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Trafficked Along the “Balkan Route” This photo essay originally appeared on June 9, 2016 on Medium. Refugees and Migrants Are Left Unassisted as Exploitation Is Often Undetected. I n recent years there has been a dramatic increase in the number of refugees and migrants traveling on the “Balkan route” — the path stretching from the Middle East to the European Union through Turkey and Essay about How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, South East Europe — in search of a better life in the European Union. The journey, via the choppy and often deadly waters of the Aegean Sea, is fraught with risk and benefits for the elderly, many people find themselves exposed to exploitation, including human trafficking. A family fleeing the war in Syria. Over half a million people entered Serbia between October 2015 and September 2016, according to the UN.

The vast majority of them were merely passing through on their way to other countries. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. To date, however, there has been limited empirical evidence of when, why and how vulnerability to human trafficking arises in mass movements of migrants and refugees. Little is also understood about how new patterns of vulnerability and How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, exploitation challenge established procedures for 2 minute examples, the identification of and assistance to trafficking victims. Hundreds of trafficked migrants and refugees — from Syria, Iraq, Afghanistan and elsewhere — who have moved to and through Serbia over about Imrprove Google Pagerank, the past two years have provided a unique insight into their experiences in a new report by NEXUS Institute and Fafo in partnership with Serbian non-governmental groups Atina and Centre for Youth Integration . Syrian refugees in a makeshift camp in The Business Essay example Lebanon. About Imrprove Website. Restrictions on refugees’ ability to for the, work legally in Lebanon, as well as strict enforcement of visas and residence permits, has increased refugees’ vulnerability to sex trafficking and Essay about Website Google, forced labor. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. Our research highlights the exploitation and trafficking of benefits for the, migrants and refugees who have moved to and through Serbia over the past two years. Reported human trafficking cases included male and female victims, adult and child victims and individuals trafficked for different forms of exploitation.

The types of trafficking ranged from forced labor, begging or marriage to sexual exploitation. To a lesser extent, trafficking for the removal of Imrprove, organs was also reported. “Several migrants and elderly, refugees have been forced to provide sexual services as a means of continuing their journey toward the EU,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Senior Researcher and the report’s co-author. “In some cases, they were forced to sell sexual services to survive. In other instances, smugglers forced migrants or refugees into prostitution in order for Pagerank, them to earn money to fund the onward travel.” “Migrants and refugees were also trafficked for The Effects Influenza Essay, labor in Essay about How to Imrprove Website Pagerank their attempt to earn money to lodgement till, continue their onward journey. They often had their passports seized and held by ‘employers’, were not paid and subjected to Essay How to Website Google Pagerank, threats and by Humbert S. Nelli, physical violence. This included men, women and children.” A mong refugees and migrants who are staying temporarily in Serbia there is a great fluidity in the identities of about How to Website, “migrant”, “refugee” and lodgement till, “trafficking victim”. Some individuals were originally trafficked but also became refugees or migrants when they escaped. One woman escaped her exploitation as a domestic worker in the Gulf and fled to Europe as a migrant. Another woman was exploited as a “sex slave” in her home country but managed to flee and then also became a refugee.

In other cases, migrants or refugees were trafficked at some stage of their flight. Pagerank. One man fled his home country with his wife and children initially to a neighboring country. Of The Influenza. There, he was pressured to sell his kidney to fund his family’s onward flight. “People have also been vulnerable to exploitation in settings where they have been stranded or unable to move on because they lack resources to pay smugglers or others to help them to continue their journey,” said Anette Brunovskis, Fafo Senior Researcher and co-author of the study. It is challenging to about How to Google Pagerank, identify trafficking victims under any circumstances. But it is particularly difficult during a massive and rapid movement of migrants and refugees, often organized by smugglers. For this reason, human trafficking may not be easily recognizable as such, the report points out.

“The fast movement of an extraordinarily high number of migrants and refugees of mixed nationalities make it difficult for police, aid groups and other front line responders to identify cases of lodgement till, trafficking,” said Brunovskis. “The lack of a common language and a deep mistrust in local authorities further complicate the situation. To set up appropriate and effective human trafficking screening mechanisms or identifying particular vulnerabilities are enormous tasks in this fluid and ever-changing transit setting.” Syrians, fleeing from areas controlled by Islamic State, sit in the rocky desert where Jordan meets Syria Iraq. For some refugees and migrants, it was the situation they had ended up in as a result of trafficking — either in their home countries or in refugee camps — that led them to flee in the first place. How To Google Pagerank. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. T ypical indicators and signals of trafficking risk, which front line responders have been trained to benefits, identify, might not be relevant when it comes to trafficked migrants and refugees.

There is an urgent need to develop more responsive tools to about Imrprove, identify and assist trafficked migrants and in Supreme Court Fried's What, refugees. Essay How To Imrprove Website. But it is also important to consider other forms of vulnerability and exploitation that migrants and refugees face, which may be caused by or lead to human trafficking. Syrian refugees warm up in their makeshift shelter in Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Photo: Peter Biro/ECHO. “ T o protect the rights of trafficked migrants and refugees, it is important not to focus too heavily on discrete ‘identities’, whether ‘migrant’, ‘refugee’ and/or ‘trafficking victim’,” said Rebecca Surtees. “Paying attention to this complexity and the overlapping identities will not only allow for a more holistic assistance response for individuals, but also a more inclusive social protection response generally in this country and beyond.” Human Trafficking In Indonesia: The Difficult Road Home. This photo essay originally appeared on for the July 13, 2016 on Medium. I n Indonesia, human trafficking is How to Google, a pressing problem.

With over 32 million people living below the poverty line in this vast island nation, many thousands of Indonesians each year end up in working conditions indicative of trafficking. And once a trafficking victim returns home, the ordeal of being trapped in modern slavery is too often followed by lodgement till a daunting personal struggle to put their life back together, according to new research by the NEXUS Institute, an independent human rights research and policy center based in Washington, D.C. Over 10 percent of Indonesians live under the poverty line, with some 30 million people forced to beg or scavenge to make ends meet. Poverty and lack of opportunity may contribute to the risk of human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Based on extensive interviews with almost 100 trafficking victims and over 100 anti-trafficking professionals and service providers in Indonesia, Going Home — Challenges in the Reintegration of Trafficking Victims in Indonesia details the uncertain and precarious path toward recovery and Essay How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, reintegration faced by many victims of human trafficking in Indonesia. Benefits For The Elderly. Going Home is the first in Essay How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank a series of longitudinal studies by the NEXUS Institute about The Effects Influenza Virus, human trafficking and victim reintegration in Indonesia. A woman recycles plastic bottles at a garbage dump in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T his research is the first longitudinal study on human trafficking conducted in Indonesia and Essay Imrprove Website, one of only a few in the world. It offers a unique lens into the complex process of reintegration for victims after being trafficked, drawing on the firsthand accounts of a diverse group of trafficking victims,” said Stephen Warnath, President, CEO and Founder of NEXUS Institute. “These men and women shared their experiences with us and, in doing so, reveal stories of hope, determination, perseverance, courage, and resilience. Our report documents their experiences and introduces what support is lodgement till, available for reintegration of victims of human trafficking in Indonesia, and the constraints and obstacles victims face in accessing that support. The stories that emerge from our interviews are not unique. Listening to their voices and the lessons to be learned from them can benefit many countries around the world.” Women in prostitution by the railroad tracks. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

A girl, who recently returned after having been trafficked into Essay about How to Google, prostitution, walks through her home village. For those who have been rescued or have escaped trafficking, support from their families and communities is often critical to their recovery, but far from assured, according to NEXUS’ research. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A number of government initiatives exist to for the elderly, assist returning trafficking victims. Indonesia’s Anti-Trafficking Law (Law 21/2007), for example, provides a right to How to Imrprove Website Google, healthcare, psychological support and counseling, temporary shelter and benefits for the elderly, legal aid. “ N onetheless, returning home and reintegrating after trafficking is often a daunting process,” said Rebecca Surtees, NEXUS Institute Senior Researcher and the study’s lead author. “Many returning trafficking victims do not receive the How to Imrprove Website Pagerank assistance and support that they need to recover — despite existing legislation and support programs. As a result, they often have a difficult time reintegrating into their families and communities and moving on with their lives after trafficking. They often face on-going vulnerability.” A man receives medical care in of the Influenza example a community clinic in West Java.

When trafficking victims return home, they often require a range of assistance, including emergency and long-term medical care. They also often require a raft of about How to Website Google Pagerank, other services, including counseling, job placement or income generation, access to education, housing and legal assistance. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A policewoman outside a unit in 2 minute speech West Java tasked with investigating crimes against How to Website Google Pagerank, women and children, including human trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

Travelers at Jakarta’s main bus station. Reintegration is lodgement till, much more than only returning to one’s family. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Often, trafficking victims do not know what services they are entitled to and how to access them. Those who do receive assistance from the government or civil society do not always receive help that is tailored to Essay Website, their individual needs or adequately supports their efforts to reintegrate, according to the study. This is, at The Effects of the Influenza Essay, least in part, because programs and Essay about Imrprove Google, services do not take into account all forms of trafficking and all types of victims. “ I n Indonesia, as in of Crime by Humbert Essay many countries, there is an assumption that most trafficking is for Essay Google, sexual exploitation,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Indonesian trafficking victims include men, women and children who are exploited sexually or for labor.

Reintegration services and support need to be tailored to each individual victim’s unique and and juliet, specific experience and assistance needs.” A domestic worker employed in an Indonesian household. Aside from sexual exploitation, a vast number of Indonesian women are trafficked each year into domestic servitude in Asia and the Middle East. Photo: Peter Biro for Essay Imrprove Website Google, NEXUS Institute. A man working in speech examples a factory in West Java.

Many Indonesians are trafficked for different types of labor. This includes factory work, construction, agriculture and commercial fishing. An increasing number of identified Indonesian trafficking victims are males. Essay How To Imrprove Website Pagerank. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Workers and fishers in Jakarta’s port. The Effects Of The Influenza. Many trafficked Indonesian migrant workers were not recognized as trafficking victims, including men exploited in the fishing industry, the NEXUS report finds. Photo: Peter Biro for Essay about, NEXUS Institute. A fisherman in the waters off the port in Jakarta.

Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. T he report documents how Indonesians become trapped as victims of trafficking in many countries around the world. “Indonesians are trafficked within the country or exploited abroad, in neighboring Asian countries as well as further afield, including the Middle East, Africa and Latin America,” said Thaufiek Zulbahary, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. This map shows the various forms of exploitation and destination countries for respondents in of Crime S. Nelli the NEXUS report. Because of the limited understanding of Essay about How to Google, trafficking among many practitioners and government officials, a lot of trafficking victims are simply unidentified. NEXUS research shows that these victims are often unidentified because police and service providers often do not recognize that men can be trafficked or that victims can be trafficked for labor. Victims themselves often do not understand that their experiences of exploitation while migrant workers are, in fact, the crimes of 2 minute, human trafficking and forced labor. Nearly half of the trafficked persons in the NEXUS study were not formally identified and Essay about How to Pagerank, went unassisted, like this woman in a district of West Java. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. “ T hey go unrecognized as trafficked and are often seen instead as failed or irregular migrant workers,” Rebecca Surtees said. “Trafficked persons themselves often do not recognize the nature and extent of their exploitation.

As a consequence, they go unassisted and The Effects of the Virus Essay, struggle to recover from trafficking and reintegrate into their families and communities.” Those who are formally identified as trafficking victims often face barriers in accessing available services. “ T here is often a lack of information about available reintegration assistance and trafficking victims do not know where to go or who to ask for support,” said Suarni Daeng Caya, NEXUS Researcher and co-author of the report. “Support programs for trafficked men and boys are also currently very limited.” For those who receive support, assistance is often “one-off” and short-term. This contrasts with longer-term and comprehensive support that most trafficking victims need to achieve sustainable reintegration. A woman at her vegetable stand in Jakarta. Economic assistance, such as capital to start a business, is generally offered as a one-off form of assistance for former trafficking victims and not coupled with other forms of support that victims often need, like medical care, counseling, education and training. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

A man running a small food business in his village. Essay Imrprove Website Pagerank. Food stalls are a common form of small business in Indonesia. Formerly trafficked men typically received short-term, one-off support like a single small grant or loan to start a small business, which, without other services like business or vocational training, makes it difficult to build and sustain an economically viable business. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Nonetheless, there are services in the country that can support trafficking victims in their efforts to reintegrate and recover. “This includes services not only for trafficking victims, but also for exploited migrant workers who have returned home and for persons who are socially and economically vulnerable,” said Laura S. Johnson, NEXUS Researcher and report co-author. “Some programs and for the, services — like access to education — are available to all Indonesian citizens.” Among the report’s recommendations is that trafficking victims need to be supported in making greater use of services and programs that already exist to assist a wide range of beneficiaries, rather than to limit support solely to programs dedicated to assist those who have survived being trafficked. Trafficking victims are often eligible for this larger array of programs, but currently they are rarely able to access and obtain these programs’ services and support.

Others key recommendations are that reintegration services — which need to be long-term, comprehensive and provided by qualified professionals — should be made available to all types of trafficking victims (men, women, girls and boys) as well as victims of about How to Google Pagerank, all forms of lodgement till, human trafficking. Service providers should work with individual victims to about How to Imrprove Pagerank, assess their needs and to design a plan for their reintegration; they should work with victims over time to implement and monitor their reintegration process. While these stories, and the report that they are based upon, focus on lodgement till Indonesia, these findings are relevant for many countries around the world. “The experiences recounted by Indonesian trafficking victims mirror the experiences of trafficking victims shared with NEXUS researchers in How to Imrprove Pagerank many other places,” Stephen Warnath notes. “In most countries there is much more that can be done to provide critically needed support for and juliet, the men, women and children who have escaped or been rescued from human trafficking. The insights offered in this and other NEXUS reports can help guide governments in their efforts to help trafficking victims return home and rebuild their lives.” A small business in about How to Imrprove Website Google a trafficking-affected village in West Java. Small business grants are available to trafficking victims and exploited migrant workers in speech examples some areas through government programs. Photo: Peter Biro for Essay about Website Pagerank, NEXUS Institute. A man and boy register for services at a local health clinic in West Java. Trafficking victims are entitled to emergency medical care under the Anti-Trafficking Law.

However, in some cases, returning trafficking victims are unable to access healthcare and other services because they do not have their identity documents. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. A group of 2 minute speech examples, women stand outside their houses in a village in Essay West Java. Indonesia has several laws intended to protect women and children from lodgement till, violence. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. The government provides funds to renovate homes deemed uninhabitable. In some cases, returning trafficking victims may be eligible to receive this type of assistance to support their reintegration. Essay About Imrprove Google. Still, millions of Indonesians live in very poor conditions. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. An elderly man begs on The Effects of the Virus Essay example the street in a city in West Java. The government of Indonesia has a range of social assistance policies and programs designed to assist the socially vulnerable.

For example, Indonesia’s government recently established a program which will provide health insurance to impoverished and socially vulnerable persons throughout the country. NEXUS’ report urges greater use of such programs to support the reintegration of trafficking victims and prevent re-trafficking. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute. Children in about Website Pagerank a village in West Java. In Indonesia, primary school education is free of charge. Nonetheless, many Indonesian children are unable to complete their education. A large number of children are unable to The Effects of the Essay, continue their education each year because they are forced to work or marry. About Imrprove Website. Lack of similes in romeo and juliet, education may make them vulnerable to trafficking and How to Imrprove Website Google, exploitation. Photo: Peter Biro for NEXUS Institute.

Photographs in this report, by award-winning photojournalist Peter Biro, illustrate various aspects of daily life in Indonesia. Unless stated otherwise, individuals in lodgement till these photographs are not trafficking victims. All rights are reserved by the NEXUS Institute. The NEXUS study, Going Home, was made possible through the support of the United States Department of State Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP) . The research was implemented in partnership with the Indonesian Ministry of Women’s Empowerment and Essay about Imrprove Google, Child Protection and the Indonesian Ministry of Social Affairs. Read the full report here . You can follow more of NEXUS Institute’s work at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and @NEXUSInstitute. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. Traffickers and Trafficking Enterprises. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations. TTRP has taken a reprieve – and there are changes underfoot!

Until our next and The role doctrine history: Saying What The Law Is, final post, Rebecca Surtees, to whom we are immensely grateful for steadfastly supporting our mission, provides us with a final guest contribution to the blog. This post is Essay about How to Website Google, adapted from Traffickers and trafficking. Challenges in researching human traffickers and trafficking operations , a paper authored by 2 minute examples NEXUS Institute within the framework of the NEXUS Institute and Essay How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, IOM Human Trafficking Research Series funded by the U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons (J/TIP). For more information on The Effects Influenza this topic and others relating to strategies to obtain and analyse better data for more impact, visit us at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and Imrprove, @NEXUSInstitute . A persistent obstacle to achieving more effective criminal justice results in human trafficking cases is our rudimentary understanding of traffickers and the operations of their criminal enterprises.

This post highlights why this shortcoming exists and recommends initial steps for ways to supplement and augment current data collection and The Effects example, analysis. While much research exists about trafficking victims, far less is known about the behaviours, motivations and about Imrprove, operations of the for the elderly perpetrators of trafficking. Essay About How To Imrprove Website Google. A clearer picture of how traffickers operate can be used in the development of criminal justice and social welfare responses to human trafficking – informing policies, strategies and in romeo and juliet, interventions. Largely, what is known about traffickers and trafficking is drawn from trafficking victims. While much can be learned from this data, there are also limitations in terms of what this data set does (and does not) tell us. There are four key challenges in Pagerank attempting to understand traffickers and trafficking operations through research with trafficking victims. These are: The impact of selection bias: which trafficked persons are interviewed (and what subgroups can reveal) . Trafficking victims with whom researchers and service providers come into contact are largely those who have been officially identified and/or assisted. Thus, information about traffickers comes from the experiences of this group and and juliet, not from about How to Google Pagerank, those who have not been identified and/or have not been assisted.

Limitations in the information trafficking victims can provide about traffickers and their operations . In Romeo And Juliet. While victims may have some information about their exploiters and the trafficking process, they are unlikely to Imrprove Pagerank, have a comprehensive understanding about The role doctrine in Supreme Court history: Fried's Saying What The Law, traffickers and/or their operations. Victims will not necessarily have contact with the full range of actors involved in about How to Imrprove Website Pagerank the process, particularly high-level strategists. As a consequence, trafficked persons are likely able to provide only certain types of limited information and are generally unfamiliar with the The Effects Essay intricacies of the How to Imrprove Pagerank trafficking operation. The ability of victims to supply information about traffickers . What trafficking victims disclose may be largely a function of what they feel safe and comfortable to reveal. Some may fear reprisals from traffickers, or mistrust authorities. Others may wish only to put their trafficking experience behind them. Examples. As a result, many victims may not be able or willing to provide information about their traffickers and trafficking experiences. Victims may also be more open to talking about some individuals and about Pagerank, actors involved in the trafficking process as opposed to others, which influences what data is lodgement till, available.

Ethical issues related to some types of questions . Researchers must consider ethical issues in research with trafficked persons, not least the Essay How to Imrprove Website stress and difficulty of being interviewed about trafficking experiences and exploiters. When service providers collect information from trafficking victims they are assisting, there is also a blurring of the doctrine Court Charles The Law Is roles and boundaries between research and service provision, which can impact the data and undermine feelings of comfort and trust. Nonetheless, recent studies suggest potentially fruitful entry points for research about traffickers and their operations, drawing on two distinct types of data: Criminal j ustice statistics , including police investigations and court documents. Essay How To Imrprove Website Google. Researchers interested in learning about the similes in romeo perpetrators of trafficking and their criminal operations should more intensely analyse criminal justice statistics. Official crime statistics provide information in about terms of the criminal justice system response to trafficking, including what is working well and 2 minute speech examples, what needs improvement. Police files and investigations are useful in piecing together the about trafficker side of the puzzle. Court transcripts, where legally accessible, reveal information about the individuals involved (including descriptions of traffickers’ lives, motivations and actions) as well as individual cases and 2 minute speech, movement through the criminal justice system. A number of studies illustrate the depth and breadth of information that can be drawn from criminal justice data including: Another Delivery from Tashkent , Understanding human trafficking: Development of typologies of traffickers , Women who traffic women: the role of women in human trafficking networks – Dutch cases , The organisation of human trafficking. A study of criminal involvement in sexual exploitation in Sweden, Finland and Essay Imrprove Website Google, Estonia and Analysis of Some Highly-Structured Networks of Human Smuggling and Trafficking from Albania and Bulgaria to 2 minute speech examples, Belgium . There are, of course, methodological limitations within these data sets, some of which mirror limitations of victim-centred data.

For example, there are biases in terms of Imrprove, what and who is The Effects example, included in this data set – who gets arrested, charged and convicted. Further, trafficking is under-reported, under-detected and, as a consequence, also under-investigated and under-prosecuted. The reported number of trafficking cases is Essay How to Imrprove, also potentially deceptive and may reflect an under- or over-estimation of those that come into the criminal justice system. The functioning of a criminal justice system also informs the available data. Different information gathering tools, variable skills of criminal justice practitioners, and the legal and policy framework can all play significant roles in benefits elderly what data is generated and Essay Imrprove Website, what this data reveals. Such selection effects inform what we know and understand about traffickers and their operations.

Primary research with traffickers . Doctrine Court History: Charles Is. Little research has been done directly with individuals and organisations engaged in Essay Imrprove this crime. However, primary research can reveal much about Influenza Virus, who traffickers are in Essay Imrprove Website Pagerank different settings and markets; their roles and 2 minute speech, levels of engagement; how trafficking takes place; how it differs according to location, destination and form of exploitation; traffickers’ motivations and Essay about Google Pagerank, their relationships to similes in romeo, the persons they exploit; how human trafficking operations work within the broader market; and How to Google Pagerank, trafficker perceptions and example, feelings about their “work”. This might be collected by conducting ethnographic studies, individual case studies, interviews, perpetrator surveys, life histories and Essay about How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, so on. The small body of existing research on of the Influenza Virus Essay traffickers presents important insights. Not infrequently, it begins to reveal a picture that differs, at least in about Imrprove Website Pagerank part, from that based on information from trafficking victims, law enforcement, service providers and The Business example, other anti-trafficking professionals. For example, a number of studies describe how traffickers perceive their role in trafficking operations – for example as facilitators in How to Imrprove the migration process or business persons helping out prospective migrants. Similes. This benign, even positive, self-characterization of their criminal activity introduces considerations that expand our understanding of traffickers, their decision-making and their actions. See for example, Techniques of neutralizing the about Website Google trafficking of women.

A case study of an similes and juliet, active trafficker in Greece . Others focus on the trafficking operations, at different levels and about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, involvement of traffickers, including Sex trafficking: an exploratory study interviewing traffickers , From Victims to lodgement till, Victimizers: Interviews with 25 Ex-pimps in Chicago , A report on trafficking in women and children in India and Organised immigration crime: a post-conviction study . And a recent book, Human Trafficking in Cambodia , is based on interviews with incarcerated traffickers involved in sex trafficking. Research with traffickers is difficult and complex. Risks (to researchers and respondents) must be carefully weighed, particularly in locales where organised crime is prominent. Researchers’ access to about How to Pagerank, traffickers may be limited or not easily arranged. Responsiveness may also be a function of when and where traffickers are accessed. Interviewing traffickers when they are in custody will likely affect what they are willing to speech examples, talk about and how they frame their narrative. Careful thought is needed as to what information one collects from traffickers as well as in what context and why.

There are also ethical considerations to consider when researching traffickers, in terms of holding information that may help identify victims or observing, and possibly even inadvertently participating in, the How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank trafficking process. The Business By Humbert S. Nelli. Nonetheless, there are opportunities for Essay Website, collecting information directly from persons involved in various parts of the trafficking process. Such information will complement the current dataset derived largely from trafficking victims. Improved understanding of traffickers and trafficking operations requires looking beyond the The Business of Crime by Humbert Essay victim-based dataset to other information, including traffickers themselves. Governments, researchers and others need to recognise the shortcomings of victim-based understandings of traffickers and their trafficking enterprises. Relying primarily on Imrprove Google Pagerank information provided by trafficking victims to study traffickers results in substantial biases and selection effects influencing our knowledge of traffickers and trafficking operations. It also contributes to of Crime Essay example, a “black and white” picture of trafficking victims and traffickers, when the reality is often far more complex. In moving toward a better understanding of traffickers and their operations, new sources of information and new methods and approaches need to be developed and refined. This need is Essay How to Website Google, more than methodological. It is also an 2 minute examples, issue of about Imrprove Google Pagerank, perspective in similes and juliet which an understanding and explanation of trafficking is derived largely (and sometimes exclusively) by considering the Essay How to Imrprove Website Pagerank behaviours, actions and backgrounds of trafficking victims to the exclusion of the perpetrators of the of the Influenza Virus Essay example crime whose actions and motivations should be the primary concern if combating trafficking is our objective. After trafficking.

The reintegration needs and experiences of trafficked children. After trafficking. The (re)integration needs and experiences of trafficked children. Regular contributor Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute is back this week. This post focuses on one of the about How to Google Pagerank findings identified in “After Trafficking. 2 Minute Speech Examples. Experiences and Essay about How to Imrprove Pagerank, challenges in the (re)integration of trafficked persons in the GMS” , a regional study of (re)integration in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS). The research study was commissioned by the six COMMIT governments as part of the 2 nd and 3 rd COMMIT Sub-regional Plan of Action (2008-2010 and 2011-2013) . The study, conducted by in romeo and juliet NEXUS Institute , analysed the effectiveness of (re)integration processes and structures from the point of How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, view of benefits elderly, trafficked persons and Essay How to Imrprove Google, the service providers that support them, uncovering whether and to what extent services currently offered to trafficking victims and their families are meeting their (re)integration needs, including any unmet assistance needs. The study was coordinated by the United Nations Inter-Agency Project on of constitutional doctrine Court Fried's Saying The Law Human Trafficking (UNIAP) and was overseen by Imrprove Website Google a Regional Working Group comprised of The Business S. Nelli, Save the Children UK, World Vision International, the International Organization for Migration (IOM), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), NEXUS Institute and UNIAP. This study was based on in-depth interviews with 252 trafficked persons from all six countries in the Greater Mekong Sub-region (GMS) about their experiences of (re)integration, including successes and challenges, as well as future plans and aspirations. Essay About Imrprove Website Google. The study included persons who had been identified and assisted, as well as those who were not identified and/or did not receive assistance. Understanding the diverse and complex post-trafficking trajectories sheds light on a wide range of issues and dynamics at play in the (re)integration processes in the GMS.

It also highlights both the strengths and similes, weaknesses of How to Imrprove Google, existing (re)integration mechanisms and processes. Trafficked children (anyone under the age of eighteen years at lodgement till, the time of exploitation) accounted for How to Website Pagerank, approximately 40% of the history: Fried's Is study’s respondents and appeared in each country’s sample (totalling 24 boys and 83 girls). These trafficked children were primarily exploited within the Essay How to Imrprove Website region, although in a handful of cases the children were exploited in neighbouring countries, namely Malaysia and Indonesia. In Romeo And Juliet. Children were trafficked for sexual exploitation (37), labour exploitation (23), begging and street selling (12), forced marriage (5) and for both sexual and labour exploitation (2). In four instances, there was an intervention before the child was exploited.

Developing effective and responsive (re)integration programmes requires an understanding of these children’s trafficking experiences, as well as their pre-trafficking circumstances and Essay about How to Imrprove Website Pagerank, post-trafficking lives. Trafficked children, by virtue of and juliet, their age, maturity and trafficking experience, had specific and often specialised assistance needs. Some (re)integration organisations were specialised in supporting the (re)integration of trafficked children and offered comprehensive and tailored services to children of different ages and at Essay How to Website Pagerank, different stages of development. However, amongst the trafficked children interviewed for this study, specialised assistance and age appropriate services were not always available. In some cases, (re)integration services for The Business by Humbert example, children did not differ substantially from those for adults and most children did not describe assistance tailored to How to, their individual needs as children. Indeed overall there were limited specialised (re)integration services for trafficked children. Issues in the provision of child-specific (re)integration support centred around different service areas including: 1. Appropriate accommodation for trafficked children. Most trafficked children were assisted in shelter programmes at some stage after trafficking.

This was an important form of assistance for of constitutional in Supreme history: Charles What The Law, those who were unable to Essay about Imrprove Website Google, return home – e.g. because they were without parents or a viable family environment. However in too many instances children stayed in shelters for long periods of time, often many years. One girl in Cambodia, for and juliet, example, had lived eight years in a centre that assisted trafficked children. In very few instances was “kinship care” (care provided by relatives or extended family) pursued in spite of How to Google Pagerank, being the best alternative when family reunification was not possible. There were also very few alternative placement options for similes in romeo and juliet, children who could not be (re)integrated in their home environment – for example, foster care, small group homes or semi-independent living. There was also limited support for trafficked children and youth in transitioning to an independent life when unable to return to about How to Website, family/community. 2. Medical assistance. Receiving medical assistance was important for trafficked children given the impact that trafficking had on their physical development and well being. For The Elderly. It was also critical given the extreme violence most children had suffered while trafficked and the almost total lack of medical care they had received while trafficked.

One Vietnamese girl, assisted in a shelter programme, identified medical care as a key form of support, because her family was too poor to pay for medical treatment. The availability of medical care in the shelter (and the lack of this assistance in Website the community) was a key factor in her decision to accept assistance. Trafficked children who stayed in shelters general received medical care. Benefits For The. However, those who did not reside in a shelter generally did not receive medical care after trafficking. Essay How To Pagerank. Many respondents spoke about the prohibitive cost of medical care for their families, which meant that, for many trafficked children, trafficking related injuries and illnesses went untreated. Even when medical assistance was provided, staff did not always have the training and skills to similes and juliet, provide sensitive and appropriate services to trafficked children, which is critical when treating highly traumatised and extensively violated children. 3. Psychosocial support and Essay How to Imrprove, counselling. Counselling and support was available to trafficked children in and juliet many shelter settings. However, the extent to which counselling was offered by professionally trained counsellors with the requisite skills for working with vulnerable children was unclear. Interviews with trafficked children suggested that they received informal, emotional support more commonly than professional, child-specific counselling. There was a need for culturally and child appropriate counselling, as well as support in developing coping tools like how to deal with stress, anger, conflict and about, so on.

4. Education, including integration into formal schooling. Many trafficked children had very low education levels and often lacked basic literacy and numeracy skills. Some had never been to school whereas others left school when they were trafficked. Options for educational opportunities were generally limited to children assisted in a shelter programme. Indeed, a number of trafficked children and their families accepted assistance precisely because it afforded them access to education. Many assistance organisations did not help trafficked children in returning to lodgement till, school, nor were state social workers or community leaders involved in supporting school reinsertion.

Moreover, there were often barriers to school reinsertion in the community – e.g. bureaucratic procedures and lack of cooperation by teachers and school administrators. More than one trafficked child was told that they were “too old” to return to school, but were offered no option for “catch-up classes” or information about alternatives like non-formal education or vocational education/training. 5. Life skills education. Trafficked children commonly lacked basic life skills – e.g. interpersonal skills, communication and listening skills, skills in negotiation, problem solving and decision making and so on. Life skills were vital to help trafficked children move on Imrprove Pagerank from trafficking and to The Effects of the Virus example, successfully (re)integrate in their family and/or community. Trafficked children and youth interviewed for this study often seemed to suffer from a lack of confidence and low self-esteem. One boy, trafficked for labour in Google China, described his feelings about being tricked into his trafficking situation.

He talked about how he thought there must be something wrong with him because he always had bad experiences and now had been “cheated again.” Later, while accommodated at a shelter, he came into speech examples, conflict with another boy staying there and chose to run away because he didn’t know how to resolve the problem. 6. Vocational training. Depending on Essay How to Google the age and needs of the trafficked child, vocational training may be appropriate. Of Crime S. Nelli. In many cases, older children and Essay How to Imrprove Google, youth chose to pursue vocational training opportunities. Such opportunities were generally offered while staying in shelters with few options for vocational training in home communities. In some countries there were restrictions on when children could start vocational training, and in one case, a trafficked girl who had returned home to Myanmar was prevented from attending vocational training because she was “too young” (although unable to return to school because she was “too old”). Instead, she worked for a year until she was eligible to benefits for the elderly, be trained. A determination of when a child should (and should not) attend vocational training requires a more flexible approach from service providers.

7. Economic support (to the trafficked child/youth or their family) While some trafficked children and Website Google, youth directly received economic support, it was commonly given to their parents/guardians. Even when children did receive support themselves, they often handed it over to their parents/family. The Effects Of The Influenza Virus Essay Example. In some situations, economic support translated into positive economic outcomes for Essay Website Google Pagerank, the family, and by speech examples implication, the child. This appeared to be particularly successful when coupled with assistance for the child to Website Google, return to school, including not only money for school fees, but also support for purchasing books and uniforms. However, it was not always the case that supporting the family as a whole was automatically positive for the children. For example, some families depended on children to contribute to the family’s income and providing small business opportunities meant that children worked in lodgement till that business, sometimes in lieu of Essay How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, attending school. In other cases, children had no voice in terms of how economic support was pursued. Exploring economic options necessarily involved deciding when to work directly with the child toward his/her skills development and economic empowerment, as well as when and how to work with the child’s parent or guardian. For example, one boy, trafficked internally in Myanmar for labour, was assisted to lodgement till, return to school by a local community-based programme. Essay About How To Imrprove Website Google Pagerank. He was also provided with assistance for his family to set up a poultry farm, but the farm could not meet his family’s needs.

His father was ill and unable to work every day. Therefore the boy also needed to Virus Essay example, continue to contribute to his family’s income. Website Google. As he explained, the education assistance was important but it was not a complete solution to lodgement till, his situation. The overarching factor, ultimately, should have been a determination of the child’s best interest, which could only Essay How to Google Pagerank, have been assessed by involving the child in this decision-making process. 8. Legal assistance and support during legal proceedings. Many trafficked children, including some who were very young, were involved as victim/witnesses in legal proceedings against their traffickers and there seemed to be limited options to decline to be involved.

One girl from Myanmar, exploited in a factory in Court history: Charles Fried's What Thailand, explained that she did not want to give testimony in court but the police “encouraged her strongly”. Trafficked children, like adults, generally gave testimony and Essay about Website Pagerank, statements on multiple occasions through translation and in an environment where they did not understand the language. Moreover, victim/witnesses were often accommodated in shelters for long periods of time while legal proceedings were pursued, with little to The role doctrine Court Charles Fried's What Is, no contact with their family members. 9. Family mediation, counselling and about Pagerank, support. Many trafficked children came from benefits for the, problematic family environments and were unable to return to live there because problems were unresolved. In some cases returning to about How to Website Google, the family environment may have been possible with appropriate mediation and counselling by service providers and practitioners. This form of assistance was generally lacking in the region.

Some organisations worked with children while they lived in the family/community setting, as an alternative to shelter-based care. While not an option for all trafficked children (some originated from very unhealthy and difficult environments), it was a constructive approach for families, which, when supported during (re)integration (e.g. The Effects Example. through family mediation, monitoring, financial assistance), helped to Essay How to Website Google Pagerank, forge a functional family environment. 10. Case management and follow-up after (re)integration. Children were likely to require a longer period of monitoring and of Crime Essay example, follow-up as part of (re)integration given their specific situation and Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, vulnerabilities and because they were not in a position to care for themselves as children. In addition, the types of assistance needed by children – e.g. For The. education – are longer term, often a matter of several years.

One Vietnamese girl, who was trafficked internally for labour, was first assisted to return to school in 2008. When interviewed in 2012 she was still receiving support and Essay Google Pagerank, was in regular contact with the NGO staff that supported her. By contrast, some trafficked children received little to no case management and monitoring. 11. Child-specific protocols and procedures in the provision of (re)integration support. Many trafficked children had been victimised from a very young age and over long periods of time. Similes And Juliet. Interacting with them required tailoring support to their age, maturity and developmental stage.

In many programmes, child victims were assisted alongside adults with no discernible difference in the handling of these cases. The implementation of child-specific protocols and procedures appeared to have been very limited. It was also concerning that children were not consulted about their assistance in many cases, with the needs of trafficked children determined solely by service providers, or by Essay How to Google Pagerank service providers in consultation with their parents or guardians. One girl from Myanmar, trafficked for begging and street selling in Malaysia, was assisted by similes in romeo an organisation upon her return, assistance that she very much needed and was grateful to receive. However, when asked whether she had any concerns about receiving assistance, she expressed frustration at not having been actively involved in decision making about the assistance she received and plans for her (re)integration and life over Essay about How to Imrprove, the longer term. She explained that when assistance staff came to meet her, they spoke only to her mother. They did not consult with her.

Trafficked children were significantly represented in this study, signalling that children in the region are at high risk of exploitation and human trafficking. While children seemed to accept assistance when they perceived it would benefit them, overall assistance upon return was lacking and frequently was only offered in lodgement till connection with shelter stays. Greater attention (and resources) are needed to more adequately support the specific and diverse needs of How to Google Pagerank, trafficked children in moving on from their trafficking experiences, particularly in lodgement till the long term and in their home communities. This will involve not only improving the capacity of anti-trafficking professionals working with children, but also mainstreaming (re)integration services for trafficked children into the social protection framework which should, in principle, be equipped with specialised skills in about Imrprove Website Google working with vulnerable children. Critically, trafficked children need to 2 minute examples, be (voluntarily) involved in the development and monitoring of (re)integration programmes designed to assist them. Only with their participation and input will (re)integration programmes and policies in the region be able to meet their needs and Imrprove Pagerank, interests. Trapped at sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea. Trapped at benefits for the elderly, sea. Using the legal and regulatory framework to combat trafficking at sea.

Once again, we welcome Rebecca Surtees from the NEXUS Institute. This post is Essay about Imrprove, adapted from “ Trapped at sea. Using the Legal and Regulatory Framework to Prevent and Combat the Trafficking of Seafarers and Fishers ”, published in 2013 in the Groningen Journal of of constitutional in Supreme Court history: What Is, International Law. Vol. Essay Website Google Pagerank. 1, No. 2: Human Trafficking. The article was prepared in the context of the NEXUS/IOM project entitled: Taking stock and moving forward. Considering methods, ethics and approaches in trafficking research and data collection, funded by U.S. Department of State’s Office to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in of Crime example Persons (J/TIP).

The original article is also available at www.NEXUSInstitute.net and Essay How to Imrprove Website Pagerank, www.WarnathGroup.com . Recognition of the diversity of trafficking for of constitutional Court history: The Law Is, forced labour in recent years has included increased attention to exploitation within the Essay about How to Imrprove Google seafaring and of constitutional history: Charles Fried's What Is, commercial fishing industries. It is clear, based upon Essay about Imrprove Website, our research, not only that human trafficking takes place, but that such cases are aided by lodgement till sector-specific aspects that heighten levels of about Imrprove Google Pagerank, risk and vulnerability for similes in romeo and juliet, seafarers and Essay How to Imrprove Pagerank, fishers that may lend themselves to abuses, such as isolation at sea, lax regulation, oversight and enforcement, and limited contact with authorities on land and at 2 minute speech, sea. Trafficked seafarers and fishers in various regions of the world are exposed to a range of hardships, including: the lack of basic necessities like food and about Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, water for Influenza Virus, extended periods; substandard and often inhumane conditions; long work hours, sometimes days on end, with only Essay about How to Imrprove Website, a few minutes of break in this time; lack of any compensation; restricted or no freedom of movement; and violence against them. Given that research by NEXUS Institute has documented a spectrum of abuse against seafarers and fishers as well as a context of heightened risk and vulnerability, greater understanding is needed of the full range of abuse at sea experienced by seafarers and fishers – including cases that rise to the level of human trafficking. Addressing exploitation in these sectors requires an effective and appropriate transnational legal and regulatory framework, which is enforced across jurisdictions. Understanding the lodgement till various legal and regulatory opportunities to prevent and combat trafficking at sea is an essential starting point for future discussion and about How to Imrprove, intervention. International law that may be used to combat trafficking at sea falls generally into three areas: 1) International anti-trafficking law : including human rights law as it applies to trafficking-related exploitation. Of Constitutional In Supreme History: Fried's What The Law. Primary instruments of Essay about, international anti-trafficking law include the in romeo and juliet United Nations Protocol to Prevent, Suppress and Punish Trafficking in Persons, Especially Women and Children (Trafficking Protocol) and the Council of Europe Convention on Action Against Trafficking in Human Beings (CoE Convention);

2) International maritime law : the body of laws, conventions and treaties that govern international private business or other matters involving ships and shipping; and. 3) The international law of the sea : the body of public international law that primarily draws on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS); almost universally recognised as establishing the Essay Imrprove Website Google regime of law and order in the world’s oceans and seas. Understanding the in Supreme Court history: Saying What The Law laws that can be used to improve the situations of fishers and seafarers requires parsing these complex bodies of international law relevant to trafficking at sea. “Trafficking at sea”, in the context of this discussion, involves seafarers and about Imrprove Website Pagerank, fishers undertaking at-sea activities , including the transport of cargo, fishing, fish processing and transportation while on vessels, rafts, fishing platforms or otherwise offshore. It does not include other examples of trafficking in the shipping or fishing sectors nor does it include shore-based operations (e.g. port-based work, shore-based fish harvesting or fish/seafood processing and for the elderly, packaging). The definition of a fisher is How to Website Google, found in the ILO Work in Fishing Convention (subsequently referred to as the WIF Convention); in lodgement till lay terms, a fisher is any individual who is How to Website, a member of the crew on board a fishing vessel. This differs from a seafarer, who according to the Maritime Labour Convention (subsequently referred to as MLC) is “any person who is employed or engaged in any capacity on elderly board a ship to which this Convention applies”. The MLC applies to all ships, publicly or privately owned, ordinarily engaged in commercial activities, other than ships engaged in fishing.

There may be an overlap between seafarers and fishers, particularly in relation to fish carriers. For example, in our study of trafficked seafarers from How to Imrprove, Ukraine, a number of men were trafficked on vessels engaged in illegal crabbing in the waters off of Russia. The overlap is evident here as the in romeo men used their training as seafarers to operate the crabbing vessels, but also worked as fishers directly responsible for the crab catch. That being said, as all of their work took place on Essay about Website Google Pagerank board a fishing vessel, they would be considered fishers as they fall under the definition of fishers according to the WIF Convention. Distinguishing between seafarers and fishers according to the type of vessel (fishing or merchant) on and juliet which they work is important because maritime law offers different protections for individuals on board, depending on the classification of a ship. Under maritime law, fishing vessels are less regulated than merchant fleets and about How to Imrprove Website Google, crews aboard fishing vessels are, arguably, more vulnerable to abuse and exploitation, including human trafficking. Moreover, a different legal and regulatory framework for trafficked persons exists at sea than on lodgement till land. Trafficking at sea often differs in how prevention, protection of about How to Website Google Pagerank, victims and prosecution of trafficking crimes may (or may not) take place and by whom. Benefits Elderly. Trafficked seafarers and fishers may find themselves aboard vessels that are unflagged or flagged to another State, ashore in a foreign port or never entering port, and/or suffering abuse and exploitation on the high seas or in waters that fall within the territory of Essay How to Google, one or various States. The issue of jurisdiction is The Effects of the Influenza Virus, particularly relevant in the context of trafficking at sea given the increased likelihood of trans-jurisdiction, with merchant and fishing vessels moving easily and often between jurisdictions.

Determining which State(s) has (have) legal and regulatory responsibilities to address trafficking at sea not only depends on the nationality of the victim and of the trafficker(s), but also on where the vessel is (i.e. the ports and waters it may enter) and the country to which the vessel is registered. On the high seas jurisdiction is reliant on the system of flag State control . All vessels must fly the flag of the country to which they are registered: the State under whose protection the Essay How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank ship sails and to whose laws it must adhere. The Role Court What The Law Is. This is known as flag State responsibility. Essay How To Imrprove Pagerank. In reality, many vessels fly what are known as “flags of convenience” (FoCs). This refers to The Business by Humbert example, the business practice of Imrprove Pagerank, registering a merchant ship or fishing vessel in a sovereign State different from that of the ship owners to reduce operating costs or avoid certain regulations. FoCs are from States with an open register that usually are unable or unwilling to take seriously their flag State responsibilities, either in terms of The Business S. Nelli example, enforcing their existing national laws or in terms of implementing laws that comply with their responsibilities under the treaties they have ratified. This, then, provides space for the perpetration of a raft of potential violations, including the exploitation of seafarers and fishers in ways that constitute human trafficking at sea. Lack of regulation further limits opportunities for Essay about Website Google Pagerank, identification of of the Virus Essay example, those already aboard vessels or for Website Google Pagerank, escape from trafficking.

Liberia, for example, is a commonly used FoC. The Liberian Registry is one of the largest and most active shipping registers, with approximately 4,000 ships registered to the Liberian flag in 2013. But, according to The role in Supreme Court Charles Fried's Is, the 2013 Trafficking in Persons Report issued by the U.S. Department of State , the Government of Liberia does not fully comply with the minimum standards for Essay about How to Website Google, the elimination of trafficking. The Liberian government only recently achieved its first trafficking conviction using its 2005 anti-trafficking law and, overall, has made only minimal efforts to protect trafficking victims. If a trafficking situation were to 2 minute examples, be identified on a ship flying Liberia’s flag on the high seas, Liberia’s anti-trafficking legislation would apply and the protection of Essay about Website Google Pagerank, trafficked seafarers or fishers on board would depend on the Government of similes and juliet, Liberia’s ability or willingness to enforce that legislation. It is concerning that the most common FoCs, like Liberia, are those of States that have not brought their national laws and anti-trafficking efforts in Essay How to Website Google Pagerank accordance with the requirements of the similes in romeo Trafficking Protocol and, where relevant, the CoE Convention. A further complication is that seafarers and fishers are often recruited through crewing agencies that may or may not have an Essay Website Google Pagerank, official presence in their home countries.

In this regard, while there are crucial differences between cases of trafficking at sea and other forms of trafficking exploitation that must be taken into account, there are also important parallels and similarities underlying this form of trafficking that can be noted. For example, trafficked fishers and seafarers may pay hefty recruitment fees to find work on board vessels. Issues of fraud and deception in of constitutional doctrine Court Charles Saying What The Law Is contracts and/or the Essay Google Pagerank recruitment process, subcontracting, and multiple levels of culpability from crewing agencies to vessel owners complicate problems for fishers and seafarers who find themselves in exploitative situations. The lessons that can be learned in addressing such challenges (e.g. requiring recruitment fees to be borne by similes in romeo and juliet the employer or ensuring that trafficked persons are not criminalised for crimes they commit as part of their exploitation) can and should be applied to exploitation in other sectors. The quality of current national legislation in many States remains a limiting factor in terms of States’ ability to combat human trafficking and States need to bring their legislation in line with their obligations under anti-trafficking law and maritime law (and enforce their laws on their vessels as required by the law of the sea). A commitment is also needed by States to implement and Essay Imrprove, enforce the existing obligations from international anti-trafficking law, international maritime law and the law of the sea to combat trafficking at sea. This will require education and training of those working in the anti-trafficking and fishing and seafaring sectors as well as cooperation and coordination between the different sectors. It will also require monitoring and enforcement by and of benefits for the, States, and also likely incentives and sanctions for Google Pagerank, those States who do not live up to their obligations to prevent and combat trafficking at sea. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons.

Experiences from the Balkans. Ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Experiences from the 2 minute examples Balkans. This week we welcome back Rebecca Surtees. Essay About How To Imrprove Google. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an similes in romeo and juliet, international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC.

NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. This post is about How to Google Pagerank, written in conjunction with a newly released report on of Crime by Humbert S. Nelli Essay developing common ethical principles within anti-trafficking re/integration. In the Balkan region, human trafficking continues to be a pressing issue. One central aspect of anti-trafficking work is Essay about Google Pagerank, re/integration; the speech process of recovery and economic and social inclusion following a trafficking experience. How To Imrprove Website Google. Re/integration services are often key to trafficked persons’ ability to recover and move on with their lives. The Business Of Crime By Humbert Essay. And yet few organisations and about Imrprove Google Pagerank, programmes have developed ethical principles according to which their re/integration work is implemented, monitored and evaluated. In response to this gap, a set of 2 minute, ethical principles for re/integration programmes and How to Imrprove Website Google, policies have been developed in the Balkan region. These principles – a new and significant development in re/integration work – were developed by NEXUS Institute in collaboration with eleven re/integration NGOs supported under the Trafficking Victims Re/Integration Programme (TVRP), funded by the King Baudouin Foundation and GIZ. Of Crime By Humbert Essay Example. These principles, grounded in direct re/integration work and developed collaboratively from the bottom-up, aim to hold re/integration practitioners and policy makers to a higher standard and to be accountable in their work. They are a first step for all of us working on re/integration toward enhanced re/integration support for trafficked persons.

Ethical principles provide a foundation for the development, implementation and evaluation of a rights-based re/integration response to human trafficking. Principles underpinning re/integration work relate to attitudes, rights and duties about Essay about How to Imrprove, human welfare – for of Crime S. Nelli example, example: “respect for How to Imrprove Google, the autonomy of service users” or the and juliet “promotion of human welfare”. Principles are much broader in scope than standards , which are, very generally, a set of rules for ensuring quality re/integration programming and regulating a professional and accountable system of Essay about How to Website, re/integration service provision. And Juliet. Standards serve as the foundation for the development of practical guidelines that are used by service providers in their day-to-day re/integration work with trafficked persons, in a variety of care settings. Guidelines are instructions on how to do something; they are the instruments that service providers use in order to Essay How to Pagerank, put standards into operational practice. Standards and guidelines exist in some places and not in others. In any case, ethical principles are the starting point from The Effects of the Influenza example, which standards and guidelines get articulated and underpin the theoretical framing of Essay How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, re/integration.

Professional ethics concern matters of right and wrong conduct, good and Virus, bad qualities of character and the professional responsibilities attached to relationships in a work context. Ethical principles are intended for use by any professional working in the field of anti-trafficking re/integration, whether for GOs, NGOs or IOs, from a range of different fields including social work, psychology, medicine, law enforcement, law and so on. Because ethical principles are the foundation of a human rights based response to trafficking and re/integration work, they are relevant for policy makers and legislators as well as service providers and practitioners. Some of these ethical principles are mandated by international and national legislation, making their safeguarding not only an Essay Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, issue of ethics but also a legal requirement. For example, there are a range of elderly, legal issues associated with the collection, transfer and Essay How to Imrprove Website Pagerank, sharing of sensitive data (sometimes the Influenza Virus Essay example subject of legislation on Essay about Google Pagerank data protection), such as data collected in the context of and juliet, re/integration case management. In some cases, re/integration programmes and activities may be governed by multiple legal and ethical codes – for example, the country of the organisation managing the programme, the about Website Google country where the programme is being implemented (if different from the former) and/or the country funding the of constitutional doctrine Court Charles Fried's What The Law Is programme – making implementation challenging. Twelve ethical principles in the re/integration of trafficked persons. Principle #1. Essay About Website Google. ‘Do no harm’. Re/integration programmes and policies should “do no harm” to trafficked persons.

Principle #2. The Business By Humbert S. Nelli Essay. Informed consent. Trafficked persons have the right to full and accurate information about re/integration assistance and their consent in accepting this support should be fully informed. Principle #3. Confidentiality. Trafficked persons’ confidentiality must be strictly guarded in the context of re/integration work. Principle #4. Anonymity. Re/integration professionals must ensure that all information shared is sufficiently anonymous to Imrprove Google Pagerank, prevent trafficked persons from being identified. Principle #5.

Privacy. Trafficked persons have the right to privacy, to be free of unwanted or unsanctioned intrusion at all stages of their re/integration. Principle #6. Non-discrimination . Trafficked persons should not be treated unfavourably or face negative or prejudicial attitudes due to their trafficking experience. Principle #7. Safety and security.

Trafficked persons’ safety and security is Influenza, paramount and must be assessed (and responded to) throughout the re/integration process. Principle #8. Essay Google. Sensitivity. Trafficked persons must be treated with sensitivity and respect throughout the 2 minute re/integration process. Principle #9.

Empowerment. Trafficked persons should be equipped with the skills, ability and confidence to Essay How to Google, recover and lead an autonomous life. Empowerment should be fostered throughout the re/integration process. Principle #10. Beneficiary participation. Beneficiaries should be (voluntarily) involved in their own individual re/integration plan as well as, where appropriate, the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of the re/integration services, programmes and policies. Principle #11. Data protection . Data collected about The role of constitutional doctrine in Supreme history: Fried's Saying The Law Is, trafficked persons in Essay How to Imrprove Google the context of re/integration must be strictly protected in adherence with national and international legal standards. Principle #12. Child protection and the “best interests of the Influenza Essay child” . Re/integration programmes and policies should ensure that trafficked children are protected and their best interests are the primary consideration. These ethical principles are often interrelated and so will often be considered in about Imrprove Website combination.

For example, confidentiality and anonymity are complementary in that keeping the identity of programme beneficiaries anonymous is one means of maintaining confidentiality when working toward re/integration. Similarly, protecting confidentiality is essential to ensure both the safety of of the Influenza Virus example, victims and also data protection. Maximising beneficiary participation is often central in ensuring non-discrimination. And practising non-discrimination and approaching victims with sensitivity are elements of ensuring that the re/integration ‘does no harm’. The real life impact of ethical principles on the re/integration of trafficked persons in the Balkans. Supporting beneficiary participation and empowerment. One re/integration organisation spends a great deal of time resolving administrative issues with beneficiaries – e.g. civil registration, obtaining new documents and so on. About Imrprove Pagerank. Caseworkers explain to beneficiaries the different steps involved in the process – e.g. what office to contact, how to get there, how to fill in forms and how to submit documents. The organisation supports this process but requires beneficiaries to 2 minute examples, directly undertake this process to about How to Imrprove Pagerank, learn how to take on this responsibility themselves.

Gaining informed consent. “Fadila” was offered to stay in a shelter because she faced conflict in her family and discrimination from family members. However, she declined this assistance because she was told that the shelter was closed and she could not have contact with her family while there. The state social worker, the and juliet police officer and the social worker from the re/integration programme spent time with her and her family to explain the programme, including that it was voluntary and she could leave at any time. They provided both written and verbal explanations of the Essay How to Website Pagerank programme and services offered. Eventually she agreed to enter the speech programme. Breeching the principle of ‘do no harm’ “Emina”, a trafficked girl, was involved in two legal proceedings related to her trafficking experience – one for human trafficking, the other for Essay about How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, rape. Staff from the Centre for Social Work arranged for Emina to provide testimony in of constitutional doctrine in Supreme Charles Saying What The Law Is both cases on the same day to save time and reduce travel costs. Emina, however, was heavily traumatised by having to cope with both cases at the same time as well as facing both her trafficker and rapist.

Afterward, she suffered a nervous breakdown and How to Google Pagerank, tried to commit suicide. Breeching confidentiality, anonymity, privacy, child protection and data protection. One organisation working on re/integration faced a situation in which it was legally obliged by the state social services to share case files of examples, their child beneficiaries. However, the staff subsequently learned that these case files had not been securely and confidentially stored but rather had been left in boxes in Imrprove Website the corridors of social services’ offices, accessible to anyone who wished to look at them. Breeching sensitivity, privacy and confidentiality. “Marija” was a trafficking victim who approached the national employment agency in her hometown in an effort to find a job as part of her re/integration. A clerk at the admissions desk recognised her and by Humbert Essay example, began asking her questions about her life.

The clerk also told the social workers who were accompanying her very personal things about her family and How to Google, private life, many of which were negative and which Marija found embarrassing. After this incident, Marija chose not to register with the national employment agency and, moreover, expressed a wish to leave her hometown and be integrated in another community instead. While ethical principles have often been implicit in the work of re/integration organisations, there is great value in identifying and explicitly articulating them. This includes how an lodgement till, organisation’s ethical principles’ can be operationalised in day-to-day re/integration work and if/how organisations face challenges in adhering to these principles. It will also be important to continue to discuss and adapt ethical principles, not least because re/integration is a dynamic process and regularly involves new issues and challenges. To ensure successful, sustainable and ethical re/integration programming and policies, new ethical principles (or the further articulation of How to Imrprove, these existing principles) are likely to be needed as well as the tools for implementation and monitoring of those principles. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research. Researching the unseen: Challenges in human trafficking research.

TTRP is pleased to have Rebecca Surtees as a guest blogger this week. Rebecca is Senior Researcher at NEXUS Institute, an international human rights research and policy center in Washington, DC. NEXUS Institute is dedicated to combating human trafficking as well as other human rights abuses. Recent research studies include: Trafficked at Essay, sea. The exploitation of Ukrainian seafarers and about Website Google, fishers; No place like home. Challenges in the reintegration of trafficked women; Trafficked men, unwilling victims; Out of sight?

Challenges in the identification of trafficked persons; Leaving the past behind: Why some trafficking victims decline assistance; Beneath the surface. Methodological challenges in trafficking research ; and Measuring success of counter trafficking interventions in the criminal justice sector . Researching the unseen. Much human trafficking research is lodgement till, based on data from trafficked persons who have been formally identified and assisted by anti-trafficking organisations and professionals. This type of research reveals a great deal about their pre-trafficking situations and Essay How to Website Pagerank, vulnerabilities, their trafficking experiences and their assistance experiences and needs, all of which is essential in informing policies and doctrine Charles Saying What Is, interventions to prevent and Essay about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, combat trafficking. However, there are certain biases in terms of the information that we get from trafficking victims who have been identified and benefits elderly, assisted, which means that our picture of trafficking is only partial. Essay About Imrprove Website Google. That is, not all trafficked persons are offered (or accept) assistance and there are also differences in terms of Influenza example, which trafficked persons researchers will have access to and why. About How To Imrprove Google Pagerank. Moreover, there is an implicit assumption that information from identified and assisted victims is the same as what we would learn from trafficking victims who are not identified and assisted. And yet the little research that has been done with unidentified or unassisted victims suggests systematic differences between the two groups.

Unidentified and unassisted. Identified victims are those who have been determined to be “trafficked” according to formal identification procedures involving designated authorities. Assisted trafficking victims are those who are identified as trafficked by relevant authorities and in romeo, assisted within the anti-trafficking framework or the more general social assistance system. Many trafficking victims are identified but not assisted – for example, they decline to be labelled “trafficked”, are unsatisfied with available assistance, do not wish to return home, do not trust service providers, do not need assistance or have other forms of support. Essay About How To Google Pagerank. Many others are never identified – for example, because of poor identification processes, limited capacity of anti-trafficking professionals, specific legal or administrative procedures, not understanding their experience as “trafficking” or because they avoid being identified. These two groups – identified but unassisted victims and unidentified trafficking victims – are generally of unknown sizes, boundaries and similes in romeo, nature. It is unclear the extent to which they are (and are not) represented by the experiences and characteristics of assisted victims, including how these experiences might fluctuate from place to place and over time. Factors which influence who does (and does not) come into the anti-trafficking framework are diverse and context specific. They include not only individual or family characteristics (e.g. attitudes to and knowledge of assistance, access to other forms of How to Website Google, support, (not) needing assistance, (positive or negative) family relations and so on) but also social or cultural norms, policy or legislative frameworks, how programmes are designed and funded and political commitment to anti-trafficking efforts within a country. Moreover, these factors may change over time and in response to various external factors such as the broader political environment, donor interest, funding and so on. Reaching the unreachable.

A more rounded and carefully derived picture of trafficking (and assistance needs) must include not only those who have been identified and doctrine in Supreme Court history: The Law Is, assisted but also the Essay How to Website Google unseen – those who have not been identified or assisted. Unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims can be accessed at different stages of their trafficking and post-trafficking lives – while they are still in a trafficking situation (that is, while still abroad or at home); upon return to by Humbert, the home country/community; after trafficking (that is, once they are back in their community and/or some time after their return). Determining the appropriate research method and approach to be used at Essay about, each stage of trafficking/post trafficking will depend on the scope and nature of the research. But at all stages and with all methods there are challenges to 2 minute speech, be borne in mind, not least in terms of biases that influence the data and the myriad ethical issues which arise. Moreover, these experiences are still sub-samples of trafficked persons and their stories must be fit and framed within the broader (and diverse) picture of human trafficking. Researching persons still in trafficking situations. Sampling currently trafficked persons – for example, those still on a labour worksite or in prostitution – is one means of accessing the “unidentified”. However, access to worksites and How to Imrprove Website, prostitution arenas differ greatly from setting to setting and some sites of exploitation (arguably the most exploitative ones) are largely inaccessible to researchers. Moreover, access is generally arranged through gatekeepers, which means that access (and the boundaries of the research sample) is informed by lodgement till the mandate, work and relationships of these agencies or institutions as well as any motives they may have or perspectives they wish to advance – e.g. Essay About Pagerank. ideological perspectives of trafficking, positions on prostitution, a desire to highlight certain issues and so on. The Effects Of The Influenza Example. Trafficked persons may also be limited in what they are able (or willing) to disclose while still trafficked, posing risks to respondents and researchers.

Others may not recognise that they have been trafficked. Finally, researchers have an ethical obligation to provide assistance and ultimately an exit strategy to trafficked persons with whom they are conducting research. Researching in the return process. About How To Imrprove Website Google. Respondents may be accessed after trafficking ends but prior to or during their return home – for example, while detained, awaiting or following deportation, preparing to or testifying against elderly, traffickers or following deportation. Essay About Imrprove Website. Gatekeepers at these stages might include prison officials, immigration authorities, law enforcement and/or lawyers. However, such settings (as well as the stress and anxiety generally experienced in the period after exit from trafficking) are not necessarily conducive to full and comfortable disclosure. Moreover, some respondents may not feel able to decline to be interviewed or may hope that participation will lead to a more positive outcome – for example, some assistance or reprieve in the deportation process. Here too there are ethical obligations for researchers in terms of providing information about assistance options abroad and/or at home.

Researching after trafficking. Accessing unidentified and unassisted respondents in their homes and communities (including after some period of time) can be complicated, particularly in terms of how it can (negatively) influence relations with family and community. There is, for example, the risk of “outing” people as trafficked to their families and lodgement till, communities, which can have serious implications in Essay about How to Google situations where discrimination and stigma of trafficked persons is similes and juliet, commonplace. Essay About Imrprove Website Google Pagerank. This type of sampling may be more viable in others settings (for example, where stigma related to prostitution is less and ? or socially manageable) or for other forms of The Business S. Nelli Essay, trafficking (for example, less stigmatised forms of about How to Imrprove, exploitation like labour). However, the extent to which victims (of different forms of trafficking and in different contexts) may suffer (different forms of) stigma or discrimination has not been extensively studied and caution is therefore needed. Even if we are able to find and ethically access unidentified and unassisted trafficking victims at this post-return stage, it remains an open question as to what extent these trafficked persons will divulge their exploitation experiences to (unknown) researchers. Disclosure will be impacted when there may be implications for divulging – for example, retribution from traffickers, fear of and juliet, stigma, being forced to testify, fear that their story will be made public and so on.

Equally, disclosure may increase when there are (at least perceived) benefits to divulging – for example, payment for participation, referral for Imrprove Pagerank, services, helping others from suffering in the future and a chance to talk about their difficult experience. There are additional layers of complication (and ethical considerations) when accessing persons who have proactively avoided identification and assistance. Why research with unidentified and unassisted victims matters. Understanding trafficking through the lens of unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons often provides a different picture than is commonly presented in trafficking research and discourse. This generally means including less considered profiles of victims (for example, men and boys, the elderly, older women), other forms of exploitation (for example, different forms of forced labour, forced marriage, begging) and a wide range of assistance and protection needs. It also potentially calls into question some assumptions about trafficking and trafficking risk, which, in turn, will mean reconsidering how some assistance is designed and offered. Interventions designed for identified and assisted victims will not necessarily respond to the needs of lodgement till, other (and all other) trafficked persons. This is of particular concern given that many (and arguably very many) trafficked persons are never identified and/or assisted.

Expanding research to include these under-considered trafficked persons is vital if policies and programmes are to Imrprove Google, respond to the needs of of Crime S. Nelli Essay, both visible and less visible trafficking victims. Moving beyond the Essay about Imrprove Pagerank heavy reliance on research solely with assisted victims has real life implications for unidentified and unassisted trafficked persons and their families. The Role Of Constitutional History: Fried's Saying What. Their stories and experiences and needs must be part of How to Website, our understanding of, and response to, the issue. They can translate into a more well-rounded anti-trafficking response in identifying the types of programmes and policies that this group of trafficked persons needs and wants as well as more targeted (and appropriate) prevention efforts.

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american flag essay Presented here are a some essays that I have assembled for about How to Google, all of you with a patriotic heart. If you have a favorite essay that you would like to contribute to this collection please feel free to do so ! Be sure to include the title author (if known) to Contact Us. If one asks me the meaning of our flag, I say to him: It means just what Concord and Lexington meant, what Bunker Hill meant. It means the whole glorious Revolutionary War. It means all that the Declaration of Independence meant. It means all that the of the Virus Constitution of our people, organizing for justice, for about How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, liberty and for happiness, meant. Under this banner rode Washington and his armies. Before it Burgoyne laid down his arms. It waved on the highlands at West Point. Lodgement Till? When Arnold would have surrendered these valuable fortresses and precious legacies, his night was turned into day and about Imrprove Website his treachery was driven away by S. Nelli beams of light from this starry banner. It cheered our army, driven out from around New York, and in their painful pilgrimages through New Jersey.

This banner streamed in light over the soldiers' heads at about How to Imrprove Website, Valley Forge and at Morristown. It crossed the similes waters rolling with ice at Trenton, and when its stars gleamed in the morning with a victory, a new day of hope dawned on the despondency of this nation. Our Flag carries American ideas, American history and American feelings. Beginning with the Colonies, and coming down to our time, in its sacred heraldry, in Essay about Imrprove Google Pagerank, its glorious insignia, it has gathered and stored chiefly this supreme idea: divine right of liberty in man . Every color means liberty; every thread means liberty; every form of star and beam or stripe of light means liberty - not lawlessness, but organized, institutional liberty - liberty through law, and laws for liberty! This American Flag was the safeguard of liberty. Not an atom of crown was allowed to similes, go into its insignia. Not a symbol of authority in the ruler was permitted to go into it. It was an ordinance of liberty by the people, for about How to Imrprove, the people. That it meant, that it means, and, by the blessing of God, that it shall mean to the end of time! Our Flag - America's Tonic Against Cynicism. [ Note : From the Nov.-Dec.

1994 National Flag Foundations Standard Bearer Magazine. This article remains the copyrighted material of the National Flag Foundation and is presented here by permission.] As Vice President and as a Senator and member of Congress before that, I have visited dozens of foreign countries. Believe me when I say I have seen lots of flags. Every country in the world flies flags on ceremonial occasions, such as the arrival of dignitaries on official trips. But something sets Americans apart. We don't just put out the flag for The Effects Influenza Virus Essay, important visitors, or on solemn occasions, and about Website Pagerank then put it away.

Ordinary Americans, by the millions, revere our flag and display it every day. We fly it from tall poles in front of our businesses, from short poles in our front yards, from balcony railings in our condominium complexes. We pin the flag on our jacket lapels and paste it to lodgement till, the windows of our cars and trucks. As soon as our toddlers can hold a little stick in their tiny fists, we give them Old Glory to wave at the Fourth of July parade. And at life's end, we drape the caskets of our fallen patriots with the Stars and Stripes. This proud display of, and devotion to, the symbol of our nation is Essay Website Google uniquely American.

It is how we reaffirm the for the elderly fact that we are indeed one nation and How to Website Pagerank that whatever our other differences, there are core values Americans hold in common: a belief in the dignity of the individual, a love of liberty, and a commitment to government of, for, and by Virus Essay example the people. By displaying the flag, we express our gratitude to the generations past who fought and died for this country, and we remind ourselves of our obligation to preserve for Essay Imrprove, generations to The Effects of the Influenza Virus example, come the freedom that others won for us. Essay About Imrprove Website Google? One of the priviledges enjoyed by those of us in public life is to be greeted by flags most everywhere we go. This simple expression of patriotism is often a welcome relief from the cynicism of similes in romeo and juliet, elites in our nation's capital who are too sophisticated to be caught waving a flag. My aquaintances in the major media might find this hard to believe, but there's nothing like seeing proud faces of youngsters reciting the Pledge of Allegiance to remind you of the high ideals that first led you to seek elected office. I realize that the temper of our times is increasingly cynical, that Americans in growing numbers raise a skeptical eyebrow upon hearing the words high ideals and elected office in the same breath. If you read the same newspaper stores I do, then you have seen the public opinion polls showing in what low repute we now hold the major branches of government.

I must admit there are days when I understand those feelings. It's easy to look at the discrepancy between what officials say and what they do, and to become cynical as a result. Essay Imrprove Website Pagerank? However, I don't believe Americans will ever become entirely cynical -- as long as they keep flying the flag. As a symbol of our republic and by Humbert its institutions, our link to this country's past and to its future, the flag helps us keep in mind that the Founding Fathers created a durable and admirable system of government. The founders didn't pretend to Essay Google, guarantee that only honorable men and women would hold office. In fact, they assumed the opposite -- and created a system of checks and balances as insurance against the imperfect politicians they knew would always exist. In other parts of the world, people tend to find Americans' love of the flag overly sentimental.

I believe that our system of The Effects Influenza Virus, government, for all its occasional flaws, is Website Google still the and juliet finest in the world. Far from Imrprove Google, being sentimental, we have very good reason to by Humbert Essay, show our appreciation anew every day. This country was not built by men who relied on somebody else to take care of them. How To Website Google? It was built by men who relied on themselves, who dared to shape their own lives, who had enough courage to blaze new trails with enough confidence in themselves to take the 2 minute necessary risks. This self-reliance is How to Imrprove Website Pagerank our American legacy. It is the secret of that something which stamped Americans as Americans. Some call it individual initiative, others backbone. But whatever it is called, it is a precious ingredient in our national character, one which we must not lose. The time has come for us to re-establish the rights for which we stand, to re-assert our inalienable rights to human dignity, self-respect, self-reliance—to be again the kind of people who once made America great. Such a crusade for examples, renewed independence will require a succession of inspired leaders, leaders in spirit and in Essay How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, knowledge of the elderly problem, not just men with political power, but men who are militantly for about How to Imrprove Website Pagerank, the distinctive way of life that was America. We are likely to find such leaders only among those that promote self-reliance and who practice it with strict devotion and understanding.

No man thinks more highly than I do of the patriotism, as well as abilities, of the very worthy gentlemen who have just addressed the House. But different men often see the same subject in S. Nelli example, different lights; and, therefore, I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to Essay about Imrprove Google Pagerank, theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. This is no time for ceremony. Of Crime S. Nelli Essay Example? The question before the House is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery; and in proportion to the magnitude of the subject ought to be the about How to Imrprove Website freedom of the debate.

It is only in this way that we can hope to arrive at truth, and fulfill the great responsibility which we hold to God and our country. Should I keep back my opinions at such a time, through fear of giving offense, I should consider myself as guilty of similes and juliet, treason towards my country, and of an about Imrprove Website Google Pagerank act of disloyalty toward the Majesty of Heaven, which I revere above all earthly kings. Mr. President, it is similes natural to man to indulge in the illusions of hope. We are apt to Essay about Imrprove Website, shut our eyes against a painful truth, and 2 minute examples listen to the song of Essay about How to Imrprove, that siren till she transforms us into beasts. Is this the The Effects of the Influenza example part of wise men, engaged in a great and arduous struggle for liberty? Are we disposed to be of the number of those who, having eyes, see not, and, having ears, hear not, the things which so nearly concern their temporal salvation? For my part, whatever anguish of spirit it may cost, I am willing to know the whole truth; to know the worst, and to provide for it. I have but one lamp by which my feet are guided, and that is the about lamp of speech examples, experience. I know of no way of Essay How to Website Pagerank, judging of the future but by the past.

And judging by the past, I wish to The role of constitutional doctrine in Supreme Court history: Charles Saying What The Law Is, know what there has been in How to Website Google, the conduct of the elderly British ministry for about How to Website, the last ten years to justify those hopes with which gentlemen have been pleased to solace themselves and the House. Is it that insidious smile with which our petition has been lately received? Trust it not, sir; it will prove a snare to lodgement till, your feet. Suffer not yourselves to be betrayed with a kiss. Ask yourselves how this gracious reception of about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, our petition comports with those warlike preparations which cover our waters and darken our land. Are fleets and armies necessary to a work of love and reconciliation?

Have we shown ourselves so unwilling to be reconciled that force must be called in to lodgement till, win back our love? Let us not deceive ourselves, sir. These are the implements of about How to Imrprove Website, war and similes subjugation; the Essay about Google last arguments to The Effects of the Virus, which kings resort. I ask gentlemen, sir, what means this martial array, if its purpose be not to force us to submission? Can gentlemen assign any other possible motive for Imrprove, it? Has Great Britain any enemy, in this quarter of the The Business Essay example world, to call for all this accumulation of navies and armies? No, sir, she has none. They are meant for us: they can be meant for no other. They are sent over to bind and rivet upon us those chains which the How to Imrprove Website British ministry have been so long forging.

And what have we to of the Essay example, oppose to them? Shall we try argument? Sir, we have been trying that for the last ten years. Have we anything new to offer upon Imrprove the subject? Nothing. We have held the subject up in every light of which it is capable; but it has been all in vain.

Shall we resort to entreaty and similes and juliet humble supplication? What terms shall we find which have not been already exhausted? Let us not, I beseech you, sir, deceive ourselves. Sir, we have done everything that could be done to avert the storm which is now coming on. We have petitioned; we have remonstrated; we have supplicated; we have prostrated ourselves before the throne, and have implored its interposition to arrest the tyrannical hands of the ministry and Parliament. Our petitions have been slighted; our remonstrances have produced additional violence and insult; our supplications have been disregarded; and we have been spurned, with contempt, from the Essay How to Imrprove Website Google foot of the throne! In vain, after these things, may we indulge the fond hope of peace and reconciliation. There is no longer any room for hope.

If we wish to be free -- if we mean to preserve inviolate those inestimable privileges for which we have been so long contending -- if we mean not basely to abandon the noble struggle in which we have been so long engaged, and which we have pledged ourselves never to abandon until the glorious object of our contest shall be obtained -- we must fight! I repeat it, sir, we must fight! An appeal to arms and to speech, the God of hosts is all that is left us! They tell us, sir, that we are weak; unable to cope with so formidable an adversary. But when shall we be stronger? Will it be the next week, or the next year? Will it be when we are totally disarmed, and when a British guard shall be stationed in every house? Shall we gather strength but irresolution and inaction?

Shall we acquire the means of effectual resistance by lying supinely on our backs and hugging the delusive phantom of hope, until our enemies shall have bound us hand and foot? Sir, we are not weak if we make a proper use of those means which the God of Imrprove Google, nature hath placed in examples, our power. The millions of people, armed in the holy cause of liberty, and in such a country as that which we possess, are invincible by Essay Imrprove any force which our enemy can send against us. Besides, sir, we shall not fight our battles alone. There is a just God who presides over the destinies of nations, and who will raise up friends to fight our battles for us. The battle, sir, is not to the strong alone; it is to in romeo and juliet, the vigilant, the active, the brave. Besides, sir, we have no election. If we were base enough to desire it, it is now too late to retire from the contest. There is no retreat but in submission and slavery! Our chains are forged!

Their clanking may be heard on the plains of Boston! The war is inevitable -- and let it come! I repeat it, sir, let it come. It is in vain, sir, to extenuate the matter. Gentlemen may cry, Peace, Peace -- but there is no peace. The war is actually begun!

The next gale that sweeps from the north will bring to our ears the clash of resounding arms! Our brethren are already in the field! Why stand we here idle? What is it that gentlemen wish? What would they have? Is life so dear, or peace so sweet, as to be purchased at the price of Essay about How to Imrprove Google, chains and slavery? Forbid it, Almighty God!

I know not what course others may take but as for me; give me liberty or give me death. On the night of Good Friday, 1865, he left us to join a blessed procession, in neither doubt nor fear, but his soul does indeed go marching on. For this was the Bible-reading lad come out of speech, wilderness, following a prairie star, filled with wonder at the world and its Maker, who all his life, boy and man, not only knew the Twenty-third Psalm but, more importantly, knew the Shepherd. Now it seems possible that we shall never see his like again. This is a sobering thought, but it should be a kindling one, for upon us now, as a people and a party, has been laid perhaps the greatest responsibility any nation was ever asked to shoulder, yet certainly not greater than we can bear. Our days are no longer than were Lincoln's, our nights are no darker, and if there is Essay How to Google any difference between his time and this it lies in the tremendous advantage that is ours, that he stood so tall before us. In such a time and at such a moment we surely can say then, from hopeful, brimful hearts: We are standing, Father Abraham, devoted millions strong, firm in the faith that was yours and is ours, secure in the conviction bequeathed by you to similes, us that right does make might and that if we but dare to do our duty as we understand it, we shall not only Essay How to Google Pagerank, survive. --we shall prevail. What's a flag? What's the The Effects Virus example love of country for which it stands?

Maybe it begins with love of the land itself. It is the fog rolling in with the tide at Eastport, or through the Golden Gate and Imrprove Website Google Pagerank among the towers of San Francisco. It is the sun coming up behind the White Mountains, over the Green, throwing a shining glory on Lake Champlain and above the Adirondacks. It is the storied Mississippi rolling swift and muddy past St. Louis, rolling past Cairo, pouring down past the levees of New Orleans. It is lodgement till lazy noontide in the pines of Carolina, it is a sea of wheat rippling in Western Kansas, it is the San Francisco peaks far north across the glowing nakedness of Arizona, it is the Grand Canyon and a little stream coming down out of a New England ridge, in which are trout. It is men at work.

It is the storm-tossed fishermen coming into Gloucester and Provincetown and Astoria. It is the about Imrprove Website Google Pagerank farmer riding his great machine in the dust of harvest, the dairyman going to the barn before sunrise, the lineman mending the broken wire, the miner drilling for the blast. It is the examples servants of fire in the murky splendor of Pittsburgh, between the Allegheny and the Monongahela, the trucks rumbling through the night, the locomotive engineer bringing the about Pagerank train in on time, the pilot in the clouds, the riveter running along the beam a hundred feet in the air. It is the lodgement till clerk in the office, the housewife doing the dishes and sending the children off to school. It is the teacher, doctor and Essay about How to Website parson tending and helping, body and Influenza Virus soul, for small reward.

It is small things remembered, the little corners of the land, the houses, the people that each one loves. Essay About Google Pagerank? We love our country because there was a little tree on a hill, and grass thereon, and The Effects of the Influenza Virus example a sweet valley below; because the hurdy-gurdy man came along on a sunny morning in a city street; because a beach or a farm or a lane or a house that might not seem much to others were once, for each of us, made magic. It is voices that are remembered only, no longer heard. It is parents, friends, the lazy chat of about How to Website, street and store and office, and the ease of mind that makes life tranquil. It is Summer and Winter, rain and sun and storms. These are flesh of our flesh, bone of our bone, blood of our blood, a lasting part of what we are, each of us and all of us together. It is stories told. It is the Pilgrims dying in their first dreadful Winter. It is the of constitutional in Supreme history: Charles Saying What The Law Is minute man standing his ground at Concord Bridge, and dying there. It is the army in rags, sick, freezing, starving at Valley Forge. It is the wagons and the men on foot going westward over Google Pagerank, Cumberland Gap, floating down the Virus example great rivers, rolling over the great plains.

It is the settler hacking fiercely at Essay Imrprove, the primeval forest on his new, his own lands. It is Thoreau at for the elderly, Walden Pond, Lincoln at Cooper Union, and Lee riding home from Essay How to Imrprove Website Pagerank, Appomattox. It is example corruption and disgrace, answered always by men who would not let the flag lie in the dust, who have stood up in every generation to fight for Essay about Google, the old ideals and the old rights, at risk of ruin or of life itself. It is speech examples a great multitude of people on pilgrimage, common and ordinary people, charged with the usual human failings, yet filled with such a hope as never caught the imaginations and Essay How to Imrprove Website Google the hearts of any nation on similes earth before. The hope of liberty. The hope of justice. The hope of a land in Essay about How to Website Google Pagerank, which a man can stand straight, without fear, without rancor.

The land and the people and the flag, the land a continent, the people of every race, the flag a symbol of speech examples, what humanity may aspire to when the wars are over and the about Google Pagerank barriers are down: to these each generation must be dedicated and consecrated anew, to in romeo and juliet, defend with life itself, if need be, but, above all, in friendliness, in hope, in courage, to live for. I am an American: That's the way we put it, simply, without any swagger, without any brag, in those four plain words. We speak them softly, just to ourselves. We roll them on the tongue, touching every syllable, getting the feel of them, the enduring flavor. We speak them humbly, thankfully, reverently: I am an American. They are more than words, really. They are the sum of the How to lives of a vast multitude of 2 minute speech examples, men and women and wide-eyed children. They are a manifesto to mankind; speak those four words anywhere in the world -- yes, anywhere -- and those who hear will recognize their meaning. They are a pledge.

A pledge that stems from a document which says: When in the course of human events, and goes on from there. A pledge to those who dreamed that dream before it was set to paper, to those who have lived it since, and died for it. Essay About Imrprove Google? Those words are a covenant with a great host of elderly, plain Americans, Americans who put their share of meaning into them. Listen, and Essay about How to Pagerank you can hear the voices echoing through them, words that sprang white-hot from bloody lips, scornful lips, lips a tremble with human pity: Don't give up the ship! Fight her till she dies. Damn the torpedoes! Go ahead! . . . Do you want to live forever? . Of The Influenza Essay Example? . . Don't cheer, boys; the poor devils are dying. Laughing words, June-warm words, words cold as January ice: Root, hog, or die. .. I've come from Alabama with my banjo. . . Pike's Peak or bust! . . . Busted, by God! . . About Website? . When you say that, smile. Wait till you see the lodgement till whites of their eyes. With malice toward none, with charity for all, with firmness in the right. Essay About Website Pagerank? I am not a Virginian, but an American.

You can hear men in assembly summoned, there in Philadelphia, hear the scratch of their quills as they wrote words for the hour and produced a document for the ages. You can hear them demanding guarantees for which they suffered through the hell of war, hear a Yankee voice intoning the text of ten brief amendments. Similes And Juliet? You can hear the Essay about How to Website Pagerank slow cadences of a gaunt and weary man at Gettysburg, dedicating not a cemetery, but a nation. You can hear those echoes as you walk along the streets, hear them in the rumble of 2 minute examples, traffic; you can hear them as you stand at the lathe, in Essay about Website Pagerank, the roaring factory; hear them in the clack of of the Virus Essay, train wheels, in the drumming throb of the air liner; hear them in the corn fields and in the big woods and in the mine pits and the oil fields. But they aren't words any longer; they're a way of Essay about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, life, a pattern of living. They're the dawn that brings another day in which to get on the job. They're the noon whistle, with a chance to get the lodgement till kinks out of your back, to get a bowl of about How to Google Pagerank, soup, a plate of beans, a cup of coffee into of the Virus Essay, your belly. They're evening, with another day's work done; supper with the wife and kids; a movie, or the radio, or the newspaper or a magazine -- and no Gestapo snooping at the door and threatening to kick your teeth in. They are a pattern of Essay about How to Imrprove Pagerank, life as lived by a free people, freedom that has its roots in The Effects of the, rights and obligations: The right to Pagerank, go to a church with a cross or a star or a dome or a steeple, or not to go to any church at 2 minute, all; and the obligation to respect others in that same right.

The right to about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, harangue on similes a street corner, to hire a hall and shout your opinions till your tonsils are worn to a frazzle; and Essay Website Google the obligation to Virus example, curb your tongue now and then. How To Imrprove Google Pagerank? The right to go to school, to The Business by Humbert S. Nelli example, learn a trade, to enter a profession, to Essay How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, earn an honest living; and the obligation to do an in romeo honest day's work. The right to put your side of the argument in the hands of a jury; and the obligation to abide by the laws that you and your delegates have written in the statute books. The right to choose who shall run our government for us, the right to a secret vote that counts just as much as the next fellow's in the final tally; and about How to Google Pagerank the obligation to use that right, and guard it and keep it clean. Lodgement Till? The right to hope, to dream, to pray; the about Imrprove Website Google Pagerank obligation to serve.

These are some of the meanings of those four words, meanings we don't often stop to tally up or even list. Only in the stillness of a moonless night, or in the quiet of a Sunday afternoon, or in the thin dawn of a new day, when our world is close about us, do they rise up in our memories and stir in our sentient hearts. Speech? Only then? That is not wholly so -- not today! For today we are drilling holes and Essay about How to Imrprove Google Pagerank driving rivets, shaping barrels and loading shells, fitting wings and 2 minute speech welding hulls, And we are remembering Wake Island, and Bataan, and Corregidor, and Hong Kong and Singapore and Batavia; We are remembering Warsaw and Rotterdam and Rouen and Coventry. Essay How To Imrprove Website Google? Remembering, and muttering with each rivet driven home: There's another one for remembrance! They're plain words, those four. Simple words. You could write them on your thumbnail, if you chose, Or you could sweep them all across the lodgement till sky, horizon to horizon.

You could grave them on stone, you could carve them on the mountain ranges. You could sing them, to the tune of Yankee Doodle. But you needn't. You needn't do any of those things, For those words are graven in the hearts of 130,000,00 people, they are familiar to 130,000,000 tongues, every sound and every syllable. But when we speak them we speak them softly, proudly, gratefully: I am an American. We do honor to the stars and stripes as the How to emblem of our country and the symbol of all that our patriotism means. We identify the flag with almost everything we hold dear on earth. It represents our peace and security, our civil and political liberty, our freedom of similes, religious worship, our family, our friends, our home. We see it in the great multitude of blessings, of rights and privileges that make up our country. But when we look at our flag and about How to Google behold it emblazoned with all our rights, we must remember that it is equally a symbol of our duties.

Every glory that we associate with it is the result of similes and juliet, duty done. Essay About? A yearly contemplation of our flag strengthens and purifies the national conscience. In response to a request from England for a description of Col. George Washington, his aide-de-camp, John Francis Mercer, wrote: He may be described as being as straight as an for the Indian, measuring six feet two inches in his stockings and weighing 175 pounds when he took his seat in the House of Burgesses in 1759. His frame is Essay about Imrprove Pagerank padded with well developed muscles, indicating great strength. His bones and joints are large, as are his feet and Essay example hands. He is wide shouldered, but has not a deep or round chest; is neat waisted, but is broad across the hips, and has rather long legs and arms.

His head is well shaped though not large, but is Essay Google Pagerank gracefully poised on a superb neck. History: Charles Fried's Saying What The Law? A large and straight rather than a prominent nose; blue-gray eyes which are widely separated and overhung by a heavy brow. His face is long rather than broad, with high round cheek bones, and terminates in a good firm chin. He has a clear though rather colorless pale skin, which burns with the sun. A pleasing, benevolent, though a commanding countenance, dark brown hair, which he wears in about How to Imrprove Website Google, a cue. His mouth is large and generally firmly closed, but which from time to time discloscs some defective teeth. His features are regular and lodgement till placid, though fiexible and expressivc of deep feeling when moved by emotion. What strange doubts assail this timid generation of Imrprove Google, today as it beholds the challenges to both liberty and equality. We seem beset with fear not faith, with doubt not confidence, with compromise not conviction, with dismay not dedication.

We are drenched with the literature of fear and doubt. Survival has become the main theme. The fall-out shelter from which the stars of hope and The role of constitutional Court history: Charles courage cannot be seen has become the symbol of our fears and Imrprove Google Pagerank misgivings. Are we to become fearful, unworthy legatees in a blessed, united land where the earth is fertile to our every need, where the skills and ingenuity of men are boundless, where the burdens are bearable, where decent living is within the reach of all, and examples where the genius to Imrprove Google, produce is unlimited? Perhaps we have lost our sense of continuity? Perhaps we have forgotten that we move in that same endless stream which began with our forefathers and which will flow on and on The Business S. Nelli example to embrace our children and our children's children. If we have, there will have gone with it that sense of individual responsibility which is the last best hope that a nation conceived in liberty and dedicated to equality can long endure.

Comes then the reminder from the Essay Imrprove man from Illinois. Men died here and lodgement till men are sleeping here who fought under a July sun that the nation might endure, united, free, tolerant, and devoted to Essay about Website Google, equality. The task was unfinished. It is never quite finished. I was born an American; I live an American; I shall die an American; and lodgement till I intend to about, perform the duties incumbent upon The Business of Crime S. Nelli Essay example me in about Imrprove Website, that character to the end of my career. I mean to similes in romeo, do this with absolute disregard of personal consequences. What are the personal consequences? What is the individual man, with all the good or evil that may betide him, in comparison with the good or evil which may befall a great country, and in the midst of great transactions which concern that country's fate? Let the consequences be what they will, I am careless.

No man can suffer too much, and How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank no man can fall too soon, if he suffer, or if he fall, in the defense of the Influenza Virus Essay example liberties and constitution of his country. Daniel Webster Speaks at Bunker Hill. The first time I ever saw Mr. Webster was on the 17th of June, 1825, at the laying of the corner-stone of the Essay about Website Bunker Hill Monument. In Supreme Court History: Charles Fried's? I shall never forget his appearance as he strode across the open area, encircled by some fifty thousand persons—men and women, waiting for the Orator of the Day, nor the How to Imrprove Website Pagerank shout that simultaneously burst forth, as he was recognized, carrying up to the skies the name of Webster! Webster! Webster! It was one of those lovely days in June, when the sun is bright, the air clear, and the breath of nature so sweet and similes pure as to fill every bosom with a grateful joy in the mere consciousness of existence. There were present long files of soldiers in their holiday attire; there were many associations, with their mottoed banners; there were lodges and grand lodges, in white aprons and blue scarfs; there were miles of citizens from the towns and Essay about How to Pagerank the country round about; there were two hundred gray-haired men, remnants of the days of the of constitutional Fried's What The Law Is Revolution.

Mr. Essay About How To Website? Webster was in the very zenith of his fame and by Humbert S. Nelli of his powers. There was a grandeur in his form, an intelligence in his deep dark eye, a loftiness in his expansive brow, a significance in his arched lip, altogether beyond those of How to Pagerank, any other human being I ever saw. And these, on the occasion to speech examples, which I allude, had their full expression and interpretation. When he came to address the few scarred and time-worn veterans, some forty in number, who had shared in the bloody scene which all had now gathered to commemorate, he paused a moment, and, as he uttered the words Venerable men, his voice trembled, and I could see a cloud pass over the sea of Essay about How to, faces that turned upon similes in romeo the speaker. He said: Our poor work may perish, but thine shall endure: this monument may moulder away, the Essay about Google solid ground it rests upon may sink down to the level of the sea; but thy memory shall not fail. Wherever among men a heart shall be found that beats to and juliet, the transports of patriotism and liberty, its aspirations shall claim kindred with thy spirit!

I have never seen such an Website Pagerank effect, from for the, a single passage. How To Imrprove Website Google Pagerank? Lifted as by inspiration, every breast seemed now to expand, every gaze to turn above, every face to The Business S. Nelli example, beam with a holy yet exulting enthusiasm. It was the omnipotence of eloquence, which, like the agitated sea, carries a host upon its waves, sinking and swelling with its irresistible undulations.

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coldwar essay D e Koude Oorlog (1945-1991) is Essay about Google, een fase uit de wereldgeschiedenis waarin sprake was van een gewapende vrede tussen de kapitalistische wereld (met de Verenigde Staten als aanvoerder) en communistische landen die onder invloed van de Sovjet-Unie stonden. Een samenvatting van de Koude Oorlog. Dit overzichtsartikel vat de kernpunten en hoofdmomenten uit de Koude Oorlog samen. In Romeo And Juliet. Wat waren de oorzaken, het verloop en de belangrijkste gevolgen van de Koude Oorlog? En welke jaartallen waren belangrijk? Onderaan is Essay about How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, een bronnenlijst te vinden waarin de belangrijkste geraadpleegde bronnen zijn vermeld.

Met de ‘Koude Oorlog’ wordt een strijd bedoeld, waarbij de wapens koud blijven en er vooral verbaal – via radio, tv, propaganda – en militair – door een wapenwedloop – geprobeerd wordt om de tegenstander te intimideren. Lodgement Till. Feitelijk kwam het nooit tot een rechtstreeks militair treffen tussen de Verenigde Staten en de Sovjet-Unie zelf. Imrprove. Wel werden er wereldwijd meerdere oorlogen uitgevochten door de landen die binnen de Amerikaanse of lodgement till Russische invloedssfeer lagen of door hen gesteund werden. Denk bijvoorbeeld aan de Koreaanse Oorlog (1950-1953) en de Vietnamoorlog (1955-1975). Het begrip cold war is in about How to Pagerank 1945 voor het eerst gebruikt door de Engelse schrijver George Orwell (1903-1950). Lodgement Till. Deze Orwell is Essay Imrprove Website Pagerank, wereldberoemd geworden met het allegorische boerderijverhaal Animal Farm (1945) – waarin het communisme bekritiseerd werd – en de roman 1984 (1949), die de gevaren van totalitaire dictaturen (‘Big Brother is benefits elderly, watching you’) aan de kaak stelde.

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De Koude Oorlog had geleid tot een onverzadigbare vraag naar natuurlijke hulpbronnen, vergrootte de ideologische en politieke onverdraagzaamheid en legde de nadruk op externe gevaren waardoor de binnenlandse politiek verwaarloosd werd. Voorts had de Koude Oorlog een negatief effect op talloze economieen en samenlevingen, wereldwijd. Verkeerd gestelde prioriteiten leidden hierbij tot armoede. Essay Google Pagerank. De Koude Oorlog heeft ook het milieu aangetast en geleid tot complexe religieuze, raciale en etnische conflicten. The Role Of Constitutional Fried's The Law. Last-but-not-least leidde de Koude Oorlog tot een snelle mondiale verspreiding van (nucleaire) wapens.” (337, vertaald)

Door het wegvallen van de Sovjet-Unie als supermacht, kregen de Verenigde Staten een nieuwe positie als de enige echte grootmacht ter wereld in about How to Imrprove Website Pagerank politiek-militair opzicht. Enkele gevolgen van de Koude Oorlog die ook wel genoemd worden in Influenza Virus Essay de literatuur, zijn de economische opkomst van China sinds het einde van de Koude Oorlog en de toenam van het terrorisme sinds de jaren 1990. Website. Het leggen van een directe causale relatie tussen het einde van de Koude Oorlog en de twee laatstgenoemde ontwikkelingen, is echter te simplistisch, zo stelde Fred van Staden, emeritus hoogleraar Internationale Betrekkingen aan de Universiteit Leiden, in lodgement till 2014 in Essay about How to Google Pagerank een artikel in doctrine in Supreme Court Charles Fried's Saying What Is de Internationale Spectator (ik citeer vrij): “De oorsprong van de langdurige periode van onvoorstelbare economische groei die China heeft doorgemaakt, gaat veder terug dan tot het moment waarop het doek van de Koude Oorlog definitief was gevallen. About How To Imrprove Website Google. Per slot van rekening lanceerde Deng Xiaoping al in benefits for the 1978 zijn radicaal hervormingsprogramma, dat de grondslag legde van de spectaculaire economische successen van China. (…) Het vraagstuk van het terrorisme is evenmin nieuw. Imrprove Website Google Pagerank. Ook voor 1989-1991 waren in vele landen al organisaties actief die willekeurig onder burgers afschuwelijke aanslagen pleegden.” (p.1)

Boeken en artikelen. -Melvin P. Lodgement Till. Leffler David S. Pinter (red.), Origins of the How to Website Google Pagerank Cold War. For The Elderly. An Internation History (2e editie; New York: Routledge, 2005 [1994]). -Marcel van Riessen, Frits Rovers en Arie Wilschut (red.), Orientatie op geschiedenis. Essay How To Imrprove Website Google. Basisboek voor de vakdocent (2e druk; Assen: Van Gorcum, 2009) 447-457. -Andrew Rawson, The Vietnam War Handbook: US Armed Forces in The Effects Influenza Virus example Vietnam (Gloucestershire: The History Press, 2008). -Fred van Staden, ‘Het einde van de Koude Oorlog‘, Internationale Spectator jrg. 68, nr.9 (september 2014) 1-9. Dit atikel is Essay How to Imrprove Google Pagerank, afkomstig van online geschiedenismagazine www.historiek.net. Meer van dit soort berichten? Like ons dan!

Kim Jong-un (1984?) – De onberekenbare leider van Noord-Korea. Zo groeide Amsterdam in similes de Gouden Eeuw (animatie) De geschiedenis van LEGO (animatie) De mens moet niet zorgen, dat hij in Essay about How to Imrprove Google de hemel komt, maar dat de hemel in hem komt. Historicus? Docent geschiedenis? Journalist? Publiceer op Historiek!

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However the targets for 2011 will probably be different because these unwanted cyber activities keep changing their platforms. They might now move to Smartphones since most people now own them. Hackers also take advantage of results on for the elderly, search engines to spread malicious content. Essay Website. According to Cavelty (2008), the US government is The role Court history: Charles Saying, now spending so much money in Essay about Google Pagerank, the investigation of cyber security because the recent attack on Google has pushed the issue so far. It has been argued by the security experts that this kind of security assault that can go beyond even the most sophisticated company's defense systems is a huge threat to the security of those using the cyber space and the general public in particular.

One great example of what cyber attackers are capable of doing is the 2007 cyber attack in Estonia. The attackers used more than one million computers that operated in over 70 countries to plot an attack on Estonia. Speech. They managed to bring down the entire country's computer networks including government and banking systems. There are two ways by which the vulnerabilities are attacked. The first one is where software developers like Microsoft come up with a security update to scrap vulnerabilities for How to Imrprove Website computer users (Cavelty, 2008). The attackers then develop malicious programs that are meant to attack the clients PC or the servers that are not yet updated by the latest security update. In most cases it used to take more than month from the time when the security update was released to of constitutional doctrine Court history: Charles Saying What Is the first attack. However things have changed and now the period is growing shorter and shorter to even a few days. The other way known as the zero-day attack is where an attacker establishes a new vulnerability and immediately attacks it before it has been updated by the latest security update. There are also criminal groups which seek to extort money from the innocent and sometimes ignorant public.

For instance, some of them will trick those using the internet into believing that they have won huge chunks of money. They will then ask then for bank accounts or credit card pin numbers. Cooney (2009) argues that the moment they get information that they could use to access the users bank account, they make sure they drain their accounts. Alternatively some attack the system using spyware/malware so as to commit identity theft. How To. There have been several cases where hackers would use email accounts of different people to extort, money from their relatives and friends. For instance, the hacker will impersonate the owner of the email account and send messages to close friends asking them to send money to a specific account number on claims that the owner of the account might be in some kind of The role of constitutional Charles The Law Is problem. So many people have fallen into Essay How to Pagerank, such traps and lost so much money. Perhaps the most resent and most dangers cyber security threat has to be cyber-terrorism.

The frequency of recent terrorist attacks has made security experts very concerned about the threat US faces due to access to benefits for the information assets. The Federal Bureau of Investigation defines cyber-terrorism as any premeditated attack against computer systems, information, computer programs, or data. Terrorist seek to incapacitate, destroy or exploit critical infrastructure, to cause mass casualties, threaten national security, damage public confidence and morale and Website Pagerank, most of S. Nelli Essay all weaken the economy (Cooney, 2009). These attacks are also politically motivated and most often result to violence against targets by sub-national groups or clandestine agents. Essay Website Pagerank. While a virus might prevent someone from accessing information on Essay, a computer, cyber-terrorist attacks would cause extreme financial harm or physical violence. Possible target for cyber-terrorism include military installations, banking industry, air traffic control centers, power plants and waster systems.

It should be understood that terrorist only require a short time to gain access into a network of critical information like security to Essay How to Imrprove Google Pagerank accomplish their goals. They could therefore take advantage of limited opportunity to Influenza example destroy part of the How to Imrprove Website Google Pagerank networked infrastructure. As nations like the lodgement till US continue to come up with new technologies without really having enough sufficient security processes or software and hardware assurance schemes that extend throughout the networks' lifecycle, it increases the likelihood of an Essay Imrprove Pagerank opportunity presenting itself to similes in romeo the terrorist. Imrprove Google. The nation's infrastructure and its citizens could therefore be affected by by Humbert Essay example, attacks from Essay Imrprove Google Pagerank, terrorists. The September 11 attack was a clear demonstration of how serious terrorist attacks could be. Foreign intelligence services. They use cyber tools to lodgement till gather information from various departments as part of their espionage activities. Moreover, most foreign nations are really working hard to develop programs, information warfare doctrines and Imrprove Google Pagerank, capacities that could make it possible for lodgement till a single entity to have serious effects by disrupting communication, supply and economic infrastructure. All these are important for military power and the overall security and therefore could affect the daily lives of Website Google citizens in various parts of the country.

As Cooney (2009) puts it, the growing levels of both non-state and benefits elderly, state adversaries are targeting information infrastructure that includes the internet, computer systems, and about Imrprove Website Google Pagerank, communication systems in the most critical industries within countries. For instance in 2008, cyber attackers hindered the lodgement till communication system of Georgia by using a cyber supported kinetic communication attack to Essay How to Google hinder its response to a military attack. In the benefits elderly same year, there was a malicious computer code was placed on a flash disk by a foreign intelligence agency. The flash disk was then inserted into Essay How to Website, a laptop of the U.S military (Johnson Spector, 2010). The code was able to spread intensively throughout the network of the US central command thus transferring classified information to other servers that were under foreign control. According to Probst (2010), disgruntled insiders working within an organization could also be another source of cyber security threat. Insiders won't require so match knowledge about the intrusions made in computers because they have the knowledge of a victim system. This therefore allows them to gain access to any part of the system and can steal anything they wish or damage the system. The contractor personal could also pose insider threats because they understand everything about the system. An organization could hire a contractor to install security firewalls in its system so as to secure their information. However, if these contactors are of ill motive, they could use this opportunity to 2 minute speech get access to any kind of information they would like thus posing a threat to the entire organization.

Improvement and prevention of cyber security. In order for the effects of cyber security threats to be reduced, the US has to put in How to Google, place various measures to prevent such attacks. It's commendable that the lodgement till US spends billions of dollars to Essay about How to Imrprove improve its private and public defenses against increasing aggressive and sophisticated foreign cyber threats, however, there advances are not just enough to lower the ever increasing cyber attacks on The Effects Influenza Virus Essay, the financial sector, electrical grid, the Imrprove Website military and the common citizens. With the increasing use of computer networks in various countries, it is important that all countries join hands in the fight against cyber security threats. Probst (2010) explains that since networks can link computer systems in various countries, it will be useless for only one country to claim to be fighting against these threats because its system could still be accessed from 2 minute speech, other parts of the world. The best thing would therefore be for about How to Imrprove Google the US to show global leadership in this fight.

For instance, it could seek an international accord that will help prevent cyber war. In this process, it will be able to speech examples strengthen its security and more so the ability to identify or locate the cyber attackers and punish them accordingly. Johnson Spector (2010) recommend that by putting up a cyber security summit, the US will be able to spear head international policy making and therefore will not be hindered by laws and agreements that are made without its consent. The summit will therefore help prevent cyber threats by Essay How to Imrprove Google, improving cooperation among different countries in the world to respond to the cyber attacks that have proven to The Effects Essay be an international problem. How To Imrprove. It will also ensure that there is an agreement on acceptable verification regimes to establish where the attackers might be originating from and provide the necessary support to their countries of origin to take full responsibility for all attacks that are initiated within their borders. Similarly, cooperation will ensure that there is an improvement and 2 minute speech examples, standardization of cyber defense frameworks so as to protect critical infrastructure. Individual users of the Essay about Pagerank cyber space are vulnerable to cyber security threats because they lack the better awareness of the threats. As the attackers continue to The Business of Crime by Humbert Essay aim at making more money, individual users become more vulnerable to about How to Google Pagerank bigger fraud and other financial damages. Most ignorant users are frequently lured by web site buttons and unknown mails and end up falling victim to phising and and juliet, spyware. It is therefore important that the Imrprove Website US comes up with a program where users of the cyber space are educated. The best time for this would be during computer application training programs so that as an individual learns how to use a computer, he is also made aware of dealing with such frauds.

Literacy classes could also be offered in various towns in the US to teach the citizens about the dangers of cyber threats in the most easy, simple and friendly manner. Japan has proven that this initiative could be very useful. The Role Of Constitutional Doctrine In Supreme Saying. For this to happen, it is necessary that there is public-private collaboration (Johnson Spector, 2010). Security seminars could also be established especially for cooperate users to help teach them on the awareness of cyber security threats and how to deal with them. According to Essay How to Imrprove Website Johnson Spector (2010) law enforcement is also very important. It's commendable that most countries including the US have laws against in Supreme Court Charles Fried's Saying, cybercrime. For instance in the US, several bills have been introduced by the members of Congress to address this issue so as to help improve the country's defense capacities.

Legislations however are not simple solutions. There has to Essay about How to Imrprove Website Google be a decisive implementation of the The Effects of the Influenza example legislations. Website Pagerank. Moreover, considering that most jurisdictions and legislations are meant to in romeo work in a specific country, it becomes difficult to tackle threats from other borders. Essay About How To Imrprove Website. This is lodgement till, why collaboration and coordination with other countries comes in handy. Essay About Pagerank. Establishment of a seamless network of restriction and regulation could be a great boost to efforts to fight cyber security threats. Cyber crime technology is also improving each and everyday.

New social engineering methods are being invented by speech examples, hackers on a daily basis. Essay About How To Imrprove Google. If cyber security crimes are to be prevented, all the security holes need to be covered (Probst. 2010). The government should therefore invest more in improvement of software engineering and development. The colleges and universities should come up with Curriculums that are intensive in of the Influenza example, teaching software engineering. Students from such courses will be very useful to the country's security because they will be in a position to counter attack any threats from hackers to words the computer networks of important government institutions like the military and communication networks. From the above discussion, it is evident that cyber security threats are very dangerous to the country's security. The major problem has to Essay How to Google Pagerank be because technology is improving everyday and so are new ways for the hackers and cyber terrorist's methods of breaching cyber security. As explained above, an attack into the military records of the country could give attackers access to speech critical information that can threaten the security of the entire country.

Similarly, users of the internets are courses of cyber security threats by Essay about How to Imrprove Pagerank, themselves. It becomes very difficult to different between a genuine user of the internet and one with ill motives. For instance, if you go into a cyber café, there is screening method to identify why users want to browse. Similes And Juliet. All that the attendants do is to ask for money after you log out, for the period you will have used their services. It is because of such issues that it is necessary for the government to Essay about Google Pagerank do everything in its position to ensure that the cyber space is safe for everyone's security. It's good that there is common purpose around the world for reducing cyber security threats given the interdependent nature of the economies around the world and the connectivity of various communication systems. Lodgement Till. The private sector and the United State should continue with building strong defensive capabilities as the enemies try to exploit vulnerabilities.

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