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Internet Encyclopedia of paper jack, Philosophy. Epistemology is the study of knowledge. Epistemologists concern themselves with a number of tasks, which we might sort into two categories. First, we must determine the nature of knowledge; that is, what does it mean to what was the colony say that someone knows, or fails to know, something? This is paper, a matter of what was the first colony, understanding what knowledge is, and jack, how to Scientific Inquiry Essay distinguish between cases in which someone knows something and cases in which someone does not know something. While there is some general agreement about some aspects of this issue, we shall see that this question is paper, much more difficult than one might imagine. Second, we must determine the impossible opening, extent of human knowledge; that is, how much do we, or can we, know? How can we use our reason, our senses, the testimony of others, and paper, other resources to acquire knowledge?

Are there limits to what we can know? For instance, are some things unknowable? Is it possible that we do not know nearly as much as we think we do? Should we have a legitimate worry about skepticism, the view that we do not or cannot know anything at about a Novel by George all? While this article provides on overview of the important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to be an jack, area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain. The term epistemology comes from the Greek episteme, meaning knowledge, and logos, meaning, roughly, study, or science, of. Logos is the root of all terms ending in -ology such as psychology, anthropology and of logic, and has many other related meanings. The word knowledge and Essay Orwell, its cognates are used in a variety of ways. One common use of the word know is as an expression of psychological conviction. For instance, we might hear someone say, I just knew it wouldn't rain, but then it did. While this may be an appropriate usage, philosophers tend to use the word know in a factive sense, so that one cannot know something that is not the case. (This point is discussed at greater length in section 2b below.)

Even if we restrict ourselves to jack factive usages, there are still multiple senses of knowledge, and so we need to distinguish between them. One kind of knowledge is procedural knowledge, sometimes called competence or know-how; for example, one can know how to what colony ride a bicycle, or one can know how to paper jack drive from Washington, D.C. to New York. Another kind of Ethics, knowledge is acquaintance knowledge or familiarity; for instance, one can know the department chairperson, or one can know Philadelphia. Epistemologists typically do not focus on procedural or acquaintance knowledge, however, instead preferring to focus on propositional knowledge. A proposition is something which can be expressed by a declarative sentence, and which purports to jack describe a fact or a state of affairs, such as Dogs are mammals, 2+2=7, It is wrong to murder innocent people for macbeth, fun. (Note that a proposition may be true or false; that is, it need not actually express a fact.) Propositional knowledge, then, can be called knowledge-that; statements of propositional knowledge (or the jack, lack thereof) are properly expressed using that-clauses, such as He knows that Houston is in Texas, or She does not know that the In Digital, square root of 81 is 9. In what follows, we will be concerned only paper with propositional knowledge.

Propositional knowledge, obviously, encompasses knowledge about In Digital Photojournalism Essay, a wide range of matters: scientific knowledge, geographical knowledge, mathematical knowledge, self-knowledge, and knowledge about any field of study whatever. Any truth might, in principle, be knowable, although there might be unknowable truths. One goal of epistemology is to determine the criteria for knowledge so that we can know what can or cannot be known, in other words, the paper jack, study of epistemology fundamentally includes the study of meta-epistemology (what we can know about knowledge itself). We can also distinguish between different types of propositional knowledge, based on the source of that knowledge. Non-empirical or a priori knowledge is possible independently of, or prior to, any experience, and requires only the use of essays, reason; examples include knowledge of logical truths such as the law of non-contradiction, as well as knowledge of paper jack, abstract claims (such as ethical claims or claims about ambition essays, various conceptual matters). Empirical or a posteriori knowledge is possible only subsequent, or posterior, to certain sense experiences (in addition to paper jack the use of reason); examples include knowledge of the color or shape of Essay, a physical object or knowledge of geographical locations. Jack. (Some philosophers, called rationalists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon opening reason; others, called empiricists, believe that all knowledge is ultimately grounded upon experience.) A thorough epistemology should, of course, address all kinds of knowledge, although there might be different standards for a priori and paper jack, a posteriori knowledge. We can also distinguish between individual knowledge and collective knowledge. Social epistemology is the subfield of Essay 1984, epistemology that addresses the paper jack, way that groups, institutions, or other collective bodies might come to acquire knowledge. 2. The Nature of Propositional Knowledge. Having narrowed our focus to propositional knowledge, we must ask ourselves what, exactly, constitutes knowledge. What does it mean for someone to know something?

What is the execution, difference between someone who knows something and someone else who does not know it, or between something one knows and something one does not know? Since the scope of knowledge is so broad, we need a general characterization of paper, knowledge, one which is applicable to any kind of proposition whatsoever. Epistemologists have usually undertaken this task by seeking a correct and complete analysis of the concept of knowledge, in other words a set of individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions which determine whether someone knows something. Let us begin with the observation that knowledge is macbeth, a mental state; that is, knowledge exists in one's mind, and unthinking things cannot know anything. Further, knowledge is jack, a specific kind of mental state. While that-clauses can also be used to describe desires and intentions, these cannot constitute knowledge. Rather, knowledge is what was the first colony, a kind of paper, belief . If one has no beliefs about ambition, a particular matter, one cannot have knowledge about it. For instance, suppose that I desire that I be given a raise in salary, and that I intend to do whatever I can to earn one. Paper Jack. Suppose further that I am doubtful as to Essay a Novel by George Orwell whether I will indeed be given a raise, due to the intricacies of the university's budget and such.

Given that I do not believe that I will be given a raise, I cannot be said to know that I will. Paper Jack. Only if I am inclined to believe something can I come to know it. A Novel By George Orwell. Similarly, thoughts that an individual has never entertained are not among his beliefs, and thus cannot be included in paper jack, his body of execution, knowledge. Some beliefs, those which the individual is actively entertaining, are called occurrent beliefs. The majority of an individual's beliefs are non-occurrent; these are beliefs that the paper jack, individual has in the background but is not entertaining at a particular time. Correspondingly, most of Ethics In Digital Essay, our knowledge is paper, non-occurrent, or background, knowledge; only a small amount of was the first, one's knowledge is paper, ever actively on one's mind.

Knowledge, then, requires belief. Of course, not all beliefs constitute knowledge. Belief is necessary but not sufficient for knowledge. Impossible. We are all sometimes mistaken in what we believe; in other words, while some of our beliefs are true, others are false. As we try to acquire knowledge, then, we are trying to increase our stock of true beliefs (while simultaneously minimizing our false beliefs).

We might say that the most typical purpose of beliefs is to describe or capture the way things actually are; that is, when one forms a belief, one is seeking a match between one's mind and the world. (We sometimes, of paper, course, form beliefs for other reasons to create a positive attitude, to deceive ourselves, and so forth but when we seek knowledge, we are trying to Essay about 1984 Orwell get things right.) And, alas, we sometimes fail to achieve such a match; some of our beliefs do not describe the paper, way things actually are. Note that we are assuming here that there is Essay about a Novel, such a thing as objective truth, so that it is possible for beliefs to match or to fail to match with reality. Jack. That is, in order for someone to know something, there must be something one knows about . Ethics Photojournalism Essay. Recall that we are discussing knowledge in paper, the factive sense; if there are no facts of the matter, then there's nothing to know (or to fail to know). What Was The American Colony. This assumption is not universally accepted in particular, it is not shared by jack, some proponents of relativism but it will not be defended here. However, we can say that truth is a condition of knowledge; that is, if a belief is not true, it cannot constitute knowledge.

Accordingly, if there is no such thing as truth, then there can be no knowledge. Even if there is such a thing as truth, if there is a domain in which there are no truths, then there can be no knowledge within that domain. (For example, if beauty is in the eye of the beholder, then a belief that something is beautiful cannot be true or false, and thus cannot constitute knowledge.) Knowledge, then, requires factual belief. However, this does not suffice to Scientific Inquiry Essay capture the nature of knowledge. Jack. Just as knowledge requires successfully achieving the objective of true belief, it also requires success with regard to the formation of that belief. In other words, not all true beliefs constitute knowledge; only true beliefs arrived at execution in the right way constitute knowledge. What, then, is the right way of arriving at paper beliefs? In addition to truth, what other properties must a belief have in order to constitute knowledge? We might begin by noting that sound reasoning and In Digital, solid evidence seem to be the way to acquire knowledge. By contrast, a lucky guess cannot constitute knowledge.

Similarly, misinformation and faulty reasoning do not seem like a recipe for knowledge, even if they happen to lead to paper jack a true belief. A belief is said to macbeth ambition essays be justified if it is obtained in the right way. While justification seems, at first glance, to be a matter of paper jack, a belief's being based on evidence and about 1984 by George, reasoning rather than on luck or misinformation, we shall see that there is much disagreement regarding how to paper spell out the details. The requirement that knowledge involve justification does not necessarily mean that knowledge requires absolute certainty, however. What Was The First American Colony. Humans are fallible beings, and fallibilism is the view that it is possible to paper have knowledge even when one's true belief might have turned out to be false. What Was The First American Colony. Between beliefs which were necessarily true and those which are true solely by luck lies a spectrum of beliefs with regard to jack which we had some defeasible reason to believe that they would be true.

For instance, if I heard the Ethics In Digital Photojournalism, weatherman say that there is a 90% chance of rain, and as a result I formed the belief that it would rain, then my true belief that it would rain was not true purely by luck. Paper Jack. Even though there was some chance that my belief might have been false, there was a sufficient basis for that belief for Essay 1984, it to constitute knowledge. This basis is referred to paper as the justification for that belief. What Colony. We can then say that, to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified. Note that because of luck, a belief can be unjustified yet true; and because of human fallibility, a belief can be justified yet false. In other words, truth and justification are two independent conditions of paper, beliefs.

The fact that a belief is true does not tell us whether or not it is impossible, justified; that depends on how the belief was arrived at. So, two people might hold the same true belief, but for different reasons, so that one of them is justified and paper, the other is unjustified. Similarly, the first american, fact that a belief is justified does not tell us whether it's true or false. Of course, a justified belief will presumably be more likely to paper jack be true than to be false, and Scientific, justified beliefs will presumably be more likely or more probable to be true than unjustified beliefs. (As we will see in section 3 below, the exact nature of the relationship between truth and justification is paper jack, contentious.) For some time, the justified true belief (JTB) account was widely agreed to capture the was the first american, nature of knowledge. However, in 1963, Edmund Gettier published a short but widely influential article which has shaped much subsequent work in epistemology. Gettier provided two examples in which someone had a true and justified belief, but in which we seem to want to jack deny that the individual has knowledge, because luck still seems to play a role in what was the colony, his belief having turned out to paper be true. Consider an example. Suppose that the clock on campus (which keeps accurate time and is well maintained) stopped working at 11:56pm last night, and colony, has yet to be repaired. On my way to my noon class, exactly twelve hours later, I glance at the clock and form the belief that the time is jack, 11:56.

My belief is true, of course, since the was the american, time is indeed 11:56. And my belief is justified, as I have no reason to doubt that the clock is working, and I cannot be blamed for basing beliefs about the paper jack, time on what the clock says. Nonetheless, it seems evident that I do not know that the time is 11:56. After all, if I had walked past the clock a bit earlier or a bit later, I would have ended up with a false belief rather than a true one. This example and Essay 1984, others like it, while perhaps somewhat far-fetched, seem to show that it is paper, possible for justified true belief to Inquiry Essay fail to constitute knowledge. To put it another way, the justification condition was meant to ensure that knowledge was based on paper jack, solid evidence rather than on luck or misinformation, but Gettier-type examples seem to show that justified true belief can still involve luck and thus fall short of Essay about Orwell, knowledge. This problem is referred to as the Gettier problem. Paper Jack. To solve this problem, we must either show that all instances of justified true belief do indeed constitute knowledge, or alternatively refine our analysis of knowledge. We might think that there is execution, a simple and straightforward solution to the Gettier problem. Note that my reasoning was tacitly based on my belief that the clock is working properly, and that this belief is false. Paper. This seems to explain what has gone wrong in Essay about a Novel, this example.

Accordingly, we might revise our analysis of paper jack, knowledge by insisting that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and Ethics Essay, justified and must be formed without relying on any false beliefs. In other words, we might say, justification, truth, and belief are all necessary for paper, knowledge, but they are not jointly sufficient for knowledge; there is nitrogen execution, a fourth condition namely, that no false beliefs be essentially involved in the reasoning that led to the belief which is also necessary. Unfortunately, this will not suffice; we can modify the example so that my belief is justified and true, and is not based on paper, any false beliefs, but still falls short of knowledge. Suppose, for instance, that I do not have any beliefs about the clock's current state, but merely the more general belief that the clock usually is in ambition, working order. Jack. This belief, which is In Digital Photojournalism, true, would suffice to justify my belief that the time is now 11:56; of course, it still seems evident that I do not know the jack, time. However, the no-false-belief condition does not seem to be completely misguided; perhaps we can add some other condition to macbeth essays justification and truth to yield a correct characterization of knowledge. Jack. Note that, even if I didn't actively form the belief that the clock is currently working properly, it seems to be implicit in my reasoning, and the fact that it is false is surely relevant to impossible the problem.

After all, if I were asked, at the time that I looked at the clock, whether it is working properly, I would have said that it is. Conversely, if I believed that the paper, clock wasn't working properly, I wouldn't be justified in forming a belief about the Essay about a Novel by George, time based on what the clock says. In other words, the proposition that the paper, clock is working properly right now meets the following conditions: it is a false proposition, I do not realize that it is a false proposition, and if I had realized that it is a false proposition, my justification for my belief that it is 11:56 would have been undercut or defeated. If we call propositions such as this defeaters, then we can say that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be true and justified, and there must not be any defeaters to the justification of that belief. Many epistemologists believe this analysis to be correct.

Rather than modifying the JTB account of knowledge by adding a fourth condition, some epistemologists see the Gettier problem as reason to seek a substantially different alternative. We have noted that knowledge should not involve luck, and that Gettier-type examples are those in which luck plays some role in the formation of a justified true belief. In typical instances of knowledge, the nitrogen execution, factors responsible for the justification of a belief are also responsible for its truth. For example, when the clock is working properly, my belief is paper jack, both true and justified because it's based on the clock, which accurately displays the time. But one feature that all Gettier-type examples have in common is the lack of mission impossible opening, a clear connection between the truth and the justification of the paper, belief in question. For example, my belief that the time is 11:56 is justified because it's based on the clock, but it's true because I happened to Essay 1984 a Novel walk by at just the right moment. Paper. So, we might insist that to constitute knowledge, a belief must be both true and justified, and its truth and justification must be connected somehow. This notion of a connection between the truth and the justification of a belief turns out to be difficult to formulate precisely, but causal accounts of knowledge seek to capture the spirit of this proposal by more significantly altering the analysis of knowledge.

Such accounts maintain that in order for someone to know a proposition, there must be a causal connection between his belief in that proposition and what first colony, the fact that the proposition encapsulates. This retains the truth condition, since a proposition must be true in order for it to paper encapsulate a fact. However, it appears to be incompatible with fallibilism, since it does not allow for Photojournalism Essay, the possibility that a belief be justified yet false. (Strictly speaking, causal accounts of knowledge make no reference to justification, although we might attempt to paper reformulate fallibilism in somewhat modified terms in order to state this observation.) While causal accounts of Inquiry Essay, knowledge are no longer thought to be correct, they have engendered reliabilist theories of knowledge, which shall be discussed in section 3b below. One reason that the paper, Gettier problem is so problematic is that neither Gettier nor anyone who preceded him has offered a sufficiently clear and accurate analysis of justification.

We have said that justification is a matter of a belief's having been formed in the right way, but we have yet to say what that amounts to. We must now consider this matter more closely. We have noted that the goal of our belief-forming practices is to obtain truth while avoiding error, and that justification is the feature of beliefs which are formed in such a way as to opening best pursue this goal. If we think, then, of the goal of our belief-forming practices as an attempt to establish a match between one's mind and the world, and paper, if we also think of the application or withholding of the justification condition as an evaluation of whether this match was arrived at in the right way, then there seem to Ethics be two obvious approaches to construing justification: namely, in terms of the paper jack, believer's mind, or in terms of the world. Belief is a mental state, and belief-formation is Scientific Inquiry Essay, a mental process. Paper. Accordingly, one might reason, whether or not a belief is justified whether, that is, it is formed in the right way can be determined by examining the thought-processes of the believer during its formation. Scientific. Such a view, which maintains that justification depends solely on factors internal to paper the believer's mind, is ambition, called internalism. Paper Jack. (The term internalism has different meanings in other contexts; here, it will be used strictly to refer to this type of view about epistemic justification.) According to internalism, the only factors that are relevant to the determination of whether a belief is justified are the execution, believer's other mental states. After all, an internalist will argue, only an individual's mental states her beliefs about the world, her sensory inputs (for example, her sense data) and her beliefs about the relations between her various beliefs can determine what new beliefs she will form, so only an individual's mental states can determine whether any particular belief is paper jack, justified. In particular, in order to be justified, a belief must be appropriately based upon or supported by other mental states. This raises the question of what constitutes the basing or support relation between a belief and one's other mental states.

We might want to say that, in Essay 1984 a Novel by George Orwell, order for belief A to be appropriately based on belief B (or beliefs B1 and B2, or B1, B2, andBn), the truth of B must suffice to establish the truth of A, in other words, B must entail A. Jack. (We shall consider the mission, relationship between beliefs and sensory inputs below.) However, if we want to paper jack allow for macbeth, our fallibility, we must instead say that the truth of B would give one good reason to believe that A is also true (by making it likely or probable that A is true). Jack. An elaboration of Essay, what counts as a good reason for paper jack, belief, accordingly, is an essential part of any internalist account of justification. However, there is an additional condition that we must add: belief B must itself be justified, since unjustified beliefs cannot confer justification on other beliefs. Because belief B be must also be justified, must there be some justified belief C upon was the first american which B is based? If so, C must itself be justified, and it may derive its justification from some further justified belief, D. This chain of beliefs deriving their justification from other beliefs may continue forever, leading us in an infinite regress. While the idea of an infinite regress might seem troubling, the primary ways of avoiding such a regress may have their own problems as well. This raises the regress problem, which begins from paper, observing that there are only Essay about a Novel four possibilities as to jack the structure of one's justified beliefs: The series of justified beliefs, each based upon the other, continues infinitely.

The series of justified beliefs circles back to its beginning (A is based on B, B on C, C on D, and D on A). The series of justified beliefs begins with an Ethics In Digital Photojournalism, unjustified belief. The series of justified beliefs begins with a belief which is justified, but not by virtue of being based on another justified belief. These alternatives seem to exhaust the possibilities. That is, if one has any justified beliefs, one of these four possibilities must describe the relationships between those beliefs.

As such, a complete internalist account of justification must decide among the four. Let us, then, consider each of the four possibilities mentioned above. Alternative 1 seems unacceptable because the jack, human mind can contain only finitely many beliefs, and any thought-process that leads to nitrogen execution the formation of a new belief must have some starting point. Alternative 2 seems no better, since circular reasoning appears to jack be fallacious. And alternative 3 has already been ruled out, since it renders the second belief in the series (and, thus, all subsequent beliefs) unjustified.

That leaves alternative 4, which must, by process of macbeth ambition, elimination, be correct. This line of reasoning, which is typically known as the regress argument, leads to the conclusion that there are two different kinds of jack, justified beliefs: those which begin a series of justified beliefs, and those which are based on other justified beliefs. Essay 1984. The former, called basic beliefs, are able to confer justification on paper jack, other, non-basic beliefs, without themselves having their justification conferred upon Scientific Essay them by other beliefs. Paper Jack. As such, there is an asymmetrical relationship between basic and non-basic beliefs. Such a view of the structure of justified belief is what first colony, known as foundationalism.

In general, foundationalism entails that there is an asymmetrical relationship between any two beliefs: if A is based on paper, B, then B cannot be based on A. Accordingly, it follows that at macbeth ambition least some beliefs (namely basic beliefs) are justified in some way other than by way of jack, a relation to Scientific Inquiry other beliefs. Basic beliefs must be self-justified, or must derive their justification from some non-doxastic source such as sensory inputs; the exact source of the justification of basic beliefs needs to be explained by any complete foundationalist account of justification. Internalists might be dissatisfied with foundationalism, since it allows for the possibility of beliefs that are justified without being based upon other beliefs. Since it was our solution to jack the regress problem that led us to foundationalism, and since none of the alternatives seem palatable, we might look for a flaw in the problem itself. Note that the problem is based on a pivotal but hitherto unstated assumption: namely, that justification is linear in fashion. That is, the statement of the regress problem assumes that the basing relation parallels a logical argument, with one belief being based on one or more other beliefs in an asymmetrical fashion.

So, an internalist who finds foundationalism to be problematic might deny this assumption, maintaining instead that justification is the macbeth essays, result of a holistic relationship among beliefs. Jack. That is, one might maintain that beliefs derive their justification by inclusion in Scientific Essay, a set of beliefs which cohere with one another as a whole; a proponent of such a view is called a coherentist. A coherentist, then, sees justification as a relation of mutual support among many beliefs, rather than a series of asymmetrical beliefs. Paper. A belief derives its justification, according to coherentism, not by being based on one or more other beliefs, but by Ethics, virtue of its membership in paper, a set of beliefs that all fit together in the right way. (The coherentist needs to specify what constitutes coherence, of course. Essay About Orwell. It must be something more than logical consistency, since two unrelated beliefs may be consistent. Jack. Rather, there must be some positive support relationship for instance, some sort of explanatory relationship between the members of a coherent set in order for the beliefs to 1984 be individually justified.) Coherentism is vulnerable to the isolation objection. It seems possible for a set of beliefs to be coherent, but for all of those beliefs to jack be isolated from reality.

Consider, for ambition essays, instance, a work of fiction. All of the statements in the work of jack, fiction might form a coherent set, but presumably believing all and only the statements in a work of fiction will not render one justified. Indeed, any form of internalism seems vulnerable to this objection, and thus a complete internalist account of was the colony, justification must address it. Jack. Recall that justification requires a match between one's mind and the world, and an inordinate emphasis on the relations between the beliefs in one's mind seems to ignore the question of whether those beliefs match up with the way things actually are. Accordingly, one might think that focusing solely on execution, factors internal to the believer's mind will inevitably lead to a mistaken account of paper, justification. The alternative, then, is that at least some factors external to american colony the believer's mind determine whether or not she is justified. A proponent of such a view is called an externalist. According to externalism, the only way to avoid the isolation objection and ensure that knowledge does not include luck is to consider some factors other than the individual's other beliefs. Which factors, then, should be considered?

The most prominent version of externalism, called reliabilism, suggests that we consider the paper jack, source of a belief. Beliefs can be formed as a result of many different sources, such as sense experience, reason, testimony, memory. More precisely, we might specify which sense was used, who provided the testimony, what sort of reasoning is used, or how recent the relevant memory is. For every belief, we can indicate the cognitive process that led to its formation. In its simplest and most straightforward form, reliabilism maintains that whether or not a belief is justified depends upon whether that process is Inquiry, a reliable source of true beliefs. Since we are seeking a match between our mind and the world, justified beliefs are those which result from processes which regularly achieve such a match.

So, for jack, example, using vision to determine the color of an object which is well-lit and relatively near is a reliable belief-forming process for a person with normal vision, but not for a color-blind person. Forming beliefs on the basis of the Essay, testimony of an expert is jack, likely to execution yield true beliefs, but forming beliefs on the basis of the testimony of compulsive liars is not. Jack. In general, if a belief is the result of a cognitive process which reliably (most of the time we still want to leave room for human fallibility) leads to true beliefs, then that belief is mission impossible, justified. The foregoing suggests one immediate challenge for reliabilism. The formation of a belief is a one-time event, but the reliability of the process depends upon the long-term performance of jack, that process. (This can include counterfactual as well as actual events. For instance, a coin which is flipped only once and lands on heads nonetheless has a 50% chance of landing on tails, even though its actual performance has yielded heads 100% of the time.) And this requires that we specify which process is being used, so that we can evaluate its performance in other instances. However, cognitive processes can be described in more or less general terms: for example, the same belief-forming process might be variously described as sense experience, vision, vision by a normally-sighted person, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight, vision by macbeth ambition essays, a normally-sighted person in jack, daylight while looking at nitrogen execution a tree, vision by a normally-sighted person in daylight while looking at an elm tree, and paper jack, so forth. The generality problem notes that some of these descriptions might specify a reliable process but others might specify an unreliable process, so that we cannot know whether a belief is justified or unjustified unless we know the appropriate level of generality to use in describing the process. Even if the generality problem can be solved, another problem remains for externalism.

Keith Lehrer presents this problem by way of his example of nitrogen, Mr. Truetemp. Truetemp has, unbeknownst to him, had a tempucomp a device which accurately reads the temperature and paper jack, causes a spontaneous belief about that temperature implanted in his brain. As a result, he has many true beliefs about the temperature, but he does not know why he has them or what their source is. Lehrer argues that, although Truetemp's belief-forming process is nitrogen, reliable, his ignorance of the tempucomp renders his temperature-beliefs unjustified, and thus that a reliable cognitive process cannot yield justification unless the believer is aware of the fact that the process is reliable. In other words, the jack, mere fact that the process is reliable does not suffice, Lehrer concludes, to justify any beliefs which are formed via that process. Given the above characterization of knowledge, there are many ways that one might come to 1984 by George know something. Knowledge of empirical facts about the physical world will necessarily involve perception, in paper, other words, the use of the senses.

Science, with its collection of data and conducting of experiments, is the paradigm of empirical knowledge. However, much of our more mundane knowledge comes from the what was the colony, senses, as we look, listen, smell, touch, and taste the various objects in our environments. But all knowledge requires some amount of jack, reasoning. Data collected by opening, scientists must be analyzed before knowledge is yielded, and we draw inferences based on what our senses tell us. Paper Jack. And knowledge of abstract or non-empirical facts will exclusively rely upon reasoning.

In particular, intuition is often believed to be a sort of direct access to knowledge of the a priori . Once knowledge is obtained, it can be sustained and passed on to others. Memory allows us to know something that we knew in the past, even, perhaps, if we no longer remember the original justification. Knowledge can also be transmitted from one individual to another via testimony; that is, my justification for a particular belief could amount to Essay by George the fact that some trusted source has told me that it is true. In addition to the nature of knowledge, epistemologists concern themselves with the question of the extent of human knowledge: how much do we, or can we, know? Whatever turns out to be the correct account of the nature of knowledge, there remains the paper jack, matter of whether we actually have any knowledge. It has been suggested that we do not, or cannot, know anything, or at least that we do not know as much as we think we do. Such a view is called skepticism. We can distinguish between a number of different varieties of skepticism. First, one might be a skeptic only impossible with regard to certain domains, such as mathematics, morality, or the external world (this is the most well-known variety of skepticism). Such a skeptic is a local skeptic, as contrasted with a global skeptic, who maintains that we cannot know anything at all.

Also, since knowledge requires that our beliefs be both true and paper, justified, a skeptic might maintain that none of our beliefs are true or that none of them are justified (the latter is much more common than the what first american, former). While it is jack, quite easy to challenge any claim to knowledge by what was the first american colony, glibly asking, How do you know?, this does not suffice to show that skepticism is an important position. Like any philosophical stance, skepticism must be supported by an argument. Many arguments have been offered in defense of skepticism, and jack, many responses to those arguments have been offered in return. Here, we shall consider two of the most prominent arguments in Ethics In Digital Photojournalism Essay, support of skepticism about the external world. In the first of his Meditations , Rene Descartes offers an argument in support of skepticism, which he then attempts to refute in the later Meditations. The argument notes that some of our perceptions are inaccurate. Our senses can trick us; we sometimes mistake a dream for a waking experience, and it is paper, possible that an evil demon is systematically deceiving us. (The modern version of the evil demon scenario is execution, that you are a brain-in-a-vat, because scientists have removed your brain from your skull, connected it to a sophisticated computer, and immersed it in a vat of preservative fluid. The computer produces what seem to be genuine sense experiences, and also responds to your brain's output to make it seem that you are able to move about in your environment as you did when your brain was still in your body.

While this scenario may seem far-fetched, we must admit that it is at least possible.) As a result, some of our beliefs will be false. Jack. In order to be justified in Scientific Inquiry, believing what we do, we must have some way to distinguish between those beliefs which are true (or, at least, are likely to be true) and those which are not. But just as there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between waking and dreaming, there are no signs that will allow us to distinguish between beliefs that are accurate and beliefs which are the result of the paper, machinations of an evil demon. This indistinguishability between trustworthy and untrustworthy belief, the argument goes, renders all of our beliefs unjustified, and thus we cannot know anything. A satisfactory response to this argument, then, must show either that we are indeed able to distinguish between true and false beliefs, or that we need not be able to make such a distinction. According to the indistinguishability skeptic, my senses can tell me how things appear , but not how they actually are. Impossible. We need to use reason to construct an argument that leads us from beliefs about how things appear to (justified) beliefs about how they are. But even if we are able to trust our perceptions, so that we know that they are accurate, David Hume argues that the specter of skepticism remains.

Note that we only perceive a very small part of the universe at any given moment, although we think that we have knowledge of the world beyond that which we are currently perceiving. It follows, then, that the senses alone cannot account for this knowledge, and that reason must supplement the senses in some way in paper, order to account for any such knowledge. However, Hume argues, reason is incapable of providing justification for any belief about the external world beyond the scope of Scientific Inquiry, our current sense perceptions. Let us consider two such possible arguments and Hume's critique of them. i. Numerical vs. Qualitative Identity. We typically believe that the external world is, for the most part, stable. For instance, I believe that my car is parked where I left it this morning, even though I am not currently looking at paper it. If I were to go peek out the window right now and see my car, I might form the belief that my car has been in the same space all day.

What is the basis for this belief? If asked to make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: I have had two sense-experiences of my car: one this morning and one just now. The two sense-experiences were (more or less) identical. Therefore, it is likely that the objects that caused them are identical. Therefore, a single object my car has been in that parking space all day. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the persistence of the external world and all of the objects we perceive. But are these beliefs justified? Hume thinks not, since the above argument (and all arguments like it) contains an equivocation.

In particular, the Essay about a Novel, first occurrence of identical refers to jack qualitative identity. The two sense-experiences are not one and opening, the same, but are distinct; when we say that they are identical we mean that one is similar to the other in all of its qualities or properties. Paper Jack. But the second occurrence of identical refers to numerical identity. When we say that the objects that caused the two sense-experiences are identical, we mean that there is one object, rather than two, that is responsible for both of them. This equivocation, Hume argues, renders the was the american, argument fallacious; accordingly, we need another argument to support our belief that objects persist even when we are not observing them. ii. Hume's Skepticism about paper, Induction. Suppose that a satisfactory argument could be found in support of our beliefs in Ethics In Digital Photojournalism, the persistence of physical objects.

This would provide us with knowledge that the objects that we have observed have persisted even when we were not observing them. But in paper jack, addition to believing that these objects have persisted up until now, we believe that they will persist in the future; we also believe that objects we have never observed similarly have persisted and will persist. In other words, we expect the Essay about 1984 by George, future to paper be roughly like the past, and the parts of the universe that we have not observed to be roughly like the parts that we have observed. For example, I believe that my car will persist into Ethics the future. What is the jack, basis for this belief? If asked to Essay about by George Orwell make my reasoning explicit, I might proceed as follows: My car has always persisted in the past. Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the jack, future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, my car will persist in the future. Similar reasoning would undergird all of our beliefs about the future and about the unobserved. Are such beliefs justified?

Again, Hume thinks not, since the macbeth ambition, above argument, and all arguments like it, contain an unsupported premise, namely the second premise, which might be called the Principle of the Uniformity of Nature (PUN). Why should we believe this principle to jack be true? Hume insists that we provide some reason in Ethics Essay, support of this belief. Because the above argument is an paper jack, inductive rather than a deductive argument, the problem of showing that it is a good argument is typically referred to as the problem of induction. We might think that there is a simple and straightforward solution to nitrogen the problem of jack, induction, and that we can indeed provide support for Ethics, our belief that PUN is true. Paper Jack. Such an opening, argument would proceed as follows:

PUN has always been true in the past. Nature is roughly uniform across time and space (and thus the future will be roughly like the past). Therefore, PUN will be true in the future. This argument, however, is circular; its second premise is PUN itself! Accordingly, we need another argument to support our belief that PUN is true, and thus to justify our inductive arguments about the future and the unobserved. The study of knowledge is paper jack, one of the most fundamental aspects of philosophical inquiry. Any claim to knowledge must be evaluated to Scientific Essay determine whether or not it indeed constitutes knowledge. Such an evaluation essentially requires an understanding of what knowledge is and how much knowledge is possible.

While this article provides on paper, overview of the impossible opening, important issues, it leaves the most basic questions unanswered; epistemology will continue to paper be an area of philosophical discussion as long as these questions remain.

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aiu optimal resume The following course inIntroduction to Industrial Engineering is provided in paper, its entirety by Atlantic International University's Open Access Initiative which strives to make knowledge and education readily available to those seeking advancement regardless of their socio-economic situation, location or other previously limiting factors. The University's Open Courses are free and do not require any purchase or registration, they are open to the public. The course in Introduction to Industrial Engineering contains the following: Lessons in video format with explaination of theoratical content. Complementary activities that will make research more about the Essay a Novel by George Orwell, topic , as well as put into practice what you studied in the lesson. These activities are not part of their final evaluation. Texts supporting explained in the video. The Administrative Staff may be part of jack, a degree program paying up to three college credits. The lessons of the course can be taken on execution line Through distance learning. The content and access are open to paper the public according to the Open Access and Open Access Atlantic International University initiative. Participants who wish to receive credit and / or term certificate , must register as students.

Lesson 1: HISTORY OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. Industrial engineering is Scientific Essay a branch of engineering which deals with the optimization of complex processes or systems. It is concerned with the development, improvement, implementation and evaluation of integrated systems of people, money, knowledge, information, equipment, energy, materials, analysis and synthesis, as well as the mathematical, physical and social sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering design to specify, predict, and jack, evaluate the results to be obtained from nitrogen such systems or processes. While industrial engineering is a traditional and longstanding engineering discipline subject to (and eligible for) professional engineering licensure in most jurisdictions, its underlying concepts overlap considerably with certain business-oriented disciplines such as operations management. Lesson 2: EVOLUTION OF ENGINEERING TO MECHANICAL ENGINEERING.

Engineering: The application of math and science by which the properties of matter and jack, the sources of energy in Photojournalism Essay, nature are made useful to paper people. Inquiry? Engineers apply math and science for paper the betterment of society through: ? Research Development. ? Continual Improvement. Lesson 3: THE MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND ITS DIMENSIONS. Aerospace engineers design, test, and supervise the manufacture of aircraft, spacecraft, and missiles. Those who work with aircraft are called aeronautical engineers, and those working specifically with spacecraft are astronautical engineers. Aerospace engineers develop new technologies for use in aviation, defense systems, and space exploration, often specializing in areas such as structural design, guidance, navigation and control, instrumentation and communication, and production methods. Nitrogen Execution? They also may specialize in jack, a particular type of Scientific Inquiry, aerospace product, such as commercial aircraft, military fighter jets, helicopters, spacecraft, or missiles and rockets, and may become experts in aerodynamics, thermodynamics, celestial mechanics, propulsion, acoustics, or guidance and paper jack, control systems. Lesson 4: SYSTEMS OF PRODUCTION, QUALITY, PRODUCTIVITY AND COMPETITIVENESS.

With emphases in areas such as smart structures, electronics packaging, energy and environmental engineering, and ambition essays, manufacturing, the paper, department has strong links with other engineering disciplines and will continue to interact with other areas This interdisciplinary focus benefits students, faculty, and industry. Lesson 5: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING PROFILE, ITS IMPORTANCE AND APPLICATION. Industrial Engineering is concerned with the nitrogen, design, improvement, and installation of integrated systems of people, materials, information, equipment and energy. It draws upon specialized knowledge and skill in the mathematical, physical, and social sciences together with the paper jack, principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict, and evaluate the results to be obtained from such system. Lesson 6: LABOR AND APPLICATION OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING. ? Scientist: Understand why our world behaves the way it does (laws of nature) ? Study the world as it is ? Thinkers. Nitrogen Execution? ? Engineers: Apply established scientific theories and principles to develop cost-effective solutions to practical problems ? Cost effective ? Consideration of design trade-offs (esp. resource usage) ? Minimize negative impacts (e.g. environmental and social cost) ? Practical problems ? Problems that matter to paper people ? Change the mission impossible opening, world ? Doers. Lesson 7: INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING AND ITS APPLICATION AREAS. Industrial Engineering is concerned with the design, improvement and installation of jack, integrated system of men, materials and equipment. It draws upon impossible opening, specialized knowledge and skills in the mathematical, physical sciences together with the principles and methods of engineering analysis and design to specify, predict and evaluate the results to be obtained from such system. Ergonomics is a solution finding method for questions like these: _ How can human body dimensions be applied to car seat design? _ What is the proper height for jack kitchen counters? _ How can traffic lights be programmed for optimal urban traffic flow throughout the day? _ How can stereo receiver displays and controls be coded to effectively define their respective functions? _ How can the opening, material and paper, design of swim suits for competition be improved for minimal water resistance? _ How should computer software and screens work and look best to fit human cognitive capabilities? Lesson 9: FUTURE OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING. Mission Impossible? Industrial Engineering is dealing with the optimization of systems and processes (in given circumstances) Lesson 10: MECHANICAL ENGINEERING AND ITS FUTURE DEVELOPMENT.

With mass transportation an ever-present problem, engineers will be responsible in the future for designing and maintaining a system by which the transportation of raw materials, as well as the human capital that process them, can easily and efficiently move from place to place. Jack? We understand how busy adults do not have time to go back to school. Now, it's possible to earn your degree in the comfort of your own home and still have time for yourself and your family. The Admissions office is here to help you, for Essay about 1984 by George Orwell additional information or to see if you qualify for admissions please contact us. If you are ready to apply please submit your Online Application and paste your resume and any additional comments/questions in jack, the area provided. (Online Application) (Request Info)

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cmu resume examples Software Development Magazine - Project Management, Programming, Software Testing. A Risk-Driven Model for Agile Software Architecture. This article is jack excerpted from was the colony Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in jack hardback or as an e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com. 2010 George Fairbanks. Developers have access to ambition essays, more architectural design techniques than they can afford to apply. The Risk-Driven Model guides developers to do just enough architecture by paper jack, identifying their projects most pressing risks and applying only architecture and macbeth essays design techniques that mitigate them. The key element of the Risk-Driven Model is the jack promotion of risk to prominence. It is possible to apply the Risk-Driven Model to essentially any software development process, such as waterfall or agile, while still keeping within its spirit. As they build successful software, software developers are choosing from alternate designs, discarding those that are doomed to fail, and preferring options with low risk of Scientific Inquiry failure. When risks are low, it is easy to plow ahead without much thought, but, invariably, challenging design problems emerge and developers must grapple with high-risk designs, ones they are not sure will work.

Henry Petroski, a leading historian of engineering, says this about engineering as a whole: The concept of failure is central to the design process, and it is by paper jack, thinking in terms of obviating failure that successful designs are achieved. . Although often an implicit and Scientific Inquiry tacit part of the methodology of design, failure considerations and proactive failure analysis are essential for achieving success. Paper Jack? And it is precisely when such considerations and analyses are incorrect or incomplete that design errors are introduced and actual failures occur. Impossible Opening? [10] To address failure risks, the earliest software developers invented design techniques, such as domain modeling, security analyses, and encapsulation, that helped them build successful software. Today, developers can choose from a huge number of design techniques. From this abundance, a hard question arises: Which design and architecture techniques should developers use? If there were no deadlines then the answer would be easy: use all the techniques. Paper Jack? But that is impractical because a hallmark of engineering is the Essay 1984 Orwell ef#64257;cient use of resources, including time. One of the risks developers face is that they waste too much time designing. Paper? So a related question arises: How much design and architecture should developers do?

There is much active debate about macbeth this question and several kinds of answers have been suggested: No up-front design. Developers should just write code. Design happens, but is coincident with coding, and happens at the keyboard rather than in paper jack advance. Use a yardstick. For example, developers should spend 10% of their time on mission opening architecture and design, 40% on paper jack coding, 20% on about by George integrating, and 30% on testing. Build a documentation package. Developers should employ a comprehensive set of design and documentation techniques sufficient to produce a complete written design document.

Ad hoc. Developers should react to the project needs and decide on the spot how much design to jack, do. The ad hoc approach is perhaps the most common, but it is also subjective and provides no enduring lessons. Was The American? Avoiding design altogether is impractical when failure risks are high, but so is building a complete documentation package when risks are low. Using a yardstick can help you plan how much effort designing the paper architecture will take, but it does not help you choose techniques.

This article introduces the risk-driven model of nitrogen architectural design. Its essential idea is that the effort you spend on paper jack designing your software architecture should be commensurate with the risks faced by your project. When my father, trained in mechanical engineering, installed a new mailbox, he did not apply every analysis and Essay design technique he knew. Instead, he dug a hole, put in a post, and #64257;lled the hole with concrete. The risk-driven model can help you decide when to apply architecture techniques and when you can skip them. Where a software development process orchestrates every activity from requirements to paper jack, deployment, the risk-driven model guides only architectural design, and can therefore be used inside any software development process. The risk-driven model is a reaction to a world where developers are under pressure to build high quality software quickly and at about 1984, reasonable cost, yet those developers have more architecture techniques than they can afford to jack, apply.

The risk-driven model helps them answer the nitrogen execution two questions above: how much software architecture work should they do, and which techniques should they use? It is an approach that helps developers follow a middle path, one that avoids wasting time on techniques that help their projects only a little but ensures that project-threatening risks are addressed by appropriate techniques. In this article, we will examine how risk reduction is central to all engineering disciplines, learn how to choose techniques to paper, reduce risks, understand how engineering risks interact with management risks, and nitrogen learn how we can balance planned design with evolutionary design. This article walks through the paper ideas that underpin the risk-driven model. 1 What is the risk-driven model? The risk-driven model guides developers to apply a minimal set of architecture techniques to nitrogen, reduce their most pressing risks. It suggests a relentless questioning process: What are my risks?

What are the jack best techniques to reduce them? Is the risk mitigated and can I start (or resume) coding? The risk-driven model can be summarized in three steps: 1. Was The American? Identify and prioritize risks. 2. Select and apply a set of paper techniques. 3. Evaluate risk reduction.

You do not want to waste time on Orwell low-impact techniques, nor do you want to paper, ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by what first colony, taking a path that spends your time most effectively. Jack? That means addressing risks by applying architecture and design techniques but only when they are motivated by Ethics Essay, risks. 1.1 Risk or feature focus. The key element of the jack risk-driven model is the promotion of Essay risk to prominence. Paper Jack? What you choose to promote has an impact. Most developers already think about nitrogen execution risks, but they think about lots of other things too, and jack consequently risks can be overlooked.

A recent paper described how a team that had previously done up-front architecture work switched to Photojournalism, a purely feature-driven process. The team was so focused on delivering features that they deferred quality attribute concerns until after active development ceased and paper jack the system was in maintenance [1]. The conclusion to draw is what first colony that teams that focus on features will pay less attention to other areas, including risks. Paper? Earlier studies have shown that even architects are less focused on risks and tradeoffs than one would expect [5]. 1.2 Logical rationale. But what if your perception of risks differs from others perceptions? Risk identi#64257;cation, risk prioritization, choice of techniques, and evaluation of risk mitigation will all vary depending on who does them. Is the risk-driven model merely improvisation? No.

Though different developers will perceive risks differently and consequently choose different techniques, the nitrogen risk-driven model has the useful property that it yields arguments that can be evaluated. An example argument would take this form: We identified A, B, and C as risks, with B being primary. We spent time applying techniques X and Y because we believed they would help us reduce the risk of paper B. We evaluated the resulting design and Inquiry decided that we had sufficiently mitigated the risk of B, so we proceeded on to coding. This allows you to answer the broad question, How much software architecture should you do? by providing a plan (i.e., the techniques to apply) based on the relevant context (i.e., the paper perceived risks).

Other developers might disagree with your assessment, so they could provide a differing argument with the same form, perhaps suggesting that risk D be included. A productive, engineering-based discussion of the risks and essays techniques can ensue because the paper jack rationale behind your opinion has been articulated and can be evaluated. 2 Are you risk-driven now? Many developers believe that they already follow a risk-driven model, or something close to it. Yet there are telltale signs that many do not. One is an inability to list the risks they confront and Ethics Photojournalism the corresponding techniques they are applying. Any developer can answer the question, Which features are you working on? but many have trouble with the question, What are your primary failure risks and corresponding engineering techniques? If risks were indeed primary then they would #64257;nd it an easy question to answer. 2.1 Technique choices should vary. Projects face different risks so they should use different techniques. Paper Jack? Some projects will have tricky quality attribute requirements (e.g., security, performance, scalability) that need up-front planned design, while other projects are tweaks to existing systems and entail little risk of failure.

Some development teams are distributed and ambition so they document their designs for others to read, while other teams are collocated and paper jack can reduce this formality. When developers fail to align their architecture activities with their risks, they will over-use or under-use architectural techniques, or both. Examining the overall context of software development suggests why this can occur. Most organizations guide developers to follow a process that includes some kind of documentation template or a list of execution design activities. These can be beneficial and effective, but they can also inadvertently steer developers astray.

Here are some examples of well-intentioned rules that guide developers to activities that may be mismatched with their projects risks. The team must always (or never) build full documentation for each system. The team must always (or never) build a class diagram, a layer diagram, etc. The team must spend 10% (or 0%) of the project time on architecture. Such guidelines can be better than no guidance, but each project will face a different set of risks. Jack? It would be a great coincidence if the same set of diagrams or techniques were always the best way to mitigate a changing set of risks. 2.2 Example mismatch. Imagine a company that builds a 3-tier system. The #64257;rst tier has the user interface and is exposed to the internet. Its biggest risks might be usability and security.

The second and third tiers implement business rules and persistence; they are behind a #64257;rewall. The biggest risks might be throughput and scalability. If this company followed the risk-driven model, the front-end and back-end developers would apply different architecture and design techniques to address their different risks. Instead, what often happens is that both teams follow the same company-standard process or template and produce, say, a module dependency diagram. The problem is that there is no connection between the techniques they use and the risks they face.

Standard processes or templates are not intrinsically bad, but they are often used poorly. Over time, you may be able to generalize the risks on Ethics In Digital Essay the projects at your company and devise a list of appropriate techniques. The important part is that the techniques match the jack risks. The three steps to risk-driven software architecture are deceptively simple but the devil is in Ethics Photojournalism the details. What exactly are risks and techniques? How do you choose an appropriate set of techniques? And when do you stop architecting and start/resume building?

The following sections dig into these questions in more detail. In the context of jack engineering, risk is commonly de#64257;ned as the chance of failure times the impact of that failure. Both the probability of failure and the impact are uncertain because they are difficult to first colony, measure precisely. You can sidestep the distinction between perceived risks and actual risks by bundling the jack concept of uncertainty into the de#64257;nition of Scientific Inquiry risk. The de#64257;nition of risk then becomes: risk = perceived probability of failure perceived impact. A result of this de#64257;nition is that a risk can exist (i.e., you can perceive it) even if it does not exist. Imagine a hypothetical program that has no bugs. If you have never run the paper program or tested it, should you worry about was the american colony it failing? That is, should you perceive a failure risk? Of course you should, but after you analyze and test the program, you gain confidence in it, and your perception of risk goes down. So by applying techniques, you can reduce the amount of jack uncertainty, and therefore the amount of (perceived) risk.

3.1 Describing risks. You can state a risk categorically, often as the lack of a needed quality attribute like modifiability or reliability. But often this is too vague to be actionable: if you do something, are you sure that it actually reduces the categorical risk? It is mission opening better to describe risks such that you can later test to see if they have been mitigated. Instead of just listing a quality attribute like reliability, describe each risk of failure as a testable failure scenario, such as During peak loads, customers experience user interface latencies greater than #64257;ve seconds. 3.2 Engineering and jack project management risks. Projects face many different kinds of mission opening risks, so people working on a project tend to paper, pay attention to the risks related to their specialty. Project management risks. Software engineering risks.

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Figure 1: Examples of project management and engineering risks. You should distinguish them because engineering techniques rarely solve management risks, and execution vice versa. For example, the sales team worries about a good sales strategy and software developers worry about a systems scalability. Paper Jack? We can broadly categorize risks as either engineering risks or project management risks. In Digital? Engineering risks are those risks related to the analysis, design, and implementation of the paper product. Ethics In Digital Photojournalism? These engineering risks are in paper the domain of the Essay engineering of the system. Paper Jack? Project management risks relate to schedules, sequencing of In Digital work, delivery, team size, geography, etc.

Figure 1 shows examples of both. If you are a software developer, you are asked to paper jack, mitigate engineering risks and Scientific Inquiry you will be applying engineering techniques. The technique type must match the risk type, so only engineering techniques will mitigate engineering risks. For example, you cannot use a PERT chart (a project management technique) to reduce the chance of buffer overruns (an engineering risk), and using Java will not resolve stakeholder disagreements. 3.3 Identifying risks. Experienced developers have an easy time identifying risks, but what can be done if the developer is less experienced or working in an unfamiliar domain?

The easiest place to start is with the requirements, in whatever form they take, and looking for jack, things that seem difficult to Essay a Novel by George, achieve. Misunderstood or incomplete quality attribute requirements are a common risk. You can use Quality Attribute Workshops [2], a Taxonomy-Based Questionnaire [4], or something similar, to elicit risks and produce a prioritized list of failure scenarios. Even with diligence, you will not be able to identify every risk. When I was a child, my parents taught me to look both ways before crossing the street because they identified cars as a risk. It would have been equally bad if I had been hit by a car or by a falling meteor, but they put their attention on the foreseen and high priority risk. You must accept that your project will face unidentified risks despite your best efforts. 3.4 Prototypical risks. After you have worked in a domain for paper jack, a while, you will notice prototypical risks that are common to Ethics In Digital Essay, most projects in that domain. For example, Systems projects usually worry more about performance than IT projects do, and Web projects almost always worry about paper jack security. Complex, poorly understood problem.

Unsure were solving the real problem. May choose wrong COTS software. Integration with existing, poorly understood software. Domain knowledge scattered across people. Performance, reliability, size, security. Developer productivity / expressability.

Figure 2: While each project can have a unique set of risks, it is possible to generalize by domain. Prototypical risks are ones that are common in a domain and are a reason that software development practices vary by nitrogen execution, domain. For example, developers on Systems projects tend to paper, use the what highest performance languages. Prototypical risks may have been encoded as checklists describing historical problem areas, perhaps generated from architecture reviews. These checklists are valuable knowledge for less experienced developers and a helpful reminder for experienced ones. Knowing the prototypical risks in jack your domain is a big advantage, but even more important is realizing when your project differs from the norm so that you avoid blind spots. For example, software that runs a hospital might most closely resemble an IT project, with its integration concerns and complex domain types. However, a system that takes 10 minutes to reboot after a power failure is usually a minor risk for an IT project, but a major risk at a hospital.

3.5 Prioritizing risks. Not all risks are equally large, so they can be prioritized. Most development teams will prioritize risks by discussing the priorities amongst themselves. This can be adequate, but the teams perception of risks may not be the same as the stakeholders perception. Ambition Essays? If your team is spending enough time on software architecture for it to be noticeable in paper your budget, it is best to validate that time and impossible money are being spent in jack accordance with stakeholder priorities. Risks can be categorized on two dimensions: their priority to stakeholders and their perceived difficulty by developers. Be aware that some technical risks, such as platform choices, cannot be easily assessed by Scientific Inquiry, stakeholders.

This is the paper same categorization technique used in what was the first colony ATAM to prioritize architecture drivers and quality attribute scenarios [3]. Formal procedures exist for cataloging and prioritizing risks using risk matrices, including a US military standard MILSTD882D. Formal prioritization of risks is appropriate if your system, for example, handles radioactive material, but most computer systems can be less formal. Applying design or architecture pattern. Breaking point test.

Figure 3: A few examples of engineering risk reduction techniques in software engineering and paper other #64257;elds. Modeling is commonplace in all engineering #64257;elds. Once you know what risks you are facing, you can apply techniques that you expect to reduce the risk. The term technique is quite broad, so we will focus specifically on software engineering risk reduction techniques, but for convenience continue to use the simple name technique. Figure 3 shows a short list of software engineering techniques and techniques from other engineering #64257;elds.

4.1 Spectrum from analyses to solutions. Imagine you are building a cathedral and you are worried that it may fall down. You could build models of In Digital Essay various design alternatives and paper calculate their stresses and strains. Alternately, you could apply a known solution, such as using a #64258;ying buttress. Essay? Both work, but the former approach has an analytical character while the latter has a known-good solution character. Techniques exist on paper jack a spectrum from pure analyses, like calculating stresses, to ambition essays, pure solutions, like using a #64258;ying buttress on a cathedral. Other software architecture and design books have inventoried techniques on the solution-end of the spectrum, and call these techniques tactics [3]or patterns [12,7], and include such solutions as using a process monitor, a forwarder-receiver, or a model-view-controller. The risk-driven model focuses on techniques that are on the analysis-end of the spectrum, ones that are procedural and independent of the paper jack problem domain. These techniques include using models such as layer diagrams, component assembly models, and deployment models; applying analytic techniques for performance, security, and reliability; and leveraging architectural styles such as client-server and mission opening pipe-and-#64257;lter to achieve an emergent quality. 4.2 Techniques mitigate risks.

Design is a mysterious process, where virtuosos can make leaps of paper reasoning between problems and solutions [13]. For your process to Scientific Inquiry, be repeatable, however, you need to make explicit what the virtuosos are doing tacitly. In this case, you need to paper, be able to explicitly state how to choose techniques in nitrogen response to jack, risks. Today, this knowledge is Ethics In Digital Photojournalism mostly informal, but we can aspire to paper, creating a handbook that would help us make informed decisions. It would be #64257;lled with entries that look like this: If you have a risk, consider a technique to In Digital Essay, reduce it. Such a handbook would improve the repeatability of designing software architectures by encoding the knowledge of virtuoso architects as mappings between risks and paper jack techniques. Any particular technique is good at reducing some risks but not others. In a neat and mission orderly world, there would be a single technique to paper, address every known risk.

In practice, some risks can be mitigated by multiple techniques, while others risks require you to invent techniques on Scientific Essay the #64258;y. This frame of mind, where you choose techniques based on risks, helps you to work efficiently. You do not want to waste time (or other resources) on paper low-impact techniques, nor do you want to ignore project-threatening risks. You want to build successful systems by Essay, taking a path that spends your time most effectively. That means only paper, applying techniques when they are motivated by risks.

4.3 Optimal basket of techniques. To avoid wasting your time and Scientific Inquiry money, you should choose techniques that best reduce your prioritized list of paper jack risks. You should seek out opportunities to macbeth essays, kill two birds with one stone by applying a single technique to jack, mitigate two or more risks. You might like to Inquiry, think of paper it as an Essay optimization problem to choose a set of techniques that optimally mitigates your risks. It is harder to decide which techniques should be applied than it appears at paper, #64257;rst glance. 1984 A Novel By George? Every technique does something valuable, just not the paper valuable thing your project needs most. For example, there are techniques for improving the usability of your user interfaces. Imagine you successfully used such techniques on your last project, so you choose it again on your current project. You #64257;nd three usability #64258;aws in ambition essays your design, and #64257;x them. Does this mean that employing the usability technique was a good idea?

Not necessarily, because such reasoning ignores the opportunity cost. The fair comparison is against paper the other techniques you could have used. If your biggest risk is that your chosen framework is first colony inappropriate, you should spend your time analyzing or prototyping your framework choice instead of on paper jack usability. Your time is scarce, so you should choose techniques that are maximally effective at reducing your failure risks, not just somewhat effective. 4.4 Cannot eliminate engineering risk. Perhaps you are wondering why we should try to create an optimal basket of techniques when we should go all the way and eliminate engineering risk. It is tempting, since engineers hate ignoring risks, especially those they know how to address.

The downside of opening trying to eliminate engineering risk is paper jack time. As aviation pioneers, the Wright brothers spent time on mathematical and Essay about Orwell empirical investigations into aeronautical principles and thus reduced their engineering risk. But, if they had continued these investigations until risks were eliminated, their #64257;rst test #64258;ight might have been in 1953 instead of 1903. The reason you cannot afford to eliminate engineering risk is because you must balance it with non-engineering risk, which is predominantly, project management risk. Paper? Consequently, a software developer does not have the option to apply every useful technique because risk reductions must be balanced against time and cost. 5 Guidance on choosing techniques.

So far, you have been introduced to the risk-driven model and have been advised to choose techniques based on your risks. You should be wondering how to make good choices. In the future, perhaps a developer choosing techniques will act much like a mechanical engineer who chooses materials by referencing tables of properties and making quantitative decisions. About A Novel Orwell? For now, such tables do not exist. You can, however, ask experienced developers what they would do to paper, mitigate risks. That is, you would choose techniques based on their experience and your own. However, if you are curious, you would be dissatis#64257;ed either with a table or a collection of advice from software veterans.

Surely there must be principles that underlie any table or any veterans experience, principles that explain why technique X works to mitigate risk Y. Such principles do exist and we will now take a look at impossible opening, some important ones. Here is a brief preview. First, sometimes you have a problem to #64257;nd while other times you have a problem to jack, prove, and your technique choice should match that need. Ethics? Second, some problems can be solved with an jack analogic model while others require an analytic model, so you will need to differentiate these kinds of models. Third, it may only be ef#64257;cient to macbeth, analyze a problem using a particular type of paper jack model.

And #64257;nally, some techniques have affinities, like pounding is suitable for nails and twisting is suitable for screws. 5.1 Problems to #64257;nd and prove. In his book How to Solve It, George Polya identifies two distinct kinds of execution math problems: problems to #64257;nd and jack problems to prove [11]. The problem, Is there a number that when squared equals 4? is Scientific Inquiry Essay a problem to #64257;nd, and you can test your proposed answer easily. On the other hand, Is the paper set of prime numbers in#64257;nite? is a problem to prove. What First Colony? Finding things tends to be easier than proving things because for proofs you need to demonstrate something is true in all possible cases. When searching for a technique to paper jack, address a risk, you can often eliminate many possible techniques because they answer the wrong kind of Polya question. Some risks are specific, so they can be tested with straightforward test cases. It is easy to imagine writing a test case for Can the database hold names up to colony, 100 characters? since it is a problem to #64257;nd. Jack? Similarly, you may need to mission, design a scalable website. This is jack also a problem to #64257;nd because you only need to design (i.e., #64257;nd) one solution, not demonstrate that your design is optimal.

Conversely, it is Scientific Essay hard to jack, imagine a small set of test cases providing persuasive evidence when you have a problem to prove. Consider, Does the Essay 1984 a Novel by George Orwell system always conform to jack, the framework Application Programming Interface (API)? Your tests could succeed, but there could be a case you have not yet seen, perhaps when a framework call unexpectedly passes a null reference. Ethics In Digital Photojournalism? Another example of jack a problem to prove is deadlock: Any number of tests can run successfully without revealing a problem in execution a locking protocol. 5.2 Analytic and analogic models. Michael Jackson, crediting Russell Ackoff, distinguishes between analogic models and analytic models [8,9].

In an analogic model, each model element has an analogue in the domain of interest. A radar screen is an analogic model of paper jack some terrain, where blips on the screen correspond to airplanes - the blip and the airplane are analogues. Analogic models support analysis only indirectly and nitrogen execution usually domain knowledge or human reasoning are required. A radar screen can help you answer the question, Are these planes on a collision course? but to do so you are using your special purpose brainpower in the same way that an out#64257;elder can tell if he is in position to catch a #64258;y ball. An analytic (what Ackoff would call symbolic) model, by contrast, directly supports computational analysis. Mathematical equations are examples of analytic models, as are state machines.

You could imagine an analytic model of the paper jack airplanes where each is represented by a vector. Photojournalism Essay? Mathematics provides an analytic capability to relate the vectors, so you could quantitatively answer questions about collision courses. When you model software, you invariably use symbols, whether they are Uni#64257;ed Modeling Language (UML) elements or some other notation. You must be careful because some of jack those symbolic models support analytic reasoning while others support analogic reasoning, even when they use the opening same notation. Paper? For example, two different UML models could represent airplanes as classes one with and one without an attribute for the airplanes vector. Essay 1984 By George? The UML model with the vector enables you to paper jack, compute a collision course, so it is an analytic model. Was The First Colony? The UML model without the vector does not, so it is an analogic model. So simply using a de#64257;ned notation, like UML, does not guarantee that your models will be analytic. Architecture description languages (ADLs) are more constrained than UML, with the intention of nudging your architecture models to be analytic ones. Whether a given model is analytic or analogic depends on the question you want it to answer. Either of the jack UML models could be used to count airplanes, for about 1984 by George Orwell, example, and so could be considered analytic models.

When you know what risks you want to mitigate, you can appropriately choose an analytic or analogic model. For example, if you are concerned that your engineers may not understand the relationships between domain entities, you may build an analogic model in UML and confirm it with domain experts. Conversely, if you need to calculate response time distributions, then you will want an analytic model. 5.3 Viewtype matching. The effectiveness of some risk-technique pairings depends on the type of model or view used. Paper? The module viewtype includes tangible artifacts such as source code and classes; the runtime viewtype includes runtime structures like objects; and the allocation viewtype includes allocation elements like server rooms and hardware. It is easiest to reason about modifiability from the module viewtype, performance from the runtime viewtype, and security from the Scientific Inquiry deployment and module viewtypes. Each view reveals selected details of a system. Reasoning about a risk works best when the view being used reveals details relevant to paper, that risk.

For example, reasoning about a runtime protocol is mission easier with a runtime view, perhaps a state machine, than with source code. Similarly, it is easier to reason about single points of failure using an jack allocation view than a module view. Despite this, developers are adaptable and will work with the resources they have, and will mentally simulate the other viewtypes. In Digital Essay? For example, developers usually have access to the source code, so they have become quite adept at imagining the runtime behavior of the code and where it will be deployed. While a developer can make do with source code, reasoning will be easier when the risk and paper jack viewtype are matched, and the view reveals details related to Inquiry Essay, the risk. 5.4 Techniques with affinities. In the physical world, tools are designed for a purpose: hammers are for paper jack, pounding nails, screwdrivers are for turning screws, saws are for what first colony, cutting. You may sometimes hammer a screw, or use a screwdriver as a pry bar, but the results are better when you use the tool that matches the jack job. In software architecture, some techniques only go with particular risks because they were designed that way and it is difficult to use them for Scientific Essay, another purpose. For example, Rate Monotonic Analysis primarily helps with reliability risks, threat modeling primarily helps with security risks, and queuing theory primarily helps with performance risks. The beginning of this article posed two questions.

So far, this article has explored the #64257;rst: Which design and architecture techniques should you use? The answer is to identify risks and choose techniques to combat them. The techniques best suited to one project will not be the jack ones best suited to In Digital, another project. But the mindset of aligning your architecture techniques, your experience, and the guidance you have learned will steer you to appropriate techniques. We now turn our attention to the second question: How much design and architecture should you do?

Time spent designing or analyzing is paper jack time that could have been spent building, testing, etc., so you want to get the balance right, neither doing too much design, nor ignoring risks that could swamp your project. 6.1 Effort should be commensurate with risk. The risk-driven model strives to efficiently apply techniques to reduce risks, which means not over-or under-applying techniques. To achieve efficiency, the Scientific Inquiry risk-driven model uses this guiding principle: Architecture efforts should be commensurate with the risk of failure.

If you recall the paper jack story of nitrogen execution my father and the mailbox, he was not terribly worried about the mailbox falling over, so he did not spend much time designing the solution or applying mechanical engineering analyses. Paper? He thought about the design a little bit, perhaps considering how deep the hole should be, but most of macbeth ambition his time was spent on implementation. When you are unconcerned about security risks, spend no time on security design. Paper? However, when performance is a project-threatening risk, work on it until you are reasonably sure that performance will be OK. 6.2 Incomplete architecture designs.

When you apply the risk-driven model, you only design the areas where you perceive failure risks. Most of the time, applying a design technique means building a model of some kind, either on Inquiry paper or a whiteboard. Consequently, your architecture model will likely be detailed in jack some areas and sketchy, or even non-existent, in others. For example, if you have identified some performance risks and no security risks, you would build models to address the impossible opening performance risks, but those models would have no security details in them. Still, not every detail about paper performance would be modeled and decided. What American Colony? Remember that models are an intermediate product and jack you can stop working on ambition essays them once you have become convinced that your architecture is suitable for addressing your risks.

6.3 Subjective evaluation. The risk-driven model says to prioritize your risks, apply chosen techniques, then evaluate any remaining risk, which means that you must decide if the risk has been sufficiently mitigated. But what does sufficiently mitigated mean? You have prioritized your risks, but which risks make the cut and which do not? The risk-driven model is a framework to paper jack, facilitate your decision making, but it cannot make judgment calls for you. It identifies salient ideas (prioritized risks and corresponding techniques) and guides you to Ethics Essay, ask the right questions about your design work. Jack? By using the risk-driven model, you are ahead because you have identified risks, enacted corresponding techniques, and kept your effort commensurate with your risks. But eventually you must make a subjective evaluation: will the architecture you designed enable you to overcome your failure risks? About the article. This article is excerpted from Ethics In Digital Photojournalism Essay Chapter 3 of the book Just Enough Software Architecture: A Risk-Driven Approach [6], available in hardback or as an paper e-book from http://RhinoResearch.com.

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