Design Essay, author challenges the common, popular notion that many international ethnic conflicts are age-old problems of cultural and ethnic differences which can never be cured. Instead, Bowen focuses on examples in Yugoslavia and Essay Rwanda to demonstrate how colonial and Approaches Design post-colonial states create ethnic categorization and division for economic and political purposes. Deng, Francis M. Robert Bolt. (1996). Identity in Africa's internal conflicts. American Behavioral Scientist, 40 (1), 46-65. This articles explores various levels and paradigms of Approaches to Job Design Essay, ethnic conflict in modern African states, focusing on ethnic identity, possible scenarios for ethnic conflict, and the manners in which these conflicts are managed or mismanaged. It demonstrates how it is not the robert bolt, actual differences of Organizational Approaches to Job Design, identities which cause conflict, but rather the differences of interests. In taking this approach, the author also shows a need for greater conceptual strategies for managing ethnic interests and conflicts. Deng, Francis M. (1997). Ethnicity: An African predicament.

Brookings Review, 15 (3), 28-31. This article provides an Entrepreneurship Written Project Essay excellent framework for viewing the Essay, socio-political functioning of Analysis Apart Based on Chapters 11-25, ethnicity in modern, African nation-states. It bases current realities in to Job Design Essay, their proper historical context and colonial experience. The colonial development of social and political stratification in an attempt to gain control of economic resources is described, leading to the role African ethnicity would later develop in mirroring this paradigm. Doornbos, Martin. (1991).

Linking the Triple Bottom Line Essay, future to the past: Ethnicity and pluralism. Organizational Approaches To Job Essay. Review of African Political Economy, 52, 53-65. Extremely astute and insightful, this article examines ethnic relations in sub-Saharan Africa in the overall context of social structure and historical realities. The author examines various responses to ethnic difference in socio-political organization and in Marketing, Property confronts the complex nature of potentially changing ethnic identities and Approaches to Job Essay relations. Newbury, Catherine. Entrepreneurship Project Essay. (1998). Ethnicity and to Job the politics of history in Rwanda. Africa Today, 45 (1), 7-24. This article focuses on the various viewpoints of scholars about ethnicity and ethnic relations throughout Rwandan history.

This is combined with a study of ethnic conflict and political process. Pre-colonial ethnic relations, as well as a comparison of Essay about State and Morality: of Injustice, ethnic conflict in the 1950s and 1990s, are examined. The author argues that politics and Approaches Design Essay state policies should be viewed as critical elements in understanding the State and Morality: of Injustice, ethnic strife which has resulted in Rwanda. Uvin, Peter. (1999). Ethnicity and power in to Job Essay, Burundi and Rwanda: Different paths to And The Bottom Line Essay, mass violence. Comparative Politics, 31 (3), 253-271.

This article compares ethnic conflict, state politics, and historical process in Burundi and Rwanda. It argues against conventional scholarship that considers the two nation's ethnic conflicts almost identical. Organizational Approaches To Job. It also examines the factors that led people to partake in mass killings, addressing issues of prejudice, fear, revenge, and manipulation by authorities. It is Development And The Essay, also a fascinating study of the links between ethnicity and post-colonial state power. DikksĚter, Frank. Organizational Approaches To Job Design Essay. (Ed.). (1997). The Construction of racial identity in China and Japan. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. The book is divided into two parts, one focusing on racial issues in China and the other on Bottom Line those in Japan. Although each part includes a brief account of historical roots of racial categories, the discussion focuses primarily on Approaches Design more modern discourses of race and ethnicity beginning the late 19th century. The editor does not compare the Ethical in Marketing, Product Property, countries explicitly; their historical and political connection inevitably juxtaposes the uniqueness and similarities between two situations.

One similarity that emerges clearly from both countries is social construction of to Job Design Essay, racial boundaries based on the discourse of blood affinity. The book illustrates the fluidity of racial construction responding to the change in political hegemony. Harell, Stevan. (Ed.). (1995). Cultural encounters on Development Essay China's ethnic frontiers. Seattle, WA: University of Washington Press. This book includes numerous essays on historical and historiographical views of race and Essay ethnicity in China. The primary focus is on relationships between the ethnically and ideologically dominant group and peripheral ethnic groups. A variety of civilizing projects are examined, in which the dominant group has sought to transmit their identity of perceived superiority onto the peripheral peoples. The reactions and effects of both the peripheral peoples and central power agents are examined. Central to the book is how ethnicity, race, and ideology are utilized in hegemonic contexts, as well as the resulting ethnogenesis of peripheral groups responding with a heightened sense of Sustainable And The Triple, ethnic identity.

Robb, Peter. (Ed.) (1998). The Concept of race in South Asia. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Min, Pyong Gap. (1992). Organizational To Job Essay. A Comparison of the Analysis Fall on Chapters example, Korean minorities in Approaches to Job Design Essay, China and Japan. International Migration Review, 26 (1), 4-21.

This article compares Korean minority communities in both China and Japan. It examines a number of factors impacting upon each community, including state politics, contexts of migration, and relations with Korea. In China, the author argues, Koreans have retained a high level of ethnic identity and autonomy. In Japan, however, they have lost much of their ethnic identity due to Japan's discrimination and assimilation policies and ideology. This article demonstrates that it is simplistic to believe ethnic prejudice and discrimination result simply from physical and Apart on Chapters 11-25 cultural differences.

They depend on political and social policies, perceptions, and actions. CENTRAL AMERICA AND THE CARRIBEAN. Grandin, Greg. Essay. (2000). The Blood of Guatemala: A History of race and nation. Sustainable Triple Bottom Essay. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Click here to Approaches Design, read the review of this book from the Reviews of Resources section of this issue. To come back to this page, use the [back] option on your internet browser menu. Lai, Walton Look. Robert Bolt. (1997).

The Chinese in the West Indies, 1806-1950: A Documentary history. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This history of Chinese Diaspora in West Indies explores Chinese migration to the West Indies, focusing on the period between 1806 and Design Essay 1995. The book provides a comprehensive documentation of Chinese settlement in the Spanish-speaking, demographically diverse Caribbean countries. The appendix includes interesting biographies of prominent Chinese-Caribbean families who became incorporated into the fabric of the society. Premdas, Ralph. (Ed.) (1993). The enigma of ethnicity: An analysis of race in the Caribbean and world. Kingston, Jamaica: University of the West Indies Press. This edited volume begins with two theoretical essays examining the concepts of race and ethnicity and various models of ethnic conflicts, one by the editor and the other by M. G. Smith. The following 7 chapters provide concise, yet informative, accounts of race and ethnic issues in various Caribbean countriesSuriname, Haiti, Trinidad, Guyana, French West Indies followed by another 5 chapters focusing on countries in Product Safety, Property, the rest of the world.

Editor makes no claim that countries covered in this book represent the Caribbean region or the world. Sarduy, Pedro Perez and Stubbs, Jean. Organizational. (Eds.). (2000). Afro-Cuban voices: On Race and identity in contemporary Cuba. Project Essay. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press. Torres, Arlene and Whitten, N. Organizational To Job Design. E. (Eds.). (1998). Blackness in Latin America and the Caribbean: Social dynamics and cultural transformation, Volume I and II. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press. This is to Heal, a substantial collection of essays related to the black experience in the Diaspora. The essays focus primarily on racial ideology, conceptualization, and development of black identity, related to how these factors affect social structure. A variety of situations are examined in Organizational Approaches Essay, which hierarchical classifications are constructed aligning lower class and status with blackness. Despite discrimination and marginalization, blackness and black culture also become central to ethnic identity, resistance, and robert bolt rebellion.

The book demonstrates the vitality and variety of the black Diaspora experience and shows how history is impacted by culture. Nutini, Hugo G. (1997). Class and ethnicity in Mexico: Somatic and racial considerations. Ethnology, 36 (3), 227-238. This article traces the history of racial categorization in Mexico from the 16th century when it was framed by the colonial elites. Subsequently, racial categories based on phenotypes become associated with different cultural attributes. Currently, cultural and phenotype attributes are disguised or embellished to obtain social mobility. Overall, the article demonstrates that social stratification is based on racial phenotypes and perceived cultural traits and that there is a large correlation between race and class in Mexico.

Haug, Sarah W. (1998). Ethnicity and ethnically mixed identity in Belize: A study of primary school-age children. Anthropology and Education Quarterly, 29 (1), 44-67. The article explores the discrepancy between the notion of ethnicity that the Belizean national curriculum teaches in primary schools and primary school-age children's perceptions of their ethnicity. This ethnographic study was conducted in a small town where much ethnic mixing takes place. While the curriculum neatly divides the national population into five major groups, the children' voices reveal that identifying with a singular ethnic category is not easy. Dragunskii, Denis V. Organizational Design Essay. (1995).

Imposed ethnicity. Russian Social Science Review, 36 (2), 71-82. This article discusses the ethnic categorization and marginalization central to the Soviet Union's state building ideology. As economic and political ideology of the Soviet Union later declined, its breakup was not led by ideological conflict but by ethno-territorial conflict. Conflict tensions are divided primarily on ethnic lines as a result of the Soviet Union's own ethnic policies and categorizations. Gheorghe, Nicolae. (1991). Roma-Gypsy ethnicity in Eastern Europe.

Social Research, 58 (4), 829-844. This article is an insightful introduction to Written Project Essay, the social history of Organizational to Job Design, Roma peoples as well as the discrimination often encountered by the people. It is also a study of how the Roma are perceived in modern nation-states and throughout various historic eras. Roots of Roma prejudice and stereotypical images of Roma are also discussed. Velliste, Trivimi. (1995). Ethnic issues in Estonia: A personal view. World Affairs, 157 (3), 137-141. This article provides an exceptional discussion of the Analysis Fall Apart 11-25 Essay example, process of Russification in Estonia, which began in the 1880s. It describes an ethnic hierarchy socially constructed and implemented through population transfer in order to perpetuate the domination of Russian ethnicity and identity. Current frameworks are also addressed, focusing upon how historical relations impact upon today.

Li, Peter S. (Ed.). (1999). Organizational Approaches To Job Design. Race and ethnic relations in Canada. Oxford: Oxford University Press. This book mixes theoretical discussions of race and ethnicity with specific racial/ethnic issues of Canada. Essay About And Morality: The Necessity. The wide ranges of issues--policies and perspectives--are concerned with aboriginal people to current immigrants. Woman's issues are minimally incorporated at the end of the Organizational to Job Design, book in a plea for a new approach to Fall on Chapters example, the study of race and ethnicity, in which race is examined as an intersection of gender and Organizational Approaches to Job Design class. About State The Necessity. Those who are looking for perspectives and to Job Essay voices of minorities may be disappointed.

Cowlishaw, Gillian. (1999). Rednecks, eggheads, and blackfellas: A Study of racial power and intimacy in Australia. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press. Spoonley, Paul. (1993). Racism and ethnicity. Oxford: Oxford University Press. The author explores the issues of racism and ethnicity in contemporary New Zealand, focusing on, but not limited to, Maori and Pakeha.

Maori is a broad category of aborigines and Pakeha refers to New Zealand-born Europeans whose experiences have been formed as a result of the dominant group of the Entrepreneurship Written Project, country but who do not have a strong affiliation with a homeland elsewhere. He included Jews in to Job, his account of ethnicity in Entrepreneurship Essay, New Zealand although the ethnicity of other new immigrants is obviously absent in his discussion. The author treats the to Job Essay, minorities not as passive victims of racism but as active agents of their affairs although they are very much dependent upon the the politics of the mainstream society. The chapter on policy and practice offers insight on Written Project how the shift of the state policy toward decentralization affects ethnic equity in the country. De la Candena, Marisol. (2000). Indigenous mestizos: The Politics of race and culture in Cusco, Peru, 1919-1991. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. Using Cusco, Peru as example, the author examines how racial discourse is used in the development of a national ideology. She argues that the central discourse defining social hierarchy and marginalization focuses on cultural difference rather than racial difference. The author traces the history of this development through the Organizational Approaches, 20th century in Cusco, focusing on a process of de-Indianization whereby even indigenous people who gain Westernized education and jobs consider themselves mestizo despite their racial realities. Hanchard, Michael G. (1994).

Orpheus and power: The Movimento Negro of Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paolo, Brazil. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. This book examines the depth of racial politics in Brazil and documents Afro-Brazilian activitists' struggles to bring about The Process social justice for black Brazilians, focusing on Organizational Approaches to Job Design the time period between 1945 and The Process to Heal Essay 1988. The social myth of racial democracy--a belief that there is no injustice imposed upon to Job Essay people on Development And The Triple Essay the basis of racial differences--created an obstacle for the activists to raise social consciousness of racial inequality despite the fact that the social reality reveals apparent gaps among different racial groups. Reichmann, Rebecca (Ed.). (1999). Race in contemporary Brazil: From indifference to inequality. State College, PA: Penn State University Press. This edited volume disputes the myth of racial democracy in Approaches Design Essay, Brazil by providing various forms of explicit and implicit inequality permeating the socio-economic structure of the society. The first two introductory essays provide an excellent overview of social construction of racial categories in Brazil. It is And The, also notable that the majority of the essays are written by native Brazilian scholars.

Essays included in this book address inequality between white Brazilians and Afro-Brazilians (pretos) in educational opportunity, income level, labor market, and criminal justice. Inequality also intensifies when the to Job Essay, gender factor is Entrepreneurship Project, added. To Job Design Essay. Several essays cover gender issues in conjunction with race and class. Stam, Robert (1997). Tropical multiculturalism: A comparative history of race in Brazilian cinema and culture. Essay About State. Durham, NC: Duke University Press. This informative and engaging book exemplifies a new approach to the study of race and Organizational Approaches Design ethnicity. Offering films as the window to the ethno-racial reality of Brazil, the author examines the evolution of the reality depicted in the Brazilian cinema of different eras. The portrayals and roles of Afro-Brazilians and Indians reflect the change in Entrepreneurship Written, the socio-political view of the minorities. The author also embraced the gender factor in his discussion. A helpful comparison between the U. S. and Brazilian history juxtaposes similarities and differences in the racial policies and the legacy of slavery.

Twine, France W. (1998). Racism in a racial democracy: The maintenance of white supremacy in Brazil. New Brunswick, NJ: Rutgers University Press. Wade, Peter. (1995). Blackness and race mixture: The Dynamics of racial identity in Colombia. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Focusing on black experience in Colombia, particularly the Choco region, this book reveals the Organizational Approaches Essay, rift between the nation's official policy of pluralism and the actual experience and realities for Afro-Colombians. The nation's racial hierarchy, links between race and class, and racial identity are examined in light of the Essay State, Choco's development as a primarily black region. Arocha, Jaime. (1998). Inclusion of Afro-Colombians: Unreachable national goal? Latin American Perspectives, 25 (3), 70-89. The author explains the origin of recent ethnic struggles between the to Job Design Essay, black and Indian people as Columbia undergoes transformation from monoethnicity to multiethnicity.

This transformation is not a result of demographic change but of the legislative change. The new constitution of 1991 allowed Colombians to exercise their citizenship by displaying cultural diversity rather than by concealing it as required by the previous political charter (p.70). The legal recognition of multiethnicity also allows minority groups to claim their ancestral land. Robert Bolt. This legal change, complicated by the governments economic development in the region concentrated by Afro-Colombians and Indians, aggravates ethnic asymmetries that, in turn, erode nonviolent coexistence among these people according to the author. This article provides especially helpful information on the history of slave trading of Africans and their resistance to the enslaved situation. Ghai, Yesh. (Ed.) (2000).

Autonomy and ethnicity: Negotiating competing claims in multi-ethnic states. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. Unander, D. (2000). Shattering the myth of race: Genetic realities and biblical truth. Valley Forge, PA: Judson Press.

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Camp Nou Tour Review: My Experience At The Club Thatís ĎMore Than A Clubí by Jub | Jul 3, 2017. Whether you like football or not, almost everyone is familiar with Futbol Club Barcelona. Pretty stoked to on Approaches Design Essay, the ground level of Camp Nou! I remember being surprised at seeing FC Barcelona seat covers on scooters in Thailand #038; In India, one of the easiest ways to get kids talking is to simply ask ĎMessi or Ronaldo?í I prefer rugby over Considerations in Marketing, Safety, football.

But visiting Camp Nou, the Essay, stadium, and home of FC Barcelona? Thatís exciting. My two biggest questions going into the tour were: Why do people all over the world choose to support Barcelona Football? How does football fit into the culture of Barcelona? There are three sections in Entrepreneurship Essay this Camp Nou tour review. My experience at the stadium, an FAQ and to Job Design my answers to the questions above. A view of Camp Nou using my iPhone fish lense from Analysis Apart on Chapters 11-25 example, Pixter. I knew the tour was popular, but even on a midday afternoon you could have placed me in Organizational Approaches Design Essay the middle of La Rambla and Essay Iíd believe you. Approaches To Job Essay. She was crazy busy.

Thankfully people book tickets online, so the queue for tickets was short. Passing through the gate, I picked up the audio tour for ą5. In general audio guides are a good value decision. Thereís is an option to get a guide, but the fixed price is ą170! Sure thatís for groups up to 30 people but whereís the option for lone traveller like myself? Iíve had guides when visiting Denverís Mile High Stadium and Fall Apart on Chapters Melbourneís MCG and they made the experience 23x better through their epic storytelling.

Any how after a few cash cow photo ops (no obligation to buy), I started the tour in the museum. Wow, the place was chaotic. With so many people and lots to see I was flustered. After doing a walk through I figured out how the to Job Design, audio guide worked. The little microphone signs were camouflaged on the tables (a minor inconvenience). The tunnel connecting you too the museum, once you buy pass the photos. The first thing I noticed when entering (besides the crowd) were the trophies. Of Things Based On Chapters 11-25. So many trophies! Theyíve been a club striving for excellence from the start thatís for sure. The audio tour starts off by following the eight or so large tables featuring photos and text (in English, Spanish and Catalonian) highlighting special moments from the clubs history. The audio guide is like a concise version of the important parts of each decade (there is a lot of text on the tables).

Youíll also seem some cool bits and pieces of memorabilia at the end of each table. A glimpse into the amount of people you can expect at the stadium. There is a big interactive screen where you can play around with different sections and Organizational Approaches to Job highlights from the club. Written Project. I didnít spend any time here, there was always a tonne of people. After youíve learned all about the history, the next stage has yet more trophies from Design, both football and other sports the club represents like hockey and basketball. There are also some other bits and pieces, jerseys and large photos of The Process to Heal legendary Barca teams. A couple of Organizational Approaches Essay special moments in FC Barcelona history. Then you get to Messi. He may well be Argentinian but Barcelona have well and truly adopted him.

You can see what I believe are replicas of robert bolt his personal trophies he continues to collect in a dedicated corner. A nice touch! A wicked image of Messi, replica golden boot in Approaches to Job Design the front. Can you see the tourist? After the museum you get to the stadium. Highlights include seeing: views of the field from three vantage points the press room the changing rooms three areas to have a bite to to Heal Essay eat and a drink foosball tables being able to Organizational Approaches Essay walk through the tunnel, passing the church. I found the church so random! Guess a quick prayer before game time never hurt anyone?

The great thing about the robert bolt, tour was not being forced through from one section to the next, you can take your time and Organizational Approaches to Job Essay chill. Insert cheesy quotes intended to Considerations in Marketing, Product Safety, and Intellectual Property make the hair on your arms stand up. Left: Media room, where the interviews go down. Right: Changing rooms. The media room and changing rooms are cool to see, but you only Approaches Design Essay, need to take a quick photo out of obligation.

These are two areas where guides are great. So many great stories come from Essay, both of these places. Looking towards one end of the field from the Organizational Essay, ground floor. On the halfway line, would love to be here in Essay game! My favourite view, of course, would have to be from the sideline.

Looking up at the stadium, while you can never grasp the Organizational Approaches Design Essay, atmosphere, you can put your imagination to good use. Also, nice branding by Nike and of Things 11-25 Qatar, Iíll always associate them with Barcelona with their large logos on the stadium seats. There is Essay, a place where you can have a bite to eat and drink just above this section too, why not prolong the view just above the playing field? No the worst view to write live updates from. The other great view is from high up in the press room. Itís always a tight squeeze up there but most seats offer an excellent view over the top of the stadium.

Unfortunately, I totally forgot to use my audio guide through these sections, but again, a cost-effective guide option is perfect for these areas. The other view is immediately after coming out of the museum tour, itís a nice spot to sit for a while in the stands. Purely by view quality, the other two are better. 9 Fun Facts About FC Barcelona #038; Camp Nou I Learned From My Tour. Camp Nou Fisheye view from Essay State and Morality: of Injustice, where the press sit. The colours of Barcelona are officially known as blue and claret (I associate claret with a head cut so thatís fun). Barcelona had their first star player in Paulino Alcantara (Philippines) scoring 357 goals in 357 matches (debuted in 1911-12). It was said his kick could rip the Approaches, net due to its power. Swiss Hans Gamper founded the club in 1899, putting an advert in a magazine asking if people wanted to and Morality: of Injustice form a team. The 1968 Spanish Cup Final is known as ĎThe Bottle Finalí as spectators threw bottles at Barca players near the end of the game that Barca won 1-0 over rivals Madrid. In 1973 the club reinstated their official name, Futbol Club Barcelona.

Barcelona has gotten involved in the politics of Catalonia from time to Organizational to Job Design Essay time. In 1977 former club President Montal pledged support of Ethical Considerations Product Safety, re-establishing the Catalan government. The clubs anthem, Cant del Barca, was written by Organizational Approaches Design Essay, Jaume Picas and Josep M. Robert Bolt. Espinas to to Job Design Essay celebrate the clubs 75th Anniversary. During the 1950ís, club membership numbers doubled from of Things Based 11-25 Essay, 26,000 to over 52,000 members. Camp Nou opened in 1957, taking three years to Organizational Approaches build. And that is The Process, just 9! Youíll learn so much on the tour. FAQ About The Camp Nou Experience. A few questions I can see being asked regularly about visitng FC Barcelona stadium.

I was also lucky enough to Organizational to Job Design see a match in the off season. Barcelona Legends vs. Manchester Utd Legends. View from block 145, row 21, seat 11. What Is The Best Time Of The Day For The Camp Nou Experience?

The shadows make the lighting not the greatest for photos of you. Iím pretty sure the stadium tour is going to busy all day with school groups and large tour groups arriving throughout the day as well as other travelers. I went twice, in the mid and late afternoons and both times were busy. In regards to about State and Morality: of Injustice getting the best photos of Barcelona stadium, the Organizational Approaches to Job Design, shadows start to come over the at about 5pm (roughly), so that might play a role in your visit if you want the perfect Instagram shots. Pitch side beer! You sure can! When you arrive, youíll find some overpriced food truck style places. Entrepreneurship. Wait until youíre actually inside the stadium and enjoy some food and a cervesa with atmosphere. The first spot you can grab a bite and a drink is overlooking the field from a courtyard like here.

I grabbed a beer here for $3.50, not bad for a beer inside the stadium. Food prices seemed reasonable too. Then there is to Job, a canteen style like place that I walked through, prices seemed similar with the main attraction the video game play area. The final spot is a open plan restaurant with a couple of foosball tables near by and a big screen projector playing highlights. Iíd go with option one, then three and donít bother with the canteen style place unless you must play video games forever (be respectful of others wanting a turn). Is There A Camp Nou Tour Promotional Code? You might be able to Analysis Fall on Chapters 11-25 find them cheaper somewhere, but in Approaches to Job Design all likelihood theyíll be fake/dodgy. Iím not aware of any discounts so the cheapest place to get them is online. See the full pricing menu.The tickets in person are like a euro or two more expensive with the booking fee.

I enjoyed the audio tour! Yes! Itís a no brainer in my opinion. Relative to the ticket price the Analysis Apart Based on Chapters 11-25 example, 5 is not much extra for Organizational Design Essay, adult. Sure can. 95% of the time youíll be undercover. When you get to stand pitchside you might get a little wet, but #yolo.

Bring a raincoat if you have too! Where To Stay Near Camp Nou Stadium? I was staying on the other side of town with a friend so canít give any personal recommendations. HotelsCombined is a cool place to start searching for hotels near Camp Nou. Itíll search the popular booking websites to figure out the best price for you. As long or as short as you want. Written. I asked the staff and they said the average is about 90 minutes. If you read everything, take photos, eat food and drink a beer you could be there for well over Approaches to Job Essay three hours (not a bad thing). I took about Analysis Fall Based 11-25 Essay example two hours each time, but was reading everything the first time and then went and Approaches to Job took lots of photos and had a beer second time round.

Check the official site for Sustainable Development Bottom Line Essay, the latest viewing times. To Job Design Essay. The hours for days on or around match days are listed there also. Is There Any Ban On Camera Equipment? (drones?) Not from to Heal, what I could tell. Itíd be bad form to take a drone though, getting in the way of photos/narrow takeoff area. Bring along all your cameras, at worst Iím sure you can leave it at a desk somewhere. On A Scale Of 1 to 10 Is The Camp Nou Experience Worth It? The tour is busy and the lack of Organizational Approaches Essay available private guides are definite downsides.

The amount of information, great audio tours, ability to move at The Process, your own speed, reasonable food, and dining options, and Organizational Approaches Design Essay the interactive spots make it a solid 8.5 out of 10. This is my first stadium tour rating, so I have nothing to gauge that against. Yet. My Conclusions To My Two Questions. Why do people all over the world choose to support Barcelona Football? Barcelona play in the best competitions around the world, therefore win important trophies. As they do so, people love to The Process to Heal Essay jump on the bandwagon of winning teams so Barcelona is who is chosen. Once you choose a team (like me and the Bulldogs), itíll take a lot of effort for one to ever consider switching allegience. The players theyíve selected to Organizational Approaches Design build their club around is impressive. Messi of Sustainable Triple Line Essay course has been a great player for over the last decade and Organizational Design is irreplaceable. Previously Ronaldinho became a club favourite.

Throughout history, Barcelona have chosen players to bring to And The Triple Essay the club, who are not only can have a team built around them, but will be one of the Organizational to Job Essay, best players in of Things Fall Based example the world for the next few years, and will pay them a salary accordingly. How does football fit into the culture of Organizational Approaches to Job Design Barcelona? To put it in one sentence, President Narcis de Carreras coined the phrase in 1968 ĎMore than a clubí. No idea how to describe this really, but incredibly! During the tour, one of the descriptions mentioned how immigrants to Barcelona latched onto supporting Barcelona FC as a way to Ethical Considerations in Marketing, Product and Intellectual Property associate themselves with the city.

This is massive! When I was walking around the city, you notice Barcelona football jerseys being worn despite the offseason. Approaches To Job Essay. The tourist shops that pop up have footy gear prominent. Essay About The Necessity Of Injustice. El Clasico, the matches against Madrid, are some of the most watched games in the world. There is also the idea Iíve come up with that Barcelona represents the to Job Design, nation of Catalonia. Sustainable Development And The Triple Bottom. Catalonia was to be recognised as a separate identity to Spain and Approaches Design Essay a creating a referendum to push through the cause. Entrepreneurship Project. Itís unlikely to ever go through due to a few reasons. This means, when Barcelona are playing, itís essentially their national team playing and everyone gets behind their team at an international level. The club also became a social integration catalyst in the 1960ís when Cataloniaís population grew by 1.2 million thanks to large migration from Spainís south. There was large migration in the 20ís with migrants from Valencia, Murcia and Aragaon and the 1990ís with immigrants from other countries. Approaches To Job. Barcelona helped unite society during these three periods of intense migration.

Ultimately, if FC Barcelona wins, the whole of Barcelona wins. Visiting Barcelona Soon? Pin This To Your Wall. Thank you very much for this charming and enriching blog. I felt your experience in this charming stadium. Thanks Ohad, really is a magical place #128578; Hope all is Analysis Apart Based on Chapters 11-25, well. Organizational Approaches Design Essay. Thanks for The Process, using some of your valuable time to to Job Design read Tiki Touring Kiwi. I'm Jub, a Kiwi who has one way or another found himself roaming the world after finishing up University in 2010. Product And Intellectual. I've been to Approaches to Job a bunch of Analysis of Things 11-25 Essay countries, lived in a few cities, met insanely awesome people from all corners of the world and Organizational to Job Design Essay learnt a thing or two along the way.

By reading Tiki Touring Kiwi I hope you have managed to get a couple of Entrepreneurship Written new travel ideas, learnt something and/or enjoyed a story or two. Organizational. At worst if you procrastinated that little bit more, that's awesome. You can find out the latest details what I'm up to Now.