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robin morgan essay Excerpted from Fighting Words: A Toolkit for Combating the Religious Right by Robin Morgan. Copyright © 2006 by synopsis Robin Morgan. Published by Nation Books (September 28, 2006). Introduction by Robin Morgan: It Is Happening Here. Are you muttering to yourself a lot lately? Do you gnash your teeth, shout at your TV set, compare incredulous notes with friends? Do you try to how do laugh at club, it all, or deal with it by sending a check to an organization? Do you feel yourself wearying from the dogged assaults of in sports, our homegrown American Taliban, chafing at cynical, political manipulations of personal faith, or hardening with indifference at the familiarity of Orwellian double-speak? (My favorite for today is Senator Orrin Hatch’s “Capital punishment is our society's recognition of the sanctity of human life.”) Do you feel helpless, as it keeps getting worse? As I write this, in breakfast synopsis, April, 2006, it no longer seems such a mystery that Europe’s Dark Ages could affirm superstitions that empowered the Church while eradicating knowledge of how to build aqueducts, trepan skulls for brain surgery, safely deliver or abort a pregnancy, construct indoor plumbing, practice sophisticated herbal medicine, or even simply read and write.

Today, science in the United Statesonce a world leader in Mental, virtually every research fieldis under intense assault from the extreme religious right, via its White House representative, President George W. Breakfast Synopsis. Bush. No matter how vast the scientific consensus that fossil fuels constitute a principal factor in climate change, Bush’s administration still won’t sign the Kyoto Protocol (and still speaks longingly of oil-drilling in the Alaskan wilderness). In Place To Protect Refugees. In 2006, the club, National Institutes of Health budget is being cutfor the first time in 36 years. The U.S. Influences. now educates fewer scientists each year, and now imports more high-tech products than it exports. Breakfast Synopsis. Bush administration policy dictates that one-third of and imperialism, all government HIV-prevention spendinghundreds of millionsmust go to “abstinence until marriage” programs, while government funding for programs that support condom use have been eviscerated (this, despite the breakfast, failure rate for abstinence programs proving many times higher than for condom use). We Stop Global Warming. The Federal Drug Administration and the Centers for Disease Control have both been forced to take positions that please religious conservatives despite being contrary to their own scientific findingson the “morning after” Plan B pill and on condom use--provoking public resignations of scientists from breakfast synopsis both federal agencies. Reginald Finger, an evangelical Focus on the Family member and Bush appointee to the CDC Immunization Committee, says he might actually oppose an HIV vaccine if one becomes available: “With any vaccine for HIV, dis-inhibition [freedom from fear, presumably of sex] would certainly be a factor and it is something we will have to pay attention to.” Finger may even block approval for a vaccine protecting women against HPV, the human papilloma virus that can cause cancer of the cervix: He worries “[T]his vaccine may be sending an overall message to teenagers that ‘We expect you to be sexually active.’” Meanwhile, the administration sends anti-choice lobbyists as delegates to international meetings on women’s health, and pressures global conferences on AIDS to have Rev.

Franklin Graham lecture on “faith-based solutions to AIDS.” The religious right’s effect on Bush’s opposition to stem-cell research is notorious, despite the majority of scientistsand U.S. citizens, including evangelicalssupporting research that potentially could have as massive an impact on health as antibiotics did, particularly affecting research on cancer, Parkinson’s disease, other neurological disorders, diabetes, and paralysis. The Dark Ages indeed. With the Crusades thrown in, to how do we stop boot. Recently, news coverage has been focused on worldwide marches, boycotts, flag- and building-burnings by Muslims protesting cartoons that allegedly mocked the Prophet Muhammed, run by breakfast synopsis a Danish newspaper last year. TV pundits tsk-tsk about these “obsessed fanatics,” these literalist, fundamentalist extremists, while commentators (and U.S. politicians) discover a seemingly newfound pride in “Western free speech.” OK. Fair enough. Alright. But meanwhile, little attention is given to Illness and Facilities a short item running in only a few newspapers on February 11: protests by club synopsis Callaway Christian Church members in Fulton, Missouri, which resulted in cancellation of the scheduled high-school spring production of violence, Arthur Miller’s American classic, “The Crucible”; the Christian protests were actually about the high-school having already staged a (considerably tamed) version of the musical “Grease”yes, honest, that depraved orgy, “Grease”but their chilling effect was sufficient for Mark Ederle, superintendent of schools, to breakfast synopsis ban the Miller play, thus saving the between colonialism, school from being further mired in controversy.

The drama teacher, Wendy DeVore, quit after learning that her contract would almost certainly not be renewed. Dr. Ederle said, That was me in breakfast club, my worst Joe McCarthy moment, to some.” Since “The Crucible,” set in Salem, Massachusetts during the between colonialism and imperialism, witch trials, was written as a metaphor for McCarthyism, well . Club. . . yes. Not one news commentator pointed out the parallels, wondered why free speech was such a great idea to brandish abroad but not at home, or compared one set of narrator is, obsessed, fanatic, literalist, fundamentalist extremists against freedom of expression with the other. On August 15, 1997, a man named Gil Alexander-Moegerle held a press conference in Colorado Springs.

Co-founder with James Dobson of the group Focus on the Family, he had just authored a book, James Dobson's War on America , the club synopsis, first insider expose of a major religious- right organization. Amazingly, Alexander-Moegerle, taking his Christianity seriously for a change, offered a public apology to all women, men of color, Jews, Muslims, homosexual people, and others harmed by “actions and attitudes on the part of the and Facilities Essay, Christian Right in general and James Dobson and breakfast synopsis, Focus on violence essay, the Family in club, particular.” He also revealed how corruptly the violence in sports, Christian right operates behind the synopsis, scenes, urged an end to political lobbying by such organizations, and issued a warning to the American people. In Place. There was virtually no coverage of his press conference (though it is still available in breakfast club, full at www.ralliance.org/Alexander-Moegerle.html ). A First Person. His book was barely reviewed. Even our media is afraid. Our media’s corporate ownership is afraid. We are all more than a little afraid. And we are tired. The great Supreme Court Justice Louis D. Brandeis wrote: “Those who won our independence believed . . . that the greatest menace to freedom is an inert people. . . . that it is hazardous to discourage thought, hope, and imagination; that fear breeds repression; that repression breeds hate; that hate menaces stable government. . . . [Fear] cannot alone justify suppression of free speech and assembly. Breakfast Club Synopsis. Men feared witches and burnt women. It is the function of speech to free men from the bondage of violence in sports, irrational fears (Concurrence in Whitney v. California , 1927). But really, should we be surprised that the state of the Union has been corroded this far, or that religion should be employed as the club, corrosive element?

After all, God is always claimed to be on both sides in every war, and the Bible has been used to defend the Crusades, the Inquisitions, conquest, slavery, lynching, apartheid, indentured servitude, racism, poverty, wife battery, child abuse, homophobia, and other holy terrors. After all, the decade 1991-2001 saw multiple attacks on U.S. Shakespeare Influences. clinics and medical personnel providing contraception and breakfast, abortion services, leaving eight dead and 33 seriously wounded. The Legislation To Protect Refugees. Additionally, there have been more than 20 arsons and attempted arsons, 10 bombings and club, attempted bombings, and multiple clinics in essay, 23 states have received threats of anthrax and breakfast synopsis, chemical attacks. This was not called “terrorism.” Yet in difference between and imperialism, the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks, an American Life League ad attacking Planned Parenthood ran in the Washington Times , declaring “Abortion is the club, ultimate terrorism.” After all, news items like the shakespeare, following have now become commonplace: * The three largest Christian-right organizations call for “crusaders” to pray that certain U.S. Supreme Court justices whose voting records they dislike will die. * Televangelist Pat Robertson blames Emmy-Awards-host Ellen Degeneres for the Hurricane Katrina disaster: “This is the second time [9/11] God has invoked a disaster before lesbian Ellen Degenerate hosted the Emmy Awards . . . America is waiting for her to apologize for the death and club, destruction her sexual deviance has brought onto this great nation.” Robertson also noted that the colonialism, Christian Broadcasting Network had compiled a list of 283 nominees, presenters, and invited guests at the Emmys “known to club synopsis be of sexually deviant persuasions.” * Citing “religious reasons,” some pharmacists now refuse to fill prescriptions for emergency “morning after” contraception, flatly (and illegally) turning away their female customers--including survivors of sexual assault. * Air Force Captain Melinda Morton, a Lutheran executive chaplain at the Air Force Academy in Colorado, resigns her commission after being fired for whistle-blowing about “strident evangelicalism” infecting the religious climate at the Academy, where 55 complaints about religious discrimination have been lodged in the past four years. “Evangelicalism is the a first person narrator, official religion of the U.S. Air Force Academy,” Morton warns. (And yes, this is the same Academy infamous for its epidemic of rape and sexual-harassment charges by synopsis female cadets--who were ignored or even punished for complaining.) * Pennsylvania, Ohio, and Kansas garner some press attention for their legal battles and school-board struggles over the campaign to we stop global teach “intelligent design”--“creationism” renamed--as science. Breakfast Club Synopsis. But The National Center for Science Education ( www.natcensied.org ), which defends the person narrator is, teaching of evolution in public schools, notes that such battles are increasing in Alabama, Michigan, Mississippi, Oklahoma, Utah, and other states.

* Georgia has taken things even furtherbecoming the first state to approve the use of the Bible as a public-school core textbook. Alabama and Missouri are looking into synopsis similar measures. * “Faith-based prisons” are proliferatingapparently as much to rake in profits as to spread the Gospel to a captive audience. How Do We Stop. Taxpayers unwittingly finance such prosletyzing prisons, where inmates receive special privileges if they follow all-day, all-week, Christian agendas. Former convicted Watergate conspirator Charles Colson’s Prison Ministry Fellowship runs “partnership” prisons with its $46 million annual budget. Breakfast Synopsis. When he was governor, George W. Bush helped launch the “Inner Change Freedom Initiative” in Texas; Inner Change now also runs prisons in Kansas and Minnesota. Another Bush governor, Jeb, happily supports three (with more to come) “faith-based prisons” in Florida. In New Mexico, the state contracts with the Corrections Corporation of America, the largest private prison “provider”: workbooks for Illness and Facilities, women prisoners emphasize obedience under such headings as “Yielding Rights” and “Proper Submission.” * Meanwhile, the Bush administration initiates or supports: --providing funds for “faith-based” social-service programs to practice religious discrimination: hiring only staff who belong to the same church; --a school voucher program, which would give parents federal tax dollars for breakfast club synopsis, tuition to private, religious schools; --pressuring staff in the White House, Justice Department, and other federal agencies to begin their workday with attendance at “voluntary” Bible study and violence in sports essay, prayer sessions. --approval of a federally funded health plan for Catholics only, that excludes insurance coverage for contraceptives, abortion, sterilization, or artificial insemination; --instituting a religious test for judges, promising to appoint only breakfast synopsis “commonsense judges who understand that our rights were derived from God.” Americans who revere The Constitution of the United States and believe in the strict separation of religion and government are in a state of deepening shock and growing anxiety.

They include religiously observant people of every faith, as well as agnostics and difference colonialism, atheists. Most Americans fear, sensibly, that the ultra-conservative religious right is gaining historic political power via a glib, well-organized, media-savvy movement with powerful friends in high places. But average Americans feel helpless to confront them. Most of us haven’t read the breakfast synopsis, Founding Documents since grade school (if then). We assume that U.S. law has Judeo-Christian roots. (It doesn’t.)

Most Americans lack the tools to argue against the religious right. This book is the how do we stop warming, tool-kit for arguing . We don’t know that the Constitution contains not one reference to a deity -- on club synopsis, purpose. We don’t know that Jefferson’s original draft of the Mental Illness Essay, Declaration of breakfast club synopsis, Independence did not mention “endowed by the Creator,” but read: “ We hold these truths to be sacred and violence, undeniable, that all men are created equal and independent; that from that equal creation they derive in rights inherent and unalienable, among which are the preservation of life, and liberty andthe pursuit of happiness . . .” One tool in club, this kit is the lie-detector. For instance: * Former Attorney General John Ashcroft invoked “the Christian Fathers of our country,” but actually, the Founders were a hodgepodge of freethinkers, Deists, agnostics, Christians, atheists, and in place to protect, Freemasons--and they were radicals . For example:

Question with boldness even the existence of a god. --Thomas Jefferson. Religious bondage shackles and debilitates the mind. --James Madison. I doubt of Revelation itself. --Benjamin Franklin. My own mind is my church. --Thomas Paine. * Pat Robertson claims that “In God We Trust” was on our currency and breakfast, “Under God” was the U.S. motto “from 1776.” Are you surprised to learn that neither was the case--until the 1950s ? * George W. Bush adds “so help me God” to his Presidential Oath of Office. Did he know he was defying The Constitution? * General William Boykin, Undersecretary of Defense, announces, “We’re a Christian nation.” But the how do global, U.S. Breakfast Club. Treaty of Tripoli --initiated by George Washington and signed into we stop global warming law by John Adams--declares: “ The government of the United States of breakfast club synopsis, America is not in any sense founded on the Christian Religion. ” * Prayer circles proliferate in violence essay, the U.S. House of Representatives and the Senate. Yet James Madison, “father of the breakfast club, Constitution,” denounced the presence of chaplains in Congress--and even in the armed forces--as unconstitutional. * Cardinal Egan is a front-row guest when, for the first time in history, an American president signs a bill outlawing an approved medical procedure (emergency late-term abortion).

Most people believe the Roman Catholic Church’s position on Illness, abortion is 2000 years old and breakfast, infallible. Yet the 15th-century church considered abortion moral --and even today the prohibition is not governed by person papal infallibility. * When President George W. Bush established an “Office for Faith-Based Initiatives” inside the club synopsis, White House, he was in clear violation of the Lemon Test, based on a 1971 U.S. Supreme Court decision, which begins: “ Any statute [or public policy] must have a secular legislative purpose ”--and then continues with even stronger wording. * Rev. Colonialism. Jerry Falwell blames the 9/11 attacks on “the pagans, abortionists, feminists, gays and lesbians . Breakfast. . . [and other] groups who have tried to secularize America.” He’s a bit late: Alexander Hamilton attacked Jefferson and the other Founders for difference between colonialism and imperialism, their successful “conspiracy to establish atheism on the ruins of Christianity” in the newly formed United States of America.

* Alabama State Supreme Court (deposed) Chief Justice Roy Moore defends his display of the Ten Commandments by claiming that U.S. law is founded on common law, in club synopsis, turn based on Judeo-Christian tradition. But hear this: “ We may safely affirm (though contradicted by all the judges and writers on earth) that Christianity neither is, nor ever was, a part of the common law.”--Thomas Jefferson . The principle of separation of between and imperialism, church and state was first articulated by Roger Williams, who was banished from Massachusetts for breakfast, his beliefs and person narrator, who then founded the settlement of Rhode Island in the 1600s. The Framers of The U.S. Constitution adopted this principle (and were also influenced by The Iroquois Confederacy’s laws on club synopsis, the rights of all peoples). It has been upheld by every Supreme Court since 1879--until 2002, when the court approved school vouchers. Now--no hyperbole--it is in genuine danger. The United States, still a young country with a short memory, has been swept by religious revivals before.

For instance, we now take it for granted that churches, temples, mosques, and other religious institutions are tax-exempt--but it was not always that way, nor was it the intent of the Founders: this policy was the fruit of a religious campaign. So was “In God We Trust” getting stamped onto our coinage, and the insertion of “Under God” in our Pledge of Allegiance. Beginning with Lincoln’s administration, presidents (and also congresses) have repeatedly turned back attempts to pass a “Christian Amendment,” which would declare Jesus Christ “the Ruler among nations.” (Why aren’t we taught this sort of thing in school?) It’s been more than 80 years since the 1925 Scopes “Monkey” Trial in Tennessee--where the judge wouldn’t permit Clarence Darrow to put scientists on the stand as witnesses to vouch for Darwin’s scientific method. In Place Refugees. Yet when left up to the states (post-Scopes), ruling after ruling continued to club synopsis ban the teaching of colonialism and imperialism, evolution: by club 1930, 70 percent of U.S. school districts did not teach evolution. Influences. It was not until 1968, in Epperson v. Arkansas , that the Supreme Court ruled against such bans as having a primary religious purpose, thus violating the Constitution’s Establishment Clause.

In 1987, in Edwards v. Breakfast Club. Aguillard, the colonialism and imperialism, Court used the same rationale to club synopsis strike down a Louisiana law requiring biology teachers who taught evolution to discuss “evidence” supporting “creation science.” (Moral: we can recover from person narrator is these assaults.) Interestingly, a recent study by evolutionary scientist Gregory Paul in the Journal of Religion and Society (Vol. 7, 2005), found that greater degrees of social dysfunction in a society correlated with higher religiosity. Contrary to religionists’ claims that secularism produces moral decay, secular societiese.g., France, the Scandinavian countries, Japan--have far lower rates of homicide, sexually transmitted diseases, teen pregnancy, and abortion than does the breakfast club synopsis, U.S. with our high rate of religionists, a rate unique among industrialized Western nations. Similarly, the influences, more secular “blue states” in synopsis, the U.S. have lower rates of shakespeare, divorce, infant mortality, homicide, and violence than the so-called “red states” where fundamentalism claims to have made its beachhead. But this religious revival, this time, is different. What’s different this time is the blatant political mobilization of extreme right religious forces--which in breakfast, this country are primarily though not exclusively Christian--with the stated theocratic goal sometimes called “Dominionism”: taking over the government and “Christianizing America.” (Never mind the anguished embarrassment this causes principled Christian Americans, and never mind that such politicking contradicts Jesus’s purported own words: “The kingdom of heaven is within you” (IB. IV [1904], no. 654, The Oxyrhynchus Papyri, 1989). What’s different this time is that the current, tightly organized, well-financed mobilization has been carefully constructed over narrator 25 years, precisely to such an end.

What’s different this time is that this religious extremism--peopled by scared, loyal, true believers, but led by ambitious, hypocritical, political cynics--has in fact seized power in all three branches of our government, yet wants still more. But to fully grasp what’s different this time, we need to pause for breakfast club, a brief historical aside. We’ve all heard religious condemnation of atheists and agnostics (along with liberals and difference between colonialism and imperialism, feminists, of course) as “Nazi baby-killers” for breakfast, defending a woman’s right to self determination over her own body; and how anyone who insists on violence essay, strict separation of church and state is an “anti-Christian godless Nazi.” So it’s crucial to understand--with history, not histrionics--just who is repeating which past, and who is not. Adolf Hitler and the National Socialist Party came to synopsis power via coalition with and how do, support from Germany’s Christian churches, both Catholic and Protestant. Hitler, born into the Roman Catholic Church, was never excommunicated, and he forged political Concordats with the Church. As late as 1941, he told one of breakfast, his generals, Gerhard Engel, “I am now as before a Catholic, and will always remain so.” Early in his power-consolidation, o n July 14, 1933, Hitler signed into law Article 1 of the Decree Concerning the Constitution of the to protect, German Protestant Church,” merging the synopsis, German Protestant Church into the Reich, and narrator is, giving the Reich authority to ordain priests. Article 3 of the Decree assured the new state church that the Reich would finance it, stating: Should the competent agencies of breakfast, a State Church refuse to the legislation include assessments of the German Protestant Church in their budget, the appropriate State Government will cause the expenditures to be included in synopsis, the budget upon request of the Reich Cabinet.

The constitution of this new, state-sponsored, German church began: At a time in which our German people are experiencing a great historical new era through the grace of global, God, [this church] federates into breakfast a solemn league all denominations that stem from the to protect refugees, Reformation . . . and thereby bears witness to: “One Body and One Spirit, One Lord, One Faith, One Baptism, One God and breakfast, Father of shakespeare, All of breakfast club, Us, who is Above All, and Through All, and violence in sports essay, In All.” Article 5 established a head for the new State Church: “Reich Bishop.” Hitler appointed Ludwig Müller, a Lutheran pastor who retained the position until he committed suicide at breakfast club, the war’s end (for more information, see www.commondreams.org ). Women--the canaries in the mine--were hit first. The Kinder, Kirche, Kuche (“children, church, kitchen”) ideal was promulgated by the State Church, women’s groups and publications were shut down, and in the year Hitler became chancellor, feminists and “non-Aryans” were forced out of jobs in education, political office, and the judiciary. Is. In 1934, based on religious arguments , abortion for “Christian Aryan” women was banned and made a criminal offense against the state, punishable by hard labor or the death penalty. Well. But surely it’s different in the here and now. There are token women, even of color, in breakfast club synopsis, the U.S. administration--although the reins of deep power remain clutched in rich, pale, male hands. Besides, we are the country that gave the world Madison Avenue advertising techniques--so totalitarianism here was always bound to have a slick, palatable, happy-face, salable veneer. But here are some real comparison quotes.

They need no rhetoric. They speak for themselves. “I hope I will live to see the day when, as in the early days of Mental Illness, our country, we won't have any public schools. The churches will have taken them over again and club synopsis, Christians will be running them.”--Rev. Jerry Falwell. “Secular schools can never be tolerated because such a school has no religious instruction and a general moral instruction without a religious foundation is built on air; consequently, all character training and religion must be derived from a first narrator is faith. Club Synopsis. . . . We need believing people.”--Adolf Hitler, April 26, 1933, speech during negotiations leading to the Nazi-Vatican Concordat. “God wants me to run for President.”--George W. Mental Illness And Facilities. Bush, 2000 campaign statement. “I am convinced that I am acting as the agent of breakfast club synopsis, our Creator. By fighting off the we stop, Jews, I am doing the Lord's work. --Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf.

You, me, and club synopsis, this little book--this tool-kit--in your hands. As a writer and a first person is, a reader, I trust the power of words that try to tell truths. Synopsis. I believe such words can help save us--our country, and our scarred, embattled planet. Tom Paine despaired that his words were hopelessly misunderstood--yet they inspired a revolution. Lincoln, on meeting Harriet Beecher Stowe, author of Mental and Facilities, Uncle Tom’s Cabin , said “So this is the little lady who started the Civil War.” I want to start no war--of culture or otherwise.

Perhaps naively, I still want to end wars. Breakfast Synopsis. The sole purpose of Fighting Words is to reacquaint my countrymen and countrywomen with our secular roots--and inspire us to honor them. Happily, there seems to be a growing hunger for histories of early America and for the legislation refugees, biographies of the Founders who framed the new nation’s Constitution. Still (regrettably), too few people plow through 400-page books. We live in breakfast synopsis, an age and culture of sound-bites and factoids. So I researched and compiled Fighting Words whichbegan life asa short piece in Ms . magazine--in hopes of bridging the two: feeding the hunger, but with the sound-bite brevity of modern communications. A tool for arguing. A source to pull from pocket, purse, or knapsack and brandish, saying “No! Wait! That’s not true ! Actually , James Madison said . . A First. .” A body of evidence.

A database for reference when writing letters to newspapers, or debating in school. Or just to delight in feeling vindicated, and in recognizing the Founders not as dusty, pompous, old men in breakfast club, powdered wigs, but as the shakespeare influences, revolutionaries they actually were. This book is club U.S.-specific--although I confess it would have been lovely to include bits from the luminous writing of in sports, Mary Wollstonecraft, or from “The Necessity of Atheism” by Percy Bysshe Shelley (an essay that got him expelled from Oxford in 1811). I was tempted to add many quotes like Graham Greene’s “Heresy is only another word for freedom of breakfast club, thought,” or Albert Camus’ “Don't wait for the Last Judgment. It takes place every day.” But what does insist on inclusion here is the following paragraph by Alexis de Tocqueville, from his great Democracy in America , in 1835: They all attributed the peaceful dominion of religion in their country mainly to the separation of church and state. I do not hesitate to affirm that during my stay in America I did not meet a single individual, of the a first narrator, clergy or the laity, who was not of the same opinion on this point.

Lucky de Tocqueville. It’s time to reclaim our nation and return it to its original “patriotic” values. These constitute our rightful inheritance, and breakfast synopsis, could serve, as well, as our inspiration. The United States of America was--is--a remarkable experiment, as its Founders realized. To this day, the a first person is, reason the world wants to come here is not really for the plasma TVs, big cars, fast foods, and club, commercial hype--especially since these dubious enticements are now being exported around the globe. In Place. The real reason the club, world wants to come here is still to be part of the remarkable experiment. So it’s up to us. You and me. After the first Constitutional Convention, Benjamin Franklin was asked what type of government the Founders had chosen. Franklin replied, “We have given you a republic--if you can keep it.”

Excerpted from Fighting Words: A Toolkit for Combating the how do, Religious Right by breakfast synopsis Robin Morgan. Copyright 2006 by Robin Morgan. In Sports Essay. Published by Nation Books (September 28, 2006). Fighting Words is the indispensible Little Red (and White and Blue) Book for reclaiming our country, a Quotations from Chairman Jefferson--plus Washington, Madison, Franklin, and many more. Funny, eye-opening, accessible, smart, and best of all really useful for synopsis, combating the Christianizing of America.LILY TOMLIN and JANE WAGNER. “Here are the real words of our founders, free of the prison of rightwing distortion--and we've never needed them more!”GLORIA STEINEM.

A crucial, must-have book!--BARRY LYNN, EXECUTIVE DIRECTOR OF AMERICANS UNITED FOR SEPARATION OF CHURCH AND STATE.

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Houd rekening met onvoorziene kosten. In uw financieringsbegroting staat hoe je de benodigde investeringen gaat financieren. Club! Dit kan door middel van eigen vermogen of met vreemd vermogen. Het deel van de investeringen dat je zelf financiert heet eigen vermogen. And Facilities! Dit kan in vorm van geld zijn dat je hebt gespaard of club, bedrijfsmiddelen (auto, voorraad, computer) die je eerder hebt aangeschaft. Het kan ook zijn dat een familielid of shakespeare, kennis je geld wil lenen. Er is een regeling die het voor particulieren, zoals familie of synopsis, kennissen, fiscaal aantrekkelijk maakt geld aan startende ondernemers te lenen.

Deze regeling biedt zo'n particuliere geldgever namelijk interessante fiscale voordelen. Violence In Sports Essay! Zogenaamde `achtergestelde´ leningen of breakfast, durfkapitaal wordt door een kredietverstrekker vaak gezien als eigen vermogen. Is! Andere voorbeelden van partijen die kunnen financieren en hun bedrag achter zouden willen stellen, zijn de huurbaas, of de vorige eigenaar van de zaak die je hebt overgenomen. Vreemd vermogen is synopsis, geld dat zakelijke financiers (bijvoorbeeld banken en leveranciers) je willen lenen. The Legislation In Place To Protect Refugees! Er is onderscheid tussen schulden met een looptijd van langer dan een jaar en korter dan een jaar. In feite zijn de langlopende leningen bedoeld om de vaste activa te financieren. Breakfast Synopsis! Hypothecaire leningen hebben als doel een bedrijfspand te financieren, met een (middellange) banklening (of lease) kun je een machine of the legislation in place to protect, inventaris aanschaffen. Dat betekent automatisch dat de vlottende activa met kort vreemd vermogen moet worden gefinancierd. Club Synopsis! Dit zijn voornamelijk het rekening-courantkrediet (of werkkapitaal) en crediteuren (leverancierskrediet). Influences! In feite kan zelfs de belastingdienst je financieren, maar daar kun je beter maar niet te veel op leunen.

Een balans is synopsis, een overzicht van de bezittingen, de schulden en het eigen vermogen van je onderneming op een bepaald moment. Anders gezegd: op een balans staat wat je hebt (activa, de linkerzijde van de balans), in de vorm van geld, goederen, enz., en hoe die gefinancierd zijn (passiva, de rechterzijde van de balans): met eigen vermogen of the legislation in place to protect, met vreemd vermogen (leningen). Breakfast! Dus een balans is een momentopname van bezittingen en van de manier waarop deze zijn betaald. De solvabiliteit is Essay, de verhouding van uw eigen vermogen ten opzichte van het totaal benodigde vermogen. Dit geeft aan in hoeverre uw onderneming de schulden op lange termijn kan voldoen. In je verkoopprognose moet je de omzet op een juiste en reële manier inschatten.

Het maken van een verkoopprognose is synopsis, niet eenvoudig, maar wel noodzakelijk. Between And Imperialism! Daarmee kun je namelijk inschatten wat je gaat verdienen en of dat voldoende is club synopsis, om alle verplichtingen te kunnen voldoen. Uiteindelijk bepaalt de omzet, minus de inkoopkosten en overige kosten je winst of a first person narrator is, verlies. De berekening is breakfast synopsis, simpel. Het aantal verkochte producten per in place to protect, maand wordt vermenigvuldigd met de prijs die voor het product vraagt. Als dienstverlener kun je het aantal uren invullen, wanneer je een vergoeding op uurbasis vraagt. De omzet moet je exclusief BTW opgeven. Synopsis! Je moet wel aangeven welk BTW tarief op jouw product of dienst van toepassing is. Between Colonialism! (21%, 6% of breakfast club synopsis, 0%). De belastingdienst geeft hier meer informatie over. Omzet wordt gemaakt op het moment dat de factuur naar de klant/opdrachtgever wordt gestuurd. Influences! Dat wil in club synopsis, de meeste gevallen niet zeggen dat het geld direct wordt bijgeschreven op je rekening.

Betalen je klanten direct (contact of a first narrator, PIN) zoals in breakfast club, de detailhandel, of moet je weken op je geld wachten. Violence In Sports Essay! Deze periode noemen we de debiteurentermijn. Club! Onderaan de verkoopprognose moet je invullen wanneer welk deel van je klanten gaat betalen. Zorg ervoor dat je prognose kan worden onderbouwd met cijfers uit de branchegegevens, je concurrentieanalyse en marketingmix. Violence! Houd rekening met seizoensinvloeden.

Ga je direct in breakfast club, je eerste maand omzet maken, of is a first narrator, er sprake van een aanloopperiode? Is het geplande aantal uren daadwerkelijk declarabel? Houd rekening met bijvoorbeeld reistijd, acquisitie, ziekte, administratie. Breakfast Club! Is deze omzet haalbaar (reëel), gezien vanuit de geplande investeringen en personeelscapaciteit? Om geld te kunnen verdienen aan producten die je verkoopt, moet je die producten eerst zelf inkopen. Het verschil tussen wat je verkoopt en de prijs die je zelf hebt betaald om die producten in violence in sports, te kopen is breakfast club synopsis, je brutowinst. Er bestaat dus een direct verband tussen inkoop en verkoop. Illness Essay! De inkoopprijs van alle verkochte artikelen hoort tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet.

De formule om de inkoopwaarde van de omzet te bepalen is breakfast club, als volgt: Beginvoorraad + Jaarinkopen Eindvoorraad. Alle producten die je al wel hebt ingekocht, maar nog niet hebt verkocht, heb je op voorraad en worden daarom niet tot de inkoopwaarde van de omzet gerekend. Bedrijven die niet handelen in difference between and imperialism, producten, maar hun kennis en tijd ‘verkopen’ aan de klant, hebben te maken met diensten. Diensten hebben meestal geen inkoopprijs (of slechts zeer gering). Bij diensten kun je stellen dat de brutowinst (bijna) gelijk is aan de behaalde omzet. Er zijn meerdere factoren die de inkoopwaarde van de omzet kunnen bepalen.

Denk bijvoorbeeld aan het inhuren van andere bedrijven (‘diensten van derden’). Breakfast! Deze worden meestal ook rechtstreeks van de behaalde omzet afgehaald. Andere voorbeelden zijn provisies die je betaald aan tussenpersonen of violence, agenten, het huren van materiaal die je nodig hebt om een dienst te kunnen verlenen. Breakfast Club! Dit zijn zogenaamde directe kosten. Heeft een bedrijf te maken met een werkplaats, dan worden veel van de bewerkkosten of ‘maak’ kosten ook rechtstreeks verrekend met de behaalde omzet. Eigenlijk alles met een rechtstreeks verband met de behaalde omzet! Om de inkoopprognose correct in in place to protect, te vullen, moet je invullen wanneer je daadwerkelijk voorraad moet gaan inkopen. Club Synopsis! Afhankelijk van het product, de branche en de vraag zal de frequentie verschillen. Is het nodig dat je elke dag inkoopt (bijv. Between Colonialism And Imperialism! verse levensmiddelen), of breakfast synopsis, kun slechts één keer per kwartaal je inkopen doen (bijv. Influences! kleding)? Kun je inschatten hoe lang je product gemiddeld op voorraad ligt? En welke deel van je voorraad is niet meer te verkopen na verloop van tijd (incourante voorraad)?

In je exploitatiebegroting schat je in synopsis, of je bedrijf rendabel is. How Do We Stop! Door de omzet en kosten in breakfast, een overzicht te plaatsen, kun je in een oogopslag zien of between colonialism and imperialism, je bedrijf winst of verlies maakt. In de exploitatiebegroting staan de bedragen exclusief BTW vermeld. Uitgangspunt voor de exploitatiebegroting is synopsis, de verkoopprognose (zie 3.3). Essay! Door de inkoopwaarde van de omzet af te trekken wordt de brutowinst zichtbaar.

De inkoopwaarde van de omzet wordt berekend aan de hand van de ingevulde inkoopprognose (zie 3.4). Door de brutowinst te verminderen met alle wederkerend bedrijfskosten, zoals huisvestings-, vervoers-, promotie- en personeelskosten, houd jij je netto bedrijfsresultaat over. Synopsis! Dit bepaalt of how do we stop global warming, je bedrijfsactiviteit op zichzelf rendabel is. Onder de bedrijfskosten vallen ook de afschrijvingen. Breakfast Club! Afschrijvingen zijn wel kosten, maar geen uitgaven. Afschrijvingen geven de je gelegenheid reserves op te bouwen om te kunnen (her)investeringen in de vaste activa van je bedrijf. A First Narrator Is! Je geeft het geld pas uit op het moment dat je moet gaan investeren. Je geeft je ook extra ruimte om je aflosverplichting te voldoen. Voordat jij je winst uit onderneming kan bepalen, moet je opgeven hoeveel vergoeding je aan de financiers, die je bedrijfsactiviteit mede mogelijk hebben gemaakt , jaarlijks moet betalen. Dit wordt ook wel rente genoemd. Als je winst hebt gemaakt, moet je daarover belasting betalen.

Hoeveel dat is, hangt af van het winstbedrag en aftrekposten die je als zelfstandige mag opvoeren. Synopsis! Voor deze aftrekposten gelden wel diverse voorwaarden. Difference Between! Kijk daarom goed op de site van de belastingdienst. De nettowinst is de basis voor uw inkomen uit een eenmanszaak of club synopsis, VOF. In een BV staat de ondernemer als bestuurder/directeur van de BV op de loonlijst en ontvangt een salaris. Difference And Imperialism! Het salaris is breakfast club synopsis, een kostenpost voor de BV. Mental! De omzet moet hoog genoeg zijn om ook het salaris van de directeur te betalen. Club! We bieden je gratis een eenvoudige template voor exploitatiebegroting. Aannames moeten gebaseerd zijn op goed doordachte veronderstellingen Omzet op basis van marktonderzoek en niet op alleen basis van aantal x prijs Check de samenhang met het Marketingplan Omzet moet met gewenst personeelsbestand en kapitaal vervaardigd kunnen worden. Kun je elke maand alle rekeningen betalen?

Door het maken van een liquiditeitsbegroting bepaal je of difference colonialism, er iedere maand voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Inkomsten en uitgaven kunnen gedurende een jaar sterk wisselen. Breakfast! Bijvoorbeeld door seizoensinvloeden, een vakantieperiode, belastingaanslag of door klanten die laat betalen. Met een liquiditeitsbegroting maak je inzichtelijk op welk moment extra financiën nodig zijn. Vrijwel alle bedrijfskosten die zijn opgenomen in in sports, de exploitatiebegroting komen ook terug in club, de liquiditeitsbegroting. Illness And Facilities Essay! Afschrijvingen vormen hierop de belangrijkste uitzondering.

De liquiditeitsbegroting toont hoe de kosten over het jaar worden verdeeld en aan in breakfast synopsis, welke maand de kosten daadwerkelijk betaald moeten worden. The Legislation To Protect Refugees! Zeker in een groeiende ondernemingen zullen met de omzet ook de kosten maandelijks variëren (en toenemen). Naast de bedrijfskosten, worden ook de (maandelijkse) privéopnamen, inclusief inkomstenbelasting, en aflossingen staan niet in breakfast club synopsis, de liquiditeitsbegroting opgenomen. Via onze site kun je nu eenvoudig een sjabloon liquiditeitsbegroting downloaden. Op de exploitatiebegroting zijn alle bedragen exclusief BTW. Difference! In de liquiditeitsbegroting reken je de BTW ontvangsten en uitgaven mee. Uit de exploitatiebegroting kun je opmaken of je voldoende omzet genereert om de bedrijfs- en financieringskosten te dekken. Club Synopsis! De cashflow berekent vervolgens of jij je privéopnamen wel uit de onderneming kan halen en of a first, er daarnaast genoeg overblijft om leningen af te lossen, herinvesteringen te voldoen of synopsis, reserves op te bouwen. Grofweg is to protect, de cashflow gelijk aan de nettowinst plus afschrijvingen van een onderneming. Breakfast Club Synopsis! De cashflow is positief als er jaarlijks meer geld binnenkomt dan dat er uit gaat. Global! De cashflow is club synopsis, negatief als er per jaar meer geld wordt uitgegeven dan er binnenkomt.

Een positieve cashflow wil niet direct zeggen dat je onderneming liquide is, dat er het hele jaar door voldoende geld op je rekening staat. Influences! Dat moet blijken uit de liquiditeitsbegroting. Voordat je met je bedrijf begint, moet je weten hoeveel je maandelijks nodig om privé van rond te komen. Breakfast Synopsis! Breng al je (huishoud)verplichtingen in shakespeare influences, kaart. Breakfast! Vermeld ook alle inkomsten die je huishouding ontvangt, zoals het loon (inclusief vakantie geld en dertiende maand) van jezelf en/of je partner, uitkeringen, pensioenen en eventueel kinderbijslag. Het verschil tussen de privéverplichtingen en -inkomsten bepaalt het bedrag dat je maandelijks uit je onderneming moet halen om van te leven. Houd je zakelijke betalingsverkeer gescheiden van je privé-inkomsten en -uitgaven door het openen van een aparte rekeningen. Een afschrijving is how do warming, het in de boekhouding tot uitdrukking brengen van de waardedaling van een bedrijfsmiddel over club synopsis, een bepaalde periode. Doordat je machines gebruikt zullen ze slijten. How Do Warming! Ook zal de waarde van je gebouw of synopsis, vrachtwagens in narrator is, de loop van de jaren afnemen.

De waardevermindering van deze kapitaalgoederen wordt ook wel afschrijving of breakfast, afschrijvingskosten genoemd. Er wordt steeds afschrijving toegepast om de slijtage door het gebruik tot uitdrukking te brengen. Deze afschrijving vormt een kostenpost in how do global, de Winst- en Verliesrekening en leidt dus tot een lager resultaat. Bekijk de mogelijkheden van Qredits. Ondernemingsplan template downloaden. Als je een onderneming wilt beginnen, is het verstandig eerst een ondernemingsplan te maken. Club! Qredits wil je hier graag mee op weg helpen. E-learning Ondernemingsplan Schrijven. Deze e-learning laat jou nadenken over a first person narrator is, je onderneming. Breakfast Club Synopsis! Je krijgt volop inspiratie en voorbeelden.

Na afloop download je een kant en klaar plan. Vind je het moeilijk om je eigen ondernemingsplan op te stellen? Twijfel je of het goed is? Een coach helpt je bij het structureren van je ideeen. Qredits helpt ondernemers bij het succesvol starten van en investeren in hun bedrijf.

We bieden coaching, kennis in de Qredits Academy voor ondernemers en we verstrekken bedrijfskredieten tot ˆ 250.000. Qredits verstrekt de microkredieten mede dankzij twee programma’s van de Europese Unie: het EaSI, een Europees programma voor werkgelegenheid en sociale innovatie, en COSME, een programma dat de concurrentiepositie van midden- en kleinbedrijf verbetert. Lees meer.

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26 Awesome Resume Mind Maps to Inspire You. A memory-jogging exercise and club synopsis a creative way to show off your accomplishments. In Sports? If you'd like to mind map your own resume, here are some free tools: Freemind arguably the best known free, downloadable mind maping software. Breakfast Synopsis? Freeplane a better Freemind than Freemind, I switched to person is, using this a few years ago. Xmind nice user inteface and available in 7 languages. bubbl.us cute tool, lets you make the mind maps in synopsis, your browser window.

Dabbleboard a cool online charting tool that can be used for mind maps, flow charts and more. A First Person? MindMeister is another online mind mapping site with very handy features. Their basic/free plan is very limited (you're only allowed to save 3 mind maps) but they provide a free resume mind map template so you can get started quickly: Subscribe to breakfast, JobMob via RSS or email and follow me on and imperialism, Twitter for more ways to club synopsis, use mind maps in your job search. Job Search Expert, Professional Blogger, Creative Thinker, Community Builder with a sense of how do warming humor. I like to club, help people. 13 Best Firefox Job Search Add-ons. #128231; How To: The Job Seeker#8217;s Attention-Getting Email Signature.

Job Search Outsourcing and Other New Prizes For The 3rd JobMob Guest Blogging Contest. Although you have worked hard, But I feel that these kind of resume format are not in practice. We should go for such a format which is very simple, straight forward so that a recruiter may not be puzzled or feel any type of stress. How ever a great creative work! Great article, and great collection of how do global warming resources. Just a slight correction, the link that you#8217;ve provided to our resume template is broken. It should be pointing to: As this is a template, all MindMeister users can clone this map to their account and get started right away. Likewise, using our handy sharing features, instead of presenting an image, you could embed your mind map resume directly into a webpage. Thanks again for the mention, and happy mind mapping! I love these!

Before you even read the club synopsis, mind maps you can tell so much about the person. Person Is? The format, the breakfast, colors, the pictures give such insight into violence in sports the person. Breakfast? So powerful! But I do understand that most recruiters would have no idea what to do with or how to read these mind maps, I think they are a good idea. If nothing more than a tool for essay, the job seeker to understand themselves. High value!

Mind Map resumes are great way to breakfast club, stand out from the crowd! Some of the person is, more colourful and breakfast club synopsis linear Mind Maps (Jane Brotchie, Jennifer Goddard, Skanda Kumarasingam and Zehra Oguz Lebrun) have been created using iMindMap from ThinkBuzan. We offer a free-for-life version of the software called iMindMap Basic which you can download at between and imperialism http://www.ThinkBuzan.com. Philip- you wouldn#8217;t send a mindmap resume to club, a recruiter unless you wanted to show off your creativity. Shakespeare Influences? Otherwise, you might put it on your website. Dan- it#8217;s Jacob #128578; Thanks for pointing out the broken link, I just fixed it. Kimba- agreed! It#8217;s a great way to plan your more conventional resume, which you would send to synopsis, recruiters. Charlotte- thanks for the legislation in place, pointing that out. Great selection of breakfast maps!

You may find some other interesting examples in violence essay, the #8220;careers#8221; section of the breakfast club synopsis, mind map library at http://www.biggerplate.com. Even if you dont submit the map itself to a recruiter, it is a great way of brainstorming and exploring your personal and professional strengths. Everyone should give it a try! I#8217;m glad you liked my mind map. You asked me privately how this mindmap came about. I produced this after becoming a licensed instructor for imindmap see http://www.thinkbuzan.com/uk/trainers/jane_brotchie. This is not free software, but I invested in it as it provides lots of global warming extra functionality and is really simple to use.

There are lots of free programmes that are great too. The beauty of mindmapping is that it helps you take your thinking one step further after I created this I actually saw my work experience in club synopsis, a different light. I think now you have reminded me of a first is this I should update it to include on my new website at http://www.crystalclearwriting.co.uk. This is a great collection thanks for pulling it together. Breakfast Club Synopsis? The idea for and imperialism, my CV came from a similar one produced by club synopsis, Michael J Scheroter when he worked for MindJet. I liked it so much as it provided links between the main themes of my career. It showed progression and in place refugees development really whilst providing material in a more familiar list format. Club Synopsis? Due to the number of nodes in my mind map/resume I actually walk through an IBIS map/decision tree with every employer. We Stop Warming? Question Should we hire Richard? Idea 1 We hire Richard. Idea 2 We don#8217;t hire Richard.

I then go through all of the club synopsis, positives of influences hiring me and the potential risks/negatives. I then do the same with not hiring me. Synopsis? By the end of it, I always get hired. Hi, Thanks for your post. Between? I used mind manager 8 to create my resume. I was learning about mind mapping and club had the idea of global trying it on breakfast club, my CV, as i was looking for a new job. Now i use it to resume books, courses, even in business#8230; I never sent my mind map CV, but it really helped me to structure my experience in a first person narrator, my head, and be prepared for breakfast synopsis, interviews. Since I use mindmapping a lot in my job, it gave me the idea to create also a CV version. I use this mindmap version a lot when I introduce myself individually to team members of how do we stop a project I#8217;m starting. Breakfast? It just is a great way to get a clear overview over who I#8217;m, what I do and what thrills me.

I advice everybody to make such a version#8230; Thank you noticed my mind map. I have used Freemind to create it. Then I have added a simple browser extension in HTML code to display the page on we stop global, the internet. Since I have had an episodic career, I think it is recognized best through a mindmap. I have just written it in Swedish when I am talking to Swedish employers. My very best regards! Terrific! I use Mind Mapping with clients to help them figure out their career paths. These are great examples to share to breakfast club synopsis, help them create resumes and to realize all the skills, talents, experience, and passions they bring to the table. Thanks for sharing!

MindMeister seems to be most common of we stop global these. I created mine as well with it and club synopsis I am proud enough of it to share it in here also. Timo- good job. I would just add some images to the legislation to protect, make it more visually appealing and meaningful, such as employers logos. And instead of saying #8216;Recommendation available on request#8217;, link to a recommendations page online, such as on your personal site or on your LinkedIn profile. Breakfast? [#8230;] of JobMob #8212; a creative and sometimes funny blog about influences, job search. Club Synopsis? He recently compiled 23 examples of resumes created using mind mapping or idea mapping. Maybe some of these resumes will inspire you to make [#8230;] [#8230;] 11) 26 Awesome Resume Mind Maps to Inspire You [#8230;] [#8230;] Via jobmob.co.il addthis_pub = #039;bovee#039;; Comments Off [#8230;] [#8230;] For creative roles, your CV can be a vehicle to share your eye for difference between colonialism, design, your innovative ideas or your unique ways of thinking. Here are some great Creative CV ideas. Breakfast Club Synopsis? [#8230;] [#8230;] For creative roles, your CV can be a vehicle to share your eye for design, your innovative ideas or your unique ways of thinking. Here are some great Creative CV ideas. [#8230;] [#8230;] A creative resume, designed by you, such as a mindmap resume [#8230;] [#8230;] A memory-jogging exercise and a creative way to show off your accomplishments. The Legislation In Place Refugees? [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about synopsis, yourself. A First Person Is? Here is are some examples of mind mapping exercises done for CV planning.

You could also use a mind map that is divided into [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about yourself. Here is club synopsis are some examples of mind mapping exercises done for CV planning. In Place To Protect Refugees? You could also use a mind map that is divided into [#8230;] [#8230;] des gens perdent du temps quand ils font leur CV, car ils n’utilisent pas la bonne methode. 26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. The Job Tips Newsletter Will Teach You How To Find A Job NOW Discover how your resume can attract [#8230;] [#8230;] mais surtout de montrer leur motivation, d’une autre facon que durant un entretien d’embauche.

26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. The Job Tips Newsletter Will Teach You How To Find A Job NOW Discover how your resume can attract [#8230;] [#8230;] Concise Learning ™ Concise Learning Method. Into The Book: Summarizing: A Pirate#039;s Life. Sales Simulation Training. 3 LITTLE PIGS: MIND MAP USING READING COMPREHENSION STRATEGIES. Into the Book: Teaching Reading Comprehension Strategies. 26 Awesome Resume Mind Map Examples. [#8230;] [#8230;] A memory-jogging exercise and breakfast a creative way to show off your accomplishments. [#8230;] [#8230;] representation that you can reference when you answer questions about yourself.

Here is are some examples of mind mapping exercises done for CV planning. Difference Colonialism And Imperialism? You could also use a mind map that is divided into [#8230;] 28928 followers 2494 likes 2255 followers 1361 followers 1658 JobMob Insiders 881 posts 11598 comments. Join 9878 JobMob subscribers to get free exclusive content such as The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide. Subscribe to JobMob® and Download The Ultimate Twitter Job Search Guide. Easily save it as a PDF or print ??for?? daily use. Join over breakfast club, 10K subscribers: Get fresh content from the JobMob® blog.

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essays film history Doing Film History. Nearly everybody loves movies. Club Synopsis! We aren’t surprised that people rush to see the latest hit or rent a cult favorite from the video store. Global! But there are some people who seek out old movies. Breakfast Club Synopsis! And among those fans there’s a still smaller group studying them. Let’s call “old movies” anything older than twenty years. Between And Imperialism! This of course creates a moving target. Baby boomers like us don’t really consider The Godfather or M*A*S*H to synopsis, be old movies, but many twentysomethings today will probably consider Pulp Fiction (1994) to be old maybe because they saw it when they were in influences their teens. Our twenty-year cutoff is club, arbitrary, but in many cases that won’t matter. Everybody agrees that La Grande Illusion from 1935 is an old movie, though it still seems fresh and vital.

Now for the real question. Why would anyone be interested in watching and studying old movies? Ask a film historian, professional or amateur, and you’ll get a variety of answers. For one thing, old films provide the same sorts of Mental, insights that we get from breakfast synopsis watching contemporary movies. Some offer intense artistic experiences or penetrating visions of human life in other times and places.

Some are documents of everyday existence or of extraordinary historical events that continue to reverberate in our times. Still other old movies are resolutely strange. They resist assimilation to our current habits of thought. They force us to acknowledge that films can be radically different from what we are used to. They ask us to adjust our field of view to accommodate what was, astonishingly, taken for shakespeare influences, granted by people in earlier eras. Another reason to breakfast, study old movies is that film history encompasses more than just films. By studying how films were made and received, we discover how creators and audiences responded to their moment in we stop global history. By searching for social and cultural influences on films, we understand better the ways in which films bear the club synopsis, traces of the societies that made and consumed them. Film history opens up a range of important issues in politics, culture, and the artsboth “high” and is “popular.”

Yet another answer to our question is this: Studying old movies and breakfast club the times in which they were made is intrinsically fun. As a relatively new field of academic research (no more than sixty years old), film history has the excitement of colonialism, a young discipline. Over the past few decades, many lost films have been recovered, little-known genres explored, and neglected filmmakers reevaluated. Ambitious retrospectives have revealed entire national cinemas that had been largely ignored. Breakfast Club! Even television, with some cable stations devoted wholly to the cinema of the past, brings into how do we stop global our living rooms movies that were previously rare and club synopsis little-known. And much more remains to be discovered. There are more old movies than new ones and, hence, many more chances for fascinating viewing experiences.

We think that studying film history is so interesting and important that during the late 1980s we began to write a book surveying the field. The first edition of Film History: An Introduction appeared in 1994, the second in 2003, and the third will be published in spring of Essay, 2009. In this book we have tried to introduce the history of cinema as it is conceived, written, and taught by its most accomplished scholars. Breakfast Club! But the book isn’t a distillation of all film history. We have had to rule out certain types of cinema that are important, most notably educational, industrial, scientific, and pornographic films. We limit our scope to violence in sports, theatrical fiction films, documentary films, experimental or avant-garde filmmaking, and club animationrealms of filmmaking that are most frequently studied in college courses. Researchers are fond of saying that there is no film history, only film histories. In Sports! For some, this means that there can be no intelligible, coherent “grand narrative” that puts all the facts into place. The history of avant-garde film does not fit neatly into the history of color technology or the development of the Western or the life of breakfast club, John Ford. For others, film history means that historians work from various perspectives and with different interests and how do we stop global warming purposes.

We agree with both points. There is no Big Story of Film History that accounts for breakfast synopsis, all events, causes, and consequences. And the variety of historical approaches guarantees that historians will draw diverse conclusions. We also think that research into film history involves asking a series of questions and searching for evidence in shakespeare influences order to answer them in breakfast club synopsis the course of an argument. When historians focus on different questions, turn up different evidence, and formulate different explanations, we derive not a single history but a diverse set of historical arguments. What Do Film Historians Do? While millions are watching movies at this moment, a few thousand are studying the films of the past. One person is trying to a first person, ascertain whether a certain film was made in 1904 or 1905.

Another is tracing the club, fortunes of a short-lived Scandinavian production company. Another is poring over a 1927 Japanese film, shot by between colonialism and imperialism, shot, to club synopsis, find out how do we stop global warming, how it tells its story. Some researchers are comparing prints of an obscure film to determine which one can be considered the original. Other scholars are studying a group of films signed by club, the same director or set designer or producer. Some are scrutinizing patent records and shakespeare technical diagrams, legal testimony, and production files. And still others are interviewing retired employees to club synopsis, discover how the Mental and Facilities Essay, Bijou Theater in their hometown was run during the 1950s. One reason is evident. Most film historiansteachers, archivists, journalists, and breakfast club synopsis freelancersare cinephiles, lovers of cinema. Like bird-watchers, fans of 1960s television, art historians, and other devotees, they enjoy acquiring knowledge about the object of their affection.

Movie fans may stop there, regarding the accumulating of facts about their passion as an end in itself. Difference Between! But whatever the pleasure of knowing the names of all the Three Stooges’ wives, most film historians are not trivia buffs. Film historians mount research programs , systematic inquiries into club synopsis the past. A historian’s research program is we stop, organized around questions that require answers. A research program also consists of breakfast club synopsis, assumptions and violence background knowledge. For a film historian, a fact takes on significance only in the context of breakfast club synopsis, a research program. Consider this image, from influences a film of the silent era. A film archivistthat is, someone who works in a library devoted to collecting and breakfast preserving motion picturesoften comes across a film that is the legislation to protect refugees, unidentified.

Perhaps the title credit is club, missing or the print carries a title that differs from that of the the legislation refugees, original film. The archivist’s research program is, broadly, identification. The film presents a series of questions: What is the date of production or of release? In what country was it made? What company and synopsis personnel made the film?

Who are the actors? Our mysterious film carries only the French title Wanda l’espione (“Wanda the Spy”)most likely a title given to it by a distributor. Difference! It was probably imported rather than made in Belgium, where the print was discovered. Breakfast Club! Fortunately there are some clues in the print itself. The lead actress, seated in the foreground, is a famous star, Francesca Bertini. Identifying her makes it almost certain that the film is Italian. But Bertini was a star from 1907 into the 1930s. How can we narrow the dates further? The film’s style helps. The camera points straight toward the back wall of the set, and the legislation to protect the actors seldom move closer to club synopsis, the camera than they are seen here. The editing pace is slow, and the action is staged so that performers enter and violence in sports exit through a rear doorway.

All these stylistic features are typical of European filmmaking of the mid-1910s. Such clues can be followed up by referring to a filmography (a list of films) of Bertini’s career. A plot description of a 1915 film in which she starred, Diana l’affascinatrice (“Diana the Seductress”), matches the action of the unidentified print. Note that the identification depended on certain assumptions. For example, the researcher assumed that it’s extremely unlikely for a modern filmmaker to create a fake 1915 Italian film, just to baffle archivists. Synopsis! (Film historians need not worry about a first person narrator forgeries, as art historians must.) Note, too, that the breakfast, researcher needed some background knowledge. She had reason to a first, believe that films staged and club synopsis cut a certain way are characteristic of the mid-1910s, and she recognized a star from other films of the period.

Most historians go beyond identification and tackle broader subject areas. Consider another common situation. An archive holds many films made by the same production company, and to protect refugees it also has numerous filing cabinets bulging with documents concerning that company’s production process. Its collection also includes scripts in various drafts; memos passed among writers, directors, producers, and other staff; and sketches for sets and costumes. Breakfast! This is a rich lode of datatoo rich, in in place to protect fact, for one researcher to tackle. The historian’s problem is now selecting relevant data and salient facts. What makes a datum relevant or a fact salient is the historian’s research program and its questions. One scholar might be interested in tracing common features of the company’s production process; he might ask something like, “In general, how did this firm typically plan, execute, and market its movies?” Another historian’s research program might concentrate on the films of a certain director who worked for the company.

She might ask, “What aspects of visual style distinguish the director’s films?” Some facts would be central to one program but peripheral to club, another. The historian interested in the company’s business routines might not particularly care about a daring visual innovation introduced by the director who is the focus of the other historian’s inquiry. In turn, the stylistic historian might be uninterested in how the company’s producers promoted certain stars. Again, assumptions exert pressure on the researcher’s framing of questions and pursuit of information. The company historian assumes that he can trace general tendencies of production organization, largely because film companies tend to make films by following fairly set routines. The director-centered researcher assumes that her director’s films do have a distinct style.

And both historians would mobilize background knowledge, about how companies work and how directors direct, to guide their research. Historians in any discipline do more than accumulate facts. No facts speak for themselves. Facts are interesting and important only as part of Mental and Facilities Essay, research programs. Facts also help us ask and answer questions. Film History as Description and breakfast club synopsis Explanation.

Inevitably, a historian needs at least a little information, along with background knowledge and assumptions, to prod her to ask questions. But the historian does not necessarily sift through mountains of facts and then judiciously ask a question. A historian may begin with a question, and sometimes that question might be better described as a hunch or an how do we stop global warming, intuition or even just an itch. For example, one young historian saw a few of the “anarchic” American comedies of the club, 1930s and noticed that their vulgar gags and absurd situations were very different from the more sophisticated comedy of the period. Suspecting that stage comedy might have been a source, he framed a question: “Might vaudeville and its performance style have shaped these particular comedies of the early 1930s?” He began to gather information, examining films, reading coverage of the comedians in the Hollywood trade press, and studying shifts in American taste in humor. The process of Mental and Facilities, research led him to refine his question and to mount a detailed account of how comedians introduced a vaudeville aesthetic into sound films but then muted it in breakfast accord with Hollywood’s standards of taste. Shakespeare Influences! 1. Nonhistorians often visualize the historical researcher as a cousin to Indiana Jones, braving library stacks and crawling through attics in quest of the treasure-lode of documents that overturn popular opinion. Certainly new documentation has a key role to play in breakfast club historical research.

One scholar gained entry to the long-inaccessible files of Hollywood’s self-censorship agency, the difference between, Hays Office, and she was able to put forth a new account of the office’s procedures and functions. 2 Similarly, the breakfast club synopsis, increasing availability of films from cinema’s earliest era has created an entire subfield of cinema history. 3. Still, many research programs rely more on asking new questions than on unearthing new data. Sometimes the research question seems to have been answered by previous historians, but another researcher comes along and suggests a more complete or complex answer. For example, no historian disputes the in sports essay, fact that Warner Bros. was quick to invest in talking pictures in the mid-1920s. For a long time most historians believed that Warners took this risky step because it was on club synopsis the verge of bankruptcy and was desperate to save itself. But another historian with economic training concluded that the evidencewhich had long been publicly available to researcherspointed to a quite different conclusion. Far from facing bankruptcy, Warners was quickly expanding and investing in sound films was part of a carefully planned strategy for breaking into the ranks of the major studios. 4.

Our examples all indicate that the historian’s research program aims to do at least two things. First, the historian tries to describe a process or state of the legislation refugees, affairs. She asks What and who and where and when. What is this film, and who made it, and where and when? In what ways does this director’s work differ from that of others? What was the breakfast synopsis, vaudeville comedic style? What evidence is there that a studio was nearly bankrupt?

Who is the actor in this shot? Who was responsible for scripts at this company? Where was this film shown, and who might have seen it? Here the between and imperialism, historian’s problem is largely one of finding information that will answer such questions. Accurate description is indispensable for all historical research.

Scholars have spent countless hours identifying films, collating versions, compiling filmographies, establishing timelines, and breakfast creating reference works that supply names, dates, and the like. The more sophisticated and long-lived a historical discipline is, the richer and more complete its battery of descriptive reference material will be. Second, the historian tries to explain a process or state of a first person narrator, affairs. He asks, How does this work? and Why did this happen? How did this company assign tasks, lay out responsibilities, carry a project to completion? How did this director’s work influence other films from the company? Why did Warners pursue talkies when larger companies were reluctant to do so? Why did some sound comedians adopt the vaudeville comedic style while others did not? The film historian, like a historian of art or politics, proposes an explanatory argument . Synopsis! Having asked how or why, she puts forward an answer, based on an examination of warming, evidence in light of club synopsis, assumptions and background knowledge. In reading historical writings, we need to recognize that the essay or book is not just a mass of facts but an argument.

The historian’s argument consists of evidence marshalled to create a plausible explanation for an event or state of affairs. That is, the violence in sports, argument aims to answer some historical question. Most arguments about film history rely on evidence. Evidence consists of information that gives grounds for believing that the argument is sound. Evidence helps us judge whether the historian has presented a plausible answer to the original question. Film historians work with evidence of many sorts.

For many historians, copies of the breakfast synopsis, films they study are central pieces of and imperialism, evidence. But this data set is partial. Although the cinema is a relatively young medium, invented only a little over a century ago, many films have already been lost or destroyed. For decades, movies were seen as products with temporary commercial value, and companies did little to ensure their preservation. Even when film archives began to be founded in the 1930s, they faced the daunting task of breakfast synopsis, collecting and sheltering the thousands of films that had already been made. Archivists had to choose what they could afford to retain.

Moreover, the a first person narrator, nitrate film stock, upon which most films up to the early 1950s were shot and printed, was highly flammable and deteriorated over club synopsis, time. Deliberate destruction of films, warehouse fires, and the gradual decomposition of nitrate stored in bad conditions have led to the loss of many titles. Influences! In the frame below, from Willy Reilly and His Colleen Bawn , an Irish film from 1918, severe nitrate deterioration has obliterated the club synopsis, most important figures. According to rough estimates, only about 20 percent of silent films are known to survive. Many of these are still sitting in between and imperialism vaults, unidentified or unpreserved due to lack of funds. More recent films may be inaccessible to breakfast club synopsis, the researcher as well. Films made in in place refugees some small countries, particularly in club synopsis Third World nations, were not made in violence in sports many copies and club synopsis did not circulate widely.

Small archives may not have the facilities to preserve films or show them to researchers. In some cases, political regimes may choose to suppress certain films and promote others. Finding reliable copies to violence in sports essay, study is a major challenge for the historian whose questions center on the films. Historians also rely on print sources. These may be published sources, such as books, magazines, trade journals, and newspapers, or unpublished ones, like memoirs, letters, notes, production files, scripts, and breakfast court testimony.

Historians of film technology scrutinize cameras, sound recorders, and the legislation other equipment. A film studio or an important location might also serve as a source of evidence. Usually historians must verify their evidence. Often this depends on using the club, sort of descriptive research we have already mentioned, such as combing primary documents, checking filmographies and reference works, and the like. The problem of verification is particularly acute with film prints. Films have always circulated in in sports differing versions. In the 1920s, Hollywood films were shot in two versions, one for the United States and one for export.

These could differ considerably in length, content, and even visual style. To this day, many Hollywood films are released in Europe in more erotic or violent versions than are screened in the United States. In addition, many old films have deteriorated and been subject to cutting and revision. Breakfast Club! Even modern restorations do not always reproduce the shakespeare, original release version. Often, then, the breakfast club, historian doesn’t know whether the print she is seeing represents anything like an Mental Essay, original, if indeed there can be said to be a single original version. Historians try to be aware of the differences among the versions of the films they are studying. The fact that there are different versions can itself be a source of breakfast club, questions. Historians generally distinguish between primary and secondary sources. As applied to film, primary usually refers to sources the people directly involved in Mental Illness and Facilities Essay whatever is breakfast, being studied. And Facilities! For example, if you were studying Japanese cinema of the 1920s, the surviving films, interviews with filmmakers or audience members, and contemporary trade journals would count as primary material. Later discussions concerning the period, usually by another historian, would be considered secondary.

Often, though, one scholar’s secondary source is another’s primary source, because the researchers are asking different questions. A critic’s 1966 essay about a 1925 film would be a secondary source if your question centered on the 1925 film. If, however, you were writing a history of film criticism during the breakfast club, 1960s, the critic’s essay would be a primary source. Explaining the Past: Basic Approaches. There are distinct types of explanation in film history. A standard list would include:

Biographical history: focusing on an individual’s life history. Industrial or economic history: focusing on business practices. Aesthetic history: focusing on film art (form, style, genre) Technological history: focusing on the materials and machines of film. Social/cultural/political history: focusing on the role of cinema in the larger society. This sort of inventory helps us understand that there is not one history of film but many possible histories, each adopting a different perspective. Typically, the researcher begins with an interest in Illness and Facilities one of these areas, which helps him to formulate his initial question. Nevertheless, such a typology shouldn’t be taken too rigidly. Not all questions the historian may ask will fall neatly into only one of these pigeonholes. If you want to know why a film looks the way it does, the question may not be purely aesthetic; it might be linked to the biography of the synopsis, filmmaker or to the technological resources available when the film was made. A study of Mental and Facilities, film genres might involve both aesthetic and cultural factors.

A person’s life cannot easily be separated from his or her working conditions within a film industry or from the contemporary political context. We propose that the student of film history think chiefly in terms of synopsis, questions, keeping in mind that some interesting questions are likely to cut across categorical boundaries. Explaining the Past: Organizing the Evidence. Finding an difference colonialism and imperialism, answer to a historical question may involve both description and explanation, in different mixtures. The techniques of descriptive research are specialized and require a wide range of background knowledge. For example, some experts on early silent cinema can determine when a film copy was made by examining the stock on which it is breakfast club synopsis, printed.

The number and shape of the sprocket holes, along with the manner in essay which a manufacturer’s name is breakfast, printed along the edge of the film strip, can help date the print. Knowing the age of the stock can in turn help narrow down the film’s date of production and shakespeare influences country of origin. Historical explanation also involves concepts that organize the evidence produced by specialized knowledge. Here are some of them. Chronology Chronology is synopsis, essential to historical explanation, and influences descriptive research is an synopsis, indispensable aid to establishing the sequence of Mental Essay, events. The historian needs to breakfast, know that this film was made before that one or that event B took place after event A. But history is not mere chronology. Colonialism And Imperialism! A chronology stops short of explanation, just as a record of high and low tides gives no hint as to why tides change. History, as we have already seen, centrally involves explanation.

Causality Much historical explanation involves cause and effect. Historians work with conceptions of various kinds of synopsis, causes. Individual Causes People have beliefs and desires that affect how they act. In acting, they make things happen. It is often reasonable to explain a historical change or a past state of affairs in light of the Mental Illness Essay, attitudes or behavior of individuals. This is not to say that individuals make everything happen or that things always happen as people originally intended or that people always understand just why they did what they did.

It is simply to say that historians may justifiably appeal to breakfast synopsis, what people think and feel and do as part of an explanation. Some historians believe that all historical explanation must appeal to person-based causes sooner or later. This position is usually called methodological individualism. A different, and even more sweeping, assumption is that only individuals, and exceptional individuals at a first is, that, have the power to create historical change. This view is club synopsis, sometimes labeled the Great Man theory of history, even though it is applied to women as well. Earlier generations of film historians, for Mental and Facilities, example, were inclined to treat D.W. Breakfast Synopsis! Griffith as the most important figure in the U.S. Mental And Facilities! silent cinema because it seemed that he invented a number of editing techniques that became widespread. More recent historians have developed a counterargument, thanks to the greater availability of films by other directors and a more comparison-based method. These scholars claim that Griffith developed certain tendencies that were already present, pushing them to a new level of expression. Moreover, his most original techniques were not picked up by others, so in some respects other directors had more influence on club standard editing practice.

As an individual Griffith remains important, but he is probably not the Great Innovator that people once considered him. Group Causes People often act in groups, and at times we speak of the group as having a kind of existence over and above the individuals who compose it. Groups have rules and roles, structures and routines, and often these factors make things happen. We speak of person narrator, a government’s declaring war, yet this act may not be reducible to more detailed statements about what all the club synopsis, individuals involved believed and shakespeare did. When we say that Warner Bros. Breakfast! decided to adopt sound, we are making a meaningful claim, even if we have no information about the beliefs and desires of the how do we stop global, individual decision makers at the company; we may not even fully know who they were. Breakfast Synopsis! Some historians assert that any historical explanation must, sooner or later, ground itself in violence essay group-based causes. This position is usually called holism, or methodological collectivism, as opposed to methodological individualism. Several sorts of groups are important to synopsis, the history of cinema. Throughout our book we talk about institutions government agencies, film studios, distribution firms, and other fairly formal, organized groups.

We also talk about more informal affiliations of how do we stop global warming, filmmakers. These are usually called movements or schools, small assemblies of filmmakers and critics who share the same interests, beliefs about synopsis cinema, conceptions of film form and style, and the like. The Soviet filmmakers of the 1920sLev Kuleshov, Sergei Eisenstein, V.I. Pudovkin, and many othersare a classic instance of a movement. Despite their individual differences, these men held in common a commitment to editing, often disjunctive editing, as central to a movie’s effects on and imperialism a viewer. Less well-defined cases of a movement would be German Expressionist film of the 1920s, Italian neorealism after World War II, and French New Wave filmmaking during the 1960s. In these instances, the filmmakers often insisted that they shared no consciousness of belonging to a movement. Still, historians often find common trends in the films, in the production circumstances, and in the local film culture, and these factors justify treating the breakfast, filmmakers as a group, even if not a full-fledged movement.

Influence Most historians use some notion of influence to global warming, explain change. Influence describes the inspiration that an individual, a group, or a film can provide for breakfast synopsis, others. Members of a movement can deliberately influence a director to make a film a certain way, but a chance viewing of a movie can also influence a director. Influence does not mean simple copying. You may have been influenced by a parent or a teacher, but you have not necessarily mimicked his or her behavior. In the arts, influence is often a matter of one artist’s getting ideas from other artists’ work but then pursuing those ideas in violence in sports essay a personal way.

The result may be quite different from the initial work that stimulated it. Breakfast Club Synopsis! The contemporary director Jean-Luc Godard was influenced by Jean Renoir, although their films are markedly different. Illness! Sometimes we can detect the influence by examining the films; sometimes we rely on the testimony of the filmmaker. A body of work by a group of directors may also influence later films. Breakfast Club! Soviet cinema of the 1920s influenced the documentary director John Grierson. The Hollywood cinema, as a set of films, has been enormously influential throughout film history, although all the Mental Illness and Facilities, directors influenced by breakfast club synopsis, it certainly did not see exactly the same films. Influences are particular kinds of causes, so it is not surprising that influences may involve both individual activity and a first person is group activity.

Trends and Generalizations Any historical question opens up a body of data for investigation. Once the historian starts to club, look closely at the datato go through a studio’s records, examine the violence in sports, films, page through the club synopsis, trade pressshe discovers that there is much more to explore than the initial question touches on. It’s like looking into a microscope and discovering that a drop of water teems with organisms of violence in sports, confounding variety, all going about very different business. Every historian omits certain material. Breakfast Club Synopsis! For one thing, the historical record is already incomplete. Colonialism! Many events go unrecorded, and many documents are lost forever. Further, historians inevitably select. They unweave the breakfast club synopsis, tangles of a first, history and create a more coherent pattern. Breakfast Club Synopsis! A historian simplifies and streamlines according to the question he is pursuing.

One principal way historians go about such simplification is by postulating trends. Lots of narrator is, things are going on, they admit, but “by and large” or “on the whole” or “for the breakfast club, most part,” we can identify a general tendency. Shakespeare! Most Hollywood films of the 1940s were made in black and club synopsis white, but most Hollywood films today are in color. On the whole, there has been a change, and we can see a trend toward the increasing use of color film stock between the 1940s and the 1960s. Our task is to explain how and why this trend occurred. By positing trends, historians generalize. They necessarily set aside interesting exceptions and aberrations. But this is essay, no sin, because the answer to a question is necessarily pitched at a certain level of generality. All historical explanations pull back from the breakfast, throbbing messiness of influences, reality. By recognizing that tendencies are “for-the-most-part” generalizations, the scholar can acknowledge that there is more going on than she is club, trying to explain.

Periods Historical chronology and causation are without beginning or end. The child who incessantly asks what came before that or what made that happen soon discovers that we can trace out a sequence of events indefinitely. In Place To Protect Refugees! Historians necessarily limit the stretch of time they will explore, and they go on to divide that stretch into meaningful phases or segments. For example, the club, historian studying American silent cinema already assumes that this period within film history ran from about 1894 to around 1929. The historian will probably further segment this stretch of global warming, time. She might break it down by decade, treating the 1900s, the 1910s, and the 1920s. Club Synopsis! Instead, she might divide it with respect to changes external to filmsay, preWorld War I, World War I, and postWorld War I. Another possibility is creating periods that mark phases in the development of storytelling style, such as 18941907, 19081917, and 19181929. Every historian marks out periods according to the research program he adopts and the question he asks.

Historians recognize that periodization can’t be rigid: trends do not follow in neat order. It is illuminating to think of the American “structural” film of the early 1970s as a response to the “lyrical” film of the 1960s, but lyrical films were still being made well in influences the 1970s and afterward. Histories of club, genres often mark off periods by innovative films, but this is not to deny that more ordinary movies display a great deal of continuity across periods. Rosemary’s Baby (1968) brought Satanic horror into the A-picture realm, but in the years that followed, most horror films continued to be low-budget product. Similarly, we ought not to expect that the person is, history of technology or styles or genres will march in step with political or social history. The period after World War II was indeed distinctive, because this global conflict had major effects on film industries and club filmmakers in most countries; but not all political events demarcate distinct periods in is relation to changes in film form or the film market. The assassination of President Kennedy was a wrenching event, but it had little effect on breakfast synopsis activities in Illness and Facilities Essay the film world. Here, as ever, the historian’s research program and central question will shape her sense of the breakfast club synopsis, relevant periods and parallel events. This is, again, one reason that scholars often speak of film histories rather than a single film history. Significance In mounting explanations, historians of all arts make assumptions about the significance of the artworks they discuss. We might treat a work as a “monument,” studying it because it is a highly valued accomplishment.

Alternatively, we might study a work as a “document” because it records some noteworthy historical activity, such as the state of a society at a given moment or a trend within the art form itself. Most historians assume that the films they discuss have significance on any or all of the following three criteria: Intrinsic excellence: Some films are, simply, outstanding by artistic criteria. They are rich, moving, complex, thought-provoking, intricate, meaningful, or the violence in sports essay, like. At least partly because of their quality, such films have played a key role in the history of cinema. Influence: A film may be historically significant by virtue of breakfast club synopsis, its influence on other films.

It may create or change a genre, inspire filmmakers to Mental Illness Essay, try something new, or gain such a wide popularity that it spawns imitations and tributes. Since influence is an important part of historical explanations, this sort of film plays a prominent role in most histories. Typicality: Some films are significant because they vividly represent instances or trends. They stand in for many other films of the same type. The three criteria don’t have to breakfast club, combine. An influential film doesn’t have to be excellent or typical, and an excellent film may never exert much influence. The films of Robert Bresson are usually considered exceptionally good, but for a long time they influenced no other filmmaking.

But of course in some cases the criteria can combine. A highly accomplished genre film, such as Singin’ in the Rain or Rio Bravo , is how do we stop global warming, often considered both excellent and highly typical. Many acclaimed masterworks, such as The Birth of a Nation or Citizen Kane, were also very influential, and some also typify broader tendencies. The preface to Film History: An Introduction , third edition, outlines the questions we focus on, but it’s probably worth mentioning them here as well. Although the book surveys the history of world cinema, we could hardly start with the breakfast club, question What is the we stop, history of world cinema?

That would give us no help in setting about club synopsis our research and organizing the material we find. Illness And Facilities Essay! Instead, we have highlighted three major questions. 1. Breakfast Club Synopsis! How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? Within “uses of the influences, medium” we include matters of film form: the part/whole organization of the film. Often this involves telling a story, but a film’s overall form might also be based on an argument or an abstract pattern. The term “uses of the medium” also includes matters of film style, the synopsis, patterned uses of film techniques ( mise-en-scène, or staging, lighting, setting, and costume; camerawork; editing; and sound). In addition, any balanced conception of how the medium has been used must also consider film modes (documentary, avant-garde, fiction, animation) and genres (for example, the Western, the thriller, or the musical). Mental Illness Essay! So we also examine these phenomena. All such matters are central to most college and university survey courses in film history. A central purpose of our book is to survey the uses of the medium in different times and places. Sometimes we dwell on the creation of club, stable norms of form and style, as when we examine how Hollywood standardized certain editing options in the first two decades of filmmaking.

At other times, we examine how filmmakers have proposed innovative ways of structuring form or using film technique. 2. How have the conditions of the film industryproduction, distribution, and shakespeare exhibitionaffected the uses of the medium? Films are made within modes of breakfast, production, habitual ways of organizing the labor and materials involved in creating a movie. Some modes of is, production are industrial; that’s when companies make films as a business. The classic instance of club, industrial production is the studio system, in which firms are organized in order to make films for large audiences through a fairly detailed division of difference, labor. Hollywood’s studio system is the breakfast club synopsis, most famous, but there have been studio systems of Mental Illness and Facilities, production in synopsis many countries. Another sort of industrial production might be called the artisanal, or one-off, approach, in which a production company makes one film at a time (perhaps only one film, period).

Still other modes of production are less highly organized, involving small groups or individuals who make films for in sports, specific purposes. In all these instances, the ways in which films are made have had particular effects on the look and sound of the finished products. An avant-garde films, made on breakfast club synopsis a low budget by an individual filmmaker, is more likely to be a personal expression than a big-budget Hollywood blockbuster. The ways in which films are exhibited have also affected film history. For example, the major technological innovations associated with the early 1950s wide-screen picture, stereophonic sound, increased use of color were actually available decades earlier. A First Narrator Is! Each could have been developed before the club, 1950s, but the U.S. film industry had no pressing need to do so since film attendance was so high that spending money on new attractions would not have significantly increased profits. Only when attendance dropped precipitously in the late 1940s were producers and exhibitors pushed to introduce new technologies to essay, lure audiences back into theaters.

3. How have international trends emerged in the uses of the film medium and in club the film market? In Film History we try to in sports essay, balance the consideration of important national contributions with a sense of how international and cross-cultural influences were operating. Many nations’ audiences and film industries have been influenced by directors and films that have migrated across their borders. Genres are vagabond as well. The Hollywood Western influenced the Japanese samurai film and the Italian Western, genres that in turn influenced the Hong Kong kung-fu films of the club, 1970s. Interestingly, Hollywood films then began incorporating elements of the martial arts movie. Just as important, the Mental and Facilities, film industry itself is breakfast synopsis, significantly transnational.

At certain periods, circumstances closed off countries from the flow of films, but most often there has been a global film market, and in place to protect we understand it best by tracing trends across cultures and regions. We have paid particular attention to conditions that allowed people to breakfast, see films made outside their own country. Each of these how questions accompanies a great many why questions. For any part of the processes we focus on, we can ask what conditions caused them to operate as they did. Why, for instance, did Soviet filmmakers undertake their experiments in Mental Essay disturbing, aggressive narrative? Why did Hollywood’s studio system begin to fragment in the late 1940s?

Why did “new waves” and “young cinemas” arise in breakfast Europe, the Soviet Union, and in sports essay Japan around 1960? Why are more films produced now with international investment than in synopsis the 1930s or 1940s? Historians are keen to and imperialism, know what factors made a change occur, and our general questions include a host of subquestions about causes and club effects. Recall our five general explanatory approaches: biographical, industrial, aesthetic, technological, and social. If we had to squeeze our book into Illness and Facilities one or more of breakfast synopsis, these pigeonholes, we could say that its approach is Mental and Facilities Essay, predominantly aesthetic and industrial. It examines how types of films, film styles, and film forms have changed in relation to the conditions of synopsis, film production, distribution, and exhibition within certain countries and within the international flow of films. But this summary of our approach is too confining, as even a cursory look at what follows will indicate. Sometimes we invoke an individual a powerful producer, an innovative filmmaker, an imaginative critic. Sometimes we consider technology. And we often frame our account with discussions of the political, social, and cultural context of a period.

Take, for example, our central question: How have uses of the film medium changed or become normalized over time? This is a question about violence in sports aesthetic matters, but it also impinges on factors of technology. For instance, conceptions of “realistic” filmmaking changed with the breakfast club, introduction of portable cameras and sound equipment in difference colonialism and imperialism the late 1950s. Similarly, our second question How have the conditions of the breakfast club, film industry affected the uses of the medium? is at once economic, technological, and aesthetic. Finally, asking how international trends have emerged in the uses of the film medium and in the film market concerns both economic and social/cultural/political factors. In the difference, early era of club synopsis, cinema, films circulated freely among countries, and viewers often did not know the nationality of a film they were seeing. In the shakespeare influences, 1910s, however, war and breakfast nationalism blocked certain films from circulating.

At the same time, the growth of particular film industries, notably Hollywood, depended on access to other markets, so the degree to shakespeare, which films could circulate boosted some nations’ output and hindered that of others. Breakfast Club! In addition, the circulation of U.S. films abroad served to spread American cultural values, which in turn created both admiration and hostility. In sum, we have been guided, as we think most historians are, by the legislation in place, research questions rather than rigid conceptions of the type of history we are writing. And what we take to be the most plausible answer to a given question will depend on the strength of the evidence and the argument we can make for it not on a prior commitment to synopsis, writing only a certain kind of history. Our answers to and imperialism, historical questions are, however, not simply given in a list or summary.

Like most historical arguments, ours takes a narrative form. Historians use language to communicate their arguments and evidence to others. Breakfast Club Synopsis! Descriptive research programs can do this through a summary of findings: this film is Diana l’affascinatrice, made in Italy by Caesar-Film in 1915, directed by Gustavo Serena, and Mental and Facilities Essay so on. But historical explanations require a more complicated crafting. Sometimes historians frame their explanations as persuasive arguments. To take an example already cited, a historian investigating the development of breakfast club synopsis, sound by Warner Bros. might start by considering the various explanations already offered and taken for granted. Then he might set forth the shakespeare influences, reasons for club synopsis, believing his alternative interpretation. This is difference colonialism, a familiar form of rhetorical argument, eliminating unsatisfactory beliefs before settling on a more plausible one. More often, historians’ explanations take the form of stories.

Narrative history, as it is called, seeks to answer how and why questions by tracing the relevant circumstances and breakfast synopsis conditions over time. It produces a chain of causes and effects, or it shows how a process works, by a first narrator is, telling a story. For instance, if we are trying to answer the breakfast club, question How did the Hays Office negotiate with firms to arrive at an agreement about an acceptable film? we can frame a step-by-step narrative of the censorship process. Or, if we are seeking to violence in sports essay, explain what led the Hays Office to be created, we might lay out the breakfast, causal factors as a story. As these examples indicate, the story’s “characters” might be individuals or groups, institutions or even films; the “plot” consists of the a first, situations in breakfast club synopsis which the players operate and the changes they initiate and the legislation in place refugees undergo. Narrative is club synopsis, one of the basic ways in which humans make sense of the world, and a first person is so it’s not surprising that historians use stories to make the past intelligible. Film History: An Introduction follows tradition in club synopsis creating a large-scale narrative, one that includes several stories within it. We divide film history into person narrator is six large periods early cinema (to about 1919), the breakfast club, late silent era (19191929), the development of sound cinema (19261945), the period after World War II (19461960s), the period running from the 1960s to the 1980s, and a first person narrator is the contemporary era (1980s-the present). These divisions reflect developments in (1) film form and style; (2) major changes in film production, distribution, and exhibition; and breakfast synopsis (3) significant international trends. The periodization can’t be exactly synchronized for all three areas, but it does indicate approximate boundaries for the changes we try to in sports, trace.

An alternative organizational pattern is club, that of the topical history . Topical history treats an idea or theme rather than a story. In Place! If you were writing a book-length history of Manhattan, for instance, you might devote one chapter to geography, another to breakfast club, political dynamics, another to a first person, social changes, another to the events of 9/11, and so on. The chapters themselves might be organized as narratives (though maybe not), but the overall structure would give a portrait of a city’s history from several angles. The historian must decide, at various levels, between narrative organization and breakfast club topical organization. Suppose your question was How did America ’s postwar occupation of Germany affect the local film industry and culture? Once you’ve done your research and difference between and imperialism come to some conclusions, you could organize your presentation narratively or topically. Breakfast! That is, your chapters could proceed in chronological order to shakespeare influences, trace the changes in the industry between 1945 and the early 1950s. Or each chapter could deal with events occurring across the entire period, but in different spheres production, censorship, journalism, exhibition, and the like. In another topical layout, you could organize the book around key films or film policies that had an impact on different spheres of German life. 5. To suggest the flavor of doing historical research, we offer one of breakfast club, our own experiences.

Here Kristin explains the process of between, researching a book-length study of Ernst Lubitsch’s films. Of the directors widely considered to be among the greatest, Ernst Lubitsch has had relatively little of breakfast, substance written about him. The other directors of Germany’s “golden age” of the silent cinema, F. W. Murnau and especially Fritz Lang, have received more attention. Perhaps this has been the case because Lubitsch has no one thematic concern underlying his work. Murnau and Lang also are linked to the German Expressionist movement, while Lubitsch worked outside it. His habit of moving between vast historical epics and between colonialism broad comedies for his German films makes him hard to pin down.

But why is club, he important? Filmmakers and cinema buffs love Lubitsch, partly for the sheer quality of his work, from the hilarious silent comedies of the late 1910s, like I Don’t Want to Be a Man and we stop The Doll to the masterpieces of the sound period, most notably Trouble in Paradise (1932) and The Shop around the Corner (1940). Breakfast Club Synopsis! Apart from his being a great director, though, why is Lubitsch significant? There are many things a historian could say about Lubitsch. Violence In Sports Essay! I had been struck by how, after World War I, Germans acknowledged Lubitsch as their greatest director. After he moved to Hollywood, he quickly came to synopsis, be considered the greatest director there as well. Global Warming! Yet Lubitsch’s style in his German films differed considerably from that we find in his American output. Club Synopsis! What are these differences, and how could he achieve such stature in both countries? A study of Lubitsch could also highlight how American and German national films styles differed during these crucial years in the development of the cinema as an art.

According to traditional historical accounts, during the 1920s, imaginative German techniques like Expressionist set design and the freely moving camera quickly influenced Hollywood films. Historians had not considered the influence might move in essay the opposite direction, from breakfast synopsis Hollywood to difference colonialism, Germany. A study of how Lubitsch adapted so quickly to the American way of filmmaking could test that standard account. How long a period should the breakfast club, book cover? Lubitsch had begun as a silent-film comedian, directing some of between and imperialism, his own shorts and short features during the war. He moved into features in 1918. Synopsis! I decided to limit my focus to global warming, the ten-year period from 1918 to 1927, the year of Lubitsch’s last surviving silent film. During this period Lubitsch made a remarkable 28 features and one short. Of these titles, seven are not known to survive. In addition, three of the surviving films are lacking significant amounts of footage. The 21 available films became the core body of evidence for my study.

Before World War I, the international cinema was dominated by French and Italian cinema. American cinema was expanding domestically, but it had yet to make major inroads in most overseas markets. Club! During the war, however, production declined in France and Italy, and the American firms quickly stepped in to supply theaters in many territories. Once hostilities ended, Hollywood films were firmly entrenched, and Mental Illness other producing countries found themselves struggling to keep a substantial share of their domestic markets, let alone to compete with America internationally. The war had, ironically, strengthened the German industry. Club! In 1916, the government banned the import of all but Danish films. This ban was kept in the legislation place until December 31, 1920. Thus for nearly five years, German film production was free to breakfast, expand, and Mental Illness and Facilities Essay the industry emerged from the club synopsis, war second in in sports essay size and strength only to Hollywood.

It was during that period of isolation that Lubitsch came into his own as a director. Institutional circumstances played a role in making him the finest proponent of the German approach to filmmaking (a style which was largely the same as that used in most European producing countries). During the mid-1910s, however, Hollywood film style was changing enormously. What has been termed the breakfast synopsis, “classical” style emerged, the underlying principle of which was to tailor film technique to tell a story as comprehensibly and unobtrusively as possible. Scenes were broken up into closer shots through analytical editing, shifting the spectator’s eye to Mental Illness and Facilities Essay, the most salient part of the action at each moment. Filming in diffused light in the open air or in glass-sided studios was abandoned in favor of “dark” studios illuminated entirely by breakfast, artificial lighting.

This multi-directional lighting was designed to pick characters out against muted backgrounds and to person is, model their bodies more three-dimensionally. The technique became codified as three-point lighting. Breakfast! 6 Acting styles became less broad, depending more on global warming glances and small gestures than on breakfast club synopsis pantomime. Set design evolved to make the space containing the action simpler and hence less distracting. In sum, a new trend had begun, led by American filmmaking. Once Hollywood films began screening in Germany in 1921, a new set of causes came into play. German filmmakers started absorbing the American style, and Lubitsch was in the forefront of this change. His German films of the legislation in place to protect, 1921 and breakfast synopsis 1922 reflect his new knowledge of classical technique, and he was clearly ready to make the in place to protect, leap into Hollywood filmmaking even before he went there. Once in America, he rapidly honed his application of classical principles, and soon he was in turn influencing the filmmakers there with a string of masterpieces, including The Marriage Circle (1924) and club synopsis Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925). For example, we can see the change in Lubitsch’s approach to lighting in three frames.

The first, from Carmen (1918), shows lighting coming entirely from the front; there’s no backlighting to pick out the Illness, gray uniform against the gray background. By 1921, after Lubitsch had seen Hollywood films, he used light from the front, side, and rear in Das Weib des Pharao . In Hollywood, Lubitsch routinely used back lighting to make his actors stand out against the sets, as in synopsis this frame from Three Women (1923). In setting out on my project, I asked a small number of questions. How did Lubitsch’s German features reflect a more general national filmmaking style at the end of the war? How did Lubitsch’s style change over is, this decade and to what extent was the change a reaction to Hollywood films? What impact did the synopsis, new classical Hollywood style have more generally on German filmmaking in the 1920s? I was already familiar with American films of this period, having collaborated on The Classical Hollywood Cinema (1985, Columbia University Press) with David and with Janet Staiger. Narrator Is! I had examined many films and gathered illustrations that I could use for the new book. To learn about the breakfast club, very different German style of the we stop warming, same era, I went to film archives in the U.S. and abroad to study Lubitsch’s films in detail, watching them on an editing table and making frame reproductions for use as illustrations. I examined Lubitsch’s context by watching about 75 films by other directors, also collecting images for illustrations. Breakfast Club! (I did not include Expressionist and Neue Sachlichkeit films, as these were avant-garde alternatives to classical Hollywood style.) I wasn’t looking at acknowledged masterpieces, for I wanted to track typical trends in we stop warming German film style. In libraries I went through film-industry publications, primarily the Lichtbildbühne and Film-Kurier , and the two main technical journals of the 1920s, Die Kinotechnik and breakfast Die Filmtechnik . Cinematography manuals and the memoirs of people who had worked with Lubitsch filled in details of the director’s working methods.

Legal papers in the United Artists collection of the Wisconsin Center for Film and Theater Research shed light on Mary Pickford’s dealings with Lubitsch during and after their work on Rosita (1923) dealings about which some widely believed myths had persisted. Reviews of Lubitsch’s films in the German and American press revealed how Lubitsch’s films were viewed and Essay what expert viewers noticed about their look. All this evidence allowed me to answer my initial questions. I could identify the point in Lubitsch’s career when his films began to reflect the influence of Hollywood style. I was able to do the same with more ordinary German films of the club, post-war era. I showed that, contrary to the standard view of this era, Hollywood films had considerably more impact on German films than the violence in sports essay, other way round. In writing the book, I didn’t organize the chapters to give a chronological account of Lubitsch’s career during this ten-year period. Instead, because this was to breakfast, be a stylistic analysis, I broke it down topically. An introductory chapter laid out Lubitsch’s German career briefly and discussed the industrial and social conditions in Germany that discouraged or fostered the movement of influences. The next four chapters centered on four areas of film technique: lighting, set design, editing, and acting.

These sharply revealed the differences between Hollywood and German style in the crucial years. For each technique, I discussed Hollywood norms and contrasted these with German norms. I laid out numerous examples from ordinary German films and from Lubitsch’s. Each chapter ended with a section on Lubitsch’s Hollywood films and how closely each adhered to classical filmmaking norms. The final chapter dealt with the influences of Hollywood film on violence in sports essay mainstream commercial German cinema of the era after Lubitsch had left his native country. These influences, I tried to show, were far more widespread and significant than any German techniques that might be detected in Hollywood films of the same years. Within chapters the club, discussion was organized narratively, tracing Lubitsch’s work chronologically for difference colonialism, each area of film technique. Club Synopsis! The overall argument moved from specific to general. While the opening chapter dealt largely with Lubitsch’s career and work, the last one left Lubitsch and global warming concentrated almost entirely on German cinema of the 1920s. When Herr Lubitsch Goes to breakfast synopsis, Hollywood was published, few of Lubitsch’s silent features were widely known. Since then, DVD releases have made it possible for a broad audience to see some of the classic films he made in each country.

The Eyes of the how do we stop global warming, Mummy (1918) is available. The “Lubitsch in Berlin” set contains several German features: The Doll, The Oyster Princess, I Don’t Want to breakfast club, Be a Man, Sumurun, Anna Boleyn, and violence The Wildcat plus a documentary on club synopsis Lubitsch’s early career. (Each is available separately as well.) Lubitsch’s two most important Hollywood films are also on DVD: His romantic comedy The Marriage Circle (1924) is available, and a restored print of what is global warming, arguably his masterpiece of the silent period, Lady Windermere’s Fan (1925), is part of the “More Treasures from American Film Archives” set. Perhaps now readers can evaluate my answers to club, the questions my book seeks to answer, and how do I hope that other historians will ask new ones of their own. We hope we’ve shown that film historians, professional or amateur, work with both ideas and information. They mount projects within research programs.

They don’t simply state facts; they try to ask questions. They don’t just pile up data; they make arguments. The facts and questions, data and arguments combine to make doing film history a fascinating pursuit. Historical writing about films will probably never be as common as film criticism; most people prefer to comment about films by analyzing, interpreting, and evaluating them. Writing an essay on film history takes a lot more time and effort than writing a review of club synopsis, a current film. Nonetheless, historical study offers unique pleasures. If you want to understand the context of Illness Essay, a film that you admire, you would enjoy reading film history. Just as important, a deeper understanding of film history introduces you to a range of new films to enjoy. Finally, if we have any curiosity about the films that captivate us now, we can start to satisfy it by thinking historically. What happens today springs from what happened yesterday.

By trying to understand film history, we better understand the breakfast club synopsis, movies of our moment. 7. 4 : Douglas Gomery, “The Coming of Sound: Technological Change in the American Film Industry,” in Tino Balio, ed., The American Film Industry, rev. ed. (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1985), pp. 22951. 6 : See David Bordwell and person is Kristin Thompson, Film Art: An Introduction , eighth ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 2008), 128-130. 7 : In our weblog, we often try to put recent films into various historical contexts. See www.davidbordwell.net/blog.

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