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business term paper Need help as you get ready to characteristics enlightenment, plan, research, and write a term paper? Whether the the missouri attempted to deadline is of the, days or weeks away, this resource can help you stay on track with valuable tips and othello imagery, pointers. 1. Of The? Choosing a Topic. And Thornhill 2012? When you are assigned to enlightenment, write a term paper, your instructor or advisor may have you choose from a list of imagery predefined subjects, provide a general subject or category for characteristics enlightenment your paper, or allow you to select your own topic. La Gioconda? The assignment is only the starting point for finding a realistic topic for your paper. Characteristics Of The? Your General Subject. As you think about the Food Development general subject, ask yourself: What am I interested in? You will tackle the characteristics of the enlightenment assignment with more enthusiasm—and have more fun—if you choose a subject that interests you. Your Specific Topic. The Belbin Test? Once you have decided on a general subject, you need to characteristics of the enlightenment, narrow it to the belbin test, a more specific topic. Characteristics Of The? This is compromise attempted, critical, because it will help you determine the main idea for characteristics enlightenment your paper and the missouri to, set the stage for planning your research.

Your Statement of Topic. Before you move ahead with your paper, take a few minutes to of the, write a sentence or question as a statement of meaning topic. This statement will clarify the goal of your paper and guide your research efforts. Just as important, the enlightenment statement of topic should reflect the of wealth viewpoint or question you will be exploring in characteristics, your paper. Meaning? Frederick Taylor's scientific management is characteristics enlightenment, still applicable to modern-day business situations. (The general subject is of wealth, scientific management; the time span is enlightenment, today; and the viewpoint is the belbin test, that scientific management is characteristics, not outdated.) Reread your statement of compromise topic to of the enlightenment, be sure that it focuses on Are Cell Demise Essay a single, narrow topic; is succinctly stated; and enlightenment, accurately reflects your viewpoint or question. Then you are ready to begin planning your research. 2. Meaning? Planning and Conducting Research. Before you go out and characteristics of the, gather any data, stop and Nestle Frozen Development, think about what you will need. Of The Enlightenment? For most business-related papers, you will be expected to use secondary research sources rather than conducting primary research through surveys or other methods. Your Working Bibliography.

Prepare a working bibliography of relevant sources by to the Demise Essay, consulting your library's catalog, indexes, and reserved reference materials; appropriate periodicals guides; books, journals, and characteristics, articles mentioned in your text or suggested by your instructor; and electronic resources such as Internet and CD-ROM sources. If your instructor or advisor specifies a minimum number of sources or requires particular types of sources, take these requirements into othello animal imagery, consideration. Collecting Your Data. You are now ready to collect data, following your working bibliography and making modifications as you go along. Check with your librarian early in the project to find out how to characteristics of the, obtain any materials you may need from Nestle Frozen Food Product Essay other libraries or universities—and how long this will take. Also reserve books and other sources in characteristics enlightenment, advance, if possible, so they are available when you are ready to do your research. If you take careful notes as you conduct your research, you will wind up with accurate data as well as complete source information. The Missouri Attempted To? This is characteristics of the enlightenment, important because you may have to animal, go back later to characteristics enlightenment, double-check some quote, fact, or figure—and your notes are the best clues to meaning, the exact source. Of The Enlightenment? Source: Author's name, title, page number(s), and the gospel, other identifying details you will need to cite the characteristics source (such as publisher and lewis and thornhill, date) You do not have to document your sources for information that is common knowledge, such as the fact that Frederick Taylor introduced scientific management.

However, you must document specialized knowledge, such as quotations from Taylor's testimony at characteristics enlightenment, government hearings about scientific management methods. Evaluating Your Sources. The quality of your research data is only as good as your sources. Before you rely on data you have collected, here are some of the the missouri compromise criteria you can use to evaluate your sources: How old is the source? Age of source is characteristics enlightenment, a particular concern when you are researching newer theories and issues. Still, new perspectives on older theories are published all the othello animal time. Depending on of the your topic, you may want to check older sources as well as the most up-to-date sources. Analyzing Your Data. After you have collected all the facts, figures, and details needed for your paper, you must analyze all the meaning of waltzed information and how it fits with your statement of characteristics of the enlightenment topic. Saunders And Thornhill? To do this, group your raw data according to logical categories and of the, look for meaningful patterns. Nestle Food Product Development And Marketing? 3. Planning and of the, Writing the meaning Paper.

Once you have analyzed the characteristics of the enlightenment results of your research, you are ready to of wealth, plan and of the enlightenment, then write your term paper. At this stage of the process, you will have many notes and Nestle Development and Marketing, analyses that must be fit into of the, a cohesive structure. The Missouri Attempted? Organizing Your Information. Your first step is to characteristics, sift through your research, select what is the belbin test, relevant to your statement of characteristics enlightenment topic, and organize it into a pattern that brings order, unity, and of wealth, logic to your information. These are some of the characteristics ways you can organize your material: Cause and effect. Use this organization pattern if you want to show a cause-and-effect relationship. La Gioconda? Outlining Your Paper. Unless your instructor prefers another method, your outline should follow the traditional format, using upper-case roman numerals for of the enlightenment the major headings, upper-case roman letters for second-level headings, arabic numerals for and thornhill 2012 third-level headings, and lower-case letters for characteristics of the enlightenment fourth-level headings.

I. Time-and-motion studies A. La Gioconda Meaning? Establish work standards 1. Identify tasks a. Record movements. b. Time movements 2. Analyze results B. Measure workers against standards. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment? As this sample outline shows, each heading covers just one idea. Also, because you can not logically divide an idea into meaning, one part, you must have at least two lower-level headings below a higher-level heading—if you have any lower-level headings at of the enlightenment, all. Saunders Lewis And Thornhill 2012? Writing Your Paper. Of The Enlightenment? After you have outlined your paper, review your statement of the gospel of wealth topic again, lay out your research, and sit down to write. You need not write the sections in characteristics of the enlightenment, order. Just put your ideas into writing first, and arrange the saunders lewis and thornhill 2012 sections later, following the organization of your outline. When you use someone else's words or ideas in your paper without acknowledging the source, you are plagiarizing.

Plagiarism—even when unintentional—violates ethical standards and enlightenment, is unacceptable in any situation. 4. Of Waltzed? Citing Sources. Many colleges and characteristics of the enlightenment, universities require students to use either the Modern Language Association (MLA) style or the saunders lewis and thornhill 2012 American Psychological Association (APA) style when citing sources in term papers. This section offers a brief overview of each citation style. For more information, see Slade's Form Style, 10/e, and Perrin's Handbook for College Research. Practices. New York: Harper Row, 1974, 465-480. Business Journal of Phoenix 20 July 1998. Characteristics Of The? 27 July 1998 (http://www.amcity.com/phoenix/stories/ Like MLA style, APA style includes brief identifying information directly in the text rather than in the gospel of wealth, footnotes. The APA style is sometimes called author-date style because the author's last name and of the, the date of the belbin test publication are shown (usually in of the, parentheses, separated by a comma) in compromise attempted, the sentence where the material is of the enlightenment, cited.

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Genetic structure and diversity of indigenous rice ( Oryza sativa ) varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of enlightenment Northeast India. © Choudhury et al.; licensee Springer. Development And Marketing. 2013. Received: 27 February 2013. The Eastern Himalayan region of Northeast (NE) India is home to a large number of indigenous rice varieties, which may serve as a valuable genetic resource for future crop improvement to meet the ever-increasing demand for food production. However, these varieties are rapidly being lost due to changes in characteristics of the enlightenment land-use and agricultural practices, which favor agronomically improved varieties. A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity of and thornhill 2012 indigenous rice varieties is crucial for efficient utilization of rice genetic resources and for characteristics of the developing suitable conservation strategies. To explore the genetic structure and diversity of rice varieties in NE India, we genotyped 300 individuals of 24 indigenous rice varieties representing sali , boro , jum and glutinous types, 5 agronomically improved varieties, and one wild rice species ( O. rufipogon ) using seven SSR markers. The Belbin Test. A total of 85 alleles and characteristics of the enlightenment, a very high level of gene diversity (0.776) were detected among the indigenous rice varieties of the region. Considerable level of genetic variation was found within indigenous varieties whereas improved varieties were monoporphic across all loci.

The comparison of genetic diversity among different types of rice revealed that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity (0.747) followed by lewis 2012 jum (0.627), glutinous (0.602) and characteristics of the enlightenment, boro (0.596) types of indigenous rice varieties, while the lowest diversity was detected in agronomically improved varieties (0.459). The AMOVA results showed that 66% of the the belbin test variation was distributed among varieties indicating a very high level of characteristics enlightenment genetic differentiation in rice varieties in the region. Two major genetically defined clusters corresponding to indica and japonica groups were detected in rice varieties of the region. Overall, traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties in the missouri attempted to NE India showed high levels of genetic diversity comparable to levels of genetic diversity reported from wild rice populations in various parts of the world. The efforts for characteristics of the enlightenment conservation of rice germplasm in NE India should consider saving rice varieties representing different types with specific emphasis given to sali and jum types. The protection against the loss of vast genetic diversity found in indigenous rice varieties in NE India is crucial for maintaining future food security in the changing world. The Asian cultivated rice ( Oryza sativa L.) is of wealth one of the most important crops and a major food source for more than half of the global human population. Phylogeographical and archeological evidence suggest that rice was domesticated over 10000 years ago from its wild ancestor O. rufipogon in the region south of the Himalayan mountain range, likely in the present day Eastern and characteristics enlightenment, NE India, extending Eastward to Nepal, Myanmar and Thailand to Southern China (Chang 1976 ; Khush 1997 ; Londo et al. The Belbin Test. 2006 ). Characteristics. A recent study suggests that one of the two sub-species of the belbin test Asian rice, O. Characteristics Of The. sativa ssp indica was domesticated in Southeast and South Asia while the other sub-species, O. sativa ssp japonica was domesticated in Southern China (Huang et al. 2012 ). During the domestication process, individuals with desirable traits have been selected leaving most of the the belbin test genetic diversity behind in the progenitors (Doebley et al.

2006 ). Zhu et al. ( 2007 ) estimated that the cultivated rice contains only about 25% of the genetic diversity found in its wild progenitors depicting severe genetic erosion during domestication. Furthermore, a considerable level of genetic diversity was lost during the agronomic improvement of commonly cultivated rice. Map of Northeast India showing sampling sites of traditionally cultivated indigenous rice varieties. The sali type, which comprises majority of characteristics enlightenment rice varieties of the region is cultivated in low-lying flood plains of NE India, mainly in the Brahmaputra and Barak Valley regions. The boro type is Frozen Development Essay traditionally cultivated during the winter months (November through May) in low-lying areas where sufficient water is available during the cold and dry months of the year. Thus, boro type rice varieties may contain genotypes suitable for characteristics cold adaptation. Compromise To. The dryland cultivated rice varieties, normally grown in slash and burn agriculture system, and locally known as jum type, show adaptations to a wide range of ecological conditions including low levels of soil moisture in of the enlightenment areas at of waltzed, high altitudes reaching over 3000 m above sea level. The glutinous grain type rice is commonly cultivated throughout the region as a source of grain for breakfast and enlightenment, dessert for many ethnic communities in the region. In addition to cultivated indigenous rice varieties, natural populations of many wild rice species including O. rufipogon , O. granulata , O. officinalis , O. nivara , O. meyeriana , Hygrorhiza aristata , Leersia hexandra and Zizenia latifolia are also found in the Northeastern region of India (Hore 2005 ).

The indigenous rice varieties cultivated by the gospel traditional farmers may contain a considerable genetic diversity that can serve as a source of germplasm for genetic improvements of cultivated varieties of rice. In general, diverse landraces traditionally cultivated by farmers around the centers of diversity and domestication of crops are considered as key natural resources (Pusadee et al. 2009 ) important for characteristics enlightenment maintaining the future food security in light of the changing climate. Although a few studies have examined the othello animal imagery population genetic structure of O. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. sativa germplasm at a global scale (Glaszmann 1987 ; Garris et al. 2005 ), region specific studies are limited.

Earlier studies based on morphology and of waltzed, agronomic traits (Vairavan et al. 1973 ; Borkakati et al. 2000 ; Sarma and Pattanayak 2009 ) as well as molecular markers (isozyme, RAPD, ISSR) demonstrated a high level of genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in NE India (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ; Sarma and Bahar 2005 ; Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). However, these studies were limited either to a particular group of varieties ( e.g. glutinous rice and lowland varieties) or to a narrow geographic region. Enlightenment. In particular, no extensive studies have focused on the genetic structure of some of the widely cultivated indigenous types such as boro (cultivated in low-lying perennial water bodies during winter season), jum (cultivated in upland areas in the missouri compromise attempted to hill-slopes and low soil moisture condition), sali (most widely cultivated rice during monsoon season) and enlightenment, glutinous (sticky rice with cultural importance) covering the wider geographic area. The ongoing rapid changes in agricultural practices that favor agronomically improved varieties has become a serious threat for the persistence of indigenous rice varieties in NE India. Thus, conservation and management strategies are urgently needed to prevent further loss of genetic diversity inherent to meaning indigenous rice varieties in the region.

A detailed understanding of the genetic structure and diversity is needed for the planning and characteristics, implementation of effective conservation, management and utilization of rice germplasm in the whole region. The objectives of the present study are to the gospel (1) assess genetic diversity among indigenous rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of the NE India, (2) compare the of the genetic diversity in indigenous varieties with agronomically improved varieties (3) assess distribution of genetic diversity among different types and (4) infer the population genetic structure of rice varieties in saunders and thornhill NE India. Cultivation type, location and genetic diversity values of traditionally cultivated indigenous and characteristics of the enlightenment, agronomically improved rice varieties including the Nestle Food and Marketing wild rice ( O. rufipogon ) in characteristics of the Northeast India (AP, Arunachal Pradesh; AS, Assam, ML, Meghalaya, MZ, Mizoram) A = Observed no. of allele; Na = Average no. of alleles per 7 loci; Npo = No. of polymorphic loci; Npe = Percent polymorphic loci; R A = Rare allele; I = Shannon information index; H e = Nei gene diversity. Details of SSR loci used in the present study and their genetic diversity parameters.

Chr, Chromosome location; Na, Observed number of alleles; He, Nei ( 1973 ) genetic diversity. The size of each amplified fragment was determined by Food Product comparison with the size standard and characteristics enlightenment, scored to prepare the genotype matrix. To determine the optimum number of individuals per variety to 2012 be genotyped to capture the of the total diversity, the number of the belbin test individuals analyzed were increased one by one until the number of of the enlightenment alleles reached to animal a maximum with no further increase for a given locus. Accordingly, we determined that 10 individuals per of the variety was sufficient to capture the total genetic variation in a given variety. Therefore, we genotyped 300 individuals (10 individuals per variety for 30 varieties) at seven SSR loci for the present study. The SSR genotype data matrix was used for compromise to assessing genetic diversity and structure in a hierarchical manner from characteristics enlightenment, overall (all indigenous varieties), through different types and the missouri compromise attempted to, each variety. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. The among type genetic diversity was calculated by compromise to considering all genotyped individuals of a given type as one population while genetic parameters for among variety was calculated based on 10 genotyped individuals per variety.

The observed average number of alleles per locus ( N a), average allelic richness ( R S ), population differentiation ( F ST ) and Nei gene diversity ( H e) (Nei 1973 ) were calculated using FSTAT 2.9.2.3 (Goudet 2001 ). Of The. Allelic richness is the number of alleles for each population averaged over loci and standardized for the smallest population size. Average effective number of alleles ( N e) and the missouri, Shannon information index ( I ) were calculated using PopGene version 1.31 (Yeh et al. 1999 ). Characteristics. Average pairwise genetic differences between varieties was calculated using Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ). Othello. Analysis of Molecular Variance (AMOVA) (Excoffier et al. 1992 ) within variety, among variety and among types was performed in characteristics of the enlightenment Arlequin 3.5 (Excoffier and Lischer 2010 ) to determine the distribution of variation at different hierarchical levels. The statistical significance of the variance components was tested with 1000 permutations.

Genetic distance among varieties were estimated using chord genetic distance method (Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards 1967 ). The genetic distance based clustering was performed with the unweighted pairgroup method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) using PowerMarker v3.25 (Liu and Muse 2005 ), and of waltzed, the dendrogram was constructed using MEGA software (Kumar et al. 2001 ). Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. Principal component analysis (PCA) of pairwise genetic distance between individuals was performed using GenALEx v. 6.4 (Peakall and Smouse 2006 ). The Bayesian model-based clustering analysis was used for meaning determining the optimal number of genetic clusters found among rice varieties using the software STRUCTURE 2.3.3 (Pritchard et al. 2000 ), which partitions individuals into characteristics of the enlightenment number of clusters ( K ) based on the multilocus genotypic data. The admixture model and correlated allele frequencies were applied for each run with 10,000 burn-in period (iteration) and 100,000 Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) replication. Animal. The optimum K value, which indicates the number of characteristics of the enlightenment genetically distinct clusters in the data, was determined from 10 replicate runs for each value of K (Evanno et al. 2005 ). The ? K was based on the change in the log probability of the data between successive K values. Software program Structure Harvester v6.0 (Earl and von Holdt, 2011 ) was used for calculating parameters of meaning Evanno et al. Of The Enlightenment. ( 2005 ). The results of five independent runs were consistently converged to the same values. The seven selected SSR loci amplified DNA fragments from 29 O. sativa varieties and O. rufipogon with consistent reproducibility. And Thornhill. A total of 96 alleles with an average of 13.57 alleles per locus were detected among all studied samples. The highest number of alleles (21) was detected in the locus RM264 and the lowest (4) was in the locus RM130.

The indigenous rice varieties were genetically variable, while agronomically improved varieties were monomorphic within varieties at all loci. Characteristics Of The. The highest gene diversity value of 0.884 was detected at RM264 and the lowest value of 0.419 detected in RM130 (Table 2 ). Indigenous rice varieties in NE India showed high level of genetic diversity with an overall allelic richness of 10.205 per locus and a gene diversity value of 0.776, while the Nestle Food Development and Marketing agronomically improved varieties had significantly lower average allelic richness of of the 2.857 per locus and gene diversity was 0.459. A very high level of differentiation ( F ST = 0.754) was also detected among the Nestle Frozen Food Product Development and Marketing rice varieties. The average observed number of characteristics of the enlightenment alleles among indigenous rice varieties ranged from 1.14 ( Joha and meaning, Bherapawa ) to 3.29 ( Lallatoi ) while the corresponding value was only 1.00 for characteristics enlightenment the agronomically improved varieties. Some of the elite traditional rice varieties (including Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam , Mimutim ) showed very high levels of genetic diversity as measured in lewis average numbers of of the enlightenment alleles, rare alleles and Nei gene diversity. Two of those varieties exhibited relatively high numbers of compromise to rare alleles ( Lallatoi = 4; Mimutim = 3).

Locus wise allele frequencies are presented in Additional file 1 : Table S1. Of The. Nei’s gene diversity values ranged from 0.051 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.498 ( Lallatoi ) with an average of 0.223 across all indigenous varieties. Shannon information content varied widely across varieties from 0.072 ( Bherapawa ) to 0.854 ( Lallatoi ) and the average was 0.338 across varieties. The diversity parameters across varieties are presented in Table 1 . The pairwise genetic differentiation among varieties ( F ST ) ranged from 0.375 to meaning of waltzed 1.000 and highly significant ( p 0.001). The pairwise F ST values are given in Additional file 2 : Table S2. Population structure and F-statistics of characteristics different types of indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties in NE India. Allelic richness is the gospel of wealth based on minimum sample size of characteristics 30 diploid individuals. H S(W) = average genetic diversity within type; F ST(W) = genetic differentiation within type. Values in parenthesis represent standard deviation.

Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) based on 7 SSR loci of traditional and agronomically improved rice varieties in Northeast India. df, degree of freedom; SS, sum of square; MS, Means of square. UPGMA tree based on chord genetic distance (Cavalli-Sforza and Edwards 1967 ) showing genetic relationships among 29 rice varieties in Northeast India. The UPGMA tree revealed that rice varieties clustered into smaller sub-groups based on type, grain qualities or geographic origin. For example, boro , jum , glutinous, and animal imagery, agronomically improved varieties clustered together into of the smaller sub-groups within Group-I ( indica ) while the Group-II ( japonica ) formed two sub-groups corresponding the the gospel geographic locations (Additional file 3 : Figure S1). A few sub-groups and characteristics, varieties (marked with double asterisk), however, did not cluster with respective types or grain quality (Additional file 3 : Figure S1).

Principal component analysis of indigenous and agronomically improved rice varieties based on 7 SSR loci. The Belbin Test. Different varieties grouped together corresponding to two sub-species ( indica and characteristics of the enlightenment, japonica ). The relationship between ?K and K showing the highest peak at K = 2. Population structure of traditionally cultivated indigenous and meaning of waltzed, agronomically improved rice varieties in characteristics the Eastern Himalayan region. Of Wealth. The optimal value of K = 2. The present study revealed exceptionally high genetic variation, with an average allelic richness of 10.205 and an overall Nei’s gene diversity of characteristics of the enlightenment 0.776 among indigenous rice varieties in NE India as compared to significantly low average allelic richness (2.798) and gene diversity (0.459) in agronomically improved types. Of Waltzed. The levels of characteristics enlightenment genetic diversity were also variable across different varieties and much higher than the meaning agronomically improved varieties (Table 1 ). Although the varieties represent only of the a sub-set of the gospel of wealth total rice varieties in the region, the gene diversity detected is higher than the overall gene diversity of rice varieties reported from characteristics, Yunnan province in China (0.706) (Tu et al. 2007 ) and Indonesia (0.68) (Thomson et al. 2007 ). The gene diversity detected in the missouri compromise attempted our study is comparable to the overall gene diversity of wild rice O. rufipogon (0.77) and O. nivara (0.64) populations of the Vientiane Plain of Laos (Kuroda et al. 2007 ) and the gene diversity of O. rufipogon in China (0.670) (Gao 2004 ). A previous study based on allozyme markers revealed a moderate genetic variability (Nei gene diversity = 0.341) among 289 rice varieties from NE India (Glaszmann et al. Of The. 1989 ). The higher gene diversity values detected in the present study could be attributable to high resolving power of microsatellite markers.

The present study revealed several indigenous rice varieties with high genetic diversity, which includes Lallatoi , Mulahail , Aubalam and Mimutim (Table 1 ). Despite the low yield, the traditional farmers in Hailakandi area (Barak Valley region of Assam) have been cultivating Lallatoi , Mulahail and meaning, Aubalam for over many generations presumably for its superior nutritional quality and better taste (personal communication). The local tribal group members in characteristics enlightenment the Garo Hills of the belbin test Meghalaya pointed out the superior agronomical qualities of characteristics enlightenment Mimutim. The Belbin Test. Our study revealed high genetic diversity in Mimutum , one of the highly valued rice varieties by native tribal groups. Characteristics Of The. This reflects the the belbin test importance of enlightenment traditional knowledge in evaluation and conservation of Nestle Frozen and Marketing indigenous crop genetic resources (Brush and Meng 1998 ). Most of the characteristics of the enlightenment indigenous rice varieties are maintained and cultivated by traditional farmers in narrow geographic regions.

However, traditional farming practices are in decline due to preference for the gospel of wealth agronomically improved varieties for characteristics of the higher yield. Therefore, appropriate conservation measures should be taken to promote the animal cultivation of indigenous varieties with local traditional knowledge. The genetic diversity maintained in a species is considered as a function of its ecological and of the enlightenment, evolutionary history (Hamrick and lewis and thornhill, Godt 1996 ). The high genetic diversity among NE Indian rice varieties have been described in relation to morpho-physiological characters (Vairavan et al. 1973 ), enzymatic characters (Glaszmann et al. 1989 ), agro-morphological traits (Borkakati et al. 2000 ) and molecular markers including RAPD (Sarma and Bahar 2005 ) and ISSR (Bhuyan et al. 2007 ). Characteristics Of The. The high genetic diversity among rice varieties in Frozen Food Product Development the NE Indian region could be attributable to combined effect of wide eco-geographical conditions, diverse agro-ecosystems associated with various rice farming practices and diverse human cultural preferences. High genetic diversity is also reported for characteristics of the other crop plants such as Zingiber officinale (Sajeev et al. Meaning. 2011 ), Chilli (Yumnam et al. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. 2012 ), Curcuma species (Das et al. 2011 ), Citrus species (Hazarika 2012 ) commonly cultivated in NE India, highlighting the importance of the region for germplasm conservation of many crop plants.

We compared the levels of genetic diversity among different types of rice cultivated in NE India, and found that sali type possessed the highest gene diversity value of 0.747 and of waltzed, average allelic richness of characteristics of the enlightenment 7.585. The majority of sali varieties are maintained by traditional farmers for specific traits such as aroma, grain size and shape, and saunders lewis, tolerance to drought, insects and pests, which may contribute to the maintenance of high genetic variation. Jum type also showed high level of heterogeneity with gene diversity of 0.627 and average allelic richness of 5.056. The traditional farming systems and characteristics enlightenment, local environment associated with adaptation to diverse conditions including water deficient habitats on the slopes of hilly regions may have contributed to the maintenance of the missouri compromise attempted high genetic variability among the characteristics of the enlightenment jum type. Due to their inherent high genetic diversity, sali and jum types should be prioritized in conservation and management plans and future breeding programs. The high F IS values among rice varieties of the region could be due to predominantly selfing breeding system with a very low outcrossing in O. sativa species (Oka 1988 ). The F ST results (Table 3 ) are also supported by lewis and thornhill AMOVA (Table 4 ) which indicated that 66% of the of the total variation was due to differentiation among varieties.

This indicates that rice varieties of the Eastern Himalayan region are highly differentiated. The UPGMA analyses using genetic distance data clustered rice varieties into two groups, which corresponded to and thornhill O. sativa sub-species indica (Glaszmann and japonica 1987 ; Oka 1988 ; Khush 1997 ). These results agree with the previous isozyme data based finding that showed the occurrence of two major groups of rice varieties in NE India (Glaszmann 1987 ). The PCA analysis and Model-based clustering method implemented in of the the STRUCTURE software also suggested the existence of two major groups corresponding to indica and japonica sub-species. The majority of varieties including agronomically improved rice varieties clustered as one group within the sub-species indica . Most of the varieties were grouped into indica sub-species cluster while few varieties clustered into japonica sub-species. Vairavan et al. ( 1973 ) also reported similar results on saunders 2012, the basis of of the amylose content, agronomic, and morphological characteristics. Our findings were similar to the study involving Indonesian landraces where 68% of the varieties were assigned as indica and 32% as japonica (Thomson et al. 2007 ). However, a study of European rice collection revealed that 89% of the accessions belonged to imagery japonica type (Courtois et al. Of The. 2012 ). The O. rufipogon showed intermediate position between indica and japonica types suggesting a possible common ancestry of both indica and japonica types. Although there was no clear differentiation among jum , sali , boro , and Nestle Frozen Food Product Essay, glutinous varieties in the UPGMA and STRUCTURE analysis, the PCA analysis separated the agronomically improved varieties into a distinct group (Figure 3 ) closely associated with the indica type.

This is expected as agronomically improved varieties included in the present study were derived from characteristics enlightenment, indica type. The STRUCTURE analysis did not show evidence for admixture between the indica and japonica types in almost all varieties. This could be attributable to predominantly selfing or autogamous nature of the saunders and thornhill breeding system and associated restricted gene flow among populations. Of The. Only a few varieties showed mixed ancestry of indica and japonica type (Figure 5 ), which may be either due to partial differentiation or rare introgression between the two types. Similar structuring reported among Asian cultivated rice Oryza sativa could be due to partial sharing of the gospel of wealth their ancestral genetic polymorphism and/or recent gene flow (Gao and characteristics of the, Innan 2008 ). Glaszmann et al. ( 1989 ) identified seven groups using isozyme markers and the gospel, reported typical indica and japonica sub-species, suggesting that varieties mostly grown in characteristics mountainous areas of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh belong to japonica . However, the present study revealed that varieties in the mountainous areas of Meghalaya and Arunachal Pradesh represent both japonica and indica types. Our results did not correspond to the five major groups described in Garris et al. The Belbin Test. ( 2005 ). In summary, high genetic diversity detected among traditional rice varieties in the Eastern Himalayan region of NE India is comparable to genetic diversity detected in wild rice populations in various parts of the world. Several varieties with high genetic diversity and cultural importance were found in Barak Valley region of Assam and Garo Hills of of the enlightenment Meghalaya. The sali and othello animal, jum type showed significantly higher levels of characteristics of the genetic diversity compared to agronomically improved types. Rice varieties in NE India clustered into two major groups corresponding to othello animal imagery two sub-species, namely indica and japonica . Our findings highlights the importance of of the enlightenment conservation of rice varieties in NE India as a means of preserving genetic diversity to maintain food security in meaning the changing world.

Authors thank farmers in northeast India and of the, International Rice Research Institute, Philippines for providing samples for of waltzed the present study. Enlightenment. The study was financially supported by NSERC, FRQNT and Concordia University. We also gratefully acknowledge the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments which helped to improve the manuscript. Electronic supplementary material. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BC, MLK and SD contributed to the conceptual development of the project. BC carried out the molecular genetic work and data analyses guided by SD. BC, MLK and SD drafted the manuscript. All authors read and of waltzed, approved the final manuscript. Bhuyan N, Borah BK, Sarma RN: Genetic diversity analysis in traditional lowland rice ( Oryza sativa L.) of Assam using RAPD and characteristics of the, ISSR markers. Curr Sci 2007, 93: 967-972.

Google Scholar Borkakati RP, Borah P, Deka PC: Genetic divergence in the gospel of wealth photoperiod-insensitive autumn rice germplasm of Northeast India. In Advances in Rice Genetics . Edited by: Khush GS, Brar DS, Hardy B. Philippines, Los Banos, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute; 2000:74-76. Google Scholar Brush SB: In situ conservation of landraces in centers of of the crop diversity. Crop Sci 1995, 35(2):346-354. The Gospel. 10.2135/cropsci1995.0011183X003500020009x View ArticleGoogle Scholar Brush SB, Meng E: Farmers’ valuation and conservation of characteristics of the crop genetic resources. Genet Resour Crop Evol 1998, 45: 139-150. 10.1023/A:1008650819946 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Cavalli-Sforza LL, Edwards AWF: Phylogenetic analysis: Models and estimation procedures.

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10.1007/s12033-011-9379-5 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Dayanandan S, Bawa KS, Kesseli RV: Conservation of microsatellites among tropical trees (Leguminosae). Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. Am J Bot 1997, 84: 1658-1663. The Gospel. 10.2307/2446463 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Doebley JF, Gaut BS, Smith BD: The molecular genetics of crop domestication. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment. Cell 2006, 127: 1309-1321. 10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.006 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Doyle JJ, Doyle JL: A rapid DNA isolation procedure for small quantities of fresh leaf tissue. Phytochem Bull 1987, 19: 11-15. The Gospel. Google Scholar Earl DA, von Holdt BM: STRUCTURE HARVESTER: a website and program for visualizing STRUCTURE output and of the, implementing the Evanno method . 2011. http://taylor0.biology.ucla.edu/structureHarvester/Google Scholar Evanno G, Regnaut S, Goudet J: Detecting the Nestle Frozen Food and Marketing Essay number of clusters of individuals using the software STRUCTURE: a simulation study. Mol Ecol 2005, 14: 2611-2620. Characteristics Of The. 10.1111/j.1365-294X.2005.02553.x View ArticleGoogle Scholar Excoffier L, Lischer HEL: Arlequin suite ver 3.5: A new series of programs to perform population genetics analyses under Linux and Nestle Food Product Development, Windows. Mol Ecol Resour 2010, 10: 564-567. Of The Enlightenment. 10.1111/j.1755-0998.2010.02847.x View ArticleGoogle Scholar Excoffier L, Smouse PE, Quattro JM: Analysis of molecular variance inferred from metric distances among DNA haplotypes: application to human mitochondrial DNA restriction data.

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Available at lewis 2012, . Of The. Accessed Nov, 2011 http://www2.unil.ch/popgen/softwares/fstat.htm Available at . Accessed Nov, 2011 Google Scholar Hamrick JL, Godt MJ: Conservation genetics of endangered plant species. And Marketing. In Conservation Genetics: Case Histories from Nature . Edited by: Avise JC, Hamrick JL. New York: Chapman Hall; 1996:281-304. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Hazarika TK: Citrus genetic diversity of characteristics of the enlightenment north-east India, their distribution, ecogeography and ecobiology. Animal Imagery. Genet Resour Crop Ev 2012, 59: 267-1280. Google Scholar Hoisington D, Khairallah M, Reeves T, Ribaut JM, Skovmand B, Taba S, Warburton M: Plant genetic resources: what can they contribute toward increased crop productivity? Proc Natl Acad Sci 1999, 96(11):5937-5943. 10.1073/pnas.96.11.5937 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Hore DK: Rice diversity collection, conservation and management in northeastern India. Genet Resour Crop Ev 2005, 52: 1129-1140. 10.1007/s10722-004-6084-2 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Huang X, Kurata N, Wei X: A map of rice genome variation reveals the origin of cultivated rice.

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10.1093/bioinformatics/bti282 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Londo JP, Chiang YC, Hung KH, Chiang TY, Schaal BA: Phylogeography of Asian wild rice, Oryza rufipogon , reveals multiple independent domestications of cultivated rice, Oryza sativa . Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2006, 103: 9578-9583. 10.1073/pnas.0603152103 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Mandel JR, Dechaine JM, Marek LF, Burke JM: Genetic diversity and Nestle Frozen Food and Marketing Essay, population structure in cultivated sunflower and a comparison to its wild progenitor, Helianthus annuus L. Theor Appl Genet 2011, 123(5):693-704. 10.1007/s00122-011-1619-3 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Nei M: Analysis of characteristics gene diversity in the belbin test subdivided populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1973, 70: 3321-3323. Characteristics Of The. 10.1073/pnas.70.12.3321 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Oka H: Indica-Japonica differentiation of rice cultivars. In Origin of cultivated rice . Tokyo/Amsterdam: Japan Science Society Press/Elsevier; 1988:141-179. Google Scholar Peakall R, Smouse PE: Genealex 6: Genetic analysis in excel. Population genetic software for teaching and research. Mol Ecol Notes 2006, 6: 288-295. 10.1111/j.1471-8286.2005.01155.x View ArticleGoogle Scholar Pritchard JK, Stephens M, Donnelly P: Inference of the belbin test Population Structure Using Multilocus Genotype Data. Genetics 2000, 155: 945-959.

Google Scholar Pusadee T, Jamjod S, Chiang YC, Rerkasem B, Schaal BA: Genetic structure and isolation by distance in characteristics of the a landrace of Thai rice. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2009, 106: 13880-13885. 10.1073/pnas.0906720106 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sajeev S, Roy AR, Iangrai B, Pattanayak A, Deka BC: Genetic diversity analysis in the traditional and improved ginger ( Zingiber officinale Rosc.) clones cultivated in North-East India. Sci Hortic 2011, 28: 182-188. View ArticleGoogle Scholar Sarma BK, Pattanayak A: Rice diversity of Northeast India . Guwahati, India: Millenium Publishers; 2009. Google Scholar Sarma RN, Bahar B: Genetic variation of bora rice (glutinous rice) of Assam as revealed by saunders and thornhill RAPDs. Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 2005, 144: 34-38. FAO. IPGRI Google Scholar Temnykh S, Park WD, Ayres N, Cartinhour S, Hauck N, Lipovich L, Cho YG, Ishii T, McCouch SR: Mapping and genome organization of microsatellite sequences in rice ( Oryza sativa L.).

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10.1007/s10528-007-9118-6 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Vairavan S, Siddiq EA, Arunachalam V, Swaminathan MS: A study on the nature of genetic divergence in rice from characteristics of the enlightenment, Assam and Northeast Himalayas. Theor Appl Genet 1973, 43: 213-221. Nestle Frozen And Marketing Essay. 10.1007/BF00309136 View ArticleGoogle Scholar Yeh FC, Yang R, Boyle T: POPGENE. Version 1.31. Microsoft Window-based Freeware for Population Genetic Analysis . Edmonton, AB, Canada: University of Alberta; 1999.

Google Scholar Yumnam JS, Tyagi W, Pandey A, Meetei NT, Rai M: Evaluation of characteristics of the enlightenment genetic diversity of Chilli landraces from North Eastern India based on morphology, SSR markers and the Pun1 locus. Plant Mol Biol Rep 2012, 30: 1470-1479. 10.1007/s11105-012-0466-y View ArticleGoogle Scholar Zhu Q, Zheng X, Luo J, Gaut BS, Ge S: Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation of Oryza sativa and its wild relatives: severe bottleneck during domestication of rice. Mol Biol Evol 2007, 24: 857-888. Google Scholar.

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Sample Essay: The Use Of Bisphenol-A. Some chemicals are toxic in human bodies and that is why chemical-specific legislations are becoming increasingly common across the country. Legislations seek to enlightenment, regulate production and the missouri attempted to selling of products containing such harmful chemicals in interstate commerce efficiently regulating those products nationwide. Products containing phthalates, mercury, brominated flame retardants, and many other chemicals have been the subject of such bills but products containing bisphenol A (BPA) have attracted most attention in characteristics 2009 (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). BPA is a monomer used to manufacture various everyday products. Research has found out compromise that BPA is toxic on humans and products containing BPA leach a significant amount of BPA to their users. This paper gives a brief introduction of BPA, describes the debate surrounding its safety, and analysis information gathered by “the work group for safe markets” on BPA leaching from popular baby bottles. It is presumed that food and beverages from containers manufactured with BPA are harmful since BPA leaches into them and should be avoided.

Uses of BPA and its Toxicology. BPA is a monomer commonly used in the production of epoxy resins, polycarbonate plastic, among other uses (Association of Plastics Manufacturers). These products are in characteristics of the turn used to attempted to, manufacture everyday products such as baby bottles, sports bottles and sippy cups (using polycarbonates); and the inner linings of containers for food and characteristics enlightenment beverage packaging (using epoxy resins) (Association of Plastics Manufacturers). Other uses of BPA-containing materials include manufacturing of animal imagery, optical media such as CDs and DVDs; safety equipments, construction materials; medical equipments; dental sealants; composites for of the enlightenment storage tanks, gas bottles, and windmill blades; electronics; adhesives; and coil coatings for furniture and household appliances (Association of Plastics Manufacturers). However, before BPA started being used for the belbin test industrial purposes, it had been used in medical field to control difficult pregnancies. In 1936, medical researchers discovered that that BPA could be used as a synthetic hormone to mimic estrogen and help in controlling difficult pregnancies (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). The findings were appreciated by some practitioners though BPA use for this purpose did not supersede use of diethyl sybestral which had been determined to be more effective. Unfortunately, it was identified later that these chemicals were cancer-causing agents which contributed to serious reproductive defects (including vaginal cancer) in the daughters of those who had taken the chemicals during pregnancy (Beveridge Diamond, 2009).

This made use of characteristics of the enlightenment, BPA for such purpose to stop. However, in the 1950s scientists discovered that BPA could be polymerized to produce commercial plastics (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). This discovery opened a new chapter on use of BPA and it has increasingly continued to be used in the production of epoxy resins and polycarbonates plastics. Currently, about 95 percent of baby bottles being sold are made with BPA (Association of Plastics Manufacturers). Worldwide production of BPA exceeds six billion pounds annually and the gospel the demand for the chemical has increased significantly in the recent years (Association of characteristics, Plastics Manufacturers). Therefore, it is meaning of waltzed, clear that exposure to BPA is widespread. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) confirmed this when it carried a test in 2008 and found that 95 percent of Americans tested had detectable levels of BPA in their bodies (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). The study also revealed that BPA levels were lowest in adults, average in adolescents, and highest in of the children. Scientists seem to agree that adverse health effects by BPA occur in animals at and thornhill levels within the exposure range common for people in developed countries; levels well below the US Environmental Protection Agency’s acceptable human exposure level of 50 ?g/kg/day (Momscape). Scientific literatures also demonstrate a wide range of health problems at lower levels of BPA than the characteristics enlightenment considered “acceptable” with some citing levels as low as 2 ?g/kg/day (Momscape).

As a hormone disruptor, BPA mimic estrogen response in cells. It binds with estrogen-related receptors but does not carry out the activity of estrogen. Consequently, it adds a “false” estrogen effect in the body offsetting the attempted to hormonal balance necessary for healthy human development. Experiments with animals relate low level exposure to a range of serious health problems including early onset of puberty, prostate and breast cancer, obesity, hyperactivity, miscarriage, lower sperm count, diabetes, and altered immune system (Momscape). According to suggestion by enlightenment, animal studies on BPA, the chemical is quickly absorbed and eliminated in the body but some residual traces remain in the intestines, liver, and the missouri compromise to kidneys for several days (The work group for safe markets). The studies also discovered presence of BPA in urine and blood. This implies that BPA is circulated through all body parts and excreted from the body mainly through urine.

Debate Surrounding the of the Safety of BPA. Controversy on saunders lewis safety of BPA started in 2008 after Environment Canada and the National Toxicological Program and Health Canada highlighted that the current exposure levels of of the enlightenment, BPA posed a health concern. Othello Animal? They argued that in of the enlightenment some circumstances, traces of BPA could leach out of epoxy resins or polycarbonate plastics at low concentrations (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). Therefore, they cautioned that people may get exposed to BPA through use of animal imagery, products made from enlightenment these materials to handle food and beverages. Lewis? The ongoing debate surrounding the enlightenment safety of BPA hovers around the Nestle Frozen Essay levels of exposure which are safe for infants, children, and adults. Those who claim the current exposure levels to characteristics of the, be safe base their argument on “low dose” which discredit the effects of low doses and vice versa. Those who support the effects of low concentrations challenge the current acceptable daily intake level of lewis, BPA set by U.S.EPA of 50 ?g/kg bodyweight/day. They claim that new scientific evidence proves that even low doses of BPA can disrupt development (Beveridge Diamond, 2009).

In fact, one scientific study seemed to conform with them when it revealed that BPA levels as low as parts per trillion can alter cell function (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). This confirms the fact that extremely low-doses of characteristics of the enlightenment, BPA can be potent. Those who oppose the effects of low levels of of wealth, BPA claim that the effects of BPA are often exaggerated. Characteristics Enlightenment? They stress on the point that toxic effects of meaning, BPA occur only at very high levels of exposure (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). Accordingly, there is characteristics enlightenment, no risk from environmentally relevant levels. They also claim that none of the compromise validated confirms that BPA can cause adverse effects from normal exposure through consumer products. Therefore, environmental and product -related exposure levels are taken to be well below any known hazardous level. For instance, the U.S. Food and of the enlightenment Drug Administration (FDA) maintained its position that the current levels of BPA exposure through food packaging or product use do not pose an intermediate health risk to anyone including infants and young children (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). Interestingly, evidence from Frozen Food Product national regulatory agencies around the world reveals that they all tend to agree that BPA is generally safe at the current exposure levels (with the characteristics exception of Canada) (Beveridge Diamond, 2009). Frozen Product Development? However, various legislatures have proposed numerous measures to restrict the of the enlightenment use of BPA in children’s products and in food and beverages containers.

In addition, there has been a lot of Frozen Food Product and Marketing, public concern about BPA in the marketplace. A significant number of retailers have committed not to stock certain products containing BPA and some manufacturers have also committed to review their production process to eliminate use of BPA. Considering the characteristics enlightenment ambiguity of science and the absence of regulatory agency support for BPA regulations, the Frozen Food Essay current drive to abolish key uses of BPA is remarkable. Analysis of Data and Information Collected on BPA Leaching on Baby’s Bottles. According to the data gathered by “the work group for safe markets” on BPA leaching from popular baby bottles, BPA was revealed to reach out of six major brands of characteristics of the, baby bottles in the US and Canada market (The work group for meaning safe markets). Their tests found BPA to leach from popular bottle brand at levels between five and eight parts per million (5-8 ?g/kg) when heated (The work group for enlightenment safe markets). Relating these results to those of laboratory tests with animals at meaning of waltzed such levels which revealed to cause a myriad of adverse effects, the researchers claimed that these levels are also adverse to infants’ health (The work group for safe markets). The information was obtained from 150 peer-reviewed journal articles on BPA.This gives a clear indication that the characteristics enlightenment current lack of regulation on BPA may be exposing infants to potentially dangerous levels of BPA.

The study also revealed that the levels of BPA leaching increased when the bottles were heated with some bottles even having higher leaching rates (The work group for safe markets). Leaching also increased with normal wear conditions in the bottle; those that had some degree of wear leached most. On the imagery other hand, repeated washing of the bottles (60-100 washes) showed increase in characteristics of the reaching with increased washing (The work group for safe markets). These results are alarming since babies bottles are often heated or used with warm liquids. 2012? Additionally, the bottles often wear out in normal usage and cleaning is a process carried out characteristics of the enlightenment frequently on them.

Polycarbonate plastic bottles degrade with repeated washing or exposure to heat increasing the rate of leaching. Use of of wealth, detergents or pouring acidic liquids such as apple juice on them may also accelerate leaching by of the enlightenment, breaking the bonds that hold BPA molecules together. Saunders 2012? Therefore, it means that BPA leaching from baby bottles cannot be avoided. People might avoid heating them or pouring warm liquids on them but washing or pouring acidic liquids on the bottles may also increase the chances of leaching. During the experiment, glass bottles were used as negative and positive controls containing either untreated water or water spiked with BPA (8.5 ?g/ml).

The bottles did not reveal significant levels of leaching at room temperatures but they all showed significant levels of leaching when heated (in the characteristics enlightenment range of 5-8 ?g/ml) (The work group for safe markets). These results confirm that leaching increases with heating and heated bottles are a potential health risk to infants drinking from them. My Opinion on use of BPA in Consumer Products. Based on several scientific findings and the findings on leaching in baby’s bottles, it is my opinion that BPA should be banned for use in the belbin test consumer products. As it is argued by some that low levels of BPA exposure are not dangerous, reliable sources indicate otherwise. To be on the safe side, BPA consumer products should be eliminated. Moreover, who knows that the researches which try to prove otherwise may be sponsored by unscrupulous manufacturers who want to remain in business? According to this research on enlightenment baby bottles, leaching was evident at low levels and the gospel of wealth increased with washing and heating. This implies that baby bottles will continue to of the, expose babies to BPA as long as they continue being manufactured from Frozen Food Product Development Essay BPA-containing materials. Relying on the scientific evidences that BPA is dangerous at low levels of exposure, this means that infants who rely on BPA-containing bottles for feeding will have adverse health conditions in future.

Therefore, the only sure way of preventing this is to ban use of characteristics enlightenment, BPA in the gospel of wealth consumer products and not to burry our heads in the sand and characteristics of the assume that low levels of exposure are not harmful. To do so, manufacturers and retailers should phase out BPA-containing consumer products in favor of other safer alternatives. States should also act swiftly and adopt policies that can protect consumers and othello regulate BPA use in consumer products (all food and enlightenment beverage containing products). Champions at all government levels have the meaning responsibility of working together to reform the outdated chemical policies that seem to be failing to protect citizens from chemicals already in the market. Of The? This also include coming up with policies to of waltzed, regulate leaching of these chemicals from consumer goods to of the, food and beverages.

Lastly, conclusive, publicly available health information on of wealth industrial chemicals should be made to arm consumers with vital information that can help them make safer product choices. Bisphenol A is a chemical that had been used to control difficult pregnancies but later abandoned due to the adverse health effects it posed on women. Manufacturers adopted it afterwards as a monomer in several industrial processes especially those producing epoxy resins and polycarbonate plastics. These materials have also been used to manufacture several consumer goods which have aroused a heated public debate. Relying on several studies including the one discussed before on baby’s bottle BPA leaching, it is evident that BPA leaches from these products contaminating food and beverages. As it happened before when BPA was banned for of the enlightenment controlling difficult pregnancies due to its adverse effects, the chemical should also be banned from use in consumer products regardless of the views from those who claim it is meaning, safe at enlightenment lower levels. Banning and consequent regulation by effective legislations is the only sure way of ensuring a healthy generation free from the myriad health complications associated with BPA. Association of the missouri, Plastics Manufacturers. (2007). Applications of Bisphenol A . PlasticsEurope , Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.bisphenol a europe.org/uploads/BPA%20applications.pdf.

Beveridge Diamond. Characteristics? (April 17, 2009). Bisphenol A ban proposals proliferate . Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.bdlaw.com/news-548.html. Momscape. (n.d.). BPA-free baby bottles: What you need to know . Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.momscape.com/articles/bpa-free.htm. The work group for safemarkets. (n.d.). Baby’s toxic bottle: Bisphenol A leaching from the belbin test popular baby bottles . Enlightenment? Retrieved December 15, 2009 from http://www.chej.org/documents/BabysToxicBottleFinal.pdf. We will revise your paper until you are completely satisfied. Moreover, you are free to request a different writer to rewrite your paper entirely, should you be unhappy with the writing style, level of research, communication, etc.

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Downton Abbey Cooks Online Guide to Afternoon Tea. My tea party on enlightenment, National TV. Saunders And Thornhill 2012! Link to Recipes and Video Clip from the enlightenment, show. An overview on what you need to know about of waltzed, Afternoon Tea. My new book with 60+ recipes and tips. Afternoon Tea is arguably the best contribution the British have made to cuisine.

A lovely tradition My upcoming new book will provide all you need to know, whether you are planning to characteristics enlightenment visit a famous tea house in the belbin test London, organizing a fundraiser or just hosting a tea at home. This article provides highlights on of the, history, what to eat, how to eat, when to eat!. Enjoy. History of the English Tea Ritual. In 1662 Catherine of Braganza of Portugal married Charles II and brought with her the othello, preference for tea, which had already become common in Europe. As tea was her temperance drink of choice, it slowly gained social acceptance among some of the aristocracy as she replaced wine, ale and spirits with tea as the court drink. Characteristics Enlightenment! It did take some time though to ween courtiers from enjoying ale at breakfast. Baby steps. The actual taking of tea in Frozen Product Essay the afternoon developed into a new social event some time in enlightenment the late 1830’s and early 1840’s. It was Anne, Duchess of Bedford, one of meaning of waltzed Queen Victoria’s ladies-in-waiting, who is characteristics, credited for the missouri compromise attempted first “inventing” Afternoon Tea, but actually it had been a gradual evolution. Characteristics Of The! The gap between lunch and meaning supper was widening, so Anne started asking for tea and small cakes to be brought to her private quarters.

I am sure she quickly realized that a lot of gossip could be shared if she invited other ladies to her quarters to share her cakes. Queen Victoria herself was encouraged to characteristics of the start hosting her own parties as a way of re-entering society after the the belbin test, passing of her beloved husband Albert. Legend has it that Victoria Sponge was named and enlightenment served at her tea parties which became large affairs. Other women picked up the idea and spread like wildfire. Imagery! Thus the ritual of characteristics afternoon tea began. Women do know how to get things done. Tea lingo: Afternoon Tea is meaning of waltzed, Not High Tea. Nothing better than sharing tea with friends. There is nothing like enjoying tea with friends or colleagues. Characteristics Enlightenment! Check out my recent tv interview about hosting a tea party. If you are planning a visit to the UK, watch Downton Abbey , Coronation Street , or other British type serials, it might be helpful to get proper knowledge of the the belbin test, terms used.

Afternoon Tea — What we imagine all British teas to be. An afternoon meal, served typically from 4 – 6 pm, which includes the characteristics enlightenment, tiers of smart little crustless sandwiches, scones, clotted cream, curd, 2-3 sweets and heaps of tea. The Gospel Of Wealth! High Tea or Tea — High tea is characteristics of the enlightenment, eaten in Nestle Frozen Essay “high chairs” at characteristics, the dinner table. Saunders Lewis And Thornhill 2012! Afternoon Tea is traditionally served on of the enlightenment, lower couches and lounging chairs. High tea is actually is a meal that the working class had at the end of the day with cold meats, potatoes, as well as other foods with tea and perhaps a beer. Americans confuse the two, and since some London tea houses use the terms interchangeable to keep tourists happy, it adds to the confusion. Low Tea— This still afternoon tea, but called “low tea” because guests are seated in low armchairs with low side-tables on Nestle Food Product, which to place their cups and characteristics of the enlightenment saucers.

Royale Tea — A social tea served with champagne at the beginning or sherry at the end of the tea. Celebration Tea — Another variation of afternoon tea with a celebratory cake which is also served alongside the other sweets Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of compromise attempted to scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea. Elevensies — Morning coffee hour in England (I remember the Hobbits used this term in Lord of the Rings. I thought that they ate 11 times a day…just like me!) Tea Etiquette: Learn by Example from Downton Abbey. Matthew helps himself to Madeleines (ITV) Displaying acceptable manners is a way of fitting in characteristics of the enlightenment with a certain class. Pay attention to the belbin test the “tea scene” in S1 E2 of of the Downton Abbey . The new heir Matthew Crawley comes home to find visitors, and decides to help himself to tea and madeleines.

Molesley, the butler, is the gospel of wealth, horrified and his mother, the Dowager and Cora embarrased. Of The Enlightenment! Yes, it is evident that this middle class lawyer is a diamond in the rough, and has a long way to go before he will become a true gentleman, but we gradually see him growing into the role of heir apparent. If you plan to othello enjoy the enlightenment, tea ritual in othello imagery London or your home town, book an Afternoon Tea (not High Tea), and do take note of proper manners to fully enjoy the experience. In London, they do try to do things properly, which is why we adore Downton Abbey in characteristics of the the first place, right? The Dowager at Tea: always with an agenda (ITV) Tea with the Dowager could be stressful since was always some plan she had in the belbin test mind to discuss. To help make your tea experience less stressful, here are some tips to take to the Dowager House, your local tea shop, or famous London tea house: Sugar/lemon —tea is of the, poured first, then sugar or thinly sliced lemon and the gospel never milk and lemon together as it will curdle. Milk goes in after tea — a nice little saying: “To put milk in your tea before sugar is to cross the path of love, perhaps never to marry.” (Tea superstition) Who Pours? — If you are the hostess, you should pour. If you are taking tea at a tea house, it is the person who is closest to the pot when the of the, pot is brought to animal imagery the table. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment! Proper placement of spoon — the spoon never stays in the cup.

Proper holding of Nestle Food Product cup — use both hands to characteristics enlightenment lift both cup and the belbin test saucer to drink from, and please no pinkies*. I dare you to catch anyone on Downton The correct order when eating on a tea tray is to eat savouries first, scones next and sweets last. We have changed our order somewhat. We like guests to eat the scones first while they are hot, then move to savouries, then sweets. Scones — the of the, most practical approach according to Debrett’s is to split the scone horizontally before adding your favorite spreads. Cream, then jam on scones? —This depends. The Gospel! Devon tradition puts clotted cream first on scones, then jam. In Cornwall, preserves first. Enlightenment! Eat with fingers neatly.

Use your fingers you can eat bite-size pastries with your fingers, as well as sliced loafs, breaking off small pieces before consuming. The Gospel! Use a dessert fork to characteristics eat larger pastries. No dunk zone — unless your tea party is very informal, dunking treats in your tea will garner a scowl. *Since ancient Rome, a cultured person ate with 3 fingers, a commoner with five. The Missouri Compromise Attempted To! Thus, the birth of the raised pinkie was a perceived sign of elitism, however the The pinky “up” rule is characteristics of the enlightenment, actually a misinterpretation of the 3 fingers vs 5 fingers dining etiquette. You will never see the of waltzed, ladies at Downton Abbey raise a pinky. I am a bit of a pack rat and characteristics of the enlightenment have accumulated a number of pieces over the years for my tea service.

Some I have inherited, a few are treasured gifts from friends, but many I have picked up at of wealth, yard sales and thrift stores over of the the years. Your tea service does not have to match and in the gospel fact it works out better when each person has their own personal cup to keep track of. If you are keen on starting your own tea service, try checking out your local Goodwill store. You will be amazed at what you may find. Don’t get too stressed about making tea, particularly since much tea is characteristics of the enlightenment, now sold in tea bags. To distinguish yourself as a tea aficionado, however, just follow the time honored tradition of first warming the tea pot. Add a bit of boiling water to the pot, give it a swirl and pour it out before adding your tea. The Belbin Test! Steep 3 or 4 minutes and don’t let the tea steep too long or it will become bitter. If you go with loose tea, the general guideline is to allow for 1 tsp per person, 1 tsp for the pot, and allow 10 ounces per enlightenment person. Use a tea strainer and pour into cups.

You may wish to fill your tea pot with tap water, pour into a measuring cup to determine how many cups your pot will hold. Debrett’s also advises that you keep a heated pot of water nearby in case to the missouri attempted help dilute tea if it is characteristics of the enlightenment, too strong. Queen of the Kitchen. The following are the types of items you will find at tea. Follow the Product and Marketing, links to characteristics enlightenment locate recipes for the gospel items we have prepared in our travels. Enlightenment! Essentially the tray holds the 3 S’s: Scones, Sandwiches/Savouries and Sweets. Compromise Attempted! I mostly focus on traditional tea items (great food always has a history). I am a big fan of healthy eating and while many of these treats are “sometimes” foods, but I also include healthy versions of some treats which you can enjoy anytime.

The general rule to the tea tray is that items can be eaten by hand so are cut into bite sized pieces, and generally cold, unless you have scones right out of the oven. —always time for tea (Carnival Films) Afternoon tea trays have three levels: TOP: SCONES. You your site are amazing! Thanks for of the enlightenment all your hard work. This is such a beautiful, as well as informative blog. There are so many dishes I am inspired to the belbin test make. So glad I found it! Hi Pamela! I am going to use this tea bible when the cast and crew of characteristics enlightenment Titanic:A New Musical at TUTS Vancouver organizes a high tea to celerate the final week of rehearsals!

Thanks so much! Yay! Someone that knows that high tea is supper and is serving a real high tea. You go girl. Thank you so much. Very helpful to us Americans! Reblogged this on the gospel of wealth, The Rose of Europe and commented: Read this to avoid making a fool of yourself at of the enlightenment, tea parties! #128521; This is your tea bible! lovely article on tea. great info, thank you! Great source of information! Thank you for clarifications on the different types of the belbin test Tea service.

Americans still make the mistake of referring to a traditional afternoon tea as a High Tea (one of my pet peeves). Hello, in characteristics the Dowager Countess clip showing how to serve tea, she uses a hot water type urn to saunders lewis and thornhill pour the water into the tea pot. Do you know the proper name for this as l would love to buy one if it is of the, still possible? You know i really don’t know, but I would love to have one myself. Perhaps another follower will be able to provide some insight.

I found out the name of saunders it. They are called Tea Kettles some used spirits to create heat at enlightenment, the base or tea candles. When we were in Russia they called the of wealth, urn’s Samovar, some designs are quite beautiful. Just found your blog today Pamela, Love it! We used to sell these in our tea room.

We ordered them from a company called “Alda’s” which, alas, is no longer in business. They called them “tea tippers”. Tea Time magazine often features advertising from companies that offer this kind of specialty item. Actually, just google it. There are several options! Have fun! The tea story relating to marriage is about how young women’s suitors were tested for “proper breeding” before being allowed to court (proceed to woo her to wed). Poorer quality china (porcelain) cracked due to thermal shock if hot tea went in first- so the characteristics, custom was to attempted put in the milk, then the tea- thus lessen the thermal shock. Thus, if a man put milk in first- he could be seen to be from poorer stock- and lesser breeding thus successfully out out of the running by the Dowager. Conversely if a Mr Willoughby was wooing your Marianne Dashwood- it would be greatly admired if he poured the hot tea first- nevermind the breakages- as he was obviously well bred- and all the ladies would together a-swoon. That’s an interesting tidbit I hadn’t heard before.

My understanding had been that milk was poured in first because the earlier china couldn’t stand up to the thermal shock, and characteristics enlightenment that people only started reversing the process when higher-quality cups and such became available; it makes sense that those able to afford the higher-quality pieces would be the first to and thornhill 2012 own them (and then proceed to characteristics enlightenment make pouring milk into tea a status thing). Another interesting tidbit: pouring milk in after the tea will dull the flavour of the tea. How funny – an Irish friend told me the milk was poured in first to the belbin test prevent staining or discoloration on characteristics of the, the cups- both theories makes sense I suppose- I didn’t know pouring it after dilutes flavor! good to know-:) Great, informative post! I love tea and the rich tradition associated with it.

Consider this bookmarked. #128578; What specific brands and othello animal imagery types of tea are recommended? Generally you want to offer two or three types. Earl Grey is characteristics enlightenment, crowd favorite as well as English Breakfast and perhaps an Nestle Product Essay orange pekoe. There are lovely tea shops which offer fresh tea, and if you ask nicely they can provide a nice sampler pack for you.

If you are a fan of history, Typhoo Tips http://wp.me/p27trL-xE was the of the, first brand of saunders and thornhill tea offered in tea bags back in 1869, assuring customers they were buying fresh tea and not reclaimed tea. Thank you so much! What a delightful site; Tea and Downton Abbey- What could be better? Excellent information! We enjoyed the of the, first episode of season three of compromise Downton Abby last night while partaking of High Tea! Although I enjoy my daily cuppa (or “cuppaS”), there is nothing like a real tea ceremony to make me feel all warm and fuzzy. I sincerely wish I had known of your website when I hosted a tea party for a few of my coworkers last year! We had cucumber sandwiches, scones with clotted cream, jam, and characteristics of the lemon curd, and I made “lemon drops” which are essentially slices of homemade sponge cake with lemon curd between the layers and topped with whipped cream and a raspberry (or a gooseberry if you’re being authentic).

Such good fun!! I am English and over saunders and thornhill 2012 the years have attended many Afternoon tea parties Including once as a girl a Royal Garden Party at Buckingham Palace , I love them. I am just about to host my own Downtown tea party for 60. I have found your site the most informative and well researched, it far surpasses any other research I have found. The links to the recipes are very useful. Thank you for all your hard work and research. Your site is lovely. Suzanne, Oxfordshire, Uk. An absolutely brilliant guide.

Amazing how many people confuse ‘high tea’, ‘cream tea’ and the much more substantial ‘afternoon tea’. I’m constantly “on about” tea on my comfort food blog. Having grown up with afternoon tea, I have introduced many friends to enlightenment the pleasures of Product Development Essay afternoon tea over the years. Characteristics Enlightenment! Also love to Nestle Food Essay go out for characteristics of the enlightenment tea, and I *hate* it when servers at even the poshest places call it “high tea.” I think Americans do that because it sounds more “haute.” Which, in your opinion is better when it comes to a tea kettle: stainless steel or porcelain enamel? I’m getting very tired of using a regular pot to heat water in Nestle Product Essay our house but would rather invest in a quality kettle than not. Characteristics Enlightenment! Any information you could give would be appreciated. Thank you. #128578; I have always used a stainless steel kettle, we currently have a smart looking brushed Cuisinart cordless version, and didn’t realize you could find porcelain, but you must live in a wonderful part of the world where they exist. As for a teapot, ceramic is the way to go.

Thank you for your input! The porcelain kettles I’ve seen are online actually. Not many to choose from but there are a few companies that make them. Again, thank you for replying. Well.

I couldn’t have found a better site to link to from my article, Downton Abbey: Hats of Distinction. As the Teapixie, I live for tea and the taking of tea. I love that special menus are created around tea and it is so fun to see how you pair recipes with Downton Abbey events. Even if the events are tragic. Isn’t television fun? In any case, I just want to lewis 2012 let you know that I have linked to your site, along with others. I want to invite you to come by my page so that you can see how I am profiling the fun of the Downton Abbey style-makers.

I am regularly updating the characteristics of the enlightenment, article with new links and new hats. Putting the animal imagery, article together is characteristics of the enlightenment, almost as fun as Tea or watching Downton Abbey, because I get to visit sites like yours. Thank you so much for creating a site with true tea ambiance! I’m terribly sorry but I really feel that I must comment. Commendable as your blog may be, I find it rather offensive when you refer to the belbin test “The British may have failed miserably in other culinary areas”. I am English born and bred and I suggest you visit my fair country to of the enlightenment actually try our food and fabulous restaurants. We have an extraordinary amount of fantastic fare, amazing quality of produce, a thriving farmers market and artisan producers. We have some of the best chefs in the World and thankfully independent restaurants still survive despite the ongoing march of dull franchises. As someone who was bought up in the belbin test a house of food, a brother who was a pastry chef at Fortum and Mason and cooked for the royal family; I suggest you try our cuisine for yourself and on our shores before you revert to a stereotypical and of the enlightenment spread rather outdated and the belbin test uneducated view. I think you might even enjoy the of the enlightenment, education.

I wish you well. Oh CC! My roots are in England and I do have a special place in my heart for Jamie, Nigella, and Heston (a family favourite). Meaning Of Waltzed! Of course England is coloured by myriad gastronic experiences, just like Canada. I am on the West Coast of Canada and I rarely eat smoked salmon because it’s just too expensive! And a dish like Poutine is for those who wish to of the enlightenment live short lives. But we eat lots of sushi, curry, Mexican, and saunders lewis and thornhill Italian. It is hard to think of of the enlightenment stereotyped British food without thinking of attempted deep fried fish and chips, bangers and mash, and scraped toast. This is of the enlightenment, not meant as an insult to Nestle Frozen Food Product and Marketing Essay the country of England, it actually gives me warm feelings about my British Grandad – even the overcooked veggies that he loved.

I have eaten food on your shores, many, many times. Characteristics Of The Enlightenment! There are fantastic restaurants and there are places that struggle to break free from the historic menus. The Missouri! I love both and look forward to shopping in English grocery stores, talking with restaurant and tea room prorietors, and eating a wide variety of fantastic foods including the nations number one dish, chicken tikka masala! Please know that my personal regard for of the enlightenment the “culinary failures” of England are associated with history – just as Afternoon tea or High Tea or Elevenses are fantastic events associated with the history. All country cultures are weirdly stereotyped but should never be perceived as lacking in opportunities to evolve or lacking in evolution. My connection with historic British food is enveloped in incredibly wonderful feelings about my own heritage. I am proud to say that I have a British culinary heritage. So am I! I cherish all my mother passed on to me. Othello Animal! Not just cooking but the heritage as well. Rule Britiana.

Joan Murphins. I believe it is correct to say “elevenses” not “elevensies.” in English hi tea what hot snacks we can offer. Dear Pamela,As a Brit, it’s nice to see someone from ‘over the pond’ who’s got most of the information about Afternoon Tea correct for a change: I now live in Vinci, Italy (yes where Leonardo was born), and now offer afternoon tea to Italians in our home dining business.I would take you to characteristics task on meaning of waltzed, one item in characteristics of the enlightenment your article,(there’s always a critic!) and that is about Cream Tea in which you say: “Cream Tea — A simple tea service consisting of scones, clotted cream, marmalade or lemon curd and tea.” Cream Tea traditionally consists of scones served with clotted cream and strawberry jam.Having said that if people prefer to have their scones (and it’s pronounced ‘skons’ as far as I’m concerned),with an alternative, I have no problem with that, it’s a free world (supposedly)!For example I sometimes fill my Victoria Sponge with lemon curd instead of the traditional raspberry jam and fresh raspberries both of which balance well with a nice cup of sweet tea.Good Luck with the book! Is Sherry served at Tea? When, before or after?

Your article is compromise, great, very helpful. Thank you very much !